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Technical and Service Delivery Standards

for
Water Supply and Sanitation Sectors

April 2008
Punjab Devolved Social Services Programme
Govt. of the Punjab, 79-Bridge Colony, Lahore

Service Delivery and Technical standards for Water Supply and Sanitation Sector

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
For the preparation of this report, even a dedicated team of professionals had remote chance
of success unless it was provided guidance, encouragement and wherever needed due criticism was
also given. Additionally it was also important to have open communication and dialogue with the
client to deal with many issues that may arise during the writing of the report. The consultant
working on this report got this support from the PSU; therefore, I would like to thank Mr. Abdullah
Khan Sumbal, Programme Director, Punjab Devolved Social Services Program, P&D Department
Government of the Punjab for his commitment to the Programme and for vigorous interest in the
finalization of this report. I am also thankful to Mr. Sarfraz Ahmad, and Mr. Qurban Ali Shah, both
Assistant Directors in PDSSP for their valuable suggestions extended by them during the meetings in
the PDSSP office. I would like to acknowledge here that the section of the report covering service
delivery standards was prepared by Mr. Naveed Alauddin and Mr. Khalid Majeed of the Urban Unit,
P&D Punjab. I am thankful to them for their very valuable contribution.
I am also grateful to my friend Mr. M. Kaleem, Director, PHED (North) for his valuable
suggestions and assistance provided to me for completion of this report. Mr. Shaukat Ali, Additional
Secretary Technical HUD & PHED, Mr. Sajjad Haider Bukhary, Chief Engineer, North, PHED, Mr.
Abdus Sattar Khan Lillah, Director PHED, Mr. Zahid Hussain, Project Director, Punjab Community
Water Supply and Sanitation Project Lahore were all generous in sharing of ideas and gave me many
valuable suggestions that resulted in tremendous improvement in this report.

Ch. Safdar Ali Cheema


Chief Engineer (Retd.) / WSS Specialist

Service Delivery and Technical standards for Water Supply and Sanitation Sector

ii

ACRONYMS
AC
ADB

Alternating Current
Asian Development Bank

ASTM

American Society of Testing Materials specification

BOD
BSS
CBOs

Biochemical Oxygen Demand


British Standard Specification
Community Based Organizations

CFU
COD

Colony Formation count Unit of Bacteria


Chemical Oxygen Demand

DFID
DWF

Department for International Development, UK


Dry Weather Flow

E-Coli

Escherichia Coliform

EPD

Environment Protection Department

HUD&PHED
JTU

Housing Urban Development & Public Health Engineering


Department
Jackson Turbidity Unit

KI
LLR

Key Indicators
Low Level Reservation

MDGs
MICS

Millennium Development Goals


Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey

MPN

Maximum Probable Number

NEQS

National Environmental Quality Standards

NESPAK
NOC

National Engineering Services, Pakistan


No Objection Certificate

NTU

Nephelometric Turbidity Units

P&D
PC Scale

Planning and Development Department, Punjab


Platinum Cobalt Scale

PCC

Plain Cement Concrete

PCRWR

Pakistan Council for Research in Water Resources

PCWSSP
PDSSP
PHED
PIHS
PLGO 2001

Punjab Community Water Supply & Sanitation (Sector)


Project
Punjab Devolved Social Services Programme
Public Health Engineering Department
Pakistan Integrated Household Survey
Punjab Local Government Ordinance 2001

PMDFC
PPM
PRWSSP
PSQCA

Punjab Municipal Development Fund Company


Parts Per Million
Punjab Rural Water Supply & Sanitation (Sector) Project
Pakistan Standards Quality Control Authority

PSU

Program Support Unit


Service Delivery and Technical standards for Water Supply and Sanitation Sector

iii

RCC

Reinforced Cement Concrete

SDS
TCU
TDS
TMA
USEPA
UV
WASA
WHO
WSS

Service Delivery Standards


True Colour Units
Total Dissolved Solids
Tehsil Municipal Administration
United States Environmental Protection Agency
Ultraviolet
Water and Sanitation Agency
World Health Organization
Water Supply and Sanitation

Service Delivery and Technical standards for Water Supply and Sanitation Sector

iv

PREFACE
The need for clean drinking water and safe sanitation is a universal human need; however,
mere access to water supply and sanitation services is not enough unless the quality of such
services is also of acceptable standards and comes at an affordable price.

Efficient service delivery is one of the main concerns of all levels of governments in the
world. The Government of the Punjab realizing the need of improving service delivery has given
importance to introducing improvements in the service delivery in social sectors including water
supply and sanitation .The Punjab Devolved Social Services Programme (PDSSP), one of the
major development intervention of the Provincial Government that is being implemented with the
financial support of ADB and DFID, has undertaken a comprehensive study of water supply and
sanitation service delivery and design standards. The study is aimed at review of existing situation
of water supply and sanitation services both in the rural and urban centers of the province besides
indicating best practices and standards followed internationally and to make recommendations for
improvements in both technical as well as service delivery standards.
The water supply and sanitation standards mainly comprise of technical and service
delivery standards for water supply, wastewater (collection and disposal) and solid waste
management. The provision of these services to the people is the responsibility of TMAs /City
District Governments as envisaged under PLGO 2001. The Punjab Public Health Engineering
Department is acting as technical resource base for TMAs, in addition to performing its role of
execution of development schemes in the sector to enhance the coverage that would help the
government in achieving the Millennium Development Goals in the sectors of WSS.

To accomplish the task a review of existing service delivery and design standards of water
supply and sanitation sector was carried out during the month of July, 2007. Discussions were held
with technical staff of PHED to see the gaps and impediments in adoption of minimum affordable,
acceptable and practicable service delivery and design standards for water supply and
sewerage/drainage. Similar discussions were also held with concerned staff of solid waste
management of City District Government Lahore for sanitation sector.

Information on water supply and sanitation practices followed in various countries has been
studied and incorporated in the report. Based on, over three decades long experience in this field,
recommendations have been made by the consultant. It is hoped that the report will, Insha Allah, be
helpful to the concerned departments in improving service delivery
Service Delivery and Technical standards for Water Supply and Sanitation Sector

TABLE OF CONTENTS
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ............................................................................................ II
ACRONYMS.............................................................................................................. III
PREFACE ............................................................................................................... VV
TABLE OF CONTENTS........................................................................................ VIVI
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY............................................................................................ 1
1.1 MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS

1.2 SITUATION ANALYSIS IN PUNJAB

1.2.1

Drinking Water.................................................................................................................................. 22

1.2.2

Sanitation........................................................................................................................................... 33

1.2.3

Storm Water Drainage....................................................................................................................... 44

1.2.4

Waste Water Treatment..................................................................................................................... 44

1.2.5

Solid Waste Management.................................................................................................................. 44

1.3 HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE OF SERVICE DELIVERY

1.3.1

Drinking Water.................................................................................................................................. 66

1.3.2

Waste Water ...................................................................................................................................... 77

1.3.3

Drainage ............................................................................................................................................ 88

1.3.4

Waste Water Treatment..................................................................................................................... 99

1.3.5

Solid Waste Management.................................................................................................................. 12

CHAPTER-2

DRINKING WATER QUALITY STANDARDS............................ 16

2.1 DRINKING WATER QUALITY GLOBAL PICTURE AND BASIC REQUIREMENTS

16

2.1.1

Global Picture.................................................................................................................................... 16

2.1.2

Basic Requirements for Drinking Water Quality .............................................................................. 16

2.2 PRESENT WATER QUALITY SITUATION

18

18
2.3 EXISTING WATER QUALITY STANDARDS

19

19
2.3.1

PSQCA Drinking Water Standards ................................................................................................... 19

2.3.2

PHED Water Quality Standards ........................................................................................................ 20

2.4.1

Colour................................................................................................................................................ 23

2.4.2

Taste and odour ................................................................................................................................. 23

2.4.3

Turbidity............................................................................................................................................ 24

2.4.4

pH...................................................................................................................................................... 24

2.4.5.

Hardness............................................................................................................................................ 25
Service Delivery and Technical standards for Water Supply and Sanitation Sector

vi

2.4.6

Total Dissolved Solids ...................................................................................................................... 26

2.4.7

Nitrates & Nitrites ............................................................................................................................. 27

2.4.8

Fluoride ............................................................................................................................................. 27

2.4.9

Chloride............................................................................................................................................. 28

2.4.10

Copper............................................................................................................................................... 28

2.4.11

Iron.................................................................................................................................................... 28

2.4.12

Sulphates........................................................................................................................................... 29

2.4.13

Arsenic.............................................................................................................................................. 30

2.4.14.

Chromium ........................................................................................................................................ 31

2.5 INTERNATIONAL DRINKING WATER QUALITY STANDARDS

31

2.5.1

Water Quality Standards of WHO..................................................................................................... 31

2.5.2

Indian Water Quality Standards ........................................................................................................ 33

2.5.3

US-EPA Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality .............................................................................. 35

2.5.5

Modifications proposed in Water Quality Standards......................................................................... 39

CHAPTER-3

WATER SUPPLY & SANITATION TECHNICAL STANDARDS .. 42

3.1 BACKGROUND

42

3.1.1

Design Criteria 1986 ......................................................................................................................... 42

3.1.2

Design Criteria 1998 ......................................................................................................................... 42

3.2 REVISION OF DESIGN CRITERIA 2007


3.2.1

42

Methodology for the Revision........................................................................................................... 43

SECTION 3.3 REVIEW OF WATER SUPPLY TECHNICAL STANDARDS

44

3.3.1.

Population Projection ........................................................................................................................ 44

3.3.2

Design Period .................................................................................................................................... 45

3.3.3

Requirement of Water ....................................................................................................................... 47

3.3.4.

Terminal Pressure.............................................................................................................................. 49

3.3.5.

Velocity of Flow in Pipes.................................................................................................................. 50

3.3.6.

Minimum Pipe Size........................................................................................................................... 50

3.3.7

Cover Over Pipes .............................................................................................................................. 51

3.3.8

Public Stand Posts (PSPs) ................................................................................................................. 51

3.3.9

Fire Hydrants..................................................................................................................................... 52

3.3.10

Sluice Valves & Non Return Valves................................................................................................ 52

3.3.11

Air Valves and Washout .................................................................................................................. 53

3.3.12

Overhead Reservoirs........................................................................................................................ 54

3.3.13

Pumping Machinery......................................................................................................................... 55

3.3.14

Chlorination ..................................................................................................................................... 57

3.3.15

Ground Water Storage ..................................................................................................................... 58

3.3.16

High Level Tank (Raw Water)......................................................................................................... 58

3.3.17

Slow Sand Filtration ........................................................................................................................ 59

3.3.18

Water Metering ................................................................................................................................ 61

Service Delivery and Technical standards for Water Supply and Sanitation Sector

vii

SECTION 3.4 REVIEW OF TECHNICAL STANDARDS FOR SEWERAGE:-

62

3.4.1

Location of Disposal Works.............................................................................................................. 62

3.4.2

Design Period .................................................................................................................................... 63

3.4.3

Design Flows..................................................................................................................................... 64

3.4.4

Velocity at Design Flow.................................................................................................................... 66

3.4.5

Spacing of Manholes......................................................................................................................... 66

3.4.6

Minimum Size of Sewers .................................................................................................................. 67

3.4.7

Earth Cover ....................................................................................................................................... 68

3.4.8

Pipe Roughness Co-efficient ............................................................................................................. 68

3.4.9

Outfall Works.................................................................................................................................... 68

3.4.10

Bedding of Sewers ........................................................................................................................... 69

3.4.11

Class of Pipe .................................................................................................................................... 69

3.4.12

Pipe Reinforcement.......................................................................................................................... 70

3.4.13

Slope of Sewer Lines ....................................................................................................................... 70

3.4.14

Design Flow of Drainage ................................................................................................................. 70

3.4.15

Design of Outfall Works.................................................................................................................. 73

SECTION 3.5 REVIEW OF TECHNICAL STANDARDS FOR DRAINAGE

75

3.5.1

Open Surface Drains in Streets ......................................................................................................... 75

3.5.2

Review of Standards for Brick Pavement ......................................................................................... 76

SECTION 3.6 STANDARDS / DESIGN CRITERIA FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS


77
3.6.1

Standards/Design Criteria for Oxidation Ponds ................................................................................ 77

3.6.2

Standards/ design criteria for stabilization ponds.............................................................................. 77

3.6.3

Standards/Design Criteria for Facultative Ponds............................................................................... 80

3.6.4

Standards/Design Criteria For Maturation Ponds.............................................................................. 80

3.6.5

Standards/Design Criteria for Aerated Lagoons................................................................................ 81

3.6.6

Standards/Design Criteria for Oxidation Ditches.............................................................................. 82

3.6.7

Standards/Design Criteria for Trickling Filters ................................................................................. 83

3.6.8

Standards/Design Criteria For Activated Sludge Process ................................................................. 84

3.6.9

Standards/Design Criteria For Detritus Tanks................................................................................... 86

3.6.10

Standards/ Design Criteria for Skimming Tanks ............................................................................. 86

3.6.11

Standards/Design Criteria For Septic Tanks ..................................................................................... 86

3.6.12

Standards/Design Criteria for Imhoff Tanks.................................................................................... 87

3.6.13

Standards/Design Criteria for Humus Tanks ................................................................................... 88

SECTION 3.7 STANDARDS / DESIGN CRITERIA FOR SOLID WASTE

89

3.7.1

Introduction ....................................................................................................................................... 89

3.7.2

House Storage ................................................................................................................................... 90

3.7.3

Single Container System ................................................................................................................... 90

3.7.4

Multiple Bin System.......................................................................................................................... 90

3.7.5

Street Dust Bin .................................................................................................................................. 90

3.7.6

Transport of Solid Waste................................................................................................................... 91

3.7.7

Disposal of Solid Waste .................................................................................................................... 92

3.7.8

Example for Design of Compost ....................................................................................................... 94


Service Delivery and Technical standards for Water Supply and Sanitation Sector

viii

CHAPTER-4
4.1

RECOMMENDATIONS ON SERVICE DELIVERY STANDARDS95

Service delivery standards

95

4.2

Purpose of setting service delivery standards

95

4.3

Key indicators

95

4.4

Application of water and sanitation standards

95

4.5

How to use the service delivery standards

96

95

4.6 STANDARDS FOR WATER SUPPLY

98

4.6.1

Standard-1:Access, Quantity, Availability and Affordability ........................................................... 98

4.6.2

Standard-2: Water Quality............................................................................................................... 100

4.6.3

Standard 3: Operations and Maintenance........................................................................................ 101

4.6.4

Standard-4: Complaint Redressal.................................................................................................... 101

4.7 STANDARDS FOR VECTOR CONTROL

102

4.7.1

Standard-1: Individual, Family Protection and Chemical Control Safety ....................................... 102

4.7.2

Standard-2: Physical, Environmental and Chemical Protection Measures...................................... 103

4.7.3

Standard-3: Complaint Redressal.................................................................................................... 104

4.8 STANDARDS FOR SEWERAGE

105

4.8.1

Standard-1: Access.......................................................................................................................... 105

4.8.2

Standard-2: Treatment and Disposal ............................................................................................... 105

4.8.3

Standard-3: Operations and Maintenance ....................................................................................... 105

4.8.4

Standard-4: Customer Services and Complaint Redressal .............................................................. 107

4.9 STANDARDS FOR DRAINAGE

107

4.9.1

Standard-1: Access.......................................................................................................................... 107

4.9.2

Standard-2: Treatment and Disposal ............................................................................................... 108

4.9.3

Standard-3: Operations and Maintenance ....................................................................................... 108

4.9.4

Standard-4: Customer Services and Complaint Redressal .............................................................. 109

4.10 STANDARDS FOR SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

109

4.10.1

Standard-1: Storage and Collection ............................................................................................... 109

4.10.2

Standard-2:Transportation ............................................................................................................ 112

4.10.3

Standard-3: Treatment and Disposal.............................................................................................. 113

4.10.4

Standard 4: Emergency Response.................................................................................................. 114

4.10.5

Standard-5: Awareness Campaigns ............................................................................................... 115

4.10.6

Standard-6: Customer Services and Complaint Redressal............................................................. 115

4.11 MONITORING AND EVALUATION FRAMEWORK

117

4.11.1

Monitoring ...................................................................................................................................... 117

4.11.2

Evaluation....................................................................................................................................... 117

ANNEX-1

LIST OF PERSONS CONTACTED.................................................... 119

REFERENCES ....................................................................................................... 120

Service Delivery and Technical standards for Water Supply and Sanitation Sector

ix

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
This document reviews the existing service delivery and technical standards in the water
supply and sanitation sector with a view to identify gaps and suggest ways and means to plug these
gaps; while developing new technical standards in view of the higher service delivery standards
being expected both in urban and rural communities in accordance with the international best
practices.
The impediments in the implementation of the existing standards by the Government of
Punjab have also been kept in mind while formulating the new service delivery and technical
standards. Additionally, the recommendations have been made to overcome these impediments.
Furthermore, it has also been kept in mind that the proposed standards are financially viable to be
implemented by the Punjab Government i.e. the cost implications for their implementation are within
the budget outlay for the sector.
Three consultative sessions were held with the following three stakeholders: Public Health
Engineering Department Punjab that is responsible for construction of water supply and sewerage
schemes primarily in the rural areas. In the PLGO 2001 Tehsil Municipal Administrations have been
delegated the municipal functions including water supply and sanitation in the province. In cities,
City District Governments through WASAs are working for providing these facilities. Therefore the
feedback from all the three stakeholders was incorporated in the report. Additionally, one
consultative and brain storming session was held with PHEDs panel of Senior Engineers. Second
such consultative session was held with Director Sewerage WASA Lahore. Similarly, detailed
discussion was held with Executive District Officer (Municipal Services) and District Officer, Solid
Waste Management of the City District Government of Lahore as the subject of Solid Waste
Management is the responsibility of this Department and not that of WASA.
This report covers background and development of technical standards of WSS sector.
Chapter-1 deals with situation analysis of service delivery and the remaining Chapters delineates the
technical standards for water supply, sewerage, drainage liquid and solid waste management, which
are subdivided into different sections. The final part of the report outlines the proposed service
delivery standards for the sub-sectors of WSS.

Service Delivery and Technical standards for Water Supply and Sanitation Sector

CHAPTER-1
WATER SUPPLY AND
SITUATION ANALYSIS
1.1

SANITATION

SECTORS

MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS (MDGs)


Water is essential to human existence. The issue of water quality and its guaranteed

availability to all people regardless of income or social status is one of the most pressing challenges
facing the world community today. Every year, some 3.4 million people, mostly children, die from
diseases associated with inadequate water supply, sanitation and hygiene. Over half of hospital beds
in the world are filled with people suffering from water borne diseases. Many countries of the region
including Pakistan are already facing water stress. Yet, investments to provide people with safe
drinking water and sanitation facilitations have fallen seriously behind demand. The UN Millennium
summit in 2000 agreed to a set of development targets known as Millennium Development Goals
(MDGs).
The goal 7 of the MDGs (ensure environmental sustainability ) includes to half by 2015 the
proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water, The World Summit on
Sustainable Development (WSSD) held at Johannesburg in 2002 added an additional target of
halving by 2015 the proportion of people who lack access to basic sanitation.

1.2

SITUATION ANALYSIS IN PUNJAB

1.2.1 Drinking Water


Punjabis home to 62% of the countrys total population of 160 million. About 70% of Punjab
population of about 80 million is living in some 30,000 rural settlements.
Although 96% of rural and 98% of the urban population of the province has access to
improved water sources within 2 Km of the household1, it cannot be inferred that water is safe or
that the quantity is adequate. As reported in PIHS 2001-02, only 18% of the total population of
Punjab is covered by tap water (i.e. 50% urban and 5% rural). Of the total 30,000 rural settlements in
Punjab, only about 33% of the population has so far been provided with adequate supply of safe
drinking water through tap-water system. Until recently, the rest of the rural Punjab relied on often
distant sources of unsafe water, such as brackish, polluted/contaminated, scare water, uncovered
wells, rivers, and canals or rain-fed ponds and on an average spends 1/3rd of daily time for women
and children, and 5 percent of their monthly income to purchase water. The bulk of the supply of
water is through hand pumps (88 percent) of which 19 percent have been motorized (PIHS 2001-02).

Punjab MICS 2003-04

Service Delivery and Technical standards for Water Supply and Sanitation Sector

As per PLGO 2001, the responsibility of provision of water supply and sanitation services
rests with TMAs and City District Governments. Prior to the promulgation of PLGO 2001, rural
water supply schemes on implementation/commissioning by PHED were handed over to beneficiary
communities through their representative water user Committees. Committees/CBOs for
maintenance and operation while urban water supply and sewerage schemes were required to be
maintained and operated by the concerned urban local council (except in case of 5 large cities
Rawalpindi, Lahore, Multan, Faisalabad and Gujranwala where WASAs exist).
One of the most important indicators in the service delivery of a water supply system is the
average number of hours / day water is supplied to households during a month. The recommended
target for developing countries is 24 hours a day. The situation of drinking water supplied to
households per day as studied by PMDFC in 13 TMAs of Punjab (Ahmed Pur Sial, Attock, Bhalwal,
Chakwal, Chiniot, Daska, Duniapur, Jhelum, Kasur, Liaqatpur, Lodhran, Mailsi and T.T Singh),
during 2006-07, revealed that water was provided on an average of up to 4 hours/day.. In case of
WASA at Rawalpindi the figure is not very high at 5 hours/day whereas at Multan and Faisalabad
the same figure is at 8 hours/day and for Lahore at the highest of 16 hours/day2. It is also noteworthy
that main source of drinking water for Lahore is ground water abstraction through tube wells by
WASA. These tube wells are operated for an average duration of 16 hours to provide water at an
average rate of 80 gpcd. This is the highest figure among the eight Mega cities of Asia including
Karachi, Dhaka, Calcutta, Manila, Bangkok, Jakarta, Seoul and Singapore3.

1.2.2 Sanitation
Access to sanitation at the household level can be measured through the availability and type
of sanitary toilet facilities inside the house. In urban areas of the Punjab, 96 percent of households
have installed flush latrines. In rural areas, less than one third (31 percent) of the households have the
same facilities, while the remaining two thirds have no toilet facilities within the premises of their
houses (PIHS-2002). Furthermore, the coverage of sanitary facilities is reported to be highest in
major cities (98%) and other urban areas (92%) and lowest in rural areas (43%) (MICS-2004).
Waste water disposal outside the houses is another important consideration in sanitation
particularly with regards to environmental degradation and likely water contamination. Less than
half (43%) of Punjabs population has proper waste water disposal facilities (sewerage system
connected with main line, or sewerage connected with open drains or septic tanks), ranging from
95% in major cities to 77% in other urban and 26 % in rural areas ( MICS-2004).

Draft Data Book of Punjab WASAs 2007, (Benchmarking for Performance Improvement in Punjab WASAs)
Environmental Profile of Lahore, by Engr. M.P. Aftab, Vice President NESPAK (2005) published by Pakistan
Engineering Congress, June, 2005.
3

Service Delivery and Technical standards for Water Supply and Sanitation Sector

1.2.3 Storm Water Drainage


Storm water drainage has also become a major environmental concern particularly in urban
areas of the province. The situation becomes worse in the monsoon which normally extends from
July to September. It is not only an issue for low lying areas but also for some developed localities.
The situation is exacerbated by dumping of solid waste into drainage system, which is very common.
Except for some of the major cities, where WASAs are in operation, all other cities are without a
storm water drainage system or have under designed or partially combined drainage/sewerage
system. In both the cases, the areas remain un-drained for a considerable time period particularly in
rainy season.

