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ballantyne and company,
Paul's wokk.






DEC 10 1S3I



which the

Roman Catacombs have

excited in the minds of our countrymen, espe-


cially of those


who have

visited the Eternal City, has

them with that most full
and accurate information upon the subject which is


us wish to present

contained in the



courses were open to us




either to bring out


a translation from the Italian original, or to
a work of our












whom we

beyond the reach of many
in the






to our readers,

be found to contain as

dimensions would allow


Rossi's tw^o


1864 and 1867,




therefore decided on the plan adopted

believe, will



were most anxious

volume which we now introduce

and which, we


But the

satisfactory course.

and cost of such a work would have put
to benefit.


the most interesting and important

which those volumes contain.



volumes oi

— but






— not only of

Sotterranea, published








papers read by him before learned societies

and elsewhere, and of


his occasional



contributions to



works published by

others, such


the Spicilegium

Solesmense of Cardinal Pitra, &c.

was our intention

one time to have drawn up a


tabulated statement, showing the exact portion of

works from which each part of



had been

but as those works are unhappily without

was not entervolume was taken in hand, some

and the intention referred









three or four years ago,



was found that the benefit


be derived from such a statement would not be likely to
repay the labour of drawing




been thought worth while to retain a number of




ences in the notes, wherever they happened to have been

preserved in our MSS., and either related to some mere
obiter dicta

even by

which might easily have been overlooked

who had





minor works which we

belonged to some of those

have enumerated, and which are






works of our author.

as the larger


more important omission, which will be regretted
by many of our readers, requires a word of explanation.


allude to the Inscriptions on the grave-stones of the



was too large a subject to be
disposed of satisfactorily at the end of a volume already
longer than was desired. Moreover, it would hardly be


either to the subject or to our author, to handle

this question



the second volume of Inscriptiones

on which he

have been published.

That volume

Christian inscriptions of

doctrine and

attempt to put the
coveries in the

at present engaged,







will contain all the

which bear upon Chris-

and should the present


Rossi's wonderful dis-

Catacombs within the reach of English

readers meet with sufficient encourasrement, a similar




— already begun — of his

labours in the fields of

Christian epigraphy will soon follow.

we have

In the arrangement of this volume,


in the main, the order of



the subject


Rossi himself; but to those

altogether new,


a certain departure from this

would do well


we should reThey

to postpone the perusal of the Introduc-

tion, or Literary

History of the Catacombs, until they








of their origin

which contain an


and real

Then the


Introduction would form a suitable link between the
general treatment of the subject in Books




and the more minute examination of one particular
cemetery (San





which forms the subject of


on Christian Art,



in itself.


of course,


two chapters of




great part, taken from the works of Bosio and of Padre




here, however,

are indebted for

many important additions and corrections
Book V. is compiled from
of De Rossi.


to the

that part of

the Commendatore's volumes which was contributed


his brother.

chapter in Book



It is a

development, partly of the

and partly of the second chapter

of this volume.

of our readers this



suspect that to

seem dry and


of the assistance of the


by which we have


certainly indispensable to those


thoroughly into










yet, the


who would go


as to the solidity of the foundation on



numerous plans and

in spite







Its special value lies in the fact of

being an examination of the subterranean excava-

tions themselves,

which are made to bear testimony to

the successive periods of their


7 I'^O

construction, and

it may be well to add that. the first Preface. Book (on St Peter's . is the remainder of Appendix Brownlow. to the fifth chapter of mainly the work of Dr Northcote the text. although both Editors are jointly responsible for the whole volume. IV. is C the work of Easter Tuesday. 1869. in the Mr . thus its conclusions are drawn from a source quite independent of those historical documents which have been the main guide of Gio. and Note Chair). Penally. which we hope may assist our readers in forming a clearer notion both of the history and geography of of the the cemeteries referred to in the course of the work.. Battista de Rossi in all his labours in this field of Christian archaeology- We have prefixed a chronological table and a list Catacombs according to their ancient appellations and their position on the various roads out of Rome.

V)e i).. 248 Cyprian in of Saints Cornelius and the Crypt of St V. Ceiling of citbictihim near the above Century representing in the centre Daniel between the lions. Fresco Lucina (Atlas Tih 3). . . p. VIII. . to St Eusebius.. from Cemetery of Saints Blessed of Second Century in a cttbiciihim of St Priscilla. . . . p. Copy (probably by Pope Vigilius) of Damasine Inscription . p. . . I. 258 Peter . . (i) The (2) The Adoration of the Magi. Fresco tlie Third Century. which is probably the Blessed Virgin (on the walls of this same chamber are painted Plate XIV. 387) from ciibiciihim in Cemetery of Saints Peter and Marcellinus. VII.. ... The pages refer to the passages where they are described or alluded to. II. as originally set .. Damasine Inscription found in Papal Crypt (See Plan L^ Atlas B^ 4). X. . 147 . and Figs.245 the Prophet Isaias.170 IV.LIST OF PLATES AT THE END OF THE VOLUME. . (2) Noe. 255 III.181 painting of Second VI. .. . : 244 the Blessed . cellinus (Bosio. Virgin Mary and . Page Plate. p. . . (i) Lazarus from Cemetery of Saints Peter and MarIX. . Fresco of Moses. Fresco of Jonas. and in the corners the Good Shepherd alternately with a female orantr. . 257 . The same. I. 449). . a Fresco of . from a aibictihini near to Area VI. . 14 and 19). 359). Frescoes from Bosio : (i) Good Shepherd and Virgin with Birds (Bosio. and Marcellinus. .. (2) 255 241 247 Three Children from Cemetery of St Hermes (Bosio. Do. . 170 up by St Damasus. found in his Crypt (Atlas. 565).. . from Cemetery of St Agnes (Bosio. .

of 297 300 . from the same ciibicuhim Mass symbolically depicted A3(seeXIIL). position with them. (3. Second Century. XIX.. 284 287 : Blessed Virgin between Saints Peter and Paul. (i) Bronze Medal of Saints Peter and Paul. {2) Atlas — : 6t/i Orpheus and Fisherman my sweet Furia. from cubiaihim A3.. A description will be found at the end of the Volume. itself.. from cubiachcm A2. from cubiculum A3.. Epitaph of Longliaiius.. where it is painted between XL i and XIV. . 285 286 .. on either side of the doorway of aihnn A4.... 269 in 224 .. Christ and the Apostles under symbol of 147 Good Shepherd. cubicidiivi \?. Third Century. .. XL (i) Sacrifice of Isaac. from ceiling of 214 in cubicuhwi 266 must have appeared in the time of St Damasus. Area VII. Second Century. Sarcophagus found at St Paul's on Via Ostiensis. restored by De Rossi from fragments found Crypt. 199 cithi- aihim A2. buried on the April. now (2) St . 270 the symbol of Orpheus. as in the XVI. XVII. Agnes with two Doves. in Vatican Library. Eucharistic Symbols. in the with Plate IV. Papal 272 the Fisher of Souls. XI I L The Eucharistic Feast.. in Vatican Library... Gilded Glasses from the Catacombs (i) . forming one com- XIV..— — List of Plates. Fresco of Second Century..Lateran XX... painted in the lunette of an arcosolmm. same 4) Fossors painted age. in Pro- paganda Museum. holy soul. same cubiculum 237 3). of First or (2) Gilded Glass of St Peter as Moses. (3) Paralytic carrying his Bed on the same wall with 2. Vlll Page Plate. XVIII. 3. (2) The same subjects.. (2) Our Lord under from cubicnhtin A3. lb.. . (3) Sacrifice of the of Eucharist.. 265 lb.. Crypt it . (i) Symbol (2) Cemetery of St Lucina as Plate VI. 300 Sarcophagi with Pagan Sculptures used by Christians in .. (see Atlas. ... ages of persecution (i) Dolphins. XIL (i) The Smitten Rock and Holy . in Museum. . probably to- wards end of Third Century. found in Cemetery of St Domitilla. from cubi- .... XV.

9. Blastiamts. adjoin- ing that described in p. Plan of arenai'ia immediately above the Catacomb of St Agnes. Sepulchral Stone found in a Catacomb on Via Latina. Chamber 7. 13. two Chambers Marcellinus-and Peter. 6... 14. '3^ Saints . peace with thee ! 103 a to the very ancient ones in St Pris- . 2. . Fresco of Vine on Ceiling of Cemetery of St Domitilla. 16.LIST OF WOODCUTS.. Epitaph of St Januarius by Pope Damasus. engraved upon herd. it) 72 . found O .. . General view of the Gallery of a Catacomb with Graves. 225). .. St Fabian.. . with Chairs and Bench in out of the solid tufa. Second Century. . Catacomb of 29 . and St Eutychianus. . Fresco of the Baptism of our Lord . . 15. Epitaphs of Popes St Antheriis.. 30 cut .30 . 71 First Cemetery of St Pretextatus. form of Epitaph similar cilla. closes a loculus in a very ancient part of the 73 79 which Lower Gal- . of entrance to Cemetery of St Domitilla. in 26 28 . St Lucius.118 described under in the cubiculuni 119 Fig. Stone (having a Lamb. Chamber in Cemetery of St Domitilla. .. . 109 .. . Catacomb of St Agnes. Table-tomb. 4. Painted Century. with inscription. • • • ^37 . .. (described lery of . and Good Shep- the P'ish.... and Anchor engraved on still in p. . h(i7iinare giving light to View .. in aibiailuvi of St Lucina. . Sarcophagus. . 3. . First 11. Epitaph of Pope Cornelius. . Remains of 12. 5. .34 .82 Area of St Lucina. .... Via Ardeatina. . Page Fig.80 . called also sepolcro or loado a mensa. . '55 . it . Monogram.. 225... 10. Dove. . . 1. . in very ancient ciibiciihim of St Lucina. Two 15. Plan of part of that Catacomb from Padre Marchi. the — explained in page 213. A 8. . having arcosoliiivi. Fi-esco of Daniel in Century.. General appearance of an . . Sheep with Milk-pail.

