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Fundamentals of Differential Equations

by Nagle, Saff, and Snider 8th edition)


Section 2.2 (p. 43)- Separable Equations
3.

Determine whether the DE

.=
> 68=#> )># is separable.
.>

.=
.=
> 68=#> )>#
> #> 68a=b )>#
.>
.>
.=
.=
#># 68a=b )>#
#># a68= %b
.>
.>
.=

#># .>
68a=b %
We see now that the DE is separable.

11.

.C
=/- # C

Solve the DE
.B
" B#
.C
=/- # C
.C
.B

.B
" B#
=/- # C
" B#
.B
.B
( -9=# C .C (

#
"B
" B#
" -9= #C
.C >+8" B G
(
#
"
"
C =38 #C >+8" B G #C =38 #C %>+8" B G
#
%
-9=# C .C

12.

.@
" %@#
Solve the DE B

.
.B
$@
The DE is separable.
.@
" %@#
$@
.B
B

.@

.B
$@
" %@#
B

the solution to the DE is given by the equation


$@
.B
.@ (
G
(
#
" %@
B
Let ? " %@# .? )@.@
(

$@
$
)@
$
.?
.@
.@
(
(
#
#
" %@
)
" %@
)
?
$
.B
68l" %@# l and (
68lBl .
)
B

The solution to the DE is


$
68l" %@# l 68lBl G or better using 68lGl
)
in place of G
$
68l" %@# l 68lBl 68|C|
)
$68l" %@# l )68lBl ) 68|C|
68l" %@# l$ 68lGBl) l" %@# l$ lGB) l
G
$
" %@# $ GB) a" %@# b )
B
$ G
" %@#
%@# " GB)$
B)
or if you want %@# " G B)$

13.

Solve the DE

.B
B$ B
.>

Rewrite the DE as
.B
B$ B and then multiply by .>
.>
and divide by B$ B to get
.B
.>
B

B$

Now integrate.

.B
.B ( .>
B$ B

Use partial fractions to do the 1st integral.


"
"
+ ,B

B$ B
BaB# "b
B B# "
Multiply both sides by BaB# "b
" +aB# "b a,B - bB
Expand " +aB# "b a,B - bB
and equate coefficients.
" +B# + ,B# -B
" a+ ,bB# -B +
+ , ! - ! and + "
Therefore + " , " and - ! and
.B
"
B
"
#
( #
( $
.B 68kBk 68B "
B B
B B "
#
Therefore (

.B
.B ( .>
B$ B
"
68kBk 68B# " > G is the
#
solution to the DE. This answer is fine.
15.

Solve the DE C" .C C/-9= B =38 B.B !


Divide the DE
C =38 B/-9= B .B C" .C !
by C and we get the DE =38 B /-9= B .B C# .C ! .
The solution to the DE is given by

-9= B
.B ( C# .C G !
( =38 B /
-9= B
.B ( /? .?
( =38 B /

where ? -9= B .? =38 B .B

/? /-9= B
C"
"

( C .C
"
C
#

Therefore the solution to the DE is


"
/-9= B G ! G /-9= B "C
C
"
C

G /-9= B
19.

Solve the initial value problem


.C
#C " -9= B Ca1b !
.B
The solution to the DE is given by
.C
( -9= B .B G
(
# C"
(

.C
-9= B .B
#C "

? C " .? .C

.?
?"#
(

C " and ( -9= B .B =38 B .


#?"#
#a"#b
The general solution to the DE is
C " =38 B G =38 B C " G .
Since Ca1b !
=38 1 " G G "

The specific solution is =38 B " C "


C " =38 B " C " a=38 B "b#
C =38# B # =38 B .

21.

Solve

" .C
C =38 )
#
Ca1b "
) .)
C "

" .C
C =38 )
#

) .)
C "
.C
C =38 )
C# "
#
.)
.C ) =38 ) . )
)
C "
C
The set up for the solution is
C# "
.C ( ) =38 ) . )
(
C
C# "
"
C#
.C ( C .C
68kCk
(
C
C
#
To find ( ) =38 ) . ) use integration by parts where
? )

.@ =38 ) . )

.? ".? @ ( =38 ) . ) -9= )

( ) =38 ). ) ) -9= ) ( -9= ) . )

) -9= ) =38 ) G o we need one G

Therefore the general solution to the DE is


C#
68kCk ) -9= ) =38 ) G
#
Now for the specific solution, when ) 1 C "
"
68 " 1-9= 1 =38 1 G
#
"
"
! 1a "b ! G G 1
#
#
Ans: The specific solution is
C#
"
68kC k ) -9= ) =38 ) 1
#
#
24.

Solve the initial value problem

.C
)B$ /#C Ca"b ! .
.B
The solution is given by

#C
$
( / .C ( )B .B G

/#C
#B% G /#C %B% G
#

Since Ca"b !
" % G G $ and the specific solution is
/#C %B% $ #C 68a%B% $b
C "# 68a%B% $b .
34.

The Thermometer Problem.


a) Solve the DE

.X
5 aX Q b o I use X Q because
.>
X Q in part b.

.X
5.> 68kX Q k 5> G
X Q

68aX Q b 5> G X Q /5>G or better G/5>


X Q G/5> X Q G /5>
b)

At time 0, X "!! and Q (!


X Q G/5> "!! (! G G $!
Therefore X (! $!/5>
Since after 6 minutes, X )!
)! (! $!/5' $!/'5 "!

'5 68a"$b '5 68a$b 5

X (! $!/>68a$b' (! $!a/68 $ b

>'

68 $
'

X (! $! $>'
After 20 minutes, X (! $!$#!' (!((