1.2.4 Waste Water Treatment


A greater area of concern is the lack of waste water treatment in almost all the urban areas of
the province which could meet the requirements of national Environmental Quality Standards. With
very few exceptions the problem of safe disposal of domestic and other industrial effluents has not
been addressed anywhere in the Punjab. The ground situation is that bulk of the waste water
(domestic/industrial) is discharged untreated into natural water bodies (streams, canals, rivers,
seepage drains, and other channels) and /or used for irrigation purposes. In view of the prevailing
sanitation situation, the Government of the Punjab, in line with National Sanitation Policy-2007, has
launched a sanitation program to address some of these issues.

1.2.5 Solid Waste Management


The collection, transportation and disposal of solid waste from areas under their territorial
jurisdiction are the legal obligation of the concerned City District Governments in larger cities and
TMAs in case of other areas. In large cities of the province, the solid waste collected from the streets
is taken to a temporary/permanent designated collection points by the sanitary workers of City
District Government or TMA or by privately arranged haulers by means of hand /donkey carts.
These collection points consist of open dumping on the street corners, either in the form of heaps or
open to sky masonry compounds. From the collection points, the waste is carried to the disposal sites
by means of mechanical loaders, dumpers and tractor trolleys. The practice to bring the solid waste
up to the collection points in the intermediate and small cities is almost similar to that of large cities,
but from there on to the disposal sites, only tractor trolleys are available to be utilized. Disposal is
done by dumping, primarily on flood plains, in low lying areas and into ponds causing pollution of
surface and subsoil water.

Service Delivery and Technical standards for Water Supply and Sanitation Sector

Only 15 % of solid waste produced in

SOLID WASTE COLLECITON AND

the province is properly disposed of i.e.

DISPOSAL IN LAHORE

collected by any municipal institution, and


disposed of by solid waste management
department or a private company vehicle from
homes. The percentage ranges from 66% in
major cities to 33% in other urban areas and
only 1% in rural settlements4.
A majority of hospitals, both in the
public and the private sector in the Punjab

Average per capita solid waste generation in Lahore


city ranges between 0.50 to 0.55 kg/day. On this
basis it is estimated that 3200 Ton/day of solid waste
is generated. The existing solid waste collection
system is not very effective and some of the solid
waste generated in the city finds its way into open
drains, sewers, streets or in open areas. It is estimated
that only 70% of the solid waste is collected. The
City District Government intends to adopt
composite method of solid waste disposal at
Mehmood Booti Land fill site.
Source:(Engineering News Pakistan Engineering Congress, June 2005)

dispose of their solid waste improperly.


According to doctors, the conventional method of disposal of hospital waste is dangerous for the
public as well as those engaged in its disposal. Although The Hospital Management Rules were
introduced in the year 2005, but unfortunately these could not be effectively implemented. Under
these Rules, yellow-bagged waste shall be disposed of after burning by burial in a land fill or through
any other method approved by the Federal or Provincial agencies concerned. The Rules, further say
that radioactive waste shall either be disposed of in a land fill site or incinerated. The Provincial
Government in collaboration with Federal Government is in the process of installation of incinerators
in 19 district headquarters hospitals of the Province.

MICS, 2003-04

Service Delivery and Technical standards for Water Supply and Sanitation Sector

1.3 WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION SECTORS IN HISTORICAL


PERSPECTIVE
1.3.1 Drinking Water
Right from the beginning of mankind on earth water is an important issue for survival of the
human race. In primitive times water for drinking purpose, bathing, clothing and washing was taken
from e natural sources such as rivers, streams and springs. Throughout the history of mankind the
main sources for drinking have been as under:a)

Rivers, streams/ponds and springs

b)

Open Wells
The open wells were long used as a source for drinking water. Even today we find a lot of

villages in the province that have one or two open wells that provide safe drinking water to the
villagers .
c)

Pacca Wells
The Dug Wells, as the Kaccha Wells were generally known, were prone to collapse over time

and the supply of water would thus get suspended till the obstruction was removed. The alternative
used for averting this problem in wells was use of stone masonry and then brick masonry. With the
passage of time and with the increase in prosperity amongst the people, it allowed them to construct
pacca wells with bricks to the desired depth of water. In some of places in Punjab this practice is still
in vogue.
d)

Hand Pumps
In the 18th century, with the help of Boring Machines, boring was carried out in the ground

and using filter and pipe water was pumped out by what were called hand pumps.
e)

Tube wells
The water extracted from deep aquifers is free from pollution. Therefore, with the help of

boring rigs, deep tube wells are being installed almost everywhere in Punjab. Normally, the water
pumped out from deep ground water aquifers, when tested chemically and bacteriologically is found
fit for drinking purposes by humans.
f)

Ground Water Tanks


Tube wells draw water from the underground water aquifers. In order to use it efficiently, the

water pumped out is stored in ground tanks slightly raised from ground surface. One or preferably
more than one water taps are installed with the ground tank for using the water.

Service Delivery and Technical standards for Water Supply and Sanitation Sector

g)

Water through Battery of Taps


An alternate to the ground tanks is the installation of a battery of taps on a bigger diameter

pipe and placing these at suitable places preferably scattered all over the community for even benefit
to all the community.
h)

Water Stand Posts


This service is similar to the previous service with a difference that taps are installed at the

corners, center and other suitable places of the streets.

The drawback of this service is that

considerable quantity of water is wasted and nobody takes responsibility for the repair of the
damaged taps.
i)

Piped Water Supply


In this mode of service delivery, pipes are laid from the tube well or other water source to the

doorsteps, and a connection is made with the house of the end-user. The user can provide further
connections for water utilization in kitchen, bathroom and courtyard according to requirements.
j)

Water Supply through Overhead Reservoir

In this system water extracted from tube well or other source is first pumped into overhead reservoir,
and then through the main pipe it is distributed to the doorstep.

1.3.2 Waste Water


With the passage of time and with increased usage of water the need for proper disposal of
wastewater was felt.

The following ways have been used from time to time to dispose of waste

water:a)

Disposal of Waste Water into Pits


A pit is constructed in every household for disposal of waste water.

b)

Disposal through Drains


As the usage of water increased with a consequent increase in wastewater, disposal through

pits no longer remained a viable option. Therefore, disposal to drains was initiated i.e. throwaway of
used water.
c)

Waste Water Disposal through Ponds


The e waste water was collected at one common place, in the community at one side, or two

or more ponds depending upon the slope and the topography of the area.

Service Delivery and Technical standards for Water Supply and Sanitation Sector

d)

Disposal through Closed Drains


Open drains are still used in most part of the Punjab to dispose of wastewater. However as

these drains were a potential source of diseases, so they were covered. Now it is difficult to clean
covered drains.
e)

Waste Water Disposal through Pipes


i.

Clay Pipes
The problem of open drains was initially solved by placing clay pipes, but these were

not strong enough to withstand the load of the traffic passing over them with normal earth
cover.
ii.

Stone/Brick Masonry Sewers


Some of the old ducts and sewers of brick masonry are still working in central parts of

Lahore.
iii.

Cement/Concrete Pipes
To increase the strength of pipes concrete was used for their preparation.

iv.

Reinforced Cement Concrete (RCC) Pipes


These pipes are manufactured with cement, sand crush stone and steel. These pipes

are most economical and are being used in sewers throughout the world including Pakistan.

1.3.3 Drainage
Drainage is considered to be an important area of sanitation. In our local context drainage
means house drains and street drains used for the disposal of wastewater out of the house and further
out of the community. Its other major usage is for disposal of storm water from the roofs, courtyards
and streets, during and after rains. Various types of drainage used are briefly described as under:a)

Waste Water Drains


In cities waste water is disposed of into the sewers from kitchens, and bathrooms; however in

rural areas where there are no sewers, drains are constructed to take this water away from the
community.
b)

Storm Water Drains


These wastewater drains also act as storm water drains in the rural areas during rains. The

sewers are normally designed as combined sewers in our country for cost and other consideration. In
urban areas where the sewers do not have the capacity to accommodate the whole of the rainwater,
storm water drains are also provided separately.
Service Delivery and Technical standards for Water Supply and Sanitation Sector

Storm water Drainage in Southern Punjab


In Southern Punjab the intensity of rainfall is less and hence the sewers are designed

with a provision to carry rainwater as well as sewer.

Storm water Drainage in Northern Punjab


In the Northern Punjab the intensity of rainfall and duration of rainfall is more;

therefore it is not possible to design the sewers with full provision to carry rain water and
sewer. A part of the storm water, which is normally 50% of the dry weather flow, is taken
into account for the design of Combine Sewer. The rest of the water is disposed of through
storm water drains.

1.3.4 Waste Water Treatment


The treatment of wastewater started from the initial rudimentary system of collecting
wastewater in a nearby pit. The water in the pit seeped into the ground and some of it evaporated.
However, with the passage of time wastewater was collected in a pond outside the community. This
pond was a natural oxidation pond, a system for treatment of wastewater when the availability of
land was not a problem. The following types of treatment options have been practiced:a)

Septic Tanks
These are used in semi-urban areas or in isolated buildings where complete treatment is not

feasible. The septic tank combines two processes: sedimentation takes place in the upper portion of
the tank and accumulated sludge undergoes anaerobic decomposition. The effluent coming out from
a septic tank is further treated before disposal.
b)

Oxidation Ponds
In shallow ponds with a depth of 4-5 feet, the sun rays penetrate into the water and with the

help of surface wind which is a source of oxygen, biodegrade the organic matter and the bacteria,
releasing oxygen.
c)

Waste Stabilization Ponds


Actually it is a pond (treatment unit) in which waste water is allowed to stand for some time

so that it is converted into effluent that meets the quality standards notified for the final disposal of
waste water or its reuse for some useful purpose.

Service Delivery and Technical standards for Water Supply and Sanitation Sector

i.

Anaerobic Ponds

Wastewater enters in one pond and leaves that pond in diagonally opposite direction, in order
to increase the path of the settling particles to enter the second pond. An arrangement is made
for inlet of water without disturbance to the water already in the pond. This first pond is
called an anaerobic pond. Basically, it is a wastewater pond, which does not have dissolved
oxygen and anaerobic bacteria break down the organic matter in the wastewater.
ii.

Facultative Ponds

These ponds are of two types: primary facultative ponds receive raw wastewater, and
secondary facultative ponds receive the settled wastewater from the first stage (usually the
effluent from anaerobic ponds). Facultative ponds are designed for BOD5 removal on the
basis of a low organic surface load to permit the development of an active algal population.
iii.

Maturation Ponds

These ponds receive the effluent from a facultative pond and its size and number depend on
the required bacteriological quality of the final effluent. Maturation ponds are shallow (1.01.5 m) and show less vertical stratification, and their entire volume is well oxygenated
throughout the day.
iv.

Oxidation Ditches

This method of treatment of wastewater is suitable for giving complete treatment to sewage
coming from a small community. The main units are long, narrow channels having length
from 150 to 1000 m with width of 2 to 5 m and depth of 2 to 4 m. Air is given to the
wastewater with the help of rotators. After a period of about 12 to 15 hours the rotators are
stopped and supernatant effluent is taken away for further processing. The main advantage of
this system is that its cost is almost less than one third of the conventional system and space
required for it is also less than one tenth of that required for the Oxidation Ponds.
d)

Trickling filters
A trickling filter is a bed of crushed stones, gravel or slag of large size; to which settled

sewage is applied on the surface. The applied sewage trickles down forming a thin zoological film
over the surface of the filtering media. Both suspended and dissolved solids come in contact with this
film. In aerobic conditions it results in the reduction of BOD,. ammonia and organic nitrogen etc. . In
warm climate the efficiency of this process is greater and hence the removal of BOD is higher. The
BOD removal to the extent of 75 to 90 per cent is achieved in this process.
e)

Activated Sludge Process:In this method the sludge, by aeration and agitation becomes flocculent and accumulates a

bulk of aerobic bacteria. When this activated sludge is added to the sewage and mixture is agitated in
Service Delivery and Technical standards for Water Supply and Sanitation Sector

10

the presence of oxygen for a considerable time and the liquor is allowed to settle, the clear liquid is
effluent. This is a secondary or biological treatment process and may be used in place of trickling
filters.
The advantage of activated sludge process is that its initial cost is less than trickling filters.
Smaller area of land is required. The effluent is clear and free from odor. It gives freedom from fly
nuisance. Its results are very good. It gives very high efficiency. There is over 90 per cent removal of
BOD and total solids. The disadvantages are that its operational cost is very high; and the process is
very sensitive and requires the presence of a skilled attendant.
f)

Disinfection of Wastewater
Final treatment focuses on removal of disease-causing organisms from wastewater. Treated

wastewater can be disinfected by adding chlorine or by using ultraviolet light. Treatment systems
often add a chlorine-neutralizing chemical to the treated wastewater before stream discharge.
The purpose of disinfection is to substantially reduce the number of microorganisms in the
water to be discharged back into the environment. The effectiveness of disinfection depends on the
quality of the water being treated (e.g., cloudiness, pH, etc.), the type of disinfection being used, the
disinfectant dosage (concentration and time), and other environmental variables. Cloudy water will
be treated less successfully since solid matter can shield organisms, especially from ultraviolet light
or if contact times are low. Generally, short contact times, low doses and high flows all militate
against effective disinfection.
Ultraviolet (UV) light can be used instead of chlorine, iodine, or other chemicals and as no
chemicals are used, the treated water's taste is more natural and pure as compared to other methods.
UV radiation causes damage to the genetic structure of bacteria, viruses, and other pathogens,
making them incapable of reproduction. The key disadvantages of UV disinfection are the need for
frequent lamp maintenance and replacement and the need for a highly treated effluent to ensure that
the target microorganisms are not shielded from the UV radiation. Advanced treatment is necessary
in some treatment systems to remove nutrients from wastewater. Chemicals are sometimes added
during the treatment process to help settle out or strip out phosphorus or nitrogen. Some examples of
nutrient removal systems include coagulant addition for phosphorus removal and air stripping for
ammonia removal.
Wastewater treatment processes require careful management to ensure the protection of the
water body that receives the discharge. Trained and certified treatment plant operators measure and
monitor the incoming sewage, the treatment process and the final effluent.

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11

1.3.5 Solid Waste Management


The waste produced by a society can be categorized in many ways. Solid waste is generally
made up of objects or particles that accumulate on the site where they are produced. Solid waste can
be divided into the following categories:a)

Municipal Waste
Municipal solid waste consists of all the material that people in a region no longer want

because they are broken, spoiled, or have no further use. It includes waste from household,
commercial areas and institutions etc.
b)

Industrial Waste
It is the waste from industries. This waste may be of different types depending upon the kind

of industry and this waste may also have different chemicals in it.
c)

Hazardous Waste
Hazardous wastes are those that can cause harm to human beings or the environment. The

definition of hazardous wastes varies from one country to another. One of the most widely used
definitions is as follows: the waste that cause or significantly contribute to an increase in mortality or
an increase in serious irreversible, or incapacitating reversible, illness; or pose a substantial present
or potential hazard to human health or the environment when improperly treated, stored, transported,
disposed of, or otherwise managed.
Incineration can be used to destroy a variety of wastes. A hazardous waste incinerator can be
used to burn organic wastes but it is unable to destroy inorganic wastes up to 99.99 per cent. The
relatively high cost of incineration compared with landfill and concerns for the safety of the
surrounding areas in case of accidents have kept incineration from becoming a major method of
treatment or disposal.
After treatment any remaining hazardous wastes are typically disposed of on land by burying
into the land.
The hazardous waste can be classified into two broad categories:
i.

Hospital Waste
It is waste from medical complexes, dispensaries, and hospitals and it typically

consists of material from operation theaters, used syringes, blood and blood soaked clothes
etc. This waste contains pathogenic bacteria and it should not be mixed with other household
waste.
ii.

Nuclear Waste

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12

It is the most dangerous waste coming out from nuclear reactors and medical
institutions dealing in nuclear medicine. This waste is to be disposed of very carefully
otherwise it can be very harmful for living things.
1.3.5.1 Composition of Solid waste
In Pakistan the average quantity of solid waste produced per capita per day is 0.5, while in
big Indian cities like Calcutta it may be 0.75kg/capita/day. The average composition of solid waste
produced in Pakistan by weight is reported as:

Fine dust

28 %

Cinder

26 %

Ash

15 %

Cans and tins

4%

Putrescible matter

14 %

Glass and crockery

3%

Rag

2%

Bone

1%

Miscellaneous matter

7%

1.3.5.2 Collection and Storage of Solid Waste

The separation of solid waste at the source facilitates the disposal but increases the cost of
collection because special equipment and workers are necessary to collect each type of material. The
period after which the solid waste is collected from the house is called frequency. The frequency of
collection of solid waste mainly depends on the quantity of the solid waste and time of the year.
Efficient and satisfactory collection may be undertaken by planning the collection system and routes,
training labour and maintaining equipment. The frequency of collection is decided carefully to avoid
nuisance from odor and fly breeding. In posh areas and business centers the solid waste should be
collected daily except holiday. Any irregularity in collection service contributes to the nuisance and
hazard, which result in poor sanitary conditions. The collection in the cities should be done during
the regular working day. In business centers, collection at night is most convenient.

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13

1.3.5.3 Transportation of Solid Waste


In selecting vehicles, the most important considerations are the size of the vehicle, loading
height, type of solid waste kerb or carry-out pick-up service, and manpower needed for its operation
etc. The equipment should be provided with suitable covers to prevent the exposure of the contents.
The commonly used vehicles are side loaded or rear loading type. It should be ensured that they
vehicle is watertight.
A team should consist of even number of loaders. Smaller teams are required for collection of
solid waste from the houses. A single driver, loader team is sufficient for especially designed trucks,
where the truck performs most of the functions by itself and there is minimum requirement for
intervention by the loader.
The route to the disposal site should be selected such that the distance hauled by the fully
loaded vehicle should be as short as possible. After collecting information about number of houses to
be visited, time required to serve various portions of the route, capacity of the truck, etc adjustment
is made for economical use of labour and equipment.
In small and medium cities of Punjab, the solid waste is collected and disposed of at the
disposal sites directly. In big cities the disposal site is usually too far and the cost of haulage by one
truck from the place of collection to the disposal site is too much and also not practicable. In such
cases, first the solid waste is collected at some suitable intermediate places and some of the activities
like separation and segregation of material is carried out. The recyclable material is sent to the
factories as raw material. The solid waste remaining is transported to its final place of disposal.
The separation of solid waste is absolutely essential. From primary screen the dust is
removed by a fine mesh and the clean cinder is removed using a garbage extractor. A magnetic
separator or a magnetic pulley then separates the iron metals. Other useable material such as glass,
paper, rags, metals, etc may be separated at the picking belt. The remaining solid waste may then be
discharged into an incinerator or into a loading hopper to transport to the landfill site or for
composting
1.3.5.4 Disposal of Solid Waste
The solid waste may be disposed of by various methods such as under:a)

Sanitary Landfill
For sanitary land filling, a trench is excavated; the solid waste is filled up to a depth of 2-3

meters, and then compacted by bulldozers. The microorganisms naturally present slowly decompose
the organic matter into carbon dioxide and water. In addition to that methane gas is lost to the
atmosphere. The sanitary land filling is a simple, effective and cheap method of solid waste disposal.
Service Delivery and Technical standards for Water Supply and Sanitation Sector

14

The land area required for a landfill is normally 2.55.0 hector per year for a population of
100,000 persons. The method is very suitable for rural communities, hotels and camps etc.
b)

Composting
Composting is very similar to the sanitary land filling. The decomposable organic matter is

composted to produce a stable material, which may be used as manure for growing crops. The
composted material is dark and stable humus with some fertilizer value. There are two main
methods of composting i.e. open window composting and mechanical composting. The first process
takes 6-10 weeks while the second method takes 3-6 days.
c)

Incineration
This is the most scientific method of disposal of combustible solid waste. In this process

bacteria are destroyed and the non-combustible ashes, metals, etc, are created, which may cause
some minor sanitation problems. The incinerators may produce heat due to combustion, which may
be sold.
In the incinerator the chimney exhausts the gases into the atmosphere. The height of the
chimney should be such that adequate diffusion with air takes place, and the fly ash problem is also
minimized. For best results, smoke should be to a minimum and the ash should be removed at
regular intervals.

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15

CHAPTER-2
DRINKING WATER QUALITY STANDARDS
This chapter contains review of existing technical standards for water supply sector followed
in Punjab with modifications proposed to meet the current and future requirements. The review and
proposed refinements are based on detailed scrutiny of the service delivery and technical standards
followed by national and international agencies, and the group discussions held with the technical
personnel of provincial government line departments and recommendations made during such
consultative sessions.

2.1

DRINKING WATER QUALITY GLOBAL PICTURE AND BASIC


REQUIREMENTS

2.1.1 Global Picture


Surface of the Earth is composed of 29% land and 71% water. Total water on the Earth is
measured at 1400 Million
Km3. Of this, about 97 %
Distribution of global fresh water

lies in oceans and the


remaining 3% forms ice
caps and surface and

Ground
Water
30%

Rivers &
Lakes
0.30%

Others
0.70%

3% Fresh
Water on Earth

groundwater. Practically
speaking all the usable

Ice Caps
69%

surface and groundwater


only

comprises

about

97% Oceans

0.5% of the total water on


the Earth - excluding the
water trapped in the ice
caps.

2.1.2 Basic Requirements for Drinking Water Quality


The water when it falls as rainfall

is H2O in its pure form and free of any salts or

contaminants. However, as it moves on the Earth surface it dissolves other elements both useful and
harmful. Therefore, the available drinking water may also contain physical, chemical bacteriological
or radiological contaminants with harmful effects on human health.
Quality of drinking water plays a pivotal role in the selection, design and implementation of
water supply schemes both for urban and rural areas.

In order to determine if the water is fit for

Service Delivery and Technical standards for Water Supply and Sanitation Sector

16

drinking purposes testing, not only, for colour, taste, odour, quantity of total dissolved solids but also
tests for bacterial contamination and pollution are to be carried out.
In the Punjab, more than 90 % of drinking water is obtained from groundwater based sources
such as tube wells, open wells, hand pumps, infiltration galleries, etc. Contrary to general perception,
deep ground water is not necessarily always free of bacterial contaminants and hence the
concentration of total dissolved solids (TDS) in parts per million (PPM) is considered an
important factor for determination if the water is fit for drinking. Under WHO guidelines water with
dissolved solids less than 500 PPM is considered safe for human consumption. However, these limits
are relaxed to include up to 1000 PPM and even 1500 PPM depending upon the local field
conditions, the type of solutes (cations and anions) in the water and the resistance developed by the
local inhabitants. For example, presence of Sodium (Na) and Potassium (K) in water creates no
problem as they are relatively human friendly as compared to Calcium (Ca) and Magnesium (Mg)
which generally have a laxative effect, and their presence in water is not desirable.
The major cations in water are Calcium, Magnesium, Sodium and Potassium whereas the
major anions present in water are Bi-Carbonate, Carbonate, Sulfate and Chloride. These major
cations and anions are found in about 99% of water around us and provide basic characteristics to
water making it suitable or otherwise for drinking, agricultural and industrial purposes. On the other
hand, the remaining around 1 % solutes and contaminants (human friendly and even with medicinal
effect when within permissible limits) also play a very important role in determining the suitability
or otherwise of water for drinking purposes.