arcosolhini in the Fresco of .. in . .. 230 Monogram of . 250 Child in Catacomb of St Agnes. from Catacombs of Alexandria.... . . .. in five . . . veiled and clothed in tunic and pallium. . 18. in Monogram . . 25. 290 35. and intended for Sabbatia . . . .. where they C^ now 2). 7). ... 1864. is a like- wise containing bodies. the runs evidently the 232 N an error towards the end. ignorant of letters. First or . 166 Fig. ornamented with unfinished figure of the deceased.221 Sepulchral Stone from ancient Christian Cemetery at Modena. T)Tf. being one of those in each of the four corners of a atbiaihim in Saints Peter and Marcellinus.185 Good Shepherd in centre of Ceiling of the adjoining . Monogram and Doves) on an Cemetery of St 20. described in p. . . . Syrens. Fragments of Glass Paten found . 257 Gilded Glass. . with a books at his feet roll book of a — described in his in p. 299.. of is original lANNIIIAENSV. with at 225 with Shepherd's Crook and Milk-pail. Fresco of the 32. months. . Different forms of the Cross and 28. .. . . is Second Century. . in Vatican Museum. 27. 22. . . "Sabbatia. ..261 . 23. Fresco of Doves from the cicbiatlian in which rupt in 1599.. and Doves plucking Inscription found in Crypt of St Lucina.. 223 Fresco of Lamb with Palm and Milk-pail. still at Cologne. and a box of At either end This and two other sarcophagi. . v. ... . . a. close to the staircase in ..201 Chamber. Area VII. Hi. of Christ. 24. Page Fig.213 Frescoes of Gospel Stories illustrating the Holy Eucharist.157 ... by Maderna. Crypt of St Lucina.. (Atlas. .d. . Soteris. with and Sculpture representing Grapes. were found in the aibiciilian. are. . 207 Another Epitaph from the same. 26. with Saint Peter as Moses. Epitaph from very ancient part of Catacomb of St Priscilla. 21. . Fresco of Lamb Catacomb of St Domitilla. B^ San 238 Lateran Mu- Callisto. . who mens. for . sliepherd with a dog. .. . Statue of St Cecilia. . from very ancient part of 29.. found beneath the floor of atbiaihim Q^ (Atlas.. Sarcophagus found Tyranio.." 30. Madonna and up and lived three years into Heaven..... who had 17.. Sarcophagus with Pagan Good Shepherd... Sarcophagus. containing the body of a man. . . 225 . . the as II. vSculpture of Elias being taken seum. 14.X List of Woodc2Lts. Ulysses There . .. 294 . and Cupid and Psyche part of Fourth Century. seen her body incor- SABBATIAOVEVIXI work of a stone-cutter qme vixit ami. 298. hand. early 31. Inscription (with 19. 287 34.. ..

. . representing Christ between Sts. 75.. .. Part of Wall of Gallery of St Hermes. Fourth or Fifth Century.. Section of Gallery in St Hermes. St Peter's Chair... 39.. 342 ... Elevation of inner Wall of Ambulacrum C in Ambulacrum A. . 353 353 354 389 ERRATUM.... Elevation of outer Wall of 47.. representing Priscilla.. 347 ..- Tacitus Hist. Hist..List of WoodaUs. Fourth Period of Excavation 52. vSt 44. 312 : : -341 . -307 Spandrils of arches on Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus. Damasus. 323 324 332 Plan of principal Area of St Callixtus.. Bethlehem Lamb. 349 Union with a second Area. 336 Section of the Cemetery of St Callixtus. Section of Galleries. 40.. Peter and Paul as . Sarcophagus representing the Passion. Excavation. Plan of part of Catacomb of St 43. of in . . whence flow the four .. 65. . 345 . Fig. .. Second Period of Excavation.. . Glass in the Vatican Library. 37. Section of Secret Staircase into Arenarium.. 4. . 45. .. 329 . Note Ixxii. . Fifth Period 53. filled . in the First Period of : 323 . . and also Christ as the Lambs — Jews and the Faithful Gentiles coming from Jerusalem and Mount to {Becle) Sion. . united in the Mystical Jordan. A. . Lateran Museum. . 343 with ... Last Period of Excavation 55. 41. : 316 Callixtus. 48.. Section of Gallery supported by brickwork.. (*). 51. 49. . . 36. 359.. made when Works old ones were of St 340 .. read Dio Cass. Gilded Glass in the Louvre Collection. xl Page ./f'. D. . In page 37. . 46.. 38.. . 54. .. . Evangelical Streams. it. Connexion with Arenarium.. . 42.. Galleries earth. . Third Period 50... iii.


CLETUS. to the Via Salaria. CLAUDIUS II. Via Appin. Via Appia. PIUS I. CAIUS.) hi Grcecia.. hi cocmeterio Callixti. MARCELLINUS.. In coemeterio Callixti in crypta. VALERIAN. Via Salaria. the Popes' accession are given. Juxta corpus B. Petri in Vaticano. M. 235 ANTHEROS. .D. juxta ccemet. 283 284 290 . . GALERIUS M. . 236 238 244 250 FABIANUS. Petri.. AURELIUS. PETER. In cceinet. DOMITIAN. TRAJAN. Jtcxta corpus B. . Callixti. NUMERIANCARINUS. Lucince. hi cocmeterio suo juxta ccein. . 311 MELCHIADES. A. inilliario VII. EUTYCHIANUS. In cocmeterio Callixti Via Appia (?) see p. . URBAN 230 PONTIANUS. 177 180 COMMODUS. . Juxta corpus B. . . 70 79 81 . . EVARISTUS. . ANICETUS. Petri in Va ticano. coemeterio Callixti. 312 Peace given Chnrch. DIOCLETIAN. 218 222 . ANACLETUS. Via Appia. . 253 254 257 259 268 270 274 LUCIUS. . inilliario III. MAXIMIN. .. in cocmeterio Priscillce. Juxta corpus B.. Petri in Vaticano. SIXTUS I. . Petri in Vaticano. milliario III. cametcrio Callixti. . FLORIAN. In coemeterio Callixti. AURELIAN. in In 171 In hi In STEPHEN. In coemeterio Callixti. . ALEXANDER. TACITUS.4XIMIAN. PLACE OF BURIAL. Jjixta corpus B. rio Callixti V) see page 141. the dates of the ROMAN EMPERORS.. Via Appia. . 303 309 MARCELLUS. Juxta corpus B. . HELIOGABALUS. Edict of Milan. Via cceineterio Callixti. EUSEBIUS. Via Appia. via A urclia.e. . Via Appia. SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS. HYGINUS. . Petri in Vaticaninn. CLEMENT. ht Vaticano jtixta Palatiiiin Jjixta corpus B. MACRINUS. cceineterio Prcetextati. Callixti Via Appia. in cuhiculo claro. . VICTOR. Via Appia. Juxta corpus B. . Via Noinentana. NERO. In coetneterio Priscillce.. 211 215 CALLIXTUS. in the Crimea. 67 leni. GORDIAN. In cocmeterio Callixti. TELESPHORUS.. .. and the place of their burial according Emperors are only proximately exact. . VITELLIUS VESPASIAN. PROBUS. Via Appia. Appia.ige 141. In cocmeterio Callixti in crypta. . . Petri in Vaticano. OTHO. . FallofJcrHsaTITUS. FELIX. '.. .'] . Via Salaria. . CONSTANTINE MAXENTIUS.. ALEXANDER. Petri iti Vaticatio.. ccenieterio Callixti... . In coemeterio Priscillce. hi hi .. GALLIENUS. H. .. 314 SYLVESTER. being In crypta. CORNELIUS. CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE. SIXTUS II. . Juxta corpus B. . I. . PHILIP. [in basilica. Petri in Vaticanutn. basilica Via A urelia milliario II. {i. . CARACALLA. . ' 93 q5 98 103 ITO 117 120 127 138 142 156 161 168 . hi cceineterio Calepodii.. 193 197 ELEUTHERUS. . . . . . ... . CONSTANTINE. ZEPHYRINUS. POPES. GALLUS. The dates (if Pontijjcnlis . prcedio B. to the Lihej' Neroniannm. Juxta corpus B. Petri in Vaticano. after brought back fiom Sardinia. ANTONINUS PIUS. .. . ! SOTER.. .ADRIAN. coemeterio Callixti. . First Persecution. NERVA. GALEA. DIONYSIUS. LINUS...

Petroniila. Domiti'Jas. Processi et Mar- 41 Aurelia. 3 SALARIA NOVA. CLIVUS CUCUMERIS. SALARIA VE-) S. Ad 15. SS. Hermetis. S. S. Joannis. ' Tombs Church. S. . Balbinae sive 39. Hermetis. Sepulcrum SS. pp). S. FLAMINIA. Commodillse. Proti. Pauli Apostoli in praedio Lucinse. CORNELIA. . Liicinse. S. Felicis via Portuensis. ON THE VARIOUS ROADS. et Hyacinthi. et Achillei. iii . SS. . Basillee. Valeriani. 5. ARDEATINA. S. 12. u-r Century. SS. et 3. Or. 6. SS. 40. 13. Jannarii. ad Giiulum. Valentini. Urbani. et Quirini. S.. S. Marci et 38. Hilariae in horto ejusdein. Csecilise. S. S. GREATER CEMETERIES. Tiburtii. Marce!- liani. TUS. Sebastiani. Isolated in 4th Time of the Peace of the Martyrs. 7. AURELIA. Felicis et Adaucti . Constructed after Names Primitive Names. Basil'a:. Anastasii. 31. Marci. Petronillae. Maximi. . S. S. Nerei. Xysti et Cornelii. 1 Abdon et Sennen. SS. Agatha. / •I 10. Maximi. Ponntiani ad P ileatum. mill. SS. 29. 35. 32. santi et Darise. SS. Xysti. SS. S. Julii via Aurelia. Basilei. Thec'se. Pamphyli. Zenonis 30- i PORTVENSIS. Pancratii. Felicissimi Aj^apiti. Callisti via Aurelia. . SS. ROADS. . Januarii. Memori A Petri Apostoli et sepultura. Ad Septem Columbas. OSTIENSIS. S Calepodii. Chrj' 34. 4. iirsumf . Coemeterium Novella. of peace. 27. Felicitatis. MENTIONED IN ANCIENT HISTORICAL RECORDS. APPIA. caput S. g. episcoporum in Va- ticano. Julii via Portuensi. Ecclesia S.Ecclesia S. Ecclesia S. Coemeterium thei in horto TimoTheo- nis.. . Damasi. 14. Ad Catacumbas. LESSER CEMETERIES CEMETERIES . Crypta 33. Callixti <r- I. / S.LIST OF CEMETERIES. Innocentii. . Felicis via S. tiniani. pp. S. Soteridis.

ATINA. Tertullini. S. LESSER CEME- CEMETERIES TERIES. Coemeterium O vel triani. Priscillse. S. Hippoiyti. 42. In Comitatu sive SS. Century. Isolated Tombs of Martyrs. Coemeterium S. SS. { S. in 4th Time Thrasonis. . S.ABICANA. Silvestri. f •1 S. . . Alexandri. 36. . SS. S. Quatuor Coronatorum. 21. S. . Ni- coniedis. Petri. Tiburtii. Gordiani. Quinti. 26. SS. Laurentii. Agnetis in ejusdem 37. List of Cemeteries — Coiitiiiiied. 19. Eugenia. S. Ad Duas . Ad Nymphas •1 Fontis majii'^. Virginnm. Ostrinnum S. GREATER CEMETERIES. Ccemeterium S. . Lauros. Marcelli.. . . Castuli. ROADS. •{ . Petri- agello. achi. Aproniani. Ale. SS. Gordiani et Epimt 24 '\ \ 25. 1 Primitive i6. Petri et Marceilini. . LTBURTINA. 23 S. Jordanoiuni.xandri. 'C 17. Vitalis et Martialis et VII. of Peace. 18.XV List of Cemeteries. Gorgonii. Simplicii et Servi Quarti et Hani. et Sophise. Constructed after the Peace of the Church. S. • S. Cyriacse. . Names Names. Or. ^OMENTANA. Saturnini. S. 20. • S. &c. 22.

Marangoni. Buonarrotti. and Bottari eighteenth century— Christian Museum the Vatican— D'Aginwork and devastations— Padre Marchi — De Rossi Follows system of Bosio — His sources of information. and value and general arrangement — Sad Catacombs — At length prevented by destruction of antiquities the Popes — Protestant notices of Catacombs —-John Evelyn — Burnet and Misson— Fabretti custode of Catacombs— Succeeded by Boldetti — Works of Boldetti. i II. Sotterranea — Its discovery fifteenth century by Franciscan friars— and by and companions his — In —Visited Ppmppnio Leto 1578 visited by Baronius — Researches De Winghe. — The Martyrologium Hieronymianum— Its value and antiquity Almanac of Furius Dionysius Filocalus InscripLiber Pontificalis Martyrologies Acts tions of Pope Damasus — of martyrs. PART Modern Authors. Page in life and — Immense learning and industry— His labour the Catadanger— Posthumous publication of combs and Roma success — terranea. of oka • L ORIGIN OF THE CATACOMBS. Catacombs Their number and names Their origin and purpose. — Roma I. his . CHAPTER — — General Description. . their importance even when Itineraries of pilgrims in seventh century at Monza vSt — Papyrus Gregory the Great. and Macarius— Bosio — His of Ciacconio. and distinctions from sand-pits or ai'enaricc Explanation of terms — — i? . Position and extent of I. PART Ancient Records. BOOK — of doubtful authenticity — in time of — — — . list .— — CONTENTS. labours in Sot- his its Its its in in in court. INTRODUCTION.

. . — First persecution— Domitian — Nerva— -Tra- — Insecure position of Christians even under tolerant . — their rules in easily First edict expressly against Christian cemeteries Valerian. members persons of noble rank. by the ordinary privileges of sepulchres protected Roman tombs— Even times of persecution in places readily adapted for Christian appurtenances — Catacombs — Roman cemeteries— Their originally limited by the burial- size size and of the and customs — Funeral confraternities — Might have been made use of by Christians as a safeguard — Instance of this having been done superincumbent area. as in St Eucina Rome. CHAPTER III. xvii — Different kinds of tombs —The Catacombs places of pilgrimage were removed — Their abandonment and the Page as until re- relics discovery in sixteenth century. . . of some of the Catacombs — Papal — — Apostolic crypt on the Vatican St Priscilla on the Via Salaria St Paul's on the Via Ostiensis Cemetery of Ostrianus or Fons Petri Signs of antiquity CemeEntrance and arrangement tery of St Domitilla— Its description — Character of its paintings — — — — Evidences of Apostolic antiquity Description of the very ancient cemetery of St Pretextatus on the Via Appia— Its architecture— Tomb of St Januarius— Plis epitaph — Damasine characters Tomb of St Quirinus Alexander on the Via Xomenlana. CHAPTER origin I. . . . . '35 . by Emperor -45 . Greeks and Scattered notices of them in Pagan authors The Flavii its Flavins Clemens. -5^ CPIAPTER Beginning of the Catacombs. cemeteries —^Jewish Catacombs— Christians did not burn — Christian cemeteries small and but buried them vate — Examples of these very early cemeteries. in . their entire First pri- . The Roman Church in Apostolic times — comprised among — '25 . .— —— Contents. burial- places. . Roman Laws and Custoj^is — Christian affecting Burial. Roman Jews . — Catacomb of St . CHAPTER Social and Religious Position of the First Christians. II. IV. b . — Roman — contrasted with Christian extra-mural Their character as dead. BOOK . the Pomponia Grecina — Their — — Flavia position — At and martyr consul political Domitilla first confused with the Jews. . . and protected as a sect of a legalised religion Proscribed by Nero jan and Pliny princes. HISTORY OF THE CATACOMBS. -63 . II. . The Catacombs in the First Ages.

83 From the Edict of Milan to the Sack of III. 537 Repaired and cared for by the popes First translation of Afterwards by relics from Catacombs. • . . ment.110 II. . — — The Catacombs — — Paschal I. IV. d. in in to to latter. BOOK . CATACOMB OF ST CALLIXTUS.d. 410 until their Final Abandonabandoned as burial-places -Still frequented as shrines— Profaned by the Goths under Vitiges.— Public Chmtian — Cemetery of St Callixtus — Under the pontificate of St Zephyrinus — Burial-place of the popes — Other public ceme— Edict of Valerian against the Christian cemeteries — Martyrdom of St Sixtus and St Laurence — Cemeteries restored Pope Dionysius — Necessity of concealment — Christians attacked cemeteries — Martyrdoms them — Used as hiding-places Their condition from Aurelian Diocletian — Confiscated by the and restored by Maxentius St Melchiades — Parishes or of Rome — Each had own cemetery — Their administration— Reflections upon portion of cemeterres teries to II. .— Difficulties of mapping theCata- CHAPTER . both in Pagan and Christian Its cemeteries and shrines described by ancient in or near the — Catacomb of St Callixtus writers Rome- — Those — Basilica of St Sebastian The temporary resting-place of the bodies of St Peter and St Paul Their translation Erroneous medieval inscriptions in the — — — Catacomb beneath this basilica Proof that the Catacomb of St — Callixtus is not there— Discoveiy of the crypt of St Cornelius And of the Papal crypt. — Pre-emi- nence of the Via Appia. places — Total cessation -95 Rome by Alaric.d. Its Discovery and Identification. a. CHAPTER I.d. titles ecclesiastical its their history. a.— Distinction of the several parts of the Catacomb of St Callixtus. . TO Constantine's Edict of Peace. a.d. cemeteries^ saint after CHAPTER From . 756. a. a. . . . xviii Page CHAPTER From the beginning of the Third Century II. III. . by Paul I. 410. 410. and other Popes Origin of the — — Final abandonment of Catacombs name Catacomb. — Gradual disuse of subterranean — Basilicas of the martyrs — Care of St Damasus for the Catacombs — His labours and inscriptions — Catacombs as places of pilgrimage — Described by St Jerome — Also by Prudentius — Damage caused by indiscreet devoScene on the festa of a tion and private interment — Rapid disuse of Catacombs as buriala.d. . this CHAPTER . 312.— ——— Contents.104 .