Likely effects of various contaminants on the quality of water and human health are given in
Table 2.1:

Service Delivery and Technical standards for Water Supply and Sanitation Sector

17

Table 2.1
Effect of Various Contaminants on Water Quality and Human Health
Effect under Normal and Excessive Concentration on Health
Substance
When present within
When in Excess
Permissible Limits
Calcium

Human friendly / healthy bones

Heart burning, Skin warts

Magnesium

Medicinal

Laxative effect, stomach problems

Chloride

No significant effect

Imparts salty taste in water

Sulphate

Noticeable taste

Laxative effect

Nitrate Nitrite

No effect

Blue baby syndrome (infantile


methaemoglobinaemia), indicator of
pollution

Fluoride

Helps protection against dental


cavities (human friendly)

Bone deformation, children get


mottled teeth

Arsenic

No significant effect

Poison, skin cancer, circulatory


system problems

Lead

No significant effect

Toxic effect on nervous system


(delays mental growth in children)

Chromium

No significant effect

Allergic dermatitis, may cause lung


cancer

Iron

No noticeable effect

Cadmium

No significant effect

May cause stains laundry and


plumbing fixtures
Kidney damage, carcinogenic

Cyanide

No significant effect

Nerve damage, thyroid problems

Coli forms

No significant effect

Indicators of harmful bacteria.

2.2

PRESENT WATER QUALITY SITUATION


The PCRWR, in 2004, as part of its National Water Quality Monitoring Programme,

analyzed water samples taken from 163 drinking water sources in 11 cities of Punjab i.e.
Bahawalpur, Faisalabad, Gujranwala, Gujrat, Kasur, Lahore, Multan, Rawalpindi, Sargodha,
Service Delivery and Technical standards for Water Supply and Sanitation Sector

18

Sheikhupura and Sialkot. Of these samples, 90% were sourced from tube wells alone. The study
revealed that:
B

Most of the water quality parameters were beyond permissible limits; and

Highest percentage of unsafe water sources was observed in Kasur, Lahore, Multan,
Sargodha and Sheikhupura, where none of the source was found safe either due to
bacteriological or chemical contamination.

The quality of drinking water and its monitoring is therefore of prime concern to the end
users and the people responsible for managing delivery of drinking water to the public. The three
WASAs i.e. at Lahore, Rawalpindi and Faisalabad and the three PHED testing laboratories, one at
the provincial headquarters Lahore, and remaining two regional laboratories at Rawalpindi and
Multan have mostly been engaged in analyzing water samples for developing drinking water sources
for public water supplies in rural and urban areas, and regular monitoring of water quality was hardly
ever done. In the year 2006-07, the Provincial Government of the Punjab started setting up water
testing laboratories at each district to enhance water testing and monitoring capabilities.

2.3

EXISTING WATER QUALITY STANDARDS

2.3.1 PSQCA Drinking Water Standards


There are no national drinking water standards as yet uniformly enforced in the country. The
drinking water standards, however, published by the Federally Administered PSQCA are given in
Table No.2.2. These standards are mostly in line with the WHO guidelines for drinking water (1984).
Table - 2.2
PSQCA Drinking Water Quality Standards
Maximum Concentration
No.

Characteristics

Unit

Acceptable

Allowable

a. Physical Requirements
1

Turbidity

NTU

25

Colour

TCU

50

Taste & Odour

pH

7.0-8.5

6.5 - 9.2

Unobjectionable

b. Chemical Requirements
1

Total Dissolved Solids

mg/l

1000

1500

Chloride

mg/l

200

600

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19

Maximum Concentration
No.

Characteristics

Unit

Acceptable

Allowable

Sulfate

mg/l

200

400

Nitrate (NO3)

mg/l

10

Total Hardness (CaCO3)

mg/l

20

500

Nitrite (NO2)

mg/l

Nil

Nil

Total Ammonia

mg/l

0.1

0.5

Hydrogen Sulfide

mg/l

Unobjectionable odour

Fluoride

mg/l

1.5

10

Iron

mg/l

0.3

1.0

11

Zinc

mg/l

15

12

Manganese

mg/l

0.5

13

Copper

mg/l

1.5

14

Calcium

mg/l

75

200

15

Magnesium

mg/l

50

150

16

Alkyl Benzyl Sulfates

mg/l

0.5

c. Limits of Toxic Substances


1

Arsenic

mg/l

0.01

Cadmium

mg/l

0.003

Chromium

mg/l

0.05

Cyanide

mg/l

0.07

Lead

mg/l

0.01

Selenium

mg/l

0.01

d. Limits for Bacteriological Contaminants


Acceptable Bacterial standards for potable water supplies
1

Escherichia Coli

0 / 250 ml

Total Coliform

0 / 250 ml

Enterococci

0 / 250 ml

Pseudomonas acsuginose

0 / 250 ml

Source: Pakistan Council of Research in Water Resources

Service Delivery and Technical standards for Water Supply and Sanitation Sector

20

2.3.2 PHED Water Quality Standards

The Punjab PHED Design Criteria notified by the provincial government in the year 1998,
contains some 18 water quality parameters. they are indicated in Table No.2.3 and most of them
relate to aesthetic quality and are nearly equivalent to the WHO drinking water standards (1971).
Table - 2.3
PHED WATER QUALITY STANDARDS 1998

Sr. No.

Substance or Characteristics

1.

Colour

Highest Desirable
Level
5 Units*

2.

Odour

Unobjectionable

Unobjectionable

3.

Taste

Unobjectionable

Unobjectionable

4.

Turbidity

5 units**

5 units**

5.

Total Solids

500 mg/l

1500 mg/l

6.

pH range

7.0 to 8.5

6.5 to 9.2

7.

Anionic detergents

0.2 mg/l

1.0 mg/l

8.

Mineral oil

0.01 mg/l

0.30 mg/l

9.

Copper (as CU)

0.05 mg/l

1.50 mg/l

10.

Iron (as Fe)

0.1 mg/l

1.0 mg/l

11.

Magnesium (as Mg)

30 mg/l

150 mg/l

12.

Manganese (Mn)

0.05 mg/l

0.50 mg/l

13.

Sulphate (SO4)

200 mg/l

400 mg/l

14.

Zinc (Zn)

5.0 mg/l

15 mg/l

15.

Phenolic Compounds

0.001 mg/l

0.002 mg/l

16.

Total Hardness

100 mg/l CaCO3

500 mg/l CaCO3

17.

Calcium (as Ca)

75 mg/l

200 mg/l

18.

Chloride (as Cl)

200 mg/l

600 mg/l

Platinum cobalt scale

**

Maximum
Permissible Level
50 Units*

Jackson Turbidity Units

The above drinking water standards notified in the province are silent on the limits for
bacteriological contaminants, limits of toxic substances and the water quality monitoring aspects.
The most common and widespread health risk associated with drinking water is microbial
contamination and its control must always be of paramount importance because microbial
contamination of major urban supplies has the potential to cause large out breaks of waterborne

Service Delivery and Technical standards for Water Supply and Sanitation Sector

21

diseases. The PHED claims to follow WHO standards as far as bacteriological contamination is
concerned. These bacteriological standards for drinking water are mentioned below:
Bacteriological Standards for Drinking Water

In 95% of samples examined throughout a year, coliform organism should be absent


in 100 ml of sample.

No sample should contain more than 10 coliform organisms per 100 ml in the
remaining 5% samples.

No sample should contain E-Coli (Escherachia Coliform) in 100 ml sample.

Coliform organisms should not be detectable in 100 ml of any two consecutive


samples.

Service Delivery and Technical standards for Water Supply and Sanitation Sector

22

2.4

REVIEW OF EXISTING WATER QUALITY STANDARDS


In establishing and monitoring drinking water quality standards one should have the

knowledge of health risks that are associated with varying concentration of the contaminating
substance in drinking water. A review of some important water quality parameters is given below:

2.4.1 Colour
The colour of drinking water is usually due to the presence of coloured organic matter
associated with the humus fraction of soil. Colour is strongly influenced by the presence of iron and
other metals, either as natural impurities or as

COLOUR

corrosion products. It may also result from the


contamination of the water source with industrial

Standards

effluents and may be the first indication of a

USEPA

<15 TCU

India

5 TCU (Acceptable)

hazardous situation. The source of colour in a


water supply should be investigated, particularly
if a substantial change takes place.
Colours above 15 TCU (true colour units)

25 TCU (Marginal)
PSQCA

can be detected in a glass of water by most

5 TCU (Max. acceptable)


50 TCU (Max Allowable)

people. Colours below 15 TCU are usually


acceptable to consumers, but acceptability may

PHED

vary according to local circumstances. As per

5 * Units (highest desirable)


50 Units (Max permissible)

PHED standards the highest desirable level has


* Platinum Cobalt scale

been adopted as 5 TCU and the maximum


permissible level is 50 TCU. The WHO
Guidelines (2004) have not specified any health based guideline value for drinking water. However,
in the WHO Guidelines published in 1984, as i.e. the first edition of the Guidelines for Drinking
Water Quality the standard has been indicated as 5 TCU (desirable value) and 50 TCU as the
maximum permissible value. In the neighboring country India a value of 5 TUC (acceptable) and 25
TUC (marginal) is followed as standard for colour of drinking water.

2.4.2 Taste and odour


Taste and odour originate from natural and biological sources or processes (e.g., aquatic
microorganisms), from contamination by chemicals, or as a by-product of water treatment (e.g.,
chlorination). Taste and odour may also develop during storage and distribution.
Taste and odour in drinking water may be indicative of some form of pollution or of some
malfunction during water treatment or distribution. The cause of changes in tastes and odours of
Service Delivery and Technical standards for Water Supply and Sanitation Sector

23

drinking water should be investigated and appropriate health authorities need to be consulted,
particularly if there is a sudden or substantial change. Any unusual taste or odour might be an
indication of the presence of potentially harmful substances.
The taste and odour of drinking water should not be offensive to the consumer. However,
there is an enormous variation in the level and quality of taste and odour that are regarded as
acceptable. As per PHED criteria of 1998, the standard of colour is that it must be unobjectionable.
This is in line with WHO Drinking Water Quality Standards 1971. No health-based guideline value
for taste and odour is recommended in WHO Guidelines, 2004.

2.4.3 Turbidity

TURBIDITY

Turbidity in drinking water is caused


by the presence of suspended or colloidal
matter like clay, silt, organic particles and

Standards
USEPA

5 NTU

India

2.5 NTU (Acceptable)

other microscopic organisms. The appearance


of water with a turbidity of less than 5 NTU is
usually acceptable to consumers.

10 NTU (Marginal)

High levels of turbidity can protect


microorganisms
disinfection and

from
can

the

effects

stimulate

PSQCA

NTU

(Max.

Acceptable)

25 NTU (Max. allowable)

of

bacterial

PHED

5 JTU

growth. The existing standard of turbidity


followed in the province as per PHED criteria 1998 is 5JTU. This is in line with the WHO Drinking
Water Quality Standards (1971) for water turbidity. The WHO has, however, not indicated any
guideline value for turbidity in WHOs Drinking Water Guidelines 2004. The USEPA is using a
standard of 5 NTU. A marginal value of turbidity level i.e. from 2.5 to 10 NTU is being followed in
India.

2.4.4 pH
Although pH usually has no direct impact on consumers, it is one of the most important
operational water quality parameters. Careful attention to pH control is necessary at all stages of
water treatment to ensure satisfactory water clarification and disinfection. For effective disinfection
with chlorine, the pH should preferably be less than 8. The pH of the water entering the distribution
system must be controlled to minimize the corrosion of water mains and pipes in household water
systems. Failure to do so can result in the contamination of drinking water and can have adverse
effects on its tastes, odour, and appearance.

Service Delivery and Technical standards for Water Supply and Sanitation Sector

24

The optimum pH required of water will vary in different supplies according to the
composition of the water and the nature of the construction materials used in the distribution system,
but it is often in the range 6.5 8.5. Extreme values of pH can result from accidental spills, and
treatment breakdown. Highest desirable and maximum permissible values of pH i.e. 7.0 to 8.5 and
6.5 to 9.2 respectively are the existing standards of pH published in PHED Design Criteria, 1998.
The ISO has also published the same values. These standards are same as the WHOs Drinking Water
Quality Standards 1984.

2.4.5. Hardness
Traditionally, hardness is a measure of

HARDNESS

capacity of water to react with soap. Hardness


is

predominantly

due

to

calcium

and

magnesium, although strontium, barium &

Standards
USEPA

nd

Japan

100 mg/l - 500 mg/l

India

200 mg/l (Acceptable)

other poly valent irons may also contribute to


it. Hardness is commonly expressed as
milligram of calcium carbonate equivalent per
liter.
600 mg/l (Marginal)

Public acceptability of the degree of


hardness of water may vary considerably from
one community to another. In some instances,

PSQCA :

20 mg/l - 50 mg/l

PHED

100 mg/l - 500 mg/l

water hardness in excess of 500 mg/l is


tolerated by consumers although it may cause problems of incrustation on utensils. The existing
standard of total hardness, as per PHED Design Criteria 1998 ranges from 100 mg/l to 500 mg/l as
CaCO3 . The standard of total hardness i.e. 100 mg/l as CaCO3 (maximum desirable level) was
retained as guideline value by WHO in Drinking Water Quality Guidelines (1984) till the publishing
of WHOs Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality, 2004, in which no guideline of hardness has been
given.

Service Delivery and Technical standards for Water Supply and Sanitation Sector

25

2.4.6 Total Dissolved Solids


The total dissolved solids (TDS) in water comprise inorganic salts. The principal ions contributing to
TDS

TDS are carbonates, bicarbonates, chloride,


sulfate, nitrate, sodium, potassium, calcium

Standards

and magnesium. Total dissolved solids


influence other properties and tendency to
incrustation.

They

are

generally

not

removed in conventional water treatment

USEPA

1000 mg/l

Japan

<1000 mg/l

China

500 mg/l

India

500 mg/l (Acceptable)

plants. They may e originate from natural


sources, municipal waste waters, urban
runoff, industrial waste discharges or natural

1500 mg/l (Marginal)

leaching process. The existing standards of


TDS published in PHED Design Criteria,

PSQCA

1000 mg/l (Max Acceptable)


1500 mg/l (Max. Allowable)

1998 are in line with WHO Drinking Water


Standard 1971. The WHO adopted a TDS

PHED

500 mg/l (Highest desirable)


1500 mg/l (Max Permissible)

concentration of 1000 mg/l in its Guidelines

published in 1984. The WHO had not defined any guideline value for TDS in its drinking water
Guidelines, 2004. It has been observed that increase in TDS beyond 1500 mg/l gives rise to taste
objectionable to the consumers. However, in exceptional situations the standards may be relaxed in
areas of acute water shortage having no alternate dependable water source meeting minimum water
quality standards provided there are no potential health risks involved and the end users are also
willing to accept the relaxed level of service delivery.

2.4.7 Nitrates & Nitrites


The nitrate & nitrite are considered

NITRATES AND NITRITES

together because of their conversion from one


form to the other in the natural environment.

Nitrates Nitrites

Standards

The health effects of nitrate are generally as a


result of its conversion to nitrite in the human
body. Their concentrations in water are
expressed

as

mg/l,

for

(NO3)

(NO2)

USEPA

10 mg/l

1.0 mg/l

Japan

<5 mg/l

Canada

45 mg/l

3.20 mg/l

India

45 mg/l

PSQCA

10 mg/l

PHED

Not defined

Nitrate-Nitrogen

(Nitrate-N) and Nitrite-Nitrogen (Nitrite-N)


Nitrates are present in soil, most subsoil waters and in plants & vegetables;
however the levels of nitrates in polluted
water are invariably much higher than the

Service Delivery and Technical standards for Water Supply and Sanitation Sector

26

levels of nitrites..
It is well know that nitrates ingested in the human body are absorbed in the upper
gastrointestinal tract and converted into nitrites by the intestinal bacteria. This is relatively more
likely to happen in infants. The Nitrite reacts with hemoglobin (red blood cells containing ferrous)
and produces methaemoglobin (blood containing ferric ions), which has very low affinity for
oxygen. This condition of human body is called Cyanosis in which the colour of infant babies
becomes blue. This is known as Infantile Methaemoglobinaemia, and can also cause death if the
condition persists for a long period. For nitrates (NO3) and nitrites (NO2) guideline values of 50 mg/l
and 3 mg/l have respectively been given by WHO in 2004; however PHED has not defined any
standard for concentration of nitrates and nitrites in drinking water.

2.4.8 Fluoride

FLUORIDES

Higher concentration of fluorides is often


associated with ground water sources

Standards

located in areas with fluorides-bearing

USEPA

<4.0 mg/l

lithology. Fluorides are used in the

Singapore

<2.0 mg/l

Japan

<1.50 mg/l

India

1.0 mg/l (Acceptable)

aluminum industry, pharmaceutical and


ceramics products and also in fertilizers.
Owing to industrial activity involving so

1.5 mg/l (Marginal)

many fluorine containing substances, there


PSQCA

is

environmental

contamination

with

fluoride. The presence of fluoride in

1.5 mg/l (Max


Allowable)

PHED

drinking water up to a concentration level


of 1.0 mg/l helps protection against dental cavities, but with increased level of fluoride
concentration i.e. 1.5 to 2.0 mg/l mottling may sometimes occur even to an
objectionable degree. Bone deformities / Fluorosis have been observed in persons
when found drinking water containing 3.0 to 6.0 mg/l of fluoride. It has been accepted
that 1 mg/l is a safe level of fluoride concentration in relation to fluoridation of water
supplies. The PHED has not published standard for fluoride.

Service Delivery and Technical standards for Water Supply and Sanitation Sector

27

2.4.9 Chloride

CHLORIDE

High concentrations of chloride give an


undesirable taste to water. The taste thresholds for

Standards
USEPA

: 250 mg/l

300 mg/l for sodium, potassium, and calcium

China

: 250 mg/l

chloride. The consumers can become accustomed

Japan

: <350 mg/l

to chloride concentrations in excess of 250 mg/l.

India

: 200 mg/l (Acceptable),


600 mg/l (Marginal)

PSQCA

: 200 mg/l (Max. acceptable),


600 mg/l (Max. allowable)

PHED

: 200 mg/l (Highest Desirable)


600 mg/l (Max. permissible)

chloride concentration are in the range of 200 to

The PHEDs standard i.e. 200 mg/l (highest


desirable) and 600 mg/l (maximum permissible) is
well within the values adopted in neighboring
countries.

2.4.10 Copper
The presence of copper in water supply may

COPPER

interfere with the intended domestic uses of the

Standards

water. In public water supplies its presence

USEPA

: 1.0 mg/l

China

: 1.0 mg/l

Japan

: <0.05 mg/l

India

: 0.05 mg/l (Acceptable),


1.50 mg/l (Marginal)

PSQCA

: 1.50 mg/l (Max. allowable)

PHED

: 0.05 mg/l (Highest desirable)


1.50 mg/l (Max. permissible)

increases the corrosion of galvanized iron and steel


fittings. Staining of laundry and sanitary ware
occurs at copper concentrations above 1 mg/l.
Additionally, at levels above 0.3 mg/l, it also
imparts a colour and an undesirable bitter taste to
water. The present standard adopted by PHED i.e.
0.05 mg/l as highest desirable and 1.50 mg/l as
maximum permissible level of copper is almost in
line with other developing countries.

2.4.11 Iron
The anaerobic ground water may contain ferrous iron in concentrations of up to several
milligrams per liter without discoloration or turbidity in the water. On exposure to the atmosphere,
however, the ferrous iron oxidizes to ferric iron, giving an objectionable reddish-brown colour to the
water. Iron also promotes the growth of iron bacterial, which derive their energy from the
oxidation of ferrous iron to ferric iron and in the process deposit a slimy coating on the piping.

Service Delivery and Technical standards for Water Supply and Sanitation Sector

28

IRON

At level above 0.3 mg/l, iron stains


laundry and plumbing fixtures. There is usually

Standards

no noticeable taste at iron concentrations below


USEPA

: 0.3 mg/l

China

: 0.3 mg/l

develop. Iron concentrations of 1.0 to 3.0 mg/l

Philippines

: 1.0 mg/l

can be acceptable for people drinking anaerobic

India

: 0.1 mg/l (acceptable),


1.0 mg/l (Max.)

well-water. Therefore, the present standard of

PSQCA

: 0.3 mg/l (Max. acceptable),


1.0 mg/l (Max. allowable)

PHED

: 0.1 mg/l (Highest Desirable)


1.0 mg/l (Max. permissible)

SULPHATES

0.3 mg/l, although turbidity and colour may

1.0 mg/l (max. permissible) iron contamination


in drinking water followed by PHED is in line
with some other countries.

2.4.12 Sulphate
The presence of sulphate in drinking

Standards

water can cause noticeable taste. The taste

USEPA

: 250 mg/l

China

: 250 mg/l

thresholds have been found in range from 200500 mg/l for sodium sulphate and in the range
of 250-900 mg/l for calcium sulphate. It is

Japan

: 250 mg/l

India

: 200 mg/l (Acceptable),


400 mg/l (Marginal)

generally considered that taste impairment of


water is minimal at levels below 400 mg/l as
established by WHO in its Drinking Water
Guidelines 1984.

PSQCA

: 200 mg/l (Max. acceptable),


400 mg/l (Max. allowable)

The standard for sulphate

contamination followed by PHED i.e. 200 mg/l


(highest desirable) and 400 mg/l (max.

PHED

: 200 mg/l (Highest Desirable)

permissible) is in line with other countries.

400 mg/l (Max. permissible)

Service Delivery and Technical standards for Water Supply and Sanitation Sector

29

2.4.13 Arsenic
Arsenic is a naturally occurring inorganic element, found in soils and ground water. It is introduced
into

underground

drinking

water

sources
ARSENIC (AS)

primarily through the dissolution of naturally


occurring minerals and ores. Untreated effluents
of Agro chemical industries may also cause
Standards

arsenic

contamination

to

drinking

water

sources. Ingestion of large quantities of arsenic


through drinking water can be hazardous due to

China

0.05 mg/l

India

0.05 mg/l

its harmful affect on human lungs, kidney, liver,


hair, skin and may even cause cancer, in some
cases.
At present there is no existing standard

Japan

<0.02 mg/l

USEPA

0.06 mg/l

PSQCA

0.05 mg/l

PHED

of arsenic contamination in drinking water


specified in PHED Design Criteria (1998) or
otherwise enforced in the Province. As per
WHO Guidelines (2004) maximum allowable concentration of arsenic contamination in drinking
water is 0.01 mg/l. Therefore, maximum allowable concentration of arsenic contamination in
drinking water sources may be adopted in line with WHO Guidelines and other international
standards keeping in view health risks associated with likely contamination of water by arsenic. It is
also worth mentioning here that in most of countries of South Asian region maximum allowable
concentration of arsenic contamination in water of0.05 mg/l has been adopted as standard.

Service Delivery and Technical standards for Water Supply and Sanitation Sector

30

2.4.14. Chromium
Chromium is very toxic. It makes compounds of potassium di-chromate (K2 Cr2 O7) and
chromic acid after solving in water. Chromium is
used

as

oxidizing

reagents

for

CHROMIUM (Cr)

dyeing,

electroplating, leather processing and in textile


industry. These industries emit chromium in their

Standards
USEPA

0.10 mg/l

Phillpines

0.05 mg/l

Singapore

0.05 mg/l

India

0.05 mg/l

WHO

0.05 mg/l

PSQCA

0.05 mg/l

PHED

effluents. If such effluents are discharged into


receiving water bodies used as source of drinking
water

then

drinking

water

will

become

contaminated with chromium and will be very toxic


for the people using this water because chromium
may be accumulated in liver and kidneys.
Chromium concentration of 1.4 to 12 mg/l will
make the color of water slightly yellow. The WHO
has given a value of 0.05 mg/l. Many countries have

standard of 0.05 mg/l. The drinking water quality standards in vogue in the province do not include
chromium which may be added with 0.05 mg/l concentration in drinking water as acceptable level.