CHAPTER — Identification . • . . and also one by Pope Siricius. . III.— — — xix Contents. . — General appearance of chamber— History of St Cecilia — Her martyrdom and burial Her body discovered and translated by Paschal I. . . — Overcome by Michele de Rossi — Several different arecB of cemeteries originally independent — Crypt of St Lucina — Belonged originally the Gens Ccecilia — Who w^as St Lucina — Characarea —The central area of St Callixtus — Another of subsequently added to — Cemeteries of St Soteris and of Page combs ? to this teristics a7'ea it St Balbina. . II. . I20 . . 130 IV. . Crypt of St Cecilia. • ^S^ — EpriAPH of St Eusebius. . century— Inscription explained lost . . in tomb of St Cecilia. restored by De Rossi Fresco of St Cornelius and St Cyprian. page of history of the ponti- . .— Crypt of St Eusebius inscription found there — Which had — Fragments of a Damasine been restored — Its ficate of St CHAPTER to in the sixth or seventh importance as supplying a Eusebius. — Inscription Saints Parthenius and Calocerus — Labyrinth connecting the cemetery of St Callixtus with the crypts of St Lucina— Family of St Cornelius^ How his epitaph came to be in Latin instead of Greek His sepulchre described — Damasine inscription there.166 The Sepulchre of St Cornelius. . Found in- CHAPTER this — — corrupt. . graffiti . its date and peculiarities — Another Pillar near tomb of St Cornelius of St Sixtus and St Oplatus — — 6'ra^// on :h.— The Papal Crypt. CHAPTER plaster lations . . .Vi. . piaster.— Pls entrance— 6'n7#// on the Of three kinds Mere names —-Prayers and pious ejacu- — — — Invocations the crypt itself of saints — Their antiquity — Examination of — Ancient altar — Original epitaphs of popes of third — Burial of bishops at that period — Rarely. h. '175 . . VI. 1590 —-Examined by Cardinals Baronius and Sfron- — Statue by Maderna from the body — Critical examination of the crypt — discovery and excavation — paintings and drati itself Its Its other decorations scriptions and of St Cecilia \ii V. by inand correction of the Acts the crypt— Saints depicted on of the — Verification — Alterations made lumiiian'. but sometimes their own churches — Popes buried in this cemetery — Pontianus — Anteros — Fabian — Lucius Zephyrinus —-Urban martyred in Catacomb of St Pretextatus Eutychianus — Sixtus century away from I. . . — Inscription Pope Damasus concerning of it —-Has been erro- — Caius —Traces of Diocletian persecution cemetery — Tomb of Melchiades — Inscription by Pope Damasus Papal crypt — Vast number of martyrs menneously applied to St Stephen in this vSt in tioned in itineraries not improbable.

g. Page CHAPTER Antiquity and Original Types of Christian I. . as in acts of St Perpetua and by its different forms and disguises The St Augustine —-The cross ings in a — monogram 'CHAPTER . or an anchor — Fish and explained of the Holy Eucharist by St Au- gustine and the rest of the Fathers — Confii-med by epitaphs of St — Similar paint- Abercius and of Autun. — Opinions of D'Agincourt. and importance of conclusion by milk in very ancient frescoes.. : Biblical Paintings.. of treat- — Noe in Pagan type—Jonas — The ivy or gourd — Daniel 233 . — In apostolic times by no means confined themselves to Pagan models.) a dove... fish a type of the resurrection .. as was supposed. and confined in ment . CHRISTIAN ART. Paintings. — : its : successive modifications. The vine— 71ie wise many give the key to and foolish virgins The Good Shepherd its frequency and vaIII.. Raoul Rochette. and by monuments of — art Catacomb of Alexandria Summary of evidence on this Holy Eucharist symbolised subject. — Christ represented as Orpheus and Division of our subject. the Good Shepherd — Symbolism i86 explained and their abuse Sheep and dove of living and Rules for interpreting symbolical representations —The anchor a symbol of hope — deceased Christians — Dove joined with other symbols — The ils symbolical use confined to ages of persecution of Christ and of a Christian-— Origin of — Instances of ments of — Used with a ship..——— — — XX Co7itents. in fact. CHAPTER — Symbolical II.-— Subjects taken Scripture are but few in number. Art.. &c.. — Letters on garments and choice of of early history of Christian art Christian artists — The its mono- subject. IV. art its bread (St John its — A symbol fish : both use as symbol of Christ use by the Fathers in this sense and in monu- xxi. rious forms CHAPTER — — Explanation of Plate XVI. not copied from and the .. BOOK IV. frojn holy mode being. locality. from the discovery of two Gnostic cemeteries . symbolical rather than historical the ark typical of baptism. introduction and prevalence gram — Evidence — Sketch from style. 202 — Allegorical Paintings Parables of our Lord of these paintings e. and others on the antiquity of Christian paintings — De Rossi claims a very high and even apostolic antiquity for many of the frescoes in the Catacombs — Protestant testimony to the same effect The birth of Christian art— Its progress checked by persecution Explanation of the canon of the Council of Elvira against pictures in churches — — — Means of distinguishing the dates of paintings — The nimbus.

figure in is fre- quently represented with the adoration of the Magi. — — Gilded glasses Vatican — Description of these glasses others — Two found recently Catacombs in Museum — In England and elsewhere —-Their discovery by Bosio and — The at making them known only in Rome. and practised there only in the third and fourth centuries Subjects Pagan Social and domestic ^Jewish But depicted on them most frequently Christian Description of some of these BibliFigures of saints Most favourite subject is Saints cal subjects Cologne art of — — Peter and Paul — — — — — Probably used — at — — the feast of these apostles. or of the Blessed Virgin —The 239 Holy Mother. CHAPTER No real portrait of Christ..——— — xxi Contents.. as a of the Church — Remarkable fresco of her Catacomb of St Agnes— She tures. sculp- and glasses — Sometimes. .. in Catacomb of St Priscilla Its second century . always three —-Very who are nearly ancient painting of the Blessed Virgin and — date of the — Other paintings of Our Lady. the Catacombs. and the paralytic carrying his bed Holy Eucharist — Consecrating priest clothed in paUiiun only — Church represented by a woman praying Answers to objections Sacrifice of Isaac explains the companion scene Resurrection — of Lazarus forms a conclusion to the series teachers and of fossors — Other CHAPTER — Series liturgical paintings in Various articles found in the of probably drawn out by aitthority Catacomb of St Gilded Gl/sses found VII. Page of the and the resurrection of Lazarus striking the rock. perhaps. and — Historical paintings extremely rare Lord described by Kiigler ing —These subjects probably chosen by Paintings of Christ. St Joseph.. 251 in series — Made in second and third century — Description them— Explained by Tertullian — Baptism under figures of the papal crypt of smitten rock. THE Saints... . — Moses taking — Adoration in Catacombs — A bust of our saints generally represented pray- — The Blessed Virgin as an orante in Catacomb paintings. — —^Jonas— Painting in Priscilla. off his shoes ecclesiastical authority. His V. a fisherman. — Liturgical paintings are necessarily very rare — Remarkable of them cubicula near Child with Isaias. and the three children Magi — Moses . &c. illustrated by sarcophagi and fresco paintings represented — — 262 . in the den of lions. which was very solemnly observed at Rome in the fourth century Eighty glasses have these apostles on them Inscriptions round them Ancient portraits of the apostles Valuable bronze medal — — — " of them found in cemetery of St Domitilla — — — They are variously on glasses Sometimes to symbolise the Roman Church with St Agnes and other saints St Peter under the type Large of Moses. CHAPTER VL Liturgical Paintings.

. VIII. St Peter's denial. the sacrifice of Isaac. heal- — Sarcophagus with — Sculpture of the Agape— ing of the blind and paralytic. having figures of Mary and Lazarus. Npli me tangere pallium its and the subjects on the arches it..... St Peter's in glory. and scenes from the Passion . subjects — Sarcophagi. Christian subjects were not sculptured on sarcophagi. The sarcophagi in the Lateran Museum Large one from St Paul's described and explained representation of the Holy Trinity The fall The adoration of the — — Magi : — — — Christ giving sight to the blind — Eucharistic — symbols Lazarus— St Peter in three scenes Daniel among and the prophet Habacuc Small statues of the Good Resurrection of — the lions. BOOK 295 V. for obvious reasons — But Christians selected from Pagan shops those them — Pastoral scenes — TJie Good Shepherd subjects which suited — Instances of such subjects as Cupid and Psyche. the smitten rock. and Ulysses and the Syrens — Orpheus.. which once contained the relics of the Holy Innocents. Testimony of the Catacombs to their Chris- tian Origin. Sarcophagus under a canopy. CHAPTER I. St Peter as Moses. and — Sculpture of Elias ascending into heaven— The —The Nativity— Sarcophagus of Junius Kassus. THE TESTIMONY OF THE CATACOMBS THEMSELVES. with history of Jonas.^'//^— Sarcophagus fall. let into the glass — Whether Page these . sur- denial. Daniel. xxii with small medallions pateitcE. date. and other and St Mary (r/^?/. ? — Glass patens and their use 275 — Christian use of cophagi dates from apostolic times — Tomb of St Petronilla and of was not a common mode of burial — During the ages St Linus — CHAPTER Christian Sarcophagi. representing Christ rounded by the apostles.//. sar- It of persecution.— — — Contents. — Sarcophagus. — Statue of canon paschalis especially the lambs in the spandrils of St Hippolytus — Of the third century — . and Zaccheus labaj'um. &c. with Cain and Abel... — Scope of as burial-places work — Catacombs used — Pagan inscriptions them this part of the by none but Christians accounted for— Their Christian origin — in first vindicated by Padre Marchi First proof the nature of the rock in which the Catacombs are excavated— The various volcanic strata of the Roman : . glasses have been used for chalices in the third century.. Plis — Note on the comparative frequency of the various subjects sculptured.. the Magdalene — Cover with sheep carrying Shepherd Noe. Moses receiving tlie law.

. . St Cornelius Chrysanthus and Daria cilla — 5. — 3. 102). Historical Notices of 3. . . Note Note Note . Note F. (p. CHAPTER III. 22). — The finding of the body of St Hyacinth — The Acts of St Cecilia C— St Peter's Chair A. and distance from the — On high ground —Excavated tufa grainilare— Systems of chapter city in galleries. in the Cemetery of Ostri- anus. 184). . Description of the Chair in the Vatican. 401 . . . connexion with arenariiini — Union with a second area previously — Fourth period ar— Fifth period: earthing up of during the Diocletian crypts of the Popes and of St Cecilia level of galleries lowered — Third tried. to identify the .. Another Chair of St Peter . viz. . 379 387 .. 2. another each horizontal. . tlie rule. Note D. apparent . xxiii Page Campagna — Second proof: the form of the Catacombs as con- — Instance of arenariunt — Grounds of the theory examined — Meaning of the term trasted with that of pozzokxna quarries Hermes converted into the Catacomb of St of their Pagan origin stated and ciypttB ai'e/iarice which seem — the case of — Examination i. The two Feasts of St Peter's Chair. &c. B. Analytical Description of the Plan of the most important Area of the Catacomb of St Callixtus. — INDEX. 399 . 1.388 . .— The origin of the pallium (p. one below — Section of geological strata— Mode of excavation — Dif- ferent periods to be distinguished area in which are the in the — First period— Second period: period a deeper piano signs of necessity concealment. — These on Via Appia. . . : for distinct : galleries cosolia persecution— Sixth period earth — Last formation of small galleries upon this — works of St Damasus Recapitulation and development of catacombs generally. though in different flats. Note G. .. . — 4. 15). . . . — Description of the Atlas accompanying this volume. OF TiiEiR Construction and Development. . 310). 68). . Scope of this — — Locality of Christian cemeteries. (p. . ancient records in The Quattro Coronati 2. .— Burial near the sepulchres of saints (p. • 3^7 CHAPTER Testimony of the Catacombs to the mode II. . 4. 404 406 409 .—— — Contents. 333 period application to : : . it. Note E. exceptions prove of passages arenatiw with the Catacombs. in Saints St Crescentianus in cemetery of Pris- St Hippolytus. . 360 APPENDIX. (p.. . Altars in the primitive church (p.


.?^ It is true that the man who was destined to be the first thoroughly to explore and describe this city of the dead.. came unexpectedly on an old subterra- nean cemetery.College) on the Via Salaria. ON the day of May. Sotterranear men whose old. discovery at once attracted universal attention. sufficed to keep alive the Sott. ornamented with Christian paintings.INTRODUCTION TO ROMA SOTTERRANEA LITERARY HISTORY. and two or three sculptured sarco- The phagi. Rom. unknown beginning now cities. her. " at " Rome finding "was born name and the that concealed beneath understand what she had before only heard or read of:" and "in that day." says Rossi. last who were a. and persons of amazed. Discovery. 'some labourers. A Sot- . was the knowledge of De i?^. 1578." writes she had other own her classes all a flocked to see contenjporary author. digging pozzolaiia in a vineyard (now the '^'^' '^' property of the Irish . MODERN A UTHORS.d. was as yet only three years ing Of Roma terranea. Greek and Latin inscriptions. to to it. ITS PART I. p.'"' learning but even then there were not want- and industry * Bosio. 511. suburbs. about two miles out of Rome.

the first class must be reckoned certain Franciscan friars. who saw them were either men of reliby motives of piety.) with twenty brethren of the Sicily. in 1467. ^^ ^^^^ week in which Pope Nicholas V. have made any study of what he saw.) May (MCCCCLXVII. Paul IL. attracted Among enthusiasm only for what was Pagan. January 17th. . certainly none ever or Fe7'serutatoi'cs wrote about Pomponio ^ ^' • yet not even it. and at various intervals Karlier visits during half a century. order of Friars Minor. The other class of visitors whom we have alluded belonged to the same period. Another visit was " made in 1455. one. of objects had been seen in another vineyard on the opposite side friars. holy place. with the addition of their title as Unanimes a7itiquitatis A7natores. but were men of a very different character. JV.Literary Histoiy of Roma Sotte^^ranea. will remember how these men fell fif- into disgrace with the Sovereign Pontiff. of the citv . or men of learning. with but those gion. the same. his associates in the famous Roman to and Roman / cacemicians.) est pp. entered with a large party. however. may Still be read in several places of the same quarter of the Catacombs. abbot of St Sebas- magna {euj?i eomitiva. one of these seems ever to . written there by themselves. first of these charges was their One pedantic conceit of taking old Pagan classical names m place of their Christian ones but it has always been a matter of controversy how far the charge of conspiracy was really supported by evidence. An V. whose visits to the Catacomb of St Callixtus between the years 1432 and 1482 are recorded in by scribblings on the walls of two or three " one quarter of that cemetery." (hebdomada qua defuntus tian's 19th. Those who are familiar with the literary history of the teenth century. Not &c. The names of Pomponio Leto and Other littei'ati. or at least precisely similar. years before. ^Qg^jg^iy. of these seems to have thought of making any torical or antiquarian his examination of the precious monuments of the past which were before them." {fuit hie writes Brother ad Lawrence of Came visitajidtim here to cubicula this visit sanctum loaun istu7?i. died. some Scotchmen 1469. on suspicion both of being and of conspiring against the Government. 2 newly enkindled flame of love one hundred and fifty Nearly for Christian antiquities. quidem Seoti hie fuerunt^) numerous visitors &:c. and Tiraboschi hardly mentions any infected with heresy of the grounds for the . 145 1.

many more Now. perhaps. and Baronius. and yet never have excite them believed. and * Storia della Litteratura Italiana. We must also express both our regret and surprise. and his just appreciation He was among the first to visit it and had not his time been fully absorbed by his own gigantic work. a Spanish Domini- and two young Flemish laymen. it may be worth .d. in Academy yet. Pomponio Leto these newly-discovered memorials of him. than the in the members of the year of which we spoke. to the lot of foreigners resident in themselves. 93-97. part i. at the charge and which we have really brought against them find addressed to one of them by a bishop even after their acquittal. they we cannot wonder their contemporaries. first Christians. It was the age of St Ignatius Loyola. that men whose lives were devoted to the revival of learning." should have been familiar with these earliest monuments of Christianity. Baioniiu . he might. the " Ecclesiastical Annals. showing the dissolute habits of the Academicians. was already engaged on his immortal work. Rome. justly indeed. St Philip Neri. or to publish anything about them. Christian learning and Christian morality were in a far more hopeful condition in the Eternal City.'^ 3 are not here concerned with the religious or political integrity of the in elucidation of an obscure point while to mention that the name of history. that they were more Pagans than We been fear. and even Font : Max : regnans . 1578. at all Roman may Whatever. and that other titles are added to some of the names. the friend and disciple of the latter. with the is found title in of Foii- Maximus.Modern AiUhors. St Charles Borromeo. have become its first explorer and historian. As it was." in more than one page of which he shows the warmth of his interest in the new discovery. but of ancient manners. that this charge might at that time have urged against Roman Academy. torn. by of the heroic age sufficient interest to felt to investigate their history. a. vi. therefore. not only of ancient names. can. and that they were not ashamed to perpetuate their own memories as lovers. . this labour and honour seems rather to have fallen of its importance. however. Philip de Winghe. appreciable ground for at it We all. and of whose chief it is particularly tifex recorded that he applied himself to the elucidation of antiquities " which were then being disinterred. pp. than to Romans They were Alfonso Ciacconio.

" De Winghe. and now remain The notes of Ciacunedited in the Royal Library at Brussels.Literary History of Roma Sotterranea. any- Had De Winghe lived. and The even licensed for printing on the 2 2d of June 1605. with the dove bringing him the olive-branch. was represented and explained as " Marcellus. Ciacconio was a man who delighted in investigating and and possessed a valuable museum of Christian and Pagan antiquities. dustry seem to have been in every He tions. instructed by an angel whilst he is preaching. and had the paintings more faithfully These copies were seen and used both re-copied for himself by Macarius and Bosio. at a very early age at Florence. and still lie buried in The various public and private libraries of Rome and Naples. appears paintings in the Catacombs. and the which they resulted was prepared for publication. have now been lost. however. but only in our own .with the rest of that magnificent collection. and other good and ranea learned men set their hopes upon him. and his MSS. exceedingly voluminous and miscellaneous. and It its it is was afterwards publication. since we are told that Noe in the Ark. after having formed part of the famous library of the Bollandists. although he lived until 16 14. have been Baronius. left his work work still in in MS. was dissatisfied with his friend's performance.) and the labours. annotated by Bollandus.. however. He also employed artists to copy for him some of the more remarkable Their skill. labours of Macarius were scarcely more fruitful . were not destined to be of much service in spreading a knowledge of the Catacombs among their contemporaries. to a public library in Louvain. the summer way worthy of their expecta- died. 4 Joannes Macarius. and his talents and in. hardly to have been equal to their good intentions. he has discovered a few in the Imperial Library how. who announced died before redeeming his promise . Researches of ' De Winghe. All traces of them. doubtless. to and Macarius. however. they were continued during a residence of twenty years in Rome. not unnaturally. Pope and Martyr. appear never have been prepared for publication. even of these. Frederic Borromeo. he would. (the Grecised form of Jean THeureux . were sold in 1825. the first author on Roma Sotter- public. author. in of 1592 . however. they were never made at Paris . unless De Rossi be correct in supposing that collecting curiosities of everv kind. conio.