2.5

INTERNATIONAL DRINKING WATER QUALITY STANDARDS

2.5.1 Water Quality Standards of WHO


The

WHO

published

international

GUIDELINE VALUES

drinking water quality standards in the years


1958, 1963 and lastly in the year 1971. The
WHO,

however,

shifted

its

focus

from

International Standards to Guidelines in the

The quality of water defined by the guideline values


is such that it is suitable for human consumption for
all usual domestic purposes including personal
hygiene.

year 1984. The Guidelines published by WHO


are of advisory nature based on state of the art scientific research and epidemiological findings. The
Guidelines for drinking water quality are intended for use by various countries as basis for the
development of their standards. The WHO Guidelines and drinking water quality standards being
used by various countries are given in the following tables.

Service Delivery and Technical standards for Water Supply and Sanitation Sector

31

Table - 2.4
Water Quality Standards of WHO
(Concentration mg/l)

i)

Aluminium

WHO
Guidelines
2004
0.2

ii)

Arsenic

0.01 (p)

0.01

0.05

0.2

iii)

Cadmium

0.003

0.003

0.005

0.01

iv)

Chloride

n.d.

250

600

v)

Chlorine

5.0

5.0

vi)

Chromium

0.05 (p)

0.05

0.05

vii)

Copper

2.0

2.0 (p)

1.0

1.50

viii)

Cyanide

0.07

0.07

0.1

0.05

ix)

Fluoride

1.5

1.50

1.50

0.6-0.8

x)

Iron

n.d.

0.30

1.0

xi)

Lead

0.01

0.01

0.05

0.1

xii)

Manganese

0.4

0.5

0.1

0.5

xiii)

Mercury

0.001

0.001

0.001

0.001

xiv)

Nickel

0.02

0.02

xv)

Nitrate (NO3)

50

10

10

45

xvi)

Nitrite (NO2)

3.0

3.0 (p)

1.0

xvii)

pH

n.d

6.5-8.50

6.5-9.2

xviii)

Sulphate

n.d

400

400

xix)

TDS

n.d

1000

1500

xx)

Total Hardness

n.d

500

500

xxi)

Turbidity

n.d.

5 JTU

xxii)

Uranium

0.015 (p)

xxiii)

Zinc

n.d.

5.0

15

Sr.
No.

Parameters

(p) Provisional,

WHO
Guidelines
1993
-

WHO
Guidelines
1984
0.2

WHO
Standards
1971
-

(n. d.) Not determined

Service Delivery and Technical standards for Water Supply and Sanitation Sector

32

2.5.1.1 Bacteriological Qualities


Source / Organisms

Guideline Value

a. All water intended for drinking (E. Coli


or thermo tolerant Coliform bacteria).
b. Treated water entering the distribution
system (E. Coli or thermo tolerant
Coliform and total coliform bacteria).
c. Treated water in the distribution system
(E. Coli or thermo tolerant coliform and
total coliform bacteria)

Must not be detectable in any 100 ml sample.


Must not be detectable in any 100 ml sample.
Must not be detectable in any 100 ml sample. In
the case of large supplies, where sufficient
samples are examined, must not be present in
95% of samples taken throughout any 12-month
period.

2.5.2 Indian Water Quality Standards


The Table 2.5 represents various existing water quality standards in India.
Table - 2.5
Indian Water Quality Standards
Sr.# Characteristics Acceptable Marginal

Sr.# Characteristics Acceptable Marginal

2.5

10

15

Turbidity
(NTU)
Colour (TCU)

0.2

1.0

16

Anionic
Detergents
Arsenic

25

0.05

0.05

Taste & Odour

Unobjectionable

17

Cadmium

0.01

0.01

pH

7-8.5

6.5-9.2

18

Chromium

0.05

0.05

TDS

500

1500

19

Cyanide

0.05

0.05

Fluoride

1.0

1.5

20

Manganese

0.05

0.5

Nitrate

45

45

21

Copper

0.05

1.5

Calcium

75

200

22

Zinc

5.0

15

Magnesium

30

150

23

Lead

0.1

0.1

10

Iron

0.1

1.0

24

Selenium

0.01

0.001

11

Hardness

200

600

25

Mercury

0.001

0.2

12

Chloride

200

1000

26

0.2

13

Sulphate

200

400

27

Polynuclear
aromatic
hydrocarbons
Gross
Alpha

3 (pCi/l)

30

30 (pCi/l)

Activity
14

Phenolic
Components

0.001

0.002

28

Gross

Beta

Activity curie/l

Service Delivery and Technical standards for Water Supply and Sanitation Sector

33

The figures indicated under the column Acceptable are the limits up to which the
water is generally acceptable to the consumers.

Figures in excess to those mentioned under acceptable render water not acceptable
but still may be tolerated in absence of alternative and better source but up to the
limits indicated under column Marginal above which the supply will have to be
rejected.

2.5.2.1 Bacteriological Standards


a.

For water entering the distribution system coliform count in any sample of 100 ml
should be zero.

b.

Water in the distribution system shall satisfy all the three criteria indicated below:

E. Coli count in 100 ml of any sample should be zero.

Coliform organisms no more than 10 per 100 ml should be present in any sample.

Coliform organisms should not be detectable in 100 ml of any two consecutive


samples or more than 50% of the samples collected for the year.

c.

Individual or small communities supplies.

E. Coli count should be zero in any sample of 100 ml and coliform organisms should
not be more than 3 per 100 ml.

2.5.2.2 Virological Aspects


A level of 0.5 mg/l of free chlorine residual for one hour is sufficient to inactivate viruses,
even in water that was originally polluted. This free chlorine residual is to be ensured in all
disinfected supplies in areas suspected of endemic infectious Hepatitis to take care of the quality of
water supplied from virus point of view, which incidentally takes care of the safety from the
bacteriological point of view as well. For other areas 0.2 mg/l of free chlorine residual for half an
hour should be insisted.

Service Delivery and Technical standards for Water Supply and Sanitation Sector

34

2.5.3 US-EPA Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality


The tables 2.6 to 2.8 give the US-EPA guidelines for drinking water quality.
Table - 2.6
Inorganic Chemicals
Inorganic

mg/l

Inorganic

Mg/l

Inorganic

mg/l
0.07

Antimony

0.006

Copper

1.0

Molybdenum

Arsenic

0.01

Cyanide

0.2

Zinc

Barium

Fluoride

Nitrate(N)

10.0

Beryllium

0.004

Lead

0.015

Nitrite(N)

1.0

Cadmium

0.005

Manganese

0.05

Selenium

0.05

Chromium

0.10

Mercury

0.002

Aluminum

0.05-0.2

Table - 2.7
Other Parameters
Parameter

mg/l

Parameter

mg/l

Parameter

mg/l

Color

15 TCU

1,2 dichloropropane

Zero

pH

6.5-8.5

Atrazine

0.003

o-Dichlorobenzene

0.6

Sulphate

250

Toluene

p-Dichlorobenzene

0.075

Iron

0.3

Xylenes (total)

10

Endrin

0.002

Sodium

200

Ethyl-Benzene

0.7

Ethylbenzene

0.7

Sulphate

250

Styrene

0.1

Methoxychlor

0.04

TDS

1000

Chlorobenzene

0.1

Vinyl chloride

0.002

Corrosivity

Non-Corrosive

Benzene

Zero

Chloride

250

Oxamyl

0.2

Glyphosate

0.7

Table - 2.8
Disinfectants
Parameter

mg/l

Parameter

Chloramines

Chlorine dioxide

Chlorine

Chlorine

Service Delivery and Technical standards for Water Supply and Sanitation Sector

mg/l
0.8
1

35

2.5.4

Water Quality Standards in different countries


Water quality standards in different countries are given in Table 2.9 to Table 2.11.
Table - 2.9
Water Quality Standards of Indonesia, Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand & Philippines

Substances
Chemical Quality

Unit

Indonesia

Singapore

Malaysia

Thailand

Philippines

Arsenic

mg/l

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.05

Barium

mg/l

Borate

mg/l

0.03

30

Cadmium

mg/l

0.1

0.01

0.01

0.005

0.01

Chromium

mg/l

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.05

Chloride

mg/l

250

250

Chlorine

mg/l

Copper

mg/l

0.5

0.1

COD

mg/l

Cyanide

mg/l

0.05

0.01

0.01

Fluoride

mg/l

Hardness (CaCo3)

mg/l

170

100

Iodine

mg/l

0.3

Iron

mg/l

0.1

0.05

Lead

mg/l

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.05

Manganese

mg/l

0.05

0.002

0.1

Mercury

mg/l

0.001

0.001

0.001

Mineral Oil

mg/l

n.d.

n.d.

Nitrate

mg/l

n.d.

45

45

45

Nitrite

mg/l

n.d.

0.005

0.005

0.01

Organic Matter

mg/l

0.003

Selenium

mg/l

0.01

0.01

0.01

Silver

mg/l

0.05

Surfactant

mg/l

n.d.

n.d.

Sulfide

mg/l

ND

0.05

0.05

Sulphate

mg/l

200

250

Phenolic

mg/l

n.d.

n.d

0.001

0.001

Ra 226 activity

mg/l

30

Total Beta activity

mg/l

TDS

500

500

Zinc

Service Delivery and Technical standards for Water Supply and Sanitation Sector

36

Microbiological Quality
Total Plate Count/ml

Coliform (MPN/100
ml)

CFU/ml

MPN/100

Max 1 x

Max 1 x

104

105

<2.20

0/250 ML

Max 10

<2.20

<2.20

negative

1/100 ml

ml

Escherichia Coli

MPN/100
ml

Salmonella/100 ml

CFU/100
ml

Staphylococcus

CFU/250

Aureus/250 ml

ml

Pseudomonas

CFU/250

Aerugiosa 250 ml
Faecal Streptococci/20

ml
MPN/20 ml

ml
Source: PCRWR

Table - 2.10
Water Quality Standards of Japan, China, Hong Kong, Korea & Taiwan
Substances
Chemical Quality

Unit

Japan

China

H.Kong

Korea

Taiwan

1-Arsenic

mg/l

<0.02

0.05

0.01

0.05

0.05

2-Ammonium

mg/l

<0.5

1.5

0.5

3-Barium

mg/l

0.7

4-Borate

mg/l

0.3

5-Cadmium

mg/l

<0.05

0.01

0.003

0.01

0.01

6-Chromium

mg/l

<0.05

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.05

7-Chloride

mg/l

<350

250

250

150

250

8-Chlorine

mg/l

9-Copper

mg/l

<0.05

0.01

10-COD

mg/l

0.8

11-Cyanide

mg/l

<0.01

0.01

0.07

ND

12-Fluoride

mg/l

<1.5

0.8

1.5

13-Hardness (CaCo3)

mg/l

100-500

250

300

250

14-Iodine

mg/l

0.3

15-Iron

mg/l

<0.1

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.05

16-Lead

mg/l

<0.1

0.05

0.01

0.01

0.001

17-Manganese

mg/l

<0.1

0.05

0.5

0.3

0.001

Service Delivery and Technical standards for Water Supply and Sanitation Sector

37

Substances
18-Mercury

mg/l

Unit

Japan
-

China
0.001

H.Kong
0.001

Korea
ND

Taiwan
-

19-Nitrate

mg/l

<5.0

10

50

10

10

20-Nitrite

mg/l

n.d.

ND

21-Organic Matter

mg/l

0.1

0.01

22-Selenium

mg/l

<0.05

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

23-Silver

mg/l

0.05

0.05

24-Sulphate

mg/l

<250

250

250

200

250

25-Phenolic

mg/l

<0.001

0.005

26-Total Beta activity

mg/l

1.0 Bq/l

27-TDS

mg/l

<1000

500

1000

500

28-Zinc

mg/l

<5

100

<100

Microbiological Quality
Total Plate Count/ml

CFU/ml

Coliform
(MPN/100 ml)
Escherichia Coli

MPN/100 ml

<15.10

<2.2

MPN/100 ml

0/100 ml

Source: PCRWR

Table 2.11
Water Quality Standards of Saudi Arabia, Australia, Argentina, Mexico, Canada
Substances

Unit

Saudi
Arabia

Australia Argentina

Mexico

Canada

Chemical Quality
1-Arsenic

mg/l

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.025

2-Ammonium

mg/l

0.2

0.5

3-Barium

mg/l

0.7

4-Borate

mg/l

30

5-Cadmium

mg/l

0.01

0.005

0.01

0.005

0.005

6-Chromium

mg/l

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.05

7-Chloride

mg/l

250

350

250

8-Chlorine

mg/l

0.01

0.5

0.1

9-Copper

mg/l

10-COD

mg/l

11-Cyanide

mg/l

0.05

0.1

0.1

0.2

12-Fluoride

mg/l

1.5

13-Iron

mg/l

0.3

0.3

14-Lead

mg/l

0.05

0.05

0.02

0.01

Service Delivery and Technical standards for Water Supply and Sanitation Sector

38

Substances

Unit

15-Manganese

mg/l

Saudi
Arabia
0.05

16-Mercury

mg/l

17-Nitrate

Australia Argentina

Mexico

Canada

0.1

0.05

0.001

0.001

0.001

0.001

mg/l

45

45

10

45

18-Nitrite

mg/l

0.01

0.1

3.2

19-Selenium

mg/l

0.01

0.05

0.01

20-Silver

mg/l

0.05

0.05

21-Surfactant

mg/l

0.5

22-Sulfide

mg/l

0.05

23-Sulphate

mg/l

250

500

250

24-Phenolic

mg/l

0.001

0.001

25-Ra 226 activity

mg/l

26-Total Beta activity

mg/l

27-TDS

mg/l

1500

500

28-Zinc

mg/l

CFU/ml

<1

500

100

100

Max.10

<2

Negative

Negative

Microbiological Quality
Total Plate Count/ml
Coliform

(MPN/100 MPN/100

ml)

ml
MPN/100

Escherichia Coli

ml

Pseudomonas

CFU/250

Aerugiosa 250 ml

ml

Source: PCRWR

2.5.5 Modifications proposed in Water Quality Standards


It is recommended that at least the important water quality parameters including
microbiological quality and water quality monitoring standards may be added to the existing PHED
Standards 1998. The proposed Drinking Water Quality Standards are accordingly indicated in
Table 2.12. These standards are in line with WHO Guidelines and other international drinking water
quality standards.

Service Delivery and Technical standards for Water Supply and Sanitation Sector

39

2.5.5.1 Physical and Chemical Parameters


Table 2.12
PHED WATER QUALITY STANDARDS 1998
Sr. No.

Substance or Characteristics

Highest Desirable
Level

Maximum
Permissible Level

Unobjectionable

Unobjectionable

Taste & Odour

Colour

5 TCU

50 TCU

Turbidity

5 NTU

25 NTU

pH

7.0 to 8.5

6.5 to 9.2

Total Dissolved Solids

500 mg/l

1500 mg/l

Anionic detergents

0.2 mg/l

1.0 mg/l

Mineral oil

0.01 mg/l

0.30 mg/l

Copper (as CU)

0.05 mg/l

1.50 mg/l

Iron (as Fe)

0.1 mg/l

1.0 mg/l

10

Magnesium (as Mg)

30 mg/l

150 mg/l

11

Manganese (Mn)

0.05 mg/l

0.50 mg/l

12

Sulphate (SO4)

200 mg/l

400 mg/l

13

Zinc (Zn)

5.0 mg/l

15 mg/l

14

Phenolic Compounds

0.001 mg/l

0.002 mg/l

15

Total Hardness

100 mg/l CaCO3

500 mg/l CaCO3

16

Calcium (as Ca)

75 mg/l

200 mg/l

17

Chloride

200 mg/l

600 mg/l

18

Arsenic

0.05 mg/l

19

Cadmium

0.01 mg/l

20

Fluoride

1.0 mg/l

1.50 mg/l

21

Chromium

0.05 mg/l

22

Nitrate (NO3)

45 mg/l

23

Nitrite (NO2)

3.0 mg/l

24

Lead

0.05 mg/l

Service Delivery and Technical standards for Water Supply and Sanitation Sector

40

2.5.5.2 Microbiological Standards


B

In all water intended for drinking purpose E-Coli count must be zero in any 100 ml;

no water sample should contain more than 10 Coliforms organisms in 100 ml of any
two consecutive samples or; and

in case of large water supplies, in 95% of samples examined throughout the year,
Coliform organisms should be absent in 100 ml of sample.

2.5.5.3 Monitoring Frequencies

Treated water, as it enters the distribution system should be examined


bacteriologically at least once a day; and

with regard to samples to be collected from the distribution system, whether the water
has been subjected to treatment or not, the following maximum interval between
successive sampling and minimum number of samples to be examined in each month
are proposed in line with international standards:

Table 2.13
Maximum interval and Minimum Number of Samples
Population Served

Maximum interval between


successive samplings

Up to 20,000

One month

20,001 50,000

Two weeks

50,001 100,000

Four Days

More than 100,000


One Day

Minimum number of samples


to be taken from entire
distribution system

One samples per 5000 of


population per month

One
sample
per
population per month

Service Delivery and Technical standards for Water Supply and Sanitation Sector

10,000

41

CHAPTER-3
WATER SUPPLY & SANITATION TECHNICAL
STANDARDS
3.1

BACKGROUND
The Punjab Public Health Engineering Department (PHED) was established in 1961 under

West Pakistan with headquarter at Lahore. At that time the Department was administrated by a Chief
Engineer with other offices at different places in the then West Pakistan.
To begin with the PHED was a part of B&R Department of the Government and Sir InamUllah Khan, the then Chief Engineer/Secretary to Government of West Pakistan, issued certain
Technical Memos for different components of Public Health Engineering to serve as standards for
various activities that the Department was to undertake.

These were the first standards set for the

PHED for working in water supply, sanitation and drainage sectors.

3.1.1 Design Criteria 1986


In 1986 PHED, for the first time, issued a Design Criteria duly approved by the Government
of the Punjab. These Criteria were followed up till 1998, except for certain changes that were made
from time to time. In 1997, Government of the Punjab entrusted the job of revising the Design
Criteria to the consultants hired with the assistance of ADB for the Punjab Rural Water Supply &
Sanitation (Sector) Project (PRWSSP). On the recommendations of the said consultants, the Design
Criteria was notified by the PHED, duly approved by the Government of the Punjab, in the year
1998.

3.1.2 Design Criteria 1998


The PHED Design Criteria 1998 is currently being used for the design of all the Public
Health Engineering structures for water supply, sewerage and drainage. The Water and Sanitation
Agency, Lahore has also framed its own Design Criteria with certain changes in the PHED Design
Criteria.

3.2

REVISION OF DESIGN CRITERIA 2008


Now in 2008 the Design Criteria is again being reviewed under this assignment. No major

changes in the Design Criteria are being proposed; however some amendments in the Design Criteria
will be proposed keeping in view the technological advances in the sub-sectors of water supply,
sanitation and drainage etc.. Furthermore, certain additional changes are also being proposed in
consultation with the stakeholders.
Service Delivery and Technical standards for Water Supply and Sanitation Sector

42

3.2.1 Methodology for the Revision


The proposed changes are based on past experience and proven at site solutions that emerged
from the field during the monitoring and evaluation of the two ADB projects i.e. PRWSSP and
PCWSSP in which more than 1000 integrated water supply and drainage schemes were constructed
and operated successfully.
As the situations stands now, there is no Design Criteria or technical standard notified for
wastewater treatment plants and solid waste management. This is for the first time that technical
standards for wastewater treatment plants and solid waste management are being proposed in this
document.

Service Delivery and Technical standards for Water Supply and Sanitation Sector

43

SECTION 3.3
REVIEW OF WATER SUPPLY TECHNICAL STANDARDS
The existing technical standards concerning planning and design of water supply schemes,
both in urban and rural areas of the province, are reviewed against the following parameters and
where necessary, some changes and modifications are proposed for their refinement.

3.3.1. Population Projection


Existing Design Parameters

Review of Existing Parameters and


Amendments Proposed

As per PHED Design Criteria 1998 the The same mathematical formula should be used
population projection are to be determined for
according to the following expression:-

population

projection

for

particular

community using annual growth rate of that


village/city indicated in the latest District Census

Pn

= Po (1+r)

Report. However, if population growth rate of


that particular city / village is not mentioned in

Where:

the District Census Report, then for the purpose


of design, the population growth rate of the

Pn = Projected population by the end of nth year

respective TMA should be used.

Po = Population of base year, year of known


population
r = Population growth rate per year to be taken
from related District Census Reports.
n = No. of years, counted from base year i.e. design
period

3.3.2 Design Period


Existing Design Parameters
Tube wells and Treatment Works

Review of Existing Parameters and Modification


Proposed
Tube well

The existing standard for design period Experience reveals that majority of drinking water
of tubewells and treatment work in case tubewells installed in the province, about 15 to 20 years
of urban and rural water supply back, are still in satisfactory working condition. For
schemes is 10 years. The capacities of optimal utilization of resources it is advisable to adopt for
tube wells are to be based on maximum a design period of 15 years as far as tubewells are
day demands.

concerned. Furthermore, the design of tubewells should be


based on maximum day demand.

Service Delivery and Technical standards for Water Supply and Sanitation Sector

44

Existing Design Parameters

Review of Existing Parameters and Modification


Proposed
Treatment Works
There are generally two types of water treatment methods
being used for water supply schemes based on canal water
sources;

Slow sand filter beds and

Rapid sand filter plant.

Slow Sand Filter Plants


From the discussion held with PHED Engineers, it was
revealed that slow sand filter beds commissioned for
water supply schemes in brackish water zones of the
Province somewhere in early 70s remained operative till
1995. Therefore, the design life of slow sand filter units
may be considered around 20 years.

Source:
WHO, 1974, Slow Sand Filtration.

Service Delivery and Technical standards for Water Supply and Sanitation Sector

45

Rapid Sand Filter Plants


Rapid sand filters use relatively coarse sand and
other granular media to remove particles and
impurities that have been trapped in a floc through
the use of flocculation chemicals - typically salts of
aluminum or iron. The water and flocs flows
through the filter medium under gravity or under
pumped pressure and the flocculated material is
trapped in the sand matrix.

There were only two such filtration plants


constructed

by

PHED

at

Rawalpindi

and

Faisalabad. The first Rapid Filtration Plant for


urban water supply scheme Rawalpindi was
constructed in the year 1968, while the Rapid Sand
Filtration

Plant

for

Faisalabad

city

was

commissioned in early 70sand both these plants are


still in operation owing to their continued proper up
keep

and

maintenance.

Although

efficiency

decreases with passage of time but the useful life of


these facilities may be safely considered as 25
years.
Tubewells Pump Houses

Tubewells Pump Houses

The existing standard for the design period of Although, it has been experienced that majority of
pump houses on tube wells for water supply tubewell pumping chambers constructed in 1960s,
schemes is 25 years.

are still in good working condition with proper


maintenance and repair, it is proposed that the
existing standard of their design period as 25 years
should be preferably continued.

Pumping Machinery

Pumping Machinery

The existing standard for design period of There appears no need to modify the existing
pumping machinery to be provided on water standard of 10 years design life for pumping
Service Delivery and Technical standards for Water Supply and Sanitation Sector

46

supply schemes is 10 years.

machinery. However, it is not possible for pumping


machinery to work for 10 years without proper
maintenance and repair and

replacement of the

pumping unit is necessary after every 10 years of


its operation.
Distribution System

Distribution System

The existing standard for the Design Period of The existing 20 years standard for the design
Distribution system and rising mains is 20 period of distribution system is quite in accordance
years. The capacities of distribution system with international norms. It is added that the water
are to be based on peak hour demand while supply distribution network capacities should be
tube wells and rising mains are to be based on based on peak hour demands.
maximum day demands.
Rising Mains

Rising Mains

The existing design period for rising main is 20 Rising mains are designed for a period of 20 years.
years.