who has justly been called the true Columbus of this subterranean world. De Rossi seems unable to speak of him without a certain feeHng of enthusiastic reverence and devotion. the year after the death of De Winghe. . liana (the Oratorian Library) at Rome. in all those together with other ancient records which bore upon the topography of the Christian cemeteries. all the collections of canons and councils. who life and ^^^^"'"^• was Procurator e or Roman agent for the knights of Malta.. and an immense number of theological treatises. containing upwards of two thousand pages folio. and when once he had taken up its pursuit he never abandoned it. in which all labours. besides fifty pages of index. great as they may have been.J. He was a man worthy to be had in remembrance. while he was yet very young.) Paris. * qua. 5 has given this precious manu- pubhc* and some others mentioned by De Rossi. Two of these volumes. an advocate by profession. when Bosio himself was not yet eighteen and his labours were continued both in the cemeteries themselves. every work in which he thought there was a chance of finding anything in illustration of his subject.)^^™^"S and mdustry. however. including those of the schoolmen . for the six and thirty years of his subsequent life.. ' transcribed the " Acts of the Martyrs. Latin. and Oriental." especially of who suffered Rome. show that he had read carefully through all the fathers. His attention was drawn to the subject of the Catacombs. and found written on the walls of the Catacombs. Greek. lives of the saints. His industry was prodigious and the Immense volumes of his MSS.Modern day that Padre Garrucci. : sive pictw'(2 et sciilpfurcE sacra. . Hagioglypta Roma 1856. Aicthors. The earliest date recorded in his book. Bosio had His birth. and in studying the works of authors from whom he expected to derive information on the subject. 1593. all in his own handwriting. still extant in the Bibliotheca Vallicel. of these lovers of Christian archeology can scarcely A Maltese by resided in °^^°' to sympathise. in fact. In two other volumes of the same size he . ecclesiastical histories. are a wonderful monument of it. fade into insignificance when compared with those of Antonio Bosio. script to the The S. antiquiores rcpaiiin'iir. Rome fail Antonio from his earliest years with his uncle. is December 10. explicata a prasertim Joanne V Flciiracx {Macario.

he still had to force a passage. we must never forget the anxious. their lights failed " that I should defile of the martyrs. 6 These were taken from MSS. often by the labour of his own hands." to their perplexity. this danger was actually experienced on company with Pompeo Ugonio and December 1593. Even when an entrance was once effected. that. Bosio would explore with the utmost diligence all the vineyards of the neighbour- liood. on the loth of into a Catacomb about a mile distant from St Sebastian's. and would hasten to the spot. and my " I vile began to fear. thing as to the probable position of a Christian cemetery on the Appian or other of the Roman roads. they could not recognise in To add the path by which they had come." says corpse the sepulchres Taught by this experience. fatiguing. and some entrance often. having forced their way into a lower opening far. if the galleries were tolerably drawn too there was the danger of being far in tlie eagerness of discovery. volumes by no means himself refers to other commonplace books of his which are now lost. through the to the Dangers of us woi <. and even dangerous nature of his subterranean researches. if possible. . his very first by . by the digging of a new cellar or a well. and other future visits took with requisites sufficient for two or three days. only to find that the whole place was so buried in ruins that all ingress was impossible. level.Literary History of Ro7na Sotterranea. from he had ascertained some- his study of ancient records. certain that even these He represent the whole of his writings. for they had remained underground longer than they had intended Bosio. in order to discover. they incautiously proceeded so when they wished to return. after returning again into the and again same spot. his labour would be all in vain. At another time he would hear of some opening having been accidentally made into a Catacomb. was continued. This indefatigable examination of tlie Catacombs. in others. When. and of being unable to retrace his steps through the intricate windings of these subterranean labyrinths. and by means of an one of the chapels. as all we . in making our estimate of the labours of this truly gj-gat man. bowels of the earth . Again. them. accumulated rubbish of ages clear. They had penetrated visit to the Catacombs. he always in him a quantity of candles. Labours Latacom in tlie Ks. In fact. and of ancient documents connected with them. or. And yet it is in the Vatican and other Ubraries.

the nephew of the reigning and the Maecenas of those days. too important to be allowed to had those of as much He his predecessors in these researches. showed the MSS. Bosio himself had at one time intended to com- pose the whole work in Latin. literary Its success. with considerable alterations and omissions.d. with whom. been bequeathed not suffer the buried lie to the Order of the Knights of Malta. who would had of so fruit His papers and other property had labour to perish. plosinm ct Joan. It seemed as though Roma Sotterranea a. as we have seen. also powerful friends. or ^^]^ Sotterraiiea. and a portion of that language. new and it was translation. was published by Aringhi. . The ambassador of the Order then at Rome.t Although Bosio's work was never completed according own * original design. volume which we now possess was produced and dedicated to was welcomed by the whole Pope Urban VHL* and archaeological world with the utmost eagerness. the librarian of the Vatican. Oratorio. work. novissifua post /Int. opera postiima di Antonio Bosio compos ta disposta cd accresciiita da Giovatini di Severano. published any part of it. 1 65 1. 1632. vented the publication of Severano's translation not until fifteen or sixteen years later that a . Modern Authors. tician An finish- eminent architect and a mathema- were employed to draw the plans and maps which were the Knights of Malta undertook the expense still wanting and in five years' time the magnificent . Sacerdote delta Congrcgazione delP Roma. 1 63 2. written in be seen among his MSS. without having either completed his work. his uncle had been ofiicially connected. '^ . Severanum.. however. in 165 i. for six and thirty years. t Roma Subten anea Roma?. The cardinal at engaging Padre Severano. the friend of Galileo. once recognised their value. and lost no time Pontiff. to put the in ing-stroke to the work. The work of have said. although was not incorporated into Something appears to have pre- this portion Severano's original edition. may still through some oversight it. Prince Carlo Aldobrandini. Bosio was. were never to be revealed to the world at large. 7 and then Bosio too paid the Publication of Koma debt of nature. to Cardinal Francesco Barberini. yet the omissions Roma were for the to his Value of most part ^^sios Sotterranea.. and the demand for it was such that a Latin translation was begun almost immediately after its It appearance. of the Oratory.

the viaticum. that rules were laid down. . had visited it and the whole was admirably arranged on He a very simple principle of topography. as they have since happily done. Destruction of antiquiues in Catacombs suice their re- covery It is much to be regretted. It is true. is only what might have been expected from the known inaccuracy and sometimes spuriousness of the Acts of the Martyrs and other authorities by which he was led but these were the only guides which could then be had and the system itself is quite unexceptionable. the and endeavoured to assign to each its That his conjectures were often erroneous. Had been spared. their founders. and all collected every historical notice he could find concerning the Christian cemeteries on each of them . the only one that can be safely followed in laying . 8 such as could be supplied from the works of other authors.Literary History of Roma Sotterraiiea. most disastrous early be lying concealed the remains of saints and the concessions made to the piety of indivisearch for and extract these relics proved in the end and martyrs duals to still Roman to the cemeteries. . of this information examined all He dis- then by the light Catacombs he had seen. extreme unction. their names. But the re-discovery of the Catacombs ^ . proper name and history. that the work so wisely i^gm^ should not have been continued on the same plan and ° with the same diligence. . Instead of the ecclesiastical authorities taking this matter into their own hands. and to make excavations. its detailed account of each cemetery which he was most complete Its general ^ ^"' . a solid foundation for a treatment of the whole scientific subject. prayers for the dying and the dead. ^^^ ^^^ ^ matter of merely archaeological interest the devotion of the faithful was excited by the report that in those dark : recesses might . acting independently of each other. therefore. as authentic records of the Church. their precise position. . and proclaiming themselves the watchful and jealous guardians of such precious treasures. but in Christians. the great consular roads which led out of took in order Rome. they permitted a number of private persons. indeed. and other matters connected with the death and burial of In these particulars his book was deficient. he intended to have described and Church with his life illustrated the practice of the earliest ages of the reference to the administration of the sacrament of penance. and the martyrs or other persons of tinction who had been buried in them.

and we doubt that they were scrupulously observed. (S:c. After the works of Bosio and Aringhi. tlie literary history of Nothing new "^ ^^^ ^^ the Catacombs remains a blank for nearly half a century. various ornaments in crystal and metal. the had taken their place among . we may But. of such as Holstenius. and other antiquarians who were then living in Rome. incidental notices which occur in the writings of the archaeolo- seventeenth century gists of the all .. in the interests of Christian archaeology. . Allaccius. They did not even care to keep a record of what they had seen.D. about the pontificate of Urban VIII. . as it men were. Had but an accurate record been kept of all work of reconstructing the history and topography of these cemeteries would have been comparatively easy and certain. as but . but we are told nothing as to the precise localities in which any of these things were found. besides a multitude of other objects which were secretly sold by the labourers engaged in the excavations ..Modern Authors. the very eyes.. We find traces of them for the last time during and under Clement IX. in their researches. of a superb cameo. which would at least have provided materials for future litterati to continue the work of Bosio. however. the mirahilia of such were an object of curiosity to 1700. sculpture. 1668. we hear of a sepulchre covered with gold. a series of the rarest coins and medals. stopped at p^p^jf about 1688. for the identification have no reason to and translation of the rehcs. the arrangements which still prevail were definitely settled. followed any systematic and comprehensive plan and soon afterwards the permissions were all revoked and vigorously repressed by the Popes.. . Many of these permissions to extract relics were given to religious communities and all the explorers availed themselves. of some of the workmen who had been employed by Bosio. and his astonishment that such ravages should have been tolerated in silence under . They discoveries. however. 9 learned pamphlets were written to prove the value of these rules. complain that those engaged in the search justly too long per had no regard for ^^^^ ^^ ' the preservation of monuments. We learn something of the nature and extent of our loss from the Lost treasures. sustained by Christian archaeology in the interval is incalculable and all must heartily sympathise with De Rossi. both in his lamentations. Rome. None of them. A. whether of painting. and all intelligent travellers . or inscriptions. thus. which came in their way. The loss.