It has been observed that with the passage of time


and increase in demand the size of the rising mains
becomes small, resulting in low pressure at the
remote ends and nodes located at higher altitudes.
So the existing standard for the design period of
rising mains should be increased from 20 years to
25 years. Furthermore, the size of rising mains
should be based on maximum day demand.

3.3.3 Requirement of Water


Existing Design Parameters
Domestic Water Consumption

Review of Existing Parameters and


Modifications Proposed
Domestic Water Consumption

The existing standard for the determination of Following modifications are proposed in the
domestic water consumption is based on the existing standard to determine domestic water
following population slabs.

consumption.

Population up to 100,000
The existing water consumption rates for
communities living in plain areas of the Province
with population below 100,000 persons should be
modified as follows. However, in hilly areas and
those areas of the Province where sources of
Service Delivery and Technical standards for Water Supply and Sanitation Sector

47

Existing Design Parameters

Review of Existing Parameters and


Modifications Proposed
drinking water are scarce, the water consumption
rates should be flexible i.e. 3 to 5 gpcd or more
depending on the availability of drinking water
from the proposed source of water supply.

Design
Population

Up to 5000

Per capita
consumption per day
(Inclusive of
unaccounted for
water)
10 gallon

Up to 5000

10 gallons

5,000-10,000

15 gallon

5,001-10,000

15 gallons

10,000-25,000

20 gallon

10,001-20,000

20 gallons

10,000-25,000

30

20,001-50,000

30 gallons

50,001-100,000

40 gallons

gallon

(with

sewerage facilities)
25,000-1 lac

Above 1 lac

40

gallon

Design
Population

Per capita consumption


per day
(Inclusive of
unaccounted for water)

(with

sewerage facilities)

Population above 100,000

50

In the existing Design Criteria of PHED a figure

gallon

(with

sewerage facilities)

of 50 gpcd is recommended for all cities having


population more than 100,000 persons. Actually
there are many cities in the Province with
population more than 500,000, such as Lahore,
Faisalabad, Sialkot, Gujranwala, Rawalpindi and
Multan

and

other

cities

with

population

surpassing two, three and four hundred thousand


such as Sargodha, Bahawalpur and Jhelum etc. So
there is a need for establishing more water
consumption slabs, as suggested below:

Design
Population
(Thousands)

Per capita
consumption
per day
(Inclusive of
unaccounted
for water)
100,000-200,000 50 gallons
200,000-300,000 55 gallons
300,000-400,000 60 gallons
Service Delivery and Technical standards for Water Supply and Sanitation Sector

48

Existing Design Parameters

Review of Existing Parameters and


Modifications Proposed
400,000-500,000 65 gallons
500,000-600,000 70 gallons
600,000-700,000 75 gallons
700,000-800,000 80 gallons
>800,000

Institutional Water Consumption

85 gallons

Institutional Water Consumption

For institutions such as hospitals, hostels, The

existing

design

standard

for

the

schools etc. an allowance @ 10 gallons per determination of institutional water demand is


boarder and @ 5 gallons per day scholar is to adequate. Therefore, no modification is proposed.
be made.

Short term variation in demand


a)

Short term variation in demand

Maximum day demand is to be taken as The existing design standard for computing
a)

1.5 times the average day demand.

Maximum day demand as 1.5 times the


average day demand is quite in line with
principles

of

engineering

and

no

modification is, therefore, proposed.

b)

b)

Peak hour demand to be taken as


1.5 times the maximum day demand

Peak hour demand should be calculated as


1.5 times the maximum day demand.
Therefore, no modification is proposed.

3.3.4. Terminal Pressure:Existing Design Parameters


a)

For

urban

residential

areas

the a)

Review of Existing Parameters and


modifications Proposed
Keeping in view the trends of multistory

existing standard of terminal pressure

building construction it is advisable to

is 30 feet as minimum.

adopt at least 12 meters minimum


terminal pressure.

b)

For

rural

residential

areas,

the b)

The

existing

Service Delivery and Technical standards for Water Supply and Sanitation Sector

standard

of

terminal
49

Existing Design Parameters

Review of Existing Parameters and


modifications Proposed
pressure i.e. 8 meters (minimum) being

existing standard of terminal pressure


is 25 feet (8meters) (minimum)

followed for the design of rural water


supplies

is

reasonably

adequate.

Therefore, no modification is proposed.

3.3.5. Velocity of Flow in Pipes:Existing Design Parameters

a)

Distribution mains 1-5

b)

Rising mains

Comments/ Review of Existing


Parameters and Amendments Proposed

feet/second

a)

Distribution mains 0.5to2 m/second

1.5-7 feet/second

b)

Rising mains

0.3to1.5 m/second

3.3.6. Minimum Pipe Size


Existing Design Parameters

Review of Existing Parameters and


modifications Proposed
Recommended minimum size of distribution For plane areas the existing 3 inches (80
mains 3 inches in plain areas and as per mm) standard of minimum pipe size

is

actual calculated for hilly areas. However appropriate; however for hilly areas a
velocity shall be the controlling factor.

minimum pipe size of 1 inches (38 mm) is


recommended to be adopted.

In case where either the width of pacca


roads or the sheet widths are more than 30
feet, then distribution pipelines should
preferably be provided on both sides of the
roads and street pavements.

Service Delivery and Technical standards for Water Supply and Sanitation Sector

50

3.3.7 Cover Over Pipes


Existing Design Parameters

Review of Existing Parameters and


modifications Proposed
3 feet of earth cover for all sizes of pipes is An earth cover of 3 feet (about one meter)
being followed except in hilly areas. should be provided over laid water supply
However all road cuts are to be filled in with pipe lines of all sizes except in hilly areas.
pit sand / river sand.

Road cuts are to be backfilled with pit/river


sand.

3.3.8 Public Stand Posts (PSPs)


Existing Design Parameters

a)

Review of Existing Parameters and


modifications Proposed
The location of the stand-posts shall a)
Public stand posts should not be
be made in such a manner that it is at

provided in urban areas, as it is

an approximate distance of about 350

wastage of water and revenue. Stand

feet from the end consumers in the

posts can however be provided only

rural areas and should be avoided in

in those rural areas where house-to-

the urban / semi urban areas as far as

house connections are not possible

possible to reduce losses of water and

and revenue is collected from each

revenue.

house hold without giving connection


in the houses, otherwise the scheme
will never be sustainable.

b)

Each stand-post shall serve about 200 b)

Each stand-post shall serve about 200

persons.

persons.
c)

c)

PSP to be provided only after study

PSP to be provided only after study

of Revenue Collection Data of

of Revenue Collection Data of

concerned village.

concerned village.

Service Delivery and Technical standards for Water Supply and Sanitation Sector

51

3.3.9 Fire Hydrants


Existing Design Parameters

Review of Existing Parameters and


modifications Proposed
Fire hydrants to be provided in urban / semi Fire hydrants are to be provided in urban and
urban areas. The capacity of fire hydrants to semi urban and rural areas. The minimum
deliver water should not be less than 7 size of the fire hydrant should be 2.5 inches
gallons per second.

(50 mm).

For water supply schemes with design


population of up to 10,000 persons the fire
hydrants are to be located at every water
works locations, and for larger schemes at
appropriate locations.

3.3.10 Sluice Valves & Non Return Valves


Existing Design Parameters

Review of Existing Parameters and


modifications Proposed
Valves shall be located at main control a)
Sluice Valves:points for balancing and regulations. Non-

Sluice valves will be located at main

return valve to be provided in rising main

control points for balancing and

with length exceeding 5,000 feet.

regulating the flows.

b)

Non Return Valves: Outside the delivery main of the


tube well.
In the rising main after 2000
meters.

Service Delivery and Technical standards for Water Supply and Sanitation Sector

52

3.3.11 Air Valves and Washout


Existing Design Parameters

Review of Existing Parameters and


modifications Proposed
Air valves only at summits and washout at a)
Air valves:lowest points. For long rising mains in flat

At the summits and

areas provide air valve at 5000 ft interval to

After 2000 meter intervals in

escape trapped air.

straight

reaches

to

facilitate

escape of trapped air.

b)

Washouts: At the lowest points to wash out


all kinds of debris.

Service Delivery and Technical standards for Water Supply and Sanitation Sector

53

3.3.12 Overhead Reservoirs


Existing Design Parameters

Review of Existing Parameters and


modifications Proposed
The existing criteria for the design of over Following modifications are proposed in the
head reservoir are as under:-

existing technical standards for provision of


elevated / overhead reservoir and storage
reservoirs:-

Provide overhead reservoir where it

Overhead storage reservoirs should

is needed.

be essentially provided in all urban


and rural water supply schemes

The capacity of overhead reservoir

except in cases of such hilly / semi

will be 1/6th of the average daily

hilly

demand subject to minimum of 5,000

located ground storage reservoirs can

gallons.

provide

areas

where

and

appropriately

maintain

requisite

minimum terminal pressure in the


system.

Capacity of overhead reservoirs in


case

of

communities

having

population more than 10,000 persons


should be based on around 1/10th of
average day demand.

Minimum

capacity

of

overhead

reservoir should be 10,000 gallons.

Service Delivery and Technical standards for Water Supply and Sanitation Sector

54

3.3.13 Pumping Machinery


Existing Design Parameters

a)

Review of Existing Parameters and


modifications Proposed
Spare parts, tools are recommended a)
Spare parts, tools are to be provided.
to be provided.

b)

c)

Large units are economical. It may be b)

Units may be provided keeping in

kept in view that combination of unit

view that combination of units may be

is possible for average and peak

required to cater to average and peak

flows.

hour flows.

Working hours for Tube wells:

c)

Working hours for Tube wells:

Rural

8-12 hours

To be on safe side, while deciding

Urban

16 hours

about the pumping hours of the


pumping machinery at tubewells one
should have the information / data
about underground lithology and
hydro geological regime and water
bearing aquifer. This is necessary to
ascertain the safe yield which can be
drawn at a rate less than the
replenishment and thereby maximum
pumping hours can be fixed. For
large well fields such evaluation of
ground water potential should be
carried out. However for small
community water supply schemes the
following pumping hours may be
taken.

i)

Rural areas:It has been observed that although


schemes are designed on 812

Service Delivery and Technical standards for Water Supply and Sanitation Sector

55

Existing Design Parameters

Review of Existing Parameters and


modifications Proposed
hours, but practically the community
runs the tube wells only for 46
hours. If complete metering is done,
which has other benefits also, the
scheme hardly runs for 4 hours. So 4
hours are recommended as working
hours for rural areas. Provided the
design

of

the

scheme

remain

economical and hydro geologically


safe and continuous pumping do not
affect the quality of water.

ii)

Urban areas:In semi urban areas 16 hours is


appropriate, but in big urban areas
sometimes one has to operate the
tube wells for 18---20 hours. So, it is
recommended to use two slabs in
case of deep tube wells.

(d)

Working hours for Machinery at d)

Working

Treatment Works

machinery at treatment works.

hours

for

pumping

For semi urban areas:-16 hours


For big urban areas:- 20 hours

However, in case of shallow /


skimming wells, the daily operating
time

for

tube

well

pumping

machineries should not exceed 8


hours and these eight hours should
never be continuous. One may select
4 hours in the morning & the
remaining in the evening.

Service Delivery and Technical standards for Water Supply and Sanitation Sector

56

Existing Design Parameters


For population

16 hours

Above 25,000 persons

For population

Review of Existing Parameters and


modifications Proposed
For population
18 hours
Above 100,000 persons

8-12 hours

Less than 25,000 persons

For population

8-12 hours

less than 100,000 persons

3.3.14 Chlorination
Existing Design Parameters

Review of Existing Parameters and


modifications Proposed
0.1-PPM residual at the farthest end of the The existing standard to maintain 0.1 mg/l as
distribution system. Hypo-chlorination may residual chlorine level at the farthest end is
be provided where chlorine gas is not easily quite
available.

adequate

and

is

in

line

with

international practices. In case of town/cities


where chlorine gas cylinders are available,
gas chlorination is advisable. In areas where
chlorine

gas

is

not

available,

simple

hypochlorinators are recommended to be


provided otherwise use of chlorine solution
for

disinfection

is

recommended.

For

monitoring the concentration of residual


chlorine

in

the

field,

the

concerned

agencies/department should procure and


make use of comparators or chlorine kits.

Service Delivery and Technical standards for Water Supply and Sanitation Sector

57

3.3.15 Ground Water Storage


Existing Design Parameters
i)

Ground

water

storage

tank

Review of Existing Parameters and


Amendments Proposed
at i)
When the length of the rising main is

intermediate point to be provided due

such that the loss of head is too high,

to excessive head.

which

makes

the

capacity

of

pumping machinery uneconomical


then intermediate pumping stations
are

advisable.

An

intermediate

pumping station comprises of a


storage tank and pumping machinery
installed in a pump house.
ii)

Capacity of ground water storage


tank @ th average daily demand ii)

The capacity of ground storage tank

will be provided.

at intermediate pumping station is


recommended to be based on 6 hours
storage

of

total

average

daily

demand.

3.3.16 High Level Tank (Raw Water)


Existing Design Parameters
One-hour
requirement.

capacity

of

average

Review of Existing Parameters and


Amendments Proposed
daily High level tanks are to be provided only to
maintain gravity flow in slow sand filters.
The capacity of high level tanks should be
based on 1/10th of the average day demand
but in no case less than 5000 gallons.

Service Delivery and Technical standards for Water Supply and Sanitation Sector

58

3.3.17 Slow Sand Filtration


Existing Design Parameters
i)

Raw water storage

Review of Existing Parameters and


Amendments Proposed
i)
Raw water storage

50% of 21 days average

During 15 to 21 days of annual canal


closure periods the per capita supply
should be considered as 50% and the
capacity of raw water storage tanks /
sedimentation

tanks

should

be

accordingly worked out. Minimum


number of sedimentation / raw water
storage tanks should be two.

ii.

Rate of filtration

ii)

40 gallons per day per Sq.ft. of

Rate of filtration
30 gallons per Sq.ft. of sand area per

sand area

day. It is an average figure because


the

rate

of

filtration

gradually

decreases till the upper layer of sand


is finally choked and removed and
fresh sand is re-laid.

iii.

Filter sand

iii)

Depth =30 to 36 inches

iv.

Filter sand
Depth =30-36 inches

Effective size of sand (d10)

iv.

Effective size of sand (d10)

From top of Gravel to 1 feet = 0.300.35 mm From top of Gravel to 1 feet =0.300.35 mm
1 to 2 feet

= 0.25-0.30 mm

Top layer 9 inches

=0.180.22 mm Top layer 9 inches

1 to 2 feet

= 0.25 0.30 mm
= 0.18 0.22 mm

Minimum

Uniformity Co-efficient of sand

Minimum

Uniformity Co-efficient of sand

not greater than 2.5 of sand

= (d60/d10)

not greater than 2.5 of sand

Depth of water over the sand

= 3-4 feet

Depth of water over the sand

Service Delivery and Technical standards for Water Supply and Sanitation Sector

= (d60/d10)
=3-4 feet
59

Existing Design Parameters

Review of Existing Parameters and


Amendments Proposed

Velocity of water in under drainage system Velocity of water in under drainage system
should not be more than 0.75 ft/seconds.

should not be more than 0.75 ft/seconds.

Minimum number of sedimentation tanks in Minimum number of sedimentation cum


water treatment plant should be two.

storage tanks in case of slow sand filtration


plant should be two.

Sedimentation tanks will be constructed in Sedimentation tanks will be constructed in


series to achieve stage sedimentation prior to series to achieve proper sedimentation prior
filtration.

to filtration.

v.

iv.

Filter Gravel:Size Range

Depth

Size Range

Depth

3 to 1 inches

6 inches

3 to 1 inches

6 inches

1 to 3/8 inches

2 inches

1 to 3/8 inches

3 inches

3/8 to 3/16 inches

2 inches

3/8 to 3/16 inches

3 inches

Total:-

12 inches

Total:

Filter Gravel:-

10 inches

The gravel should be placed over the

The gravel should be placed over the

under drains but not within 2 feet from

under drains but not within 2 ft from the

the side walls, so that only sand will rest

side walls, so that only sand will rest in

in the 2 feet zone along sides of the

the 2 ft zone along sides of the filters.

filters.

The outlet systems will be provided with

The outlet system will be provided with

telescopic arrangement of pipes to adjust

telescopic arrangement of pipes to adjust

required flow of filtered water according

required flow of filtered water according

to varying resistance in filter media. The

to varying resistance in filter media. The

difference in inlet and outlet will be kept

difference in inlet and out let will be kept

24-30 inches.

2430 inches.

Care must be taken to provide air vent


pipes to avoid air locking of filter beds.

Service Delivery and Technical standards for Water Supply and Sanitation Sector

60

3.3.18 Water Metering


Existing Technical Parameters

Review of Existing Parameters and


Modification Proposed
At present urban water supply schemes For ensuring sustainability of water supply
under the control of WASAs in the province schemes both in rural and urban areas water
are partially managed through water meters metering should be mandatory except in case
at the consumers ends. In case of rural water of those community water supply schemes,
supply schemes water metering has been which are based on LLR (Low Level
successfully pioneered in some 60 villages Reservoir) or ground service tanks.
of the province under ADB assisted PCWSS
Project.

Service Delivery and Technical standards for Water Supply and Sanitation Sector

61

SECTION 3.4
REVIEW OF TECHNICAL STANDARDS FOR SEWERAGE:The technical standards for sewerage system include the prescribed directions, requirements,
explanations, terms and provisions pertaining to the various features of the work to be done, or
manner and method of performance.

3.4.1 Location of Disposal Works


Existing Technical Parameters
i)

The disposal station should be located at i)

Review of Existing Parameters and


Modifications Proposed
The waste water disposal station

a place where from sullage water can be

should be located at a place from

disposed of safely, economically and

where sullage water can be safely,

hygienically.

economically

and

hygienically

disposed of into a permanent and


final disposal preferably through
some receiving natural water body.

ii)

The sewers will be designed as Partially ii)

The

Combined System allowing surcharging

designed

of the system for some time.

system allowing surcharging of the

sewers
as

will

be

generally

partially

combined

system for some time depending upon


the

financial

capability

of

the

sponsoring agency.

iii)

By-Pass arrangements at disposal station iii)

Bypass

must be planned where level permits.

station must be provided wherever

arrangements

at

disposal

possible in order to meet emergencies


and to avoid un-necessary pumping.

Service Delivery and Technical standards for Water Supply and Sanitation Sector

62

3.4.2 Design Period


Existing Technical Parameters
i)

Civil works including sewers 20 years

i)

Review of Existing Parameters and


Modifications Proposed
The design period for Civil works
and sewers should be 25 years. There
are a number of considerations for
selecting design period of sewers and
allied civil work, which includes
expansion trends, economies of scale
and

financial

position

of

the

sponsoring / client institutions. It has


however been observed that sewers
laid in various cities of the province
for the last more than 30 years are
still functioning well. In view of the
present economic condition of the
country it is advisable to use 25
years as design period for sewers and
allied civil works.

ii)

Machinery

= 10 years

ii)

Machinery

=15 years

The machinery needs continuous


upkeep and maintenance, if properly
maintained, it can last for 20 years.
For replacement purposes 15 years
period is recommended.
iii)

Sufficient area for the Disposal Station iii)

Sufficient area for the disposal

should be acquired to accommodate

station

further extension for next 40 years

accommodate future expansion for

should

be

acquired

to

the next at least 40 years.


iv)

Master Plan for Sewerage Scheme vi.

Master plan should be prepared for

should be prepared and phasing out be

the

done according to priority of work/area.

implementation should take place in

sewerage

system

but

phases, according to the priority of


work/area.

Service Delivery and Technical standards for Water Supply and Sanitation Sector

63

3.4.3 Design Flows


Existing Technical Parameters

a)

Review of Existing Parameters and


Modifications Proposed
The sewage contribution of the water a)
The sewage flow contribution of the
consumed will be as follows:

water supplied will be as follows:

For Semi Urban / Town Committee 70%-75%


For Urban area

b)

For population more than 100,000

85%

b)

350gpd/inch dia/mile

Sub-soil water level

Sewer below

80%

80%-85%

In-filtration Rate

Sewerage above

For population up to 100,000

Infiltration Rate

Sewerage above
Sub-soil water level

700 gpd/inch dia/mile

Sewer below

Sub-soil water level

Sub-soil water level

c)

c)

Peak Factor

Population in thousand

350gpd/inch dia/mile

Peak Factor

700gpd/inch dia/mile

Peak factor*

Population in thousand

Peak Factor

Up to 50

4.50

Up to 5

4.50

5-10

4.00

5-10

4.00

10-15

4.00

10-25

3.50

25-50

3.50

25-50

3.00

50-80

2.50

50-100

2.50

80-100

2.00

More than 100

2.00

100-200

2.00

Above 200

2.00

*It is ratio of peak demand or peak flow over


the maximum demand or flow.

Service Delivery and Technical standards for Water Supply and Sanitation Sector

64

Existing Technical Parameters

d)

e)

Review of Existing Parameters and


Modifications Proposed
Multiply the average daily rate by the d)
Multiply the average daily flow by
peak factor to calculate maximum dry

the peak factor to calculate the

weather flow.

maximum dry weather flow.

Add allowance for industrial waste as per

e)

Allowance

should

to

be

actual assessment on treated industrial provided for industrial waste as per actual
waste as per National Environmental assessment of the treated industrial waste
Quality Standards (NEQS) is allowed.

according to the Environmental Quality


Standards (NEQS).

f)

Storm water allowance

i)

For rural areas

ii)

For urban areas is as under

Nil

Take 50% of peak flow in Northern areas and

f)

Storm water allowance

i)

For rural areas

ii)

For urban areas, it will be as under

Nil

Take 50% of peak flow as storm water


allowance in case of the Northern Zone; and

Take 33% of peak flow in Southern areas

take 33% of peak flow as storm water


allowance in the Southern Zone.

The storm water allowance for urban areas in Proper arrangements for connecting storm
north and south zone will be subject to the water drainage appurtenances and sewerage
condition that proper arrangement for connecting system are to be adequately provided.
storm water drainage appurtenances and
sewerage system are adequately provided.
g)

Design flow (Qd)

b+d+e+f

h)

All sewers will be designed on


Running full (Qf) with Mannings
formula.

g)

Design Flow (Qd) = b+d+e+f

h)

All sewers will be designed on


running full (Qf) conditions with
Mannings formula.

Service Delivery and Technical standards for Water Supply and Sanitation Sector

65

3.4.4 Velocity at Design Flow


Existing Technical Parameters
(In difficult situations)

= 2.00 feet/second

Review of Existing Parameters and


Modifications Proposed
Desirable minimum velocity= 2.5 ft/second

Desirable minimum

=2.50 feet/second

In difficult situations

= 2.0 ft/second

Maximum in hilly area

=7 feet/second

Maximum in hilly areas

= 7 ft/second

3.4.5 Spacing of Manholes


Existing Technical Parameters

a)

Review of Existing Parameters and


Modifications Proposed
Spacing of manholes in straight lines a)
Spacing of manholes in straight lines
shall be as under:

shall be as under:

Sewer Size

Spacing

Sewer Size

Spacing

9 -12 inches

100150 feet

inches

50 feet

1524 inches

200 250 feet

12

inches

100 feet

2742 inches

300 feet

15

inches

150 feet

4260 inches

400 feet

18

inches

200 feet

Above 60 inches

500 feet

2124 inches

250 feet

27-42 inches

300 feet

4860 inches

400 feet

Above 60 inches

500 feet

b)

Manhole should be provided at every b)


change of alignment, change in size of
sewer or at junctions.

Manholes should be provided at


every change of alignment, change in
size of pipe or at junctions.

c)

Where-ever drop is more than 3 feet, c)


drop manhole should be constructed

Where-ever drop is more than 3 ft,


drop manhole should be constructed.