John Evelyn. Sott. guided by two torches. Bosio's work had been the means of recalling some learned Protestants to the bosom of the Church ." They led us down. but not so Evelyn was first taken to tlie subthose who came after him."" and thenceforward the subject became an arena for party Strife. a age by. generally terranean cemetery at St Sebastian's. those • of Roma Sotterranea. adorn'd with very ordinary ancient painting. t is It Rom. large entrie that led us into several streets or allies. whereof and now and then a At the end of some of these subterranean passages were square rooms with altars in them. would seem that neither Evelyn nor same blunder Catacombs to is his guides monogram knew Greek. 'I'liis and we are afraid the even now sometimes repeated by persons showing the clearly their misinterpretation of the strangers. indeed.Lite7^ary History lo John Evelyn. nor seems Rome being detained in a out of towne. i. as Pliny the younger describes them. been the receptacles of primitive Christians said to have times of persecution. to much visit a corn-field. a little hole. who visited Rome in 1645^ was content simply to record what he saw or heard. v. having ingraven on them Pro Christo. as Bosio for divers in his roomes. book. were the meetings of the primitive Christians during the persecutions. bones and dead bodies." We took Roma Here. stones. which delivered us into a miles. a strange and them coach Sotterranea. he was per- suaded little it in the We good fearefull pass- has measured and described ever and anon cam.e into pretty square seem'd to be chapells with altars. * Bottari. t. we about twenty paces. Here. to visit another being By and improbable. laid as it were on shelves. says. -^. p. ^ ^^' who wrote about them were more influenced by religious than by scientific motives. . whereof some are shut up with a coarse flat stone. pref. some were shut up with broad crosse or a palme cut in them. and some Many skeletons and bodies are plac'd on the sides one above the other in degrees like shelves. at St Sebastian's. that in crept on our bellies into depth in the bowells of the earth. which are supposed to have been martyrs.t or a crosse and palmes." he says. " where the Fulgentine monks have "• " their monastery. " the famous what we had seen like He Catacomb. which they affirmed went divers furlongs under The sides or walls which we passed were filled with into a grotto ground. in all likelyhood. longer than he expected.

t He forty years later. and are not therefore worthy of any detailed mention We in this place.d. 209. I fill'd Many conjectured with dried blood. ii. repeat. in 1688. t Some letters from Italy and Switzerland Rotterdam. Rome. who.1 A lUhors Modern As I was prying about. * P^velyn's Memoirs.) wandering two or after three miles in this subterranean raseander.o" . ^"" tiquities. custode of the office to might be discovered. Thus to dust. from Aringhi to Fabretti. 1685. and 2 lachrymatories. ^'^^'"''^. 153. very different tone pervades Burnet. and removal of any -' together with the inscriptions which they had been appointed. the bodies. He Catacombs.Fabretti's tude for havino. that he hazarded the astounding statement that " those burying-placcs that are pompous graced with the ihQ puticoli mentioned sort of the Roman care about them were come of title Catacombs are no other than by Festus Pompeius. with such confidence. were in those holes that Misson.'' and that the Christians did them until the fourth or fifth cenby some other writers in the same strain. left to rot. thirty 1720. Bosio.D. ° he was succeeded by Boldetti. a. Vol. into possession of He was follow^ed from being interred there also. edited by Bra}'.. deserves our grati. 166. set apart for the dregs of the people. 1700.preserved the account of two cemeteries un^." j The controversies which arose out of ignorant or malicious falsehoods like these. (for there appear'd nothing lay so entire as only touch'd plac'd if art of the chirurgeon. P. 1819. who. all fell by the but being we returned almost into the daylight. and on the gious prejudices. 1714. 164. 1685 and 1686. in the year 1700. it belonged to his relics that who held superintend the it for In this post ^ more than X A new voyage to Italy. only insisted that " this w^as no reason for excluding others not tury. 1 found a glasse phiale. where the meanest and so without any further slaves were laid. Boldetti on ^'^'^'1^!^'^" p. reli- ignorance of their the other. on who same scenes visited the reckoned upon countrymen's his one hand. contributed nothing to archaeological science. known _ ."* blind the of else. tve. that there is a blank of half a century in the literary history of the Catacombs. A. part i. to contained. and even choked by when we came smoke of the torches. 1714. therefore. in the years London. being unable to deny that Christians had certainly been buried here in very ancient times. Misson. or rather bones. as for example. was as A the letters of Bishop Burnet. pp. Inscriplions.

who was Another of officially in Boldetti's associated with ^^gjj^y years in the guardianship of the cemeteries. Buonarrotti. and its the unfair use which . 1 716. being not scientific. did not possess sufficient knowledge or love of archaeology to enable him to make the most of the great opportunities he enjoyed. who had assisted Boldetti in the archaeological ^^^^^ ^^ j-^-g y^Q^v himself wrote a valuable book on the vessels ' or fragments of gilded glass found in the Catacombs. whole regions of Roma Sotterranea were brought to light. 1720.G. anonymous letter de cidtu sanctorum ignotorum had attracted considerable attention. and corrected by any new light thrown upon the subject by After he had continued this plan for about later discoveries. S. to the historical * Ossenjazioni sopra i cemeteri dei SS. and other treasures came under his notice and yet it is doubtful whether any account of these things would have come down to us had he not been commanded to write in the : defence Mabillon's of religion.D. however.* The object of his work. but religious and apologetic. unfortunately. galleries of tombs that had remained apparently unvisited since the last corpse was buried in them. % Marangoni. Roma. During his time. Roma. D.Literaiy History of Roma Sotterraitea. but who. and had been made of it by Misson and other Protestant controversialists seemed to demand an answer. £qj. assistants. 1740. a vast number of inscriptions. figure trovati nei cimeteri di Roma. A. . to Garrucci. Boldetti was therefore desired to publish an account of the rules which had been followed by himself and his predecessors in the extraction of relics and he accompanied this with a description of the discoveries that had been made in the Catacombs generally during his own time. medals. Buonarrotti on the Gilded Glasses oi the Catacombs. its contents were arranged with this view. him seems have intended to carry out Bosio's plan of making a minute and faithful report of every new discovery arranged according and topographical outline of that great man. Martiri ed antichi cristiani di Roma. X di di vetro oriiati di Vctri ornati di figure in oro trovati nei cimiteri dei o'istiani primitivi Roma raccolti e spiegati da Raff'aele Gairiicci. f Osservazioni sopra alcuni franimeiiti di vast antichi Firenze. value as a contribution towards the complete history of the subterranean city of the dead was proportionably diminished.J.D. t — a sub- ject which has been handled afresh and with great erudition our own day by Padre Marangoni.C. 12 years. 1858.

. * Sadture e Pittiire Sacre precious it is est7'atte in. and was not long persisted many Indeed. *''• by attempting to detach the pictures from the His devastaon which they had been painted. was a mere republication of the plates from Bottan's Roma ^''^^''^'2^/''''' the work of Bosio. Borgia. Zaccaria.. &c. such as Mamachi. fossors the last lesson in the art of destruction. sixteen or seventeen years. it worth while to visit the D'Agincourt. together with Marangoni published in the Acta Sa?icti Vidoriiiim. The learned students of Christian archaeology who later it in flourished Latter part of during the latter half of the last century. Olivieri. illustrated with great care and learning. pjibblicatc g'ia dagli autori della Rotna Solterranea ed ora miozutmintte date in hice colic spiegazioni. but monuments which can truly lamentable to see what dai Ciuiiteri di Roma. or even to have taken appear to have explored any notice of the new discoveries that were being made year by year in some part of the ancient cemeteries. and irreparable this fire. . 1 734-1 754. who founded upon great measure his theory as to the origin of Christian art. but not arranged in any order. relieved antiqua. Aringhi.* published by command of Clement XIL. and." little that fire destroyed all his am Rossi. taught ^1°"^ "^ walls of living rock the ^ Roma.XIV. signally failed.. 1740.^'^ considerable use of the Bottari. and collecting there the inscriptions that had hitherto f^""^ lounded been dispersed among the various churches. The Roma Sotterranea of Bottari. and tises ^^^JJlJ. relating The losses. made works of Bosio. the paintings of a Gnostic sepulchre falsely attributed to the These have seriously perplexed and misled authors. rians of the labour of examining the places where these inscriptions were found. penetrated their D'Agincourt. by founding the Christian Museum in the Vatican Christian MuLibrary. " the history which I De seems to be but an 13 Iliad of misfortune remained from the results of his subsequent labours. recesses to find materials for his History of the decline of the ^^^' fine arts. modern The attempt it ^. in their trea- on various points of Christian antiquity. but do not for themselves.Modern Authors. nor enriched by any additions^ unless we reckon one which we could well have spared. especially Raoul Rochette. resulted in the ruin of never be replaced. an accidental " Truly/' says papers. Benedict XIV. Christians. Boldetti. and even such an archteologist as Marini does not appear to have thought Catacombs themselves. viz. indeed.

. own enthusiasm to the frequent companion Moiminenti dcUc arti CJiridianc Priviitivc ndla Mdropoll del Cnslian- esinio. It to S.. after him. however. In 84 1. tokens of a reviving Catacombs may be traced some of the proceedings of the Roman Archaeological Society. by Baronius and others. to prevent depredations may from time consequence of acci- with which access facility in make it difficult for the authorities we cannot but regret that there still . imparted his his scholars. At the begmning of the present century. political vicissitudes of the times by which his own Order was especially affected . Roma. and also because he was conscious that the work of rehabilitating (so to say) these venerable monuments of antiquity. partly in labours the of interrupted consequence of the and of this finally learned abandoned.''' It is almost needless to enter upon early any detailed examination they were since Jesuit. one of * to publish He who should come prematurely . the pious author of the Vie Sacre.J.{- jj-^ ^\^Q other writings. A. and setting them forth before the public in their original integrity. The lessons of destruction taught by D'Agincourt have been only too frequently followed even as recently as our own The day.J. . S. 1 844. was necessarily reserved for one had begun the soil. and in a few ij^|-gj. .J. he commenced his great work on the Monuments of Christian Art. was only just in time to traverse the gallery accidentally opened near San Lorenzo in 1779. at who was at first He most he had but broken had. had been destroyed when Bosio the revisited Padre Mazzolari. willing to transmit to posterity a faithful record of each new discovery as it was made. almost ever since their re-opening The in the sixteenth century. 14 a record of destruction the history of the Catacombs has been.Litera7y History of Ro7na Sotterra?iea. how^ever. place years fifteen afterwards. and the Catacombs to time be gained to the dental openings in the soil. paintings which were seen at that time in the crypts on the Via Salaria. was reserved. able and Padre Marchi. should not have been always a succession of antiquarians.I 41. give the interest in the subject 1 for the late great impulse first which in is now to Padre that lively so universally felt.. vast extent of subterranean territory that has to be guarded from injury.D. before he saw the work of devastation ruthlessly accomplished under his very eyes.