Service Delivery and Technical standards for Water Supply and Sanitation Sector

66

Existing Technical Parameters

d)

Sewer above Sub-soil water level


Size of
Depth Manhole
Sewer
Remarks
(Feet)
(Feet)
(Inches)
912
Up to
2 x 2
Masonry
4
1:3
9-21
47
4 dia
Cement
mortar
2430
820
5 dia
Up to 8 ft
depth 9
inches
Masonry
From
3342
820
6 dia 8 ft to 15 ft
depth

d)

Sewers above sub soil water level


Size of
Sewer
(Inches)

Depth
(Feet)

Manhole
(Feet)

2 x 2

9-21

Up to
4
47

2430

820

5 dia

3342

820

6 dia

912

4 dia

Remarks

Masonry
1:3
Cement
mortar
Up to 8 ft
depth 9
inches
Masonry
From
8 ft to 15 ft
depth

4554
820
7 dia
13- to 9
13- to 9
inches
inches
60
820
8 dia
Masonry.
60
820
8 dia
Masonry.
From
From
66
820
8 dia
15 ft to 20
66
820
8 dia
15 ft to 20
ft,
ft,
72
820
9
dia
Depth,
18
72
820
9 dia
Depth, 18
to 13-
to 13-
inches
inches
For manholes under sub-soil water, core- e)
For manholes under sub soil water,
wall and floor will be designed as per
core-wall and floor will be designed
actual depth of water.
as per actual depth of water

4554

e)

Review of Existing Parameters and


Modifications Proposed

820

7 dia

encountered.

f)

For depth more than 10 feet, RCC slab f)


will be put at 7 feet from invert and then
4 feet dia masonry will be constructed up

For depth more than 10 ft, RCC slab


will be placed at 7 ft from invert and
then 4 ft dia masonry will be
constructed up to surface.

to surface.

3.4.6 Minimum Size of Sewers


Existing Technical Parameters

Review of Existing Parameters and


Modifications Proposed
Minimum size of sewer shall be 9 inches Minimum size of sewer shall be 9 inches
nominal dia.

nominal diameter.

Service Delivery and Technical standards for Water Supply and Sanitation Sector

67

3.4.7 Earth Cover


Existing Technical Parameters
2.5 feet over crown of the sewer.

Review of Existing Parameters and


Modifications Proposed
A 3.0 ft earth cover should be provided
above crown of the sewer. However, in case
of sewer laid under road crossings, sand will
be filled to provide cover instead of earth.

3.4.8 Pipe Roughness Co-efficient


Existing Technical Parameters
RCC Pipes

Co-efficient n

Review of Existing Parameters and


Modifications Proposed
RCC Pipes
Co- Efficient n

New lines

0.013

New lines

0.013

Old lines

0.015

Old lines

0.015

3.4.9 Outfall Works


Existing Technical Parameters

a)

Review of Existing Parameters and


Modifications Proposed
The capacity of pumps shall be such that a)
The capacity of pumps shall be such
combination for minimum average and

that

combination

for

minimum

maximum flow is possible.

average flow and peak flow is


possible.

b)

Stand-by arrangement = 50% of peak b)


flow

c)

Stand-by arrangement= 33% of

peak

flow.

Detention time of collecting tanks for c)

Detention Time.

design flow.

For the design of collecting tanks


(Wet Well) following detention times
will be used.

Service Delivery and Technical standards for Water Supply and Sanitation Sector

68

Existing Technical Parameters

i)

Population up to 25,000 10 minutes

Review of Existing Parameters and


Modifications Proposed
i)

Population up to 25,000 10 minutes


25,000---50,000

ii) 25,000 to 50,000

5 minutes

ii)

iii) 50,000 to 100,000

5 minutes

iii) 50,000---100,000

4 minutes

iv) 1 Lac to 500,000

2 minutes

iv) 100,000200,000

3 minutes

v) Above 500,000

2 minutes

v)

2 minutes

Above 200,000

5 minutes

3.4.10 Bedding of Sewers


Existing Technical Parameters
a)

Above sub-soil water level


For Sewers 9"-12"
For Sewers 15" dia
and above

b)

Review of Existing Parameters and


Modifications Proposed
a)
Above sub-soil water level

- Sand
- Crush stone
-1 size

For sewers below sub-soil water:-

For Sewers 9"-12"


For Sewers 15" dia
and above

b)

- Sand
- Crush stone
-1 size

Below sub-soil water

Decision to be taken as per and for slushy

Decision to be taken as per site

soil Conditions at site.

conditions, PCC or RCC.

3.4.11 Class of Pipe


Existing Technical Parameters

Review of Existing Parameters and


Modifications Proposed
ASTM pipes class II (C-76) as amended by ASTM pipes class 11(C-76) as amended by
PHED, for use of class-III pipes, decision to be PHED, for class-111 pipes, decision to be
taken as per specific site conditions.

taken as per specific site conditions.

Service Delivery and Technical standards for Water Supply and Sanitation Sector

69

3.4.12 Pipe Reinforcement


Existing Technical Parameters

Review of Existing Parameters and


Modifications Proposed
As per ASTM specifications (as amended by As per BSS and ASTM specifications (as
PHED)

amended by PHED)

3.4.13 Slope of Sewer Lines


Existing Technical Parameters

Review of Existing Parameters and


Modifications Proposed
Minimum gradient of sewers to attain velocities Minimum gradient of sewers to attain
as per Section 4 above.

velocities as per section 4 above

3.4.14 Design Flow of Drainage


Existing Technical Parameters

Review of Existing Parameters and


Modifications Proposed
The capacity of storm water drainage is The capacity of storm water drainage is
calculated according to Rational method, which calculated according to Rational Method,
relates the flow to the rainfall intensity, the which relates to the flow of rainfall intensity,
tributary area, and a coefficient, which represents the tributary area, and a coefficient, which
the combined effects of ponding, percolation, represents the combined effects of ponding,
and evaporation. This discharge is calculated as percolation and evaporation. The discharge
follows:-

is calculated as follows:-

Q = CIA

Q = CIA

Where:-

Where:-

Q = Discharge in cusecs

Q =Discharge in cusecs

C = Run Off Co-efficient

C = Run off coefficient

I = Rain fall intensity

I = Rainfall intensity

A = Drainage area in acres

A = Drainage area in acres

Type of Surface

Run off Co-

Type of Surface

efficient
Water tight roof surface

0.70 0.95

Asphaltic cement streets

0.85-0.90

Run off Coefficient

Water tight roof surface

Asphaltic

cement

0.70 0.95

0.85-0.90

streets

Service Delivery and Technical standards for Water Supply and Sanitation Sector

70

Existing Technical Parameters


Portland cement streets

0.80-0.95

Review of Existing Parameters and


Modifications Proposed
Portland cement streets
0.80-0.95

Brick paved driveways

0.75-0.85

Brick paved driveways

and walks with tightly

and walks with tightly

cemented joints

cemented joints

Brick paved driveways


and

walks

with

0.70-0.80

un-

Brick paved driveways

0.75-0.85

0.70-0.80

and walks with un-

cemented joints

cemented joints

Inferior block pavement

0.40-0.50

with un-cemented joints

Inferior
pavement

block
with

0.40-0.50

un-

cemented joints

Gravel

driveways

and

0.15-0.30

Gravel driveways and

walks

walks

Lawns, sandy soil

Lawns, sandy soil

0.15-0.30

2% slope

0.05-0.10

2% slope

0.05-0.10

2-7% slope

0.10-0.15

2-7% slope

0.10-0.15

> 7% slope

0.15-0.20

> 7% slope

0.15-0.20

Lawns, heavy soil

Lawns, heavy soil

2% soil

0.13-0.17

2% soil

0.13-0.17

2-7% slope

0.18-0.22

2-7% slope

0.18-0.22

> 7% slope

0.25-0.35

> 7% slope

0.25-0.35

Business
Downtown area
Neighborhood area

Business
Downtown area
0.70-0.95

Neighborhood area

Service Delivery and Technical standards for Water Supply and Sanitation Sector

0.70-0.95
71

Existing Technical Parameters

Review of Existing Parameters and


Modifications Proposed

Residential (Urban)

Residential (Urban)

0.50-0.70

Single Family area

0.50-0.70

Single Family area

Multi-units, detached

0.30-0.50

Multi-units, detached

0.30-0.50

Multi-units, attached

0.40-0.60

Multi-units, attached

0.40-0.60

Residential (Suburban)

0.60-0.75

Residential

0.60-0.75

(Suburban)
Apartment areas

0.25-0.40

Apartment areas

Industrial

Industrial

Light

0.50-0.70

Light

0.50-0.70

Heavy

0.50-0.80

Heavy

0.50-0.80

Parks, cemeteries

0.60-0.90

Parks, Cemeteries

0.60-0.90

Playgrounds

0.10-0.25

Playgrounds

0.10-0.25

Railroad yards

0.20-0.35

Railroad yards

0.20-0.35

Unimproved areas

0.25-0.40

0.20-0.40

Rain Fall Intensity

Unimproved areas

0.20-0.40

Rainfall Intensity

For Southern Punjab an intensity of 1/30

For Southern Punjab an intensity of

inch/hour may be taken except for

1/30 inches per hour may be taken

industrial cities where higher intensity (

except for industrial cities where

inch/hour) be assumed. For Northern

higher intensities (1/4 inches/hour)

Punjab intensity of inch/hour is

are assumed for small towns while

assumed for small towns while

inches/hour should be used for larger

inch/hour or a figure based on rational

cities.

assessment should be assumed for larger


cities.
Service Delivery and Technical standards for Water Supply and Sanitation Sector

72

3.4.15 Design of Outfall Works


Existing Technical Parameters

Review of Existing Parameters and


Modifications Proposed
Outfall Pumping Stations are proposed to be Outfall pumping stations are proposed to be
designed to cater for the maximum peak load designed to cater to the maximum peak load
plus a 50% stand-by (50% of peak load)

plus a 33% stand by (33% of peak load).

Capacity

Capacity

i)

ii)

Present average flow (if it be less than, i)

Present average flow (if it is less

of ultimate average) or ultimate

than of ultimate average) or

average.

ultimate average.

Present and ultimate peak flows

ii)

Present and ultimate peak flows.


(Coarse screens with 2 inches mesh
should be installed on the screening
chamber).

Type of Pumps

Type of pumps

The pumps would be located in dry well adjacent The selection of sewage pumping units should be
to collecting sumps with at least 10 minutes made
retention
centrifugal

of

keeping

in

the

following

horizontal aspects/recommendations:-

capacity

in

case

pumps

or

submersible

pumps

horizontal

pumps

in

the

far as possible. Theses may be used for

preceded by coarse screens with 2 inches mesh.

smaller discharges because the cordon

The pumps will be horizontal centrifugal type in

shaft pumps of smaller discharges may

dry sumps or submersible pumps designed for

not be available.

powered by A.C electric motors. For safeguard


against power failures at least 50% pumping

of

depressed chamber should be avoided as

installed in wet wells. The sump will be

passing solids of 2 to 3 inches size. These will be

Use

Submersible pumps may be used where


the system has no surface drains.

Cordon shaft pumps may be used for

capacity will have additional diesel engine drive

greater discharge where the quality of

if desired in addition to the normal electric

sewage is not good and the system is

driven 50% standby prescribed above.

connected to surface drains as well.

All such pumps will be discharged for


passing solids of 2-3 inches size. These
will

be

powered

by

AC

electric

connections.

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Existing Technical Parameters

Review of Existing Parameters and


Modifications Proposed
Stand by arrangements:For safeguard against power failure, at least
33% pumping capacity will have additional
Electric Power Generator (diesel driven).
This is in addition to the normal electric
power driven 33% stand by capacity,
prescribed above.

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SECTION 3.5
REVIEW OF TECHNICAL STANDARDS FOR DRAINAGE:The technical standards for drainage works include the prescribed directions, requirements,
explanations, terms and provisions pertaining to the various features of the work to be done, or
manner and method of performance.

3.5.1 Open Surface Drains in Streets


Existing Technical Parameters

Review of Existing Parameters and


Modifications Proposed
Punjab standard open surface drains are to be Open surface drains will be constructed as
constructed in villages with population up to per Punjab Standard Type Drains.
5000 persons.
i.

ii.

iii.

Initial house at upstream may be first i.

First house at upstream side may be

provided with House Drains.

provided with House Drain

Tega only to be provided along house at ii.

Tega is only to be provided along

starting length without drain

house at starting reach.

4 in. Drain on one side if street width is iii.

Standard type-1 drain should be

less than 6 ft.

provided on one side of the street if


streets width is less than 6 ft.
However, for wider streets, drain to
drain distance should not be more
than 16 feet from outer edge of
reimbursement on both sides but not
exceeding 16 feet.

iv.

v.

vi.

Precast drains instead of situ type are to iv.

Precast drains should be preferred

be preferred.

instead of in-situ type.

Proper toe wall to be constructed at the v.

Proper toe walls are to be constructed

outfall point

at the outfall points.

Existing ponds to be eliminated as far as vi.

Existing ponds to be eliminated as far

possible

as possible.

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Existing Technical Parameters

vii.

viii.

ix.

x.

xi.

Review of Existing Parameters and


Modifications Proposed
Convert existing ponds into oxidation vii.
The existing ponds should preferably
ponds preferably

be converted into oxidation ponds.

Provide screen before sullage collecting viii.

Provide

pit

collecting pits.

Reduce the number of collecting pits as ix.

Reduce the number of collecting pits

far as possible

as for as possible.

Provide at least 2 number pumping units x.

Provide at least 2 number pumping

for a village

units for a community.

L-section of drains to be drawn in Tech. xi.

Hydraulic Profiles of drains to be

Sanction estimate.

drawn

screen

and

before

incorporated

sullage

in

the

technically sanctioned detailed cost


estimate of the scheme

3.5.2 Review of Standards for Brick Pavement


Existing Technical Parameters

Review of Existing Parameters and


Modifications Proposed
First class bricks sand grouted are to be used in First class bricks sand grouted are to be used
brick pavement in streets of villages up to 5000 in streets.
persons.
i.

ii.

iii.

iv.

Full pavement of street with width up to i.

Full pavement of streets with width

15 ft. with open drains on both sides.

up to 15 ft open drains on both sides.

In streets over 15 ft. pavement will be ii.

In streets over 15 ft, pavement will be

provided for 10 ft. width only in the

provided for 15 ft width only in the

centre.

center.

Storm water to be guided through brick iii.

Storm water to be guided through

pavement.

brick pavements.

PCC soling in hilly areas.

iv.

PCC instead of brick soling will be


provided in hilly areas.

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SECTION 3.6
STANDARDS / DESIGN CRITERIA FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT
PLANTS
As for as wastewater treatment is concerned, there is no existing treatment plant in Punjab
except a treatment plant at Faisalabad and an oxidation pond at Bahawalnagar. All other wastewater
treatment plants are in Karachi (Trickling Filters), Peshawar (Stabilization Ponds) and Islamabad
(Activated sludge). Almost all of them are abandoned or working at very low capacity with very low
efficiency.
However there are no standards or any design criteria for the design of water treatment plants.
Most of them were constructed as either pilot projects or by the foreign consultants as per their own
design criteria. This is the first time that some kind of design criteria is being given for the design of
different treatment plants for wastewater.

3.6.1 Standards/Design Criteria for Oxidation Ponds


Length of Pond

2* Breadth of Pond
L=2*B

Depth of Pond

D = 1-2 Meter

Free Board

Detention Period

20-30 Days

Organic loading

300 kg/hectare/day

One Hectare Land Area

750 persons Approximately

BOD Removal

up to 90 %

Coliform Removal

99%

Sludge Accumulation

25 cm Depth Per Year

Meter

3.6.2 Standards/ design criteria for stabilization ponds


In wastewater stabilization ponds, all unit processes and unit operations may be carried out in
the same unit, or a combination of similar units may be used. If only one stage of treatment is used,
the pond will normally be anaerobic or facultative. However, a secondary pond for additional aerobic

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biological treatment should follow an anaerobic pond. The design criteria for each of the above three
ponds are given below:
3.6.2.1 Standard/Design Criteria for Anaerobic Ponds
From the available literature, all existing procedures adopt one of the following three criteria
as basis:
(a)

Surface loading rate (in term of kg BOD/ha/d)

(b)

Volumetric loading rate (in term of BOD5 or volatile solids as g/m3/d)

(c)

Hydraulic retention time

Now all the above three design criteria will be discussed.


(a)

(b)

Surface Loading Rate

Loading

280-4500 kg BOD5/ha/d

Depth of pond

2.5-5 m

BOD removal

50-80 %

Volumetric Loading

Volumetric loading is expressed in term of grams BOD5 per cubic meter per day.

(c)

Loading

300 g BOD5/m3/d

Depth of pond

2.5-5 m

BOD removal

50%

Hydraulic Retention Time

Hydraulic Retention Time

5 Days

BOD removal

80 %

The BOD5 removal efficiency also depends on the ambient air temperature.
Coliform Removal = Negligible

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A comparison is given below for theoretical BOD5 reduction with respect to time at a
particular temperature.
Table - 3.1
Theoretical BOD5 Reduction at 22 Degree Centigrade
Retention Time
(Days)
0.12

BOD5 Reduction
(%)
20%

0.40

30%

0.71

35%

1.30

40%

2.40

45%

4.70

50%

9.40

55%

It is clear from the above table that BOD5 increases at a regular interval of 5% with the
increase in time.
It has been observed that the actual BOD reduction is a function of retention time, which is clear
from the following table:

TABLE - 3.2
Actual BOD5 Reduction as a Function of Retention Time
Retention Time
(Days)
1

BOD5 Reduction
(%)
50%

2.40

60%

70%

The above table reveals that after five days the BOD is reduced up to 70%. From the above
two tables a comparison can be drawn for BOD reduction with the temperature and time separately.
The following table gives a combined comparison of BOD reduction with respect to the temperature
and retention time.

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TABLE - 3.3
Table Showing Relationship Between
Anaerobic Pond Temperature, Retention Time and BOD5 Reduction
TEMPERATURE
(DEGREE C)
10

RETENTION TIME
(DAYS)
5

BOD5 REDUCTION
(%)
0-10

10-15

4-5

30-40

15-20

2-3

40-50

20-25

1-2

40-60

25-30

1-2

60-80

3.6.3 Standards/Design Criteria for Facultative Ponds


Surface Area Loading (Temp 20-25 degree C)

200-- 400 kgBOD5/ha/day

Surface Area Loading (Temp 30 degree C)

300-- 400 kgBOD5/ha/day

Depth of facultative pond

1.5 m

BOD5 removal efficiency

80 %

Settled sludge accumulation

30 liters per person per year

Retention time

5 Days

Coliform Removal

99 %

Volume Evaporation

10 %

3.6.4 Standards/Design Criteria for Maturation Ponds


Maturation ponds are used for the additional removal of pathogenic agents such as bacteria,
fungi, protozoa and viruses. They can remove soluble BOD that has been carried over from the
Facultative pond. However they are justified where land cost is low and sufficient land area is
available. The main parameter to be considered for killing bacterial is the retention time.

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No. of Maturation Ponds

Retention Time (Days)

Single Maturation Pond

5 Days

Two or more ponds in series

3 Days per pond

Depth of Maturation Pond

1.01.5 m

Length to Breadth ratio

1:1.5

3.6.5 Standards/Design Criteria for Aerated Lagoons5


It is a deeper Oxidation Pond, with oxygen introduced by mechanical aerators rather than
relying on natural photosynthetic oxygen production. For these ponds less area and less detention
time is required because these ponds are deeper than the oxidation ponds and are artificially aerated.
Depth of Lagoon

2.4-3.6 m

Detention Time

4-10 Hours

Land Area Required

5-10 % of oxidation pond

BOD Removal

65-90 %

The aerated lagoons are used frequently for treating industrial wastes.

An aerated lagoon or aerated basin is a holding and/or treatment pond provided with artificial aeration to
promote the biological oxidation of wastewaters.
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3.6.6 Standards/Design Criteria for Oxidation Ditches6


Length of Ditch channel

1501000 m

Width of Ditch channel

1-5 m

Depth

1-1.5 m

Diameter of cylindrical cage

70 cm

Length of

15 cm

cylindrical cage

Speed of cylindrical cage

75 RPM

Detention Time

12-15 Hours

Load of Sewage Admitted

800-2500 Liters/kg BOD

Concentration of suspended solids

4000-5000 mg/l

Volume of the ditch (approximate)

120-150 cubic meter/meter of the length


of the rotor

Removal of suspended solids

95 %

Removal of BOD

98 %

Power consumed

4.4 K.W/kg of BOD

This method is used for treating small wastes from industries like pharmaceuticals, canning,
dairy, etc., located in densely populated areas.

In some areas, where more land is available, sewage is treated in large round or oval ditches with one or more
horizontal aerators typically called brush or disc aerators which drive the mixed liquor around the ditch and provide
aeration. These are oxidation ditches, often referred to by manufacturer's trade names such as Pasveer, Orbal, or
Carrousel. They have the advantage that they are relatively easy to maintain and are resilient to shock loads that often
occur in smaller communities (i.e. at breakfast time and in the evening).
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Oxidation Ditch at Pelican Bay State Prison in Northern California, USA.

3.6.7 Standards/Design Criteria for Trickling Filters


The diagrammatic presentation of the trickling filters is given below:-

There are two types of trickling filters. Design parameters for both of them are given below:
3.6.7.1 Standards/Design Criteria for Conventional or Standard Rate Filters
Depth of Filter Media

1.6-2.4 m

Size of Filter Media

25-75 mm

Dosing Interval
Hydraulic Loading

3-10 minutes
20-44 M.l/ha/Day

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Organic Loading

900-2200kgBOD5/ha-m of filter
media/Day

Type of Effluent

BOD less than 20 mg/l

BOD Removal

80-90 %

A conventional or standard rate filter plant is very useful in medium towns and industrial
cities requiring full treatment of sewage.
3.6.7.2 Standards/Design Criteria for High Rate Filters
Depth of Filter Media

1.2-1.8 m

Size of Filter Media

25-60 mm

Dosing Interval
Hydraulic Loading
Organic Loading

Less Than 15 Seconds


110-330 M.l/ha/Day
600018000 kgBOD5/ha-m of
filter media/Day

Type of Effluent

BOD more than 30 mg/l

BOD Removal

70-80 %

A high rate filter plant is very useful for industrial cities requiring full treatment of sewage,
i.e. both Municipal and Industrial sewage.

3.6.8 Standards/Design Criteria for Activated Sludge Process


Activated sludge is a process dealing with the treatment of sewage and industrial
wastewaters. Atmospheric air or pure oxygen is bubbled through primary treated sewage (or
industrial wastewater) combined with organisms to develop a biological floc which reduces
the organic content of the sewage. The combination of raw sewage (or industrial wastewater)
and biological mass is commonly known as Mixed Liquor. In all activated sludge plants, once
the sewage (or industrial wastewater) has received sufficient treatment, excess mixed liquor
is discharged into settling tanks and the treated supernatant is run off to undergo further
treatment before discharge. Part of the settled material, the sludge, is returned to the head of
the aeration system to re-seed the new sewage (or industrial wastewater) entering the tank.
This fraction of the floc is called Return Activated Sludge (R.A.S.). Excess sludge which
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84

eventually accumulates beyond what is returned is called Waste Activated Sludge (W.A.S.).
W.A.S is removed from the treatment process to keep the ratio of biomass to food supplied
(sewage or wastewater) in balance. This is called the F: M ratio. W.A.S is stored away from
the main treatment process in storage tanks and is further treated by digestion, either under
anaerobic or aerobic conditions prior to disposal.
The diagrammatic presentation for the process is given below:-

3.6.8.1 Aeration Tanks


Depth of tank

3-4.5 m

Width of tank

5-6 m

Length of tank

10-20 m

Detention period
Quantity of air required
Volume of returned Activated Sludge
Power Requirement

4-8 Hours
4000-8000 cubic meter/million liters
of sewage
25-50 % of sewage flow
55-110 H.P/million of sewage flow

BOD Removal

80-95 %

Bacteria Removal

90-95 %

In big cities with large sized plants, the Activated Sludge plant is better.