. of libraries. and Emerita. by Padre Marchi. of it This failing strength. Modern subterranean of his 1 whom and whom he expeditions. — — the excavations directed by the mission of Sacred Archaeology. every instance he had announced beforehand with more or less accuracy what was to be expected. found in the cemetery of St Hermes. in in fact. the particular object whicli topographical system. and it is much more research. exploring recognised as a vakiable fellow-labourer. on the Via Portuensis. were hard to say whether De and industry have done more Rossi. crypts in the cemetery of . behind the Basilica of St Paul's. he soon finally urged in the most pressing manner to undertake the work which he found too great De scholar was his learning. Adauctus. have brought years six or seven historical and in De Rossi is Comone of to light within a few monuments of the utmost value. of which the most active members. result of accident. for the work of discovery in subterranean Rome. (See Note A. on the road leading to St Sebastian's and the tomb. own for his whom Rossi. discovered by Marangoni. known these new authorities but he had not adopted Bosio's also the i . the original epitaph. They guide-books — written were. the fruits of his labour speak for themselves for whereas before his time only two or three important historical monuments''^ had been discovered in the Catacombs during more than two centuries of examination and all of these the . veritable the seventh guides — itineraries or and eighth centuries by Abdon and Sennen. he had proposed to himself. simple than we might have expected from the magnitude of the information ? or what be accounted effects to He for. plan as had been originally laid followed the same general down by Bosio .) * The baptistery and paintings of SS. discovered by Bosio the crypt of SS. but with the addition of two or three more of considerable value which in Bosio's time lay Father March indeed had buried in the MSS. talent. We are naturally led to ask after the cause of so great a From what new contrast. and other San Ponziano. Felix. Moreover. he studied same ancient authorities. of . and the body of St Hyacinth.5 A iithors. or the discoveries he has made done more for the increase of our knowledge of it. in Appendix. led him precisely in the opposite direction from that to which these new guides offered to conduct him. At any rate. sources had De Rossi derived his was his new system for extracting ore from His system old mines ? The answer is soon given.

i6 who pilgrims from foreign countries. on record all Especially they the tombs of the martyrs. or added vestibules to the chapels or raised small basilicas above ground and for the support of these. The in his reasoning.Literary History of Roma Sotterranea. it was the special desire of Father Marchi to recover. then. the Lives of the Popes. ever one of these could be recovered and identified. ninth centuries.q as the rash criticism of the last century tuously condemned tyrologies. De Rossi. pilgrims opened more galleries. toric interest galleries and chambers of the Catacombs condition as first they were ance of bricks and mortar in in their primitive hewn out of the rock. . the as worthless. carefully put the sacred places which they visited in enumerated his first Now Rome. not only were all these works left to perish by a process of natural decay. solid substructions of masonry had been sometim. every token of ruined masonry in the heart of a Catacomb with the keenest delight. and and need of great the Itineraries of pious pilgrims of the seventh. . to the history of each Catacomb. Doubtless tliere has been . any appearthe way of his excavation was suf- him aside from that part of the cemetery altogether. as a sure sign that he was in the immediate neighbourhood of what he most desired to see and the results have abundantly it .es necessary in the crypts themselves. therefore. as it were. eighth. importance of these results renders it worth our while enumerate and give some short account of the authorities which have furnished the clue to their discover}^ They are such |. Whereas. we had a certain clue to the name and history of the cemetery in which ficient to turn was found. —the would have contemp- old Calendars and Mar- Acts of the Martyrs. But when the Catacombs ceased to be used. widened the St changes. different these were the precise spots in the Catacombs where Damasus and other popes had made many material They had built spacious staircases to conduct the immediately to the object of their pious search Iwn'maria to supply light and air . if possible. so that after the lapse of seven or eight hundred years every centre of his- had become a mass of ruins. they also attracted the greedy hand of the spoiler. proved that he was not mistaken His sources cf information. on the other hand. He hailed. shrewdly judged that the crypts which had been changed into sanctuaries contained the Whervery key. . as they lay each in all resting-place the in suburban cemeteries.

perhaps we should rather say one edition. Pontif. p. 17 patience and ingenuity to disentangle the thread of truth from web of confusion with which it has been sometimes interwoven in these documents. . it Tbid. the regions of her relics It is sufficient to recorded of St Clement. not of in Africa. each in his faithful notaries own region. is observe. say the Bollandists.J make no mention of a single martyr after the time of the apostate Julian any. care of the should. for example. of Lib.Ancie7it Recoi^ds. Acta Sanct. ANCIENT RECORDS. that the to it is The exceeding up both the known acts to require proof. diligent and care zeal and of St Fabian. they have proved the themselves such efficient guides. ix. PERHAPS be found to amnn . 269. authentic copies of Still it it. is the so-called Alartyi'ologhun Hierojiymi- a work which. it is Rome] who of the Church. Nevertheless. but there are other internal evidences which warrant our assigning one portion. Pope added that " he divided and appointed seven sub- deacons to superintend the seven notaries. though not put together in until the end of the certainly contains sixth or many Church martyrs. before the end of be divided among the in the and the century. PART II. and these furnished the first groundwork of the martyrology of which w^e are speaking. early Roman Church the most ancient record of the among the deacons./ mteg7^o) the acts of the martyrs. In itself this is who no sure suffered under the Vandals criterion of its antiquity . with search out the acts of the martyrs . Octob. that henceforward no account of Roma Sotterranea can be considered complete that should pass them over in silence. iv. torn. The most cution of Diocletian. or * Ij."" middle of the third century. f c. . longing to the ages of persecution."t these invaluable records perished in the terrible perse- was impossible but that some few of them should have escaped. that they might collect in all their details Most of (/. that " he caused the seven regions [of first ^^^^^^^"^^^ present form its portions of far older martyrologies be- in treasuring too well The Martyr- perhaps even the seventh century. to the Its antiquity.

length of his pontificate " precisely the interval dates was . or between a. We must con- tent ourselves with observing that this Martyrology estimable value. errors show and in each case how contradictions. besides the depositio of each of these pontiff's on the But it would days on which we still commemorate them. appears in all later Martyrologies the 2d of January. and a third to the beginning of the An evidence of the of these dates first who was Pope of St Antherus. so that we on the 24th assigned to it is the Liber Fontificalis gives as the one month and twelve days. Dion..d. chronological ° can call it by no more appropriate name. not of his death. various these have often proved of service in furnishing a clue by means of which the ingenuity and patience of learned antiquarians have succeeded in unravelling the truth." It is by observing similar notes. of the repetitions. whereas Now. or between a.d. yet the Liber Poniificalis expressly records of that " he diligently sought out from the notaries the Acts of the Martyrs. as having preserved to us much is of in- that would otherwise have perished. " on account of which he received from the Proefect Maximus the crown of martyrdom. during his lifetime . November. and stored them up in the church. 8 1 earlier part of the tliird century.) the first edi• .Literaiy History of Roma Sotterranea. But the anniversary of the accession of a pope. that although his pontificate lasted for so short a him time. and a third in the time of St Boniface I. which only the keenness of modern criticism has taught men to appreciate. Mi/tiadis. the occuj^y us too long to and even the copyists. j^ for ^ we order comes the Christian Almanac. 235. 418 and 422. and Bonifacii Epi de Ordinatioiie^ on the 29th of December. that archaeologists have been able to detect hand of a later compiler or copyist of this Martyrology. on July 2d. that the anniversary a." it goes on also to say. whence it is never celebrated except follows that this particular por- tion at least of this ancient Martyrology up during the must have been drawn pontificate of St Antherus. Filocalus. is is. fifth really the date of his succession to the Chair of St Peter. And it is not a little remarkable. who must have lived in the time of Miltiades." which between the two above-mentioned November confident that the 24th of feel century. since festivals are noted here of Ordin. Almanac of Fur. as indeed that of any other bishop. another to the beginning of the fourth. 311 and 314.d.

in very strange death of Fabian. after the forbade the election of a successor. especially of martyrs. + Non decet Christum pecunia constare. tion of 19 which appears to have been published the latest. Antwerp. that it is many churches as early as the beginning of the third century.d. where they found them- TertuUiant takes care to remind them.— Ancient Records. by in a. which would earlier portion of the history year 254. logue of the popes from St Peter to feasts finally. 1634.J. such as the Chronicon of Hippolytus. Yet ofiicially taken cognisance even certain. Quomodo et martyria fieri possent in gloriam Domini. cc.. si tributo licentiam sectoe compensaremus.. Cathedra and other immovable Petri. to what church the prisoners belong. begins in like manner from the the time of St Antherus. with highly ornamented illustrations. * This catalogue latter riame is the ecclesi- generally quoted as Liberian. of the deaths i. evidently compiled with great accuracy from contemporary registers. ^gidius Bucherus. . selves. Massaliter totse ecclesiae tributum sibi irrogaverunt. two Is this synchronism purely accidental ters of the government ? or were the from state documents. the public regis- really derived lists ? At first sight it might seem an almost extravagant conjecture to suppose that the names of the popes should have been known to the civil governors of pagan Rome. S. This consists of Furius Dionysius Filocalus. used to pay a tribute to the government that they might escape from persecution. It follows immediately upon the list of prefects of the city. as company. but including also Christmas-day. 255 to festivals celebrated during the year. cum rum. balnearum De fiiga et in aleones et lenones persec. inter tabernarios