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3.6.9 Standards/Design Criteria for Detritus Tanks


Flow Velocity

0.09 m/second

Detention Period

3-4 minutes

Depth of tank

1-1.5 m

Width of tank

1.5-2.0 m

3.6.10 Standards/ Design Criteria for Skimming Tanks


Detention Period

3-5 minutes

Amount of Compressed air required

3006000 cubic
liters of sewage

Surface Area Required

A = 0.00622*q/Vr Where as

meter/million

q
= Rate of flow of sewage in
m3/day
Vr = Minimum rising velocity of
greasy material to be removed in
m/minute = 0.25 m/ minute in most
cases
Passing of Chlorine Gas

2 mg per liter of sewage

Skimming tanks are not provided in hot climate for treatment plants. They may be provided
in particular industrial towns or at colder hill stations like Murree, where the greasy material may
congeal easily.

3.6.11 Standards/Design Criteria for Septic Tanks7

Minimum Capacity for 8 to 10 Persons

2250 liters

Free Board

0.3 m

Detention Period

12-36 Hours

Length to Width Ratio

2-3

Depth of the Tank

1.2-1.8 m

A septic tank, the key component of a septic system, is a small scale sewage treatment system common in

areas with no connection to main sewerage pipes provided by local governments. Septic systems are a type of On-Site
Sewage Facility (OSSF).
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Inlet from the top of the sewage line

30 cm

Invert level of the outlet below the inlet 5-7.5 cm


invert level
Height of baffle walls above sewage line 20 cm
Rate of accumulation of sludge

30 liters/person/year

BOD from the Effluent

100-200 mg/l

Septic Tank and Septic Drain Field


They are best suited for isolated rural areas, and for isolated hospitals, buildings,etc.

3.6.12 Standards/Design Criteria for Imhoff Tanks8


Imhoff tanks have two portions, Sedimentation Chamber and Digestion Chamber. The design
criteria for each of the two are given separately.
The design criteria for Sedimentation Chamber are as under:
Detention Period

2-4 Hours

Flowing through Velocity

up to 0.3 m/ minute

Surface Loading

up to 30,000 l/m2/Day

The Imhoff tank, named for German engineer Karl Imhoff (18761965), is a chamber suitable for the reception and
processing of sewage. It may be used for the clarification of sewage by simple settling and sedimentation, along with
anaerobic digestion of the extracted sludge.

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Length of Tank

up to 30 m

Length to Width Ratio

3-5

Depth of Tank

3-3.5 m

Free Board

0.5 m

The design criteria for Digestion Chamber are given below:


Minimum Capacity of Chamber

35-40 liters per capita

Side Slopes of the Hopper

1:1

Area of Scum /Vent Chamber

25-30% of Digestion Chamber

Width of Vent

60 cm

Removal of Solids

60-65 %

Removal of BOD

30-40 %

Imhoff tanks are useful only for small cities and institutions.

3.6.13 Standards/Design Criteria for Humus Tanks9


These tanks may be hopper bottomed or flat bottomed and are provided next below the filters.
Capacity of the Tank

1/6 of the Dry Weather Flow (DWF)

Detention Period

2-3 Hours

The Humus is collected and dried on sludge beds. If the filtered effluent is disposed of on
land, the humus tanks are not necessary.

A humus tank is also sometimes called secondary settlement tank or final settlement tank and is a tank in

which settable solids or humus is separated from the effluent after it has been through biological treatment or biological
reactor.
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SECTION 3.7
STANDARDS / DESIGN CRITERIA FOR SOLID WASTE
MANAGEMENT
3.7.1 Introduction
There are a number of concepts about waste management which vary in their usage between
countries or regions. Some of the most general, widely-used concepts include:

Waste hierarchy - the waste hierarchy refers to the "3 Rs" reduce, reuse and recycle, which
classify waste management strategies according to their desirability in terms of waste
minimization. The waste hierarchy remains the cornerstone of most waste minimization
strategies. The aim of the waste hierarchy is to extract the maximum practical benefits from
products and to generate the minimum amount of waste.

MostFavoredOption

LeastFavoredOption

Diagram of the waste hierarchy

Extended producer responsibility - Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) is a strategy


designed to promote the integration of all costs associated with products throughout their life
cycle (including end-of-life disposal costs) into the market price of the product. Extended
producer responsibility is meant to impose accountability over the entire lifecycle of products
and packaging introduced to the market. This means that firms which manufacture, import
and/or sell products are required to be responsible for the products after their useful life as
well as during manufacture.

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Polluter pays principle - the Polluter Pays Principle is a principle where the polluting party
pays for the impact caused to the natural environment. With respect to waste management,
this generally refers to the requirement for a waste generator to pay for appropriate disposal
of the waste.

3.7.2 House Storage


Normally we use single bin in our houses for storing the garbage. In developed countries like
Japan and USA more than one bin are used: one is for organic matter and the other is for mineral
matter and another for paper. Such type of storage is called SEGREGATION of solid waste AT
SOURCE. The material of house dustbin may be plastic steel or preferably any other light material
that is easy to lift, empty and place back on its original position.

3.7.2 Single Container System


These may be of 30 liters, 60-70 liters and in some cases of 100 liters capacity. The collection
of single containers may be once in every 24 hours.

3.7.3 Multiple Bin System


In case of double bin system or triple bin system the size of the container may be kept at 30
liters or even less. The collection of multiple dust bins may be after one week for each type of solid
waste. The collection vehicle can collect on a particular day the dustbins of organic material for
taking it to composting plant and another day mineral dustbin for segregation and recycling purpose.

3.7.4 Street Dust Bin


On each street at a reasonable place and distance a large steel dust bin may be placed so that
all the residents of the area may use this street dustbin for throwing away garbage. These may also be
placed on footpaths of streets. These should be 2 ft above the ground level to avoid disturbance by
the dogs and other wild animals.
These dustbins are also called TEMPORARY DUSTBINS and theye may be manufactured of
Cast Iron or Mild Steel. They should ideally be water tight and rust resistant. Two handles on each
side should be welded for lifting the street dustbin and emptying into the municipal SWM vehicle for
transport to the transfer station or landfill site. This dustbin should be emptied at night or early in the
morning at 5-6 O clocks.

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THE SIZE OF THE STREET DUSTBIN MAY BE KEPT AT 150 LITERS.

3.7.5 Transport of Solid Waste


The solid waste from the house dustbins or from the street dustbins are collected at suitable
time and transported to the sanitary landfill sites by different mode of transport. For leads up to 2.5
km animal drawn vehicles are used while for distances more than this petrol, diesel or gas driven
vehicle may be used.
THE CAPACITY OF THE VAN TO BE UPTO 13.75 CUBIC METER
LOW LOADING LINE MAY BE KEPT NOT MORE THAN 1.4 METER
The van should ideally have hydraulically operated ram, which is loaded from side. It should
be closed from all sides and the garbage collected should not be visible. Additionally it should be
protected from wind.
3.7.5.1 Frequency of Solid Waste Collection
The solid waste should be collected daily except holidays. For hotels and restaurants the
collection should be once in a week in cold season and twice in a week in warm climates.
3.7.5.2 Time of Solid Waste Collection
The solid waste must be collected during working days from the houses and residential hotels
and restaurants. From the business centers the solid waste must be collected at night.
3.7.5.3 Teams for Solid Waste Collection
The teams for collection of solid waste should consist of even number of personnel i.e. 2--8
persons in one team depending upon the quantum of the work. In some special cases a single person
can handle the vehicle but the efficiency is likely to suffer.
3.7.5.4 Route of Transport
The route of the vehicle for transport must be selected in such away that it is the shortest
possible route keeping in view the number of houses, density of houses, truck capacity and time
taken to the transfer station or landfill site as the case may be. The efficient use of the resources both
man and material with least wastages is to be ensured.

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3.7.6 Disposal of Solid Waste


The standards for each type of solid waste disposal system are different and they are given
below:
3.7.6.1 Tipping

Each layer of solid waste must not be more than 2 m.

The layer of earth on solid waste should not be more than 20 to 25 cm.

Sufficient time is given for settlement of the solid waste.

The height of the layer from the surrounding land should not be more than 6m.

Spray 50% solution of Creosote or Paraffin.

For preventing the papers and other light debris screens should be provided.

Lanes should be 7.25 m long, 1.25 m wide and 1.75 m high.

A 2 m layer of solid waste compressed by wagon is reduced to 30cm in 6 to 12


months.

In this method the solid waste is converted to harmless material by biological action.
3.7.6.2 Incineration

This system is useful for the solid waste which has comparatively less moisture
content and greater calorific value.

The heat such produced may be used for raising steam and running turbines to
produce electric power for pumping sewage or compressing air.

In this system separation/segregation of the solid waste is necessary before


incineration which reduces load by 45% to 50%.

The ashes left after the incineration of the solid waste are 25% to 40% of the original
weight of garbage. These are easy to deal with for further disposal.

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3.7.6.3 Composting

This is best of all the processes and its product is useful.

This process is best suited to Punjab conditions. This process is recommended for
small and medium towns of Punjab.

This system is best suited in the following conditions;

i)

The solid waste is rich in organic matter.

ii)

The nitrogenous matter is in abundance.

iii)

The moisture content is more than the solid waste.

The site selected for composting should be away from the town.

The site selected for composting should be on leeward side.

This system is suitable for large cities, 2 to 3 sites may be selected to avoid transportation at
one site.
The standard size of the trench may be:
Length of the trench

5 -10 m

Width of the trench

1.5-2.5 m

Depth of the trench

1m

Vacant

spaces

between

two

2-2.5 m

trenches

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3.7.7 Example for Design of Compost


For a town with a population of 10,000 following dimensions are recommended for the whole
year:
No. of trenches

180

Length of trench

4.5 m

Width of trench

1.5 m

Depth of trench

0.75 m

Cover of trench

5-8 cm

Temperature after 2-3 days

65 Degree Centigrade

Time for completion of process

4-6 months

The manure prepared by composting must be sieved with 12 mm sieve to exclude broken
glass, small stones, brickbats etc. Necessary arrangements should be made for diverting the rainwater
from the trenches.

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CHAPTER-4
SERVICE DELIVERY STANDARDS
4.1

SERVICE DELIVERY STANDARDS


The local governments in Punjab are responsible for providing services viz. water supply,

sewerage, drainage, solid waste management and vector control to the customers. Presently, there is
no standard to measure quality of services provided by the local governments. As a result, it is
difficult to gauge customer satisfaction and bring about improvements in service delivery.
Service delivery standards indicate the quality or objective of a service that a local
government aims to achieve and maintain, measured in terms of the corresponding indicators.

4.2

PURPOSE OF SETTING SERVICE DELIVERY STANDARDS


The purpose of setting Service Delivery Standards (SDSs) is to establish a systematic basis

for monitoring and evaluating service delivery levels. In other words, the SDSs is an important
management tool for informed decision making by the local governments. The SDSs enable
customers to objectively appraise service delivery levels, and provide opportunity to staff of the local
government to make comparison with services provided by other LGs.

4.3

KEY INDICATORS
The SDSs are measured by defining Key Indicators (KIs) for various services. KIs are

quantifiable measurements, agreed to beforehand, that reflect the critical success factors of a local
government, established on the basis of performance data for measuring progress against intended
targets. The KIs and the data collected on them assist in motivating the service delivery staff toward
achieving intended targets. The KIs are designed to be SMART i.e.

4.4

S - Specific

M - Measurable

A - Achievable

R - Results oriented

T - Time bound

APPLICATION OF WATER AND SANITATION STANDARDS


The Water and Sanitation Standards have been designed for use by Local Governments,

Water and Sanitation Agencies, private water supply and sanitation companies, Community Based
Organizations, Non Governmental Organizations, and individual users at domestic and commercial
levels.
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4.5

HOW TO USE THE SERVICE DELIVERY STANDARDS


The Standards have been divided into the following main sections:

Water Supply

Vector Control

Sewerage

Drainage

Solid Waste Management

Each section is arranged as follows:

Standards:
These indicate the level at which the services would be operated and maintained by a local

government.

Key Indicators:
The key indicators numerically measure the standards for a service. They also provide a basis

of comparison of services amongst various local governments. This comparison can be used to
determine ranking of the local governments based on their performance.
In this document, the key indicators have been divided into the following three levels. This
division has been done to facilitate local governments to progressively improve their services from a
minimum to an excellent level thus instilling a sense of competition amongst them.
i)

Minimum:
This indicates the minimum level of the service which should be provided by the local

government to its customers.


ii)

Progressive:
The local governments which are in a position to provide services above the minimum

level should strive to meet the progressive indicators.


iii)

Excellent:
This is the highest level of indicators for service delivery which can be attained by a

local government.

Service Delivery and Technical standards for Water Supply and Sanitation Sector

96

Guidance Notes:
These notes provide necessary explanations about service delivery standards as well as

indicators.

Service Delivery Standards for Water Supply and Sanitation

Water Supply

Vector Control

Sewerage

Drainage

Solid Waste
Management

Standard 1: Access,
Quantity, Availability and
Affordability

Standard 1: Individual,
Family Protection and
Chemical Control Safety

Standard 1: Access

Standard 1: Access

Standard 1: Storage and


Collection

Standard 2: Quality

Standard 2: Physical,
Environmental and
Chemical Protection
Measures

Standard 2: Treatment
and Disposal

Standard 2: Treatment
and Disposal

Standard 2:
Transportation

Standard 3: O&M

Standard 3: Customer
Services and Complaint
Redressal

Standard 3: O&M

Standard 3: O&M

Standard 3: Treatment
and Disposal

Standard 4: Customer
Services and Complaint
Redressal

Standard 4: Customer
Services and Complaint
Redressal

Standard 4: Emergency
Response

Standard 4: Customer
Services and Complaint
Redressal

Standard 5: Awareness
Campaign
Guidance Notes for
Standards

Guidance Notes for


Standards

Guidance Notes for


Standards

Guidance Notes for


Standards

Standard 6: Customer
Services and Complaint
Redressal

Standard 4: Customer
Services and Complaint
Redressal

Guidance Notes for


Standards

Service Delivery and Technical standards for Water Supply and Sanitation Sector

97

4.6

STANDARDS FOR WATER SUPPLY:Everyone has the right to clean and potable water. This right is recognized in international

legal instruments and provides for sufficient, safe, acceptable, physically accessible and affordable
water for personal and domestic uses. Providing access to sufficient quantity of potable water at
affordable rates to meet basic needs of customers is of crucial importance for a local government.

4.6.1 Standard-1: Access, Quantity, Availability and Affordability:Safe and equitable access to a sufficient quantity of water for drinking, cooking and personal
and domestic hygiene will be made available to the customers at affordable rates. Stand posts will be
located sufficiently close to households to facilitate easy access to potable water.

Key Indicators
i.)

Access
Indicator

Minimum

Progressive

Excellent

Maximum queuing 60 minutes


time at potable water
source
Maximum distance 1000 meters
from any household
to
a
developed
potable water source

30 minutes

15 minutes

500 meters

200 meter

Maximum time for 30 days


providing connection
in case of piped water
supply

15 days

7 day

Provision of water Twice a week


through water tankers
and other means,
where
is
no
established source of
water

Alternate daily

Daily

ii)

Quantity
Indicator
Quantity of water
from non-piped
source per person per
day
Quantity of water
from communal stand
post per person per
day
Average quantity of
water per person per
day at household

Minimum
15 liters

Progressive
20 litres

Excellent
25 litres

20 litres

25 litres

30 litres

20 litres

80 litres

160 litres

Service Delivery and Technical standards for Water Supply and Sanitation Sector

98

level
Delivery of potable
water to customers in
areas where the water
supply has been
interrupted
Time required to fill a
10 litre container

iii)

Within 12 hours

Within 8 hours

Within 4 hours

4 minutes

3 minutes

2 minutes

Availability
Indicator
Availability of water
per day
Height at which water
is available

Minimum
6 hours

Progressive
12 hours

Excellent
24 hours

Up to 1st floor

Up to 2nd Floor

Up to 3rd Floor

Each house will keep containers with covers to store sufficient quantity of water to
ensure availability of water round the clock.
iv)

Affordability:Indicator
Affordability for
consumers in terms of
monthly income

Excellent
2%

Progressive
3%

Minimum
5%

Guidance Notes
i)

Equitable Access
This means that every individual in a society must have equitable access to sufficient

quantity of water regardless of his/her sex, caste, creed or affiliation.


ii)

Queuing time
Queuing time in case of stand post indicates the efficiency of the water providing

system. Long queues reflect inefficiencies of the system and the water providing agency
should take necessary steps for development of necessary infrastructure and augmentation of
water supply.
iii)

Quantity
The quantity of water to be supplied to an area depends on a) source of water, b)

location of the area and c) water demand. Maximum quantity can be provided in case of
piped water supply based on a tube well drilled in sweet water zone.
iv)

Availability

Service Delivery and Technical standards for Water Supply and Sanitation Sector

99

The availability of water is a function of source of water, financial position of water


providing agency, and water demand. Ideal standard for availability of water is 24/7, which
means that water is available round the clock, seven days a week. In Punjab, the availability
in case of piped water supply varies from 4 hours to 14 hours. By using underground water
tanks and overhead reservoirs, availability can be increased by the customers to 24 hours.
v)

Affordability
Affordability relates to rates which are charged for using water. Recovery of cost of

service is of primary consideration while setting tariffs. However, paying capacity of


consumers plays a significant role in deciding tariffs.

4.6.2 Standard-2: Water Quality:Water is palatable, and of sufficient quality to be drunk and used for personal and domestic
hygiene without causing significant risk to health.

Key Indicators
Indicator
Appearance

Taste
Odour
Contamination

Minimum
Colour
acceptable to
consumers
Taste acceptable
to consumers
Odourless
Water free from
bacterial
contamination

Progressive
Colourless

Excellent
Colourless

Tasteless

Tasteless

Odourless
Water free from
bacterial
contamination

Odourless
Water free from
bacterial
contamination

Guidance Notes
i)

Quality
The quality of water needs to be in accordance with the WHO or PHED Water

Quality Standards. In areas where it is difficult to stick to the WHO Standards, the water
providing agency should ensure provision of water having quality acceptable to consumers.

Service Delivery and Technical standards for Water Supply and Sanitation Sector

100

4.6.3 Standard 3: Operations and Maintenance


Regular operation and maintenance to ensure uninterrupted water supply to the users will be
carried out.
Indicator
Leakage of main
water supply pipes
Leakage of
distribution water
supply pipes
Tracing of leaks
related to water
meters
Replacement of
defective water meter
Repair / replacement
of Stand Post
Replacement of worn
out pumps and
motors

Minimum
Within 24 hours

Progressive
Within 12 hours

Excellent
Within 6 hours

Within 48 hours

Within 24 hours

Within 8 hours

Within 72 hours

Within 48 hours

Within 24 hours

Within 14 days

Within 7 days

Within 3 days

Within 48 hours

Within 24 hours

Within 12 hours

Within 48 hours

Within 24 hours

Within 12 hours

Guidance Notes
i.

O&M:
This has a direct impact on delivery of water supply. An efficient O&M system

results in improved performance and greater customer satisfaction. Water providing agencies
should try to implement preventive maintenance schedules to follow a proactive approach to
O & M.

4.6.4 Standard-4: Complaint Redressal


An effective and efficient system for redressal of complaints related to water supply will be
established.

Key Indicators
Indicator
Timing of Customer
Services Centre
Referral time for
complaints
Redressal time for
complaints
Observance of
response time
(referral and
redressal)
Maximum time for
providing connection
in case of piped water
supply

Minimum
8 a.m. to 4 p.m.

Progressive
8 a.m. to 8 p.m.

Excellent
Round the clock

Within 24 hours

Within 12 hours

Within 2 hours

Within 48 hours

Within 24 hours

Within 6 hours

60% of
complaints

75% of complaints

90% of
complaints

7 days

3 days

1 day

Service Delivery and Technical standards for Water Supply and Sanitation Sector

101

Change of faulty
meters and removal
of illegal connections
Processing time for
applications and
installation of new
connection
Processing time for
application and
installation of a new
fire hydrant
Processing time for
application and
relocation of fire
hydrant
Investigation and
resolution of water
ponding on private
property and water
pressure complaints.
Processing resolution
of complaints
regarding water
contamination

14 days

7 days

3 days

72 hours

48 hours

24 hours

Within 6 weeks

Within 4 weeks

Within 2 weeks

Within 6 weeks

Within 4 weeks

Within 2 weeks

Within 14 days

Within 7 days

Within 2 days

Within 14 days

Within 7 days

Within 2 days

Guidance Notes
An effective complaint redressal system results in improved service delivery and enhanced

customer satisfaction. Water providing agencies should try to maintain a database of complaints
received from various localities. This will help them in planning targeted capital investments.

4.7

STANDARDS FOR VECTOR CONTROL


Vector is the main cause of spreading diseases in a community. The prevalence of disease can

be checked by adopting various preventive measures, which may include appropriate water supply,
excreta disposal, solid waste management and drainage. Other things which may contribute in
prevention of disease are adequate health services, use of suitable chemical and protection of food.

4.7.1 Standard-1: Individual, Family Protection and Chemical Control Safety


Awareness about vector borne diseases exists amongst the people and ways and means are
provided to control these diseases. Chemical control safety measures are employed in an appropriate
manner to safeguard health of staff and customers.

Key Indicator
Indicator
Awareness campaign
Presentation to
schools on
water, sanitation, and
environmental
education

Minimum
Annually
Quarterly

Progressive
Biannual
bimonthly

Service Delivery and Technical standards for Water Supply and Sanitation Sector

Excellent
Quarterly
Monthly

102

Guidance Notes
i)

Awareness campaign:
The awareness campaign, amongst others, will include information about the

following:

Avoidance of exposure to mosquitoes during peak biting times by using all


non-harmful means available to them.

Use of mosquito nets effectively.

Coverage of water storage utensils with lids or cover in households.

Control of human body lice by appropriate preventive methods.

Regular washing and airing of bedding and clothing.

Protection of food to avoid contamination.

Provision of training, protective clothing, storage and handling of chemical,


and use of bathing facility by LG staff to avoid health hazards.

Anticipated health hazards associated with use of chemicals.

Cleanliness of neighborhood.

4.7.2 Standard-2: Physical, Environmental and Chemical Protection Measures


Control of disease and nuisance vectors will be eliminated or kept to a minimum level for
well being of the people.

Key Indicators
Indicator
Fly and mosquito
spray
Fumigation
Vector breeding sites
are inspected and
modified

Minimum
Quarterly

Progressive
Bimonthly

Excellent
Monthly

Biannually
Annually

Quarterly
Biannually

Bimonthly
Quarterly

Guidance Notes
i)

Spray and Fumigation:


Local governments make suitable arrangements for protection against diseases by

ensuring periodic chemical spray and fumigation to eliminate vectors.

Service Delivery and Technical standards for Water Supply and Sanitation Sector

103

4.7.3 Standard-3: Complaint Redressal


An effective and efficient system for redressal of complaints related to water supply will be
established.

Key Indicators
Indicator
Timing of Customer
Services Centre
Referral time for
complaints
Redressal time for
complaints
Observance of
response time
(referral and
redressal)
Processing time for
applications and
spray and fumigation

Minimum
8 a.m. to 4 p.m.

Progressive
8 a.m. to 8 p.m.

Excellent
Round the clock

Within 24 hours

Within 12 hours

Within 2 hours

Within 48 hours

Within 24 hours

Within 6 hours

60% of
complaints

75% of complaints

90% of
complaints

72 hours

48 hours

24 hours

Guidance Notes
i.

Customer Services and Complaint Redressal:


An effective customer services and complaint redressal centre results in improved

service delivery and enhanced customer satisfaction. Local governments should try to
maintain a database of complaints received from various localities. This will help them in
planning targeted capital investments.

Service Delivery and Technical standards for Water Supply and Sanitation Sector

104

4.8

STANDARDS FOR SEWERAGE


An effective and efficient sewerage, treatment and disposal system with maximum coverage

to satisfy customer needs supported by quick complaint redressal mechanism will be provided.

4.8.1 Standard-1: Access


Sewerage facility will, as far as possible, be provided to all clusters of houses with number of
units in excess of:

Key Indicators
Indicator
Access to sewerage

Minimum
100 houses

Progressive
50 houses

Excellent
25 houses

Guidance Notes
i.

Access:
The units which do not fall in any cluster will make arrangement for properly designed

soakage pits keeping in view environmental considerations.

4.8.2 Standard-2: Treatment and Disposal


Sewage treatment and disposal system will ensure that environmental effect of affluent on
water bodies is minimized and aquatic life is sustained.

Key Indicators
Indicator
Location of treatment
plant
Extent of treatment to
maintain dissolved
oxygen in water
bodies
Location of disposal
stations

Minimum
0.5 Km

Progressive
1 Km

Excellent
1.5 Km

11 mg per litre

8 mg per litre

6 mg per litre

0.5 Km

1 Km

1.5 Km

Guidance Notes
i.

Treatment and Disposal:


Appropriate level of treatment brings contamination levels of sewage within the limits

prescribed by National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQs).


The compliance of NEQs helps in minimizing harmful effects of sewage on receiving
water bodies and aquatic life.

4.8.3 Standard-3: Operations and Maintenance


Service Delivery and Technical standards for Water Supply and Sanitation Sector

105

Regular operation and maintenance to ensure uninterrupted flow of sewage will be carried
out.

Key Indicators
Indicator
De-silting of sewer lines
Attendance to Sewer overflows/
blockages/ smells/ damage
Attendance to sewer blockages
on private property
Replacement of broken or
missing manhole covers
Rehabilitation of sewer lines
(main)
Rehabilitation of sewer lines
(branch)
Replacement of worn out pumps
and motors

Minimum
After every
two years.
Within 48
hours
Within 24
hours
Within 72
hours
Within 3
weeks
Within 3
months
Within a week

Progressive
Annual

Excellent
Biannual

Within 24
hours
Within 12
hours
Within 48
hours
Within 2
weeks
Within 2
months
Within 2 days

Within 8
hours
Within 4
hours
Within 24
hours
Within 1
week
Within a
month
Within 12
hours

Guidance Notes
i.

O&M:
An efficient O&M system results in improved performance and greater customer

satisfaction. Sanitation agencies should try to implement preventive maintenance schedules to


follow a proactive approach to O & M for reduction in operational costs. .

Service Delivery and Technical standards for Water Supply and Sanitation Sector

106

4.8.4 Standard-4: Customer Services and Complaint Redressal


A rapid response customer services and complaint redressal system for improved service
delivery and customer satisfaction will be established.

Key Indicators
Indicator
Timing of Customer Services
Centre
Capturing of all telephone
queries with regards to
engineering service faults

Minimum
8 a.m. to 4
p.m.
NIL

Progressive
8 a.m. to 8
p.m.
NIL

Excellent
Round the
clock
immediately

Referral time for complaints

Within 24
hours
Within 48
hours

Within 12
hours
Within 24
hours

Within 2
hours
Within 6
hours

60% of
complaints
Within 6
weeks

75% of
complaints
Within 4
weeks

90% of
complaints
Within 2
weeks

Redressal time for complaints

Observance of response time


(referral and redressal)
Processing of applications to
discharge industrial
trade effluent to sewer and/or
via road tanker

4.9

STANDARDS FOR DRAINAGE


In areas where proper drainage is not available, waste water or storm water is conveyed

through drains to the final disposal point. Additionally for waste water drains, allied infrastructure
such as lift stations, treatment plants and disposal stations are provided.

4.9.1 Standard-1: Access


Waste water drainage facility will, as far as possible, be provided to all clusters of houses
with number of units in excess of:

Key Indicators
Indicator
Minimum
Access to waste and storm water 100 houses
drains*

Progressive
50 houses

Excellent
25 houses

*Appropriate arrangement for final disposal of waste water will be made by the dwellers of housing
units in consultation with the concerned Local Government.

Guidance Notes
i.

Access to storm water drainage system:


Public access to an appropriately designed and operated drainage system ensures

quick disposal of storm water and reduces ponding. This has an effect on vector control.
Service Delivery and Technical standards for Water Supply and Sanitation Sector

107

ii.

Access to waste water drainage system:


Public access to adequate waste water drainage system, in areas without sewerage

system, facilitates quick conveyance of waste water to the nearby connecting sewers,
treatment facilities or disposal sites.

4.9.2 Standard-2: Treatment and Disposal


Sewage treatment and disposal system will ensure that environmental effect of affluent on
water bodies is minimized and aquatic life is sustained.

Key Indicators
Indicator
Location of treatment
plant
Extent of treatment to
maintain dissolved
oxygen in water bodies
Location of disposal
stations

Minimum
0.5 Km

Progressive
1 Km

Excellent
1.5 Km

11 mg per litre

8 mg per litre

6 mg per litre

0.5 Km

1 Km

1.5 Km

Guidance Notes
i.

Treatment and disposal:


Storm and waste waters contain suspended particulates and other contaminants,

therefore, they require treatment before disposal into water receiving bodies.

4.9.3 Standard-3: Operations and Maintenance


Regular operation and maintenance to ensure uninterrupted flow of sewage will be carried
out.
Indicator
De-silting of drains*
Replacement of
broken or missing
slabs
Maintenance of
drains
Replacement of worn
out pumps and
motors

Minimum
1 year
Within 3 weeks

Progressive
Biannual
Within 2 weeks

Excellent
Quarterly
Within 1 week

Within 3 weeks

Within 2 weeks

Within 1 week

Within a week

Within 2 days

Within 12 hours

*The indicator is only for the routine maintenance. Incase of any blockage or any emergency, de-silting
will be carried out as and when required.

Service Delivery and Technical standards for Water Supply and Sanitation Sector

108

Guidance Notes
i.

O&M:
An efficient O&M system results in improved performance of drainage system, and

enhanced customer satisfaction. Sanitation agencies should try to implement preventive


maintenance schedules to follow a proactive approach to O & M for reduction in operational
costs.

4.9.4 Standard-4: Customer Services and Complaint Redressal


A rapid response customer services and complaint redressal system for improved service
delivery and customer satisfaction will be established.

Key Indicators
Indicator

Minimum

Progressive

Excellent

Timing of Customer
Services Centre
Referral time for
complaints
Redressal time for
complaints
Observance of
response time
(referral and
redressal)

8 a.m. to 4 p.m.

8 a.m. to 8 p.m.

Round the clock

Within 24 hours

Within 12 hours

Within 2 hours

Within 48 hours

Within 24 hours

Within 6 hours

60% of
complaints

75% of complaints

90% of
complaints

4.10 STANDARDS FOR SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT


Solid Waste Management is one of the essential services provided by the local governments.
It is critically important to provide sustainable and integrated waste management system to minimize
associated risks to human health and environment. Provision of well integrated system helps to
achieve greater customer satisfaction.

4.10.1 Standard-1: Storage and Collection


An efficient system, responsive to customers needs, for sufficient storage and waste
collection will be established to minimize health and environmental concerns.

Key Indicators
Indicator

Minimum

Progressive

Excellent

At source storage of solid waste

Households
and healthcare
establishment
s to use
containers /
bags

Households,
commercial
and healthcare
establishment
s to use
containers /
bags

Households,
commercial,
healthcare and
educational
establishment
s use
containers /
bags

Service Delivery and Technical standards for Water Supply and Sanitation Sector

109

Indicator

Minimum

Progressive

Excellent

Manual street sweeping in


commercial areas

On alternate
days
(before 9 a.m)

Once a day
(before 9.a.m)

Manual street sweeping in


residential areas (without doorto-door collection)

Once a day
(before 10
a.m)

Once a day
(before 7 a.m)

Twice a day
(before 9 a.m
& before 4
p.m)
Twice a day
(before 7 a.m
& before 4
p.m))

Manual street sweeping in


residential areas (with door-todoor waste collection)
Manual Sweeping of parks and
green belts

On alternate
days (before
12 p.m)
Twice a week
(between 10
a.m & 3 p.m)

Mechanized sweeping of major


roads

On alternate
days (before
10 a.m)

On alternate
days (before
11 a.m)
On alternate
days (between
10 a.m & 3
p.m)
Once a day
(before 9 a.m)

Quality of service in case of


manual sweeping

Removal of
loose dust
particles,
wind blowing
objects, tree
trimmings and
heaps of
waste
(a) Brushing
with water
sprinkling
(b) Removal
of loose dust
particles,
wind blowing
objects, tree
trimmings and
waste
On alternate
days
(before 11
a.m)
(a) Within
walking
distance of
15-20 minutes
or within
radius of 500
meters)
(b)
Healthcare
establishment
having
sufficient
place will be
provided with
communal

Quality of service in case of


mechanized sweeping

Door-to-door waste collection

Location/accessibility of
individual / commercial
establishments to communal
storage points

Removal of
loose dust
particles,
wind blowing
objects, tree
trimmings and
heaps of
waste
(a) Brushing
with water
sprinkling
(b) Removal
of loose dust
particles,
wind blowing
objects, tree
trimmings and
waste
Once a day
(before 10
a.m)
(a) Within
walking
distance of
10-15 minutes
or within
radius of 350
meters)
(b) Healthcare
establishment
having
sufficient
place will be
provided with
communal
storage

Service Delivery and Technical standards for Water Supply and Sanitation Sector

Once a day
(before 10
a.m)
Once a day
(between 10
a.m & 3 p.m)
Twice a day
(before 9 a.m
& before 6
p.m)
Removal of
loose dust
particles,
wind blowing
objects, tree
trimmings and
heaps of
waste
(a) Brushing
of with water
sprinkling
(b) Removal
of loose dust
particles,
wind blowing
objects, tree
trimmings and
waste
Once a day
(before 9 a.m)

(a) Within
walking
distance of 510 minutes or
within radius
of 250 meters)
(b)
Educational
and healthcare
establishment
having
sufficient
place will be
provided with
110

Indicator

Minimum

Progressive

Excellent

storage
bins/points

bins/points

(c) For
healthcare
establishment
s having area
restrictions,
the indicator
at (a) will be
observed.

(c) For
healthcare
establishment
s having area
restrictions,
the indicator
at (a) will be
observed.

On payment provision of
container(s) to commercial
establishments for temporary
storage of construction / waste
material.

(a) Within 15
days of
submission of
the formal
request within
the premises
or as close as
possible to the
construction
site.

Frequency and timings for


lifting container(s)

On alternate
days between
6.a.m to 12
p.m
Area around
each container
will be kept
clear of any
solid waste
and swept on
alternate days
before 1p.m
50 % of the
area
Less than 25
% of
collection
crew
60 % of the
times during
year

(a) Within 7
days of
submission of
formal request
to be placed
within the
premises or as
close as
possible to the
construction
site.
Once a day
between 6.a.m
to 12 p.m

communal
storage
bins/points
(c) For
educational
and healthcare
establishment
s having area
restrictions,
the indicator
at (a) will be
observed.
(a) Within 3
days of
submission of
formal request
within the
premises or as
close as
possible to the
construction
site.

Cleanliness around container /


communal storage point

Collection Coverage
Absenteeism

Observance of indicators

Area around
each container
will be kept
clear of any
solid waste
and swept on
daily basis
before 1p.m
60 % of the
area
Less than 20
% of
collection
crew
80 % of the
times during
year

Service Delivery and Technical standards for Water Supply and Sanitation Sector

Once a day
between 2.a.m
to 8 a.m
Area around
each container
will be kept
clear of any
solid waste
and swept on
daily basis
before 9a.m
80 % of the
area.
Less than 15
% collection
crew
90 % of the
times during a
year

111

Guidance Notes
i.

At source storage:
The concept of at source storage of solid waste is promoted to avoid continuous

littering of streets and roads. A behavioral change campaign is generally needed to bring this
change at the community level.
ii.

Door to door waste collection:


At source storage accompanied by door to door waste collection besides minimizing

environmental impact, reduces the requirement for daily sweeping. Moreover, door to door
collection eliminates double handling of waste thus saving useful resources.
iii.

Location of Communal Storage Points:


The communal storage points are located at easily accessible places for public

facilitation.
iv.

On payment provision of containers:


Provision of containers on rent to commercial / residential establishments carrying out

construction activities helps in temporary storage of construction waste thus improving


environment and reducing inconvenience to the general public.
v.

Observance of indicators:
This helps the waste management agency in monitoring and evaluation of key

indicators, which assists in planning desired improvements in service delivery.

4.10.2 Standard-2: Transportation


Transportation of waste is an important component and together with waste collection, it
accounts for almost 70 80% of annual spending of solid waste management agency in developing
countries.

Therefore, operational routes will be carefully designed and monitored for cost

effectiveness.

Service Delivery and Technical standards for Water Supply and Sanitation Sector

112

Key Indicators
Indicator

Minimum

Progressive

Excellent

Proper covering of
waste transportation
vehicles to avoid
littering of roads and
streets
Route

50 % of the open
vehicles during
80 % of the
times during a
year.
The
transportation
vehicles, as far
as possible, will
not pass through
congested areas

75 % of the open
vehicles during 80
% of the times
during a year.

100 % of the
open vehicles
during 90 % of
the times during
a year.
The
transportation
vehicles will not
pass through
congested areas

The transportation
vehicles, as far as
possible, will not
pass through
congested areas

Guidance Notes
i.

Covering of Waste Transportation Vehicles:


While plying on city roads, uncovered open trucks / tippers cause littering of roads

and streets by light blowing objects. This problem can be minimized by covering the trucks /
trippers with tarpaulin sheets or nets.
ii.

Route:
Transportation of waste through congested areas is avoided to reduce littering of roads

and streets, inconvenience to general public, and time and fuel savings.

4.10.3 Standard-3: Treatment and Disposal


Treatment and disposal of solid waste will be done to reduce toxicity and volume, and make
it less harmful to human health and environment.

Key Indicators
Indicator

Minimum

Progressive

Excellent

Location of waste
treatment / disposal
facilities

Minimum
distance of 2
kilometer from
residential area.
Weekly

Minimum distance
of 3 kilometers
from residential
area.
On alternate days

Minimum
distance of 4
kilometer from
residential area.
Daily

Twice a week

On alternate days

Daily

Less than 5
kilometers

Less than 3
kilometers

Less than 2
kilometers

70 % of the
times during a
year.

80 % of the times
during a year.

90 % of the
times during a
year

Record keeping of
quantity of waste
received at treatment
/ disposal facilities
Cleanliness of access
roads
Length of access
road from the main
road to the treatment
/ disposal facility
Observance of the
indicators

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113

Guidance Notes
i.

Treatment:
This would include facilities viz. composting, recycling plants and incinerators.

ii.

Disposal:
It includes landfill sites.

iii.

Location of Treatment / Disposal Facility:


For health and environmental reasons, treatment / disposal facilities are generally kept

at appropriate distance from the residential areas. The location criteria help in countering
NIMBY Syndrome and reduce resistance amongst the people about establishment of
treatment / disposal facility.
iv.

Record keeping of quantity of waste:


A complete record of waste delivery at treatment / disposal sites is maintained to

ensure optimum delivery of solid waste at the designated site. This helps to monitor
operational staff as well as dumping alongside roads and open spaces. The data generated
helps planning extension of land fill sites.

4.10.4 Standard 4: Emergency Response


Local governments will ensure emergency response in case of emergencies to reduce
environmental and health hazards.

Key Indicators
Indicator

Minimum

Progressive

Excellent

Cleaning of roads
after rains / floods /
dust storms during
day time.
Cleaning of roads
after rains / floods /
dust storms during
night.
Removal of animal
waste / offals etc.
during Eid-Ul-Azha.
Observance of the
indicators

Within 8 hours

Within 4 hours

Within 2 hours

Before 12 Noon

Before 9 a.m

Before 7 a.m

Before 12
midnight

Before 9 p.m

Before 6 p.m

75 % of the
times during a
year.

85 % of the times
during a year.

90 % of the
times during a
year.

Guidance Notes
i.

Emergency Response:
Prompt response by a local government in case of emergencies greatly helps in image

building of the agency, as well as improving citizen/customer satisfaction.


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114

ii.

Emergency Arrangements:
Local governments are required to ensure necessary arrangements to meet various

emergencies. This may include provision of additional transport facility for removal of
animal waste / offal during Eid ul Azha.

4.10.5 Standard-5: Awareness Campaigns


Awareness amongst the general public will be created about the 4 Rs of solid waste
management i.e. Reduce, Reuse, Recover and Recycle.

Key Indicators
Indicator

Minimum

Progressive

Excellent

Awareness campaign

Annually

Biannual

Quarterly

Presentation to educational
institutions on solid waste
management

Quarterly

bimonthly

Monthly

Guidance Notes
i.

Awareness:
Creating awareness amongst the people helps in improving their understanding of

sustainable solid waste management. This, in the long run, facilitates the operation of local
government besides positively impacting health and environment.
ii.

Awareness campaign:
These may include leafleting, door stepping, corner meetings, TV commercials,

newspapers, sign boards, presentations in educational institutions, etc.

4.10.6 Standard-6: Customer Services and Complaint Redressal


A rapid response customer services and complaint redressal system for improved service
delivery and customer satisfaction will be established

Key Indicators
Indicator

Minimum

Progressive

Excellent

Timings of Customer
Services Centers
Timings of customer
care centers during
special events like
Eid-Ul-Adha,
Muharram-Ul-Haram
etc.
Redressal of
complaints about
noise, dust, odor,
traffic, appearance

7 a.m. to 3 p.m.

7 a.m. to 7 p.m.

7 a.m. to 11 p.m.

7 a.m. to 7 p.m.

7 a.m. to 11.p.m.

Round the clock

Within 3 months

Within 2 months

Within one
month

Service Delivery and Technical standards for Water Supply and Sanitation Sector

115

Indicator

Minimum

Progressive

Excellent

Within 24 hours

Within 12 hours

Within 2 hours

Within 12 hours

Within 6 hours

Within 4 hours

60 % of the
times during a
year.

75 % of the times
during a year.

90 % of the
times during a
year.

and increase in
vectors from waste
treatment and
disposal facility
Referral time of
complaints to the
concerned
department
Redressal time of
complaints
Observance of the
indicators

Guidance Notes
i.

Customer Services and Complaint Redressal:


An effective customer services and complaint redressal centre results in improved

service delivery and enhanced customer satisfaction. Local governments should try to
maintain a database of complaints received from various localities. This will help them in
planning targeted capital investments.

Service Delivery and Technical standards for Water Supply and Sanitation Sector

116

4.11 MONITORING AND EVALUATION FRAMEWORK


An effective monitoring and evaluation framework is essential to ensure that services
provided by the local governments are in accordance with the standards notified by the HUD &
PHED.

4.11.1 Monitoring:
Monitoring involves collecting information regarding compliance to service delivery
standards and assessing required changes for improvements.

4.11.2 Evaluation:
It is the assessment of the overall impact of service delivery to determine the effectiveness of
the services.
M&E Framework for ensuring effective implementation of Standards and Key Indicators is
provided in the figure below.

The standards key indicators will be prepared in consultation with major stakeholders and
notified by HUD & PHED. This would ensure uniform application of standards throughout the
province. The local governments will adopt one of the three levels of indictors (minimum,
Service Delivery and Technical standards for Water Supply and Sanitation Sector

117

progressive and excellent) in accordance with available resources, socio-economic level of the area
and customer needs.
The local governments will make necessary arrangements for bringing their service levels in
accordance with the adopted standards and indicators. The standards and indictors will be given wide
publicity for awareness of the consumers. At the same time the local governments will also put in
place an effective monitoring and evaluation framework to ensure that services follow standards and
indicators. The monitoring and evaluation framework will also include feedback from the customers,
which will be obtained through customer surveys.
During the implementation if the local governments find that changes are required to be made
in the indicators to suit their local requirements, they will inform the HUD & PHED accordingly.
The HUD & PHED will make necessary changes in the indicators after obtaining feedback of other
stakeholders.

Service Delivery and Technical standards for Water Supply and Sanitation Sector

118

ANNEX-1
LIST OF PERSONS CONTACTED / WHO
CONTRIBUTED TO THE REPORT
HUD & PHE DEPARTMENT:1.

Mr. Khizar Gondal

Secretary, HUD&PHED

2.

Mr. Shabbir Ahmad

Special Secretary, Govt. of the Punjab

3.

Mr. Shabbir Ahmad Qureshi

Chief Engineer (South)

4.

Syed Sajjad Haider Bukhari

Chief Engineer (North)

5.

Mr. Shoukat Ali

Additional Secretary (Tech)

6.

Mr. Zahid Hussain

Project Director,PCWSS Project.

7.

Mr. Abdul Sattar Khan Lillah

Director (A & W)

8.

Mr. Khalid Saeed

Superintending Engineer, PHE Circle,


Lahore

9.

Mr. Nasir Abbas

Assistant Director (Technical)

10.

Mr. Sajjad Ahmad Bhatti

Assistant Director (P&D)

11.

Mr. Shahid Latif

Executive Engineer

12.

Mr. Nasir Iqbal

Executive Engineer

13.

Mr. Khalid Zia Cheema

Executive Engineer

14.

Mr. Zahid Javed

Research Officer, Central Testing Lab.

15.

Hafiz Fateh Muhammad

Jr. Research Officer, Central Testing Lab.

16.

Mr. Shamshad Gohar

Ground Water Specialist, PCWSS Project

17.

Mr. Kevin Taylor

Consultant, PHED

URBAN PLANNING UNIT, GOP, P & D DEPARTMENT:


18.

Dr. Nasir Javed

Project Director

19.

Mr. Abid Hussaini

WSS Specialist, (Consultant)

20.

Mr. Naveed Alauddin

Governance Specialist

21.

Mr. Khalid Majeed

WSS Specialist

COOPERATIVES DEPARTMENT, GOVT. OF THE PUNJAB:


22.

Mr. Mazhar Ali Khan

Secretary, Govt. of the Punjab

PUNJAB MUNICIPAL DEVELOPMNET FUND COMPANY (PMDFC)


23.

Mr. Iftikhar Rasool

General Manger, Engineering, PMDFC

24.

Mr. Muhammad Ashiq

Technical Consultant, PMDFC

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119

REFERENCES

1.

WHO (1971), International Standards for Drinking Water, Geneva.

2.

WHO (1987) EMRO Technical Publication No.10, Wastewater Stabilization Ponds


Principles of Planning and Practice

3.

S. Kapoor, Baljit (Dr.) (1989), Environmental Engineering An Overview

4.

PHED, Design Criteria for Water Supply Sewerage & Drainage Schemes (1998) Lahore
(Pakistan).

5.

Tudor Roade, Freshwater Future, (2003) England.

6.

WHOs Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality, 3rd Edition (2004) World Health
Organization.

7.

PCRWR, Govt. of Pakistan, Water Quality Standards, May (2006)

8.

PCRWR, Govt. of Pakistan, Water Quality Standards, May (2006)

Service Delivery and Technical standards for Water Supply and Sanitation Sector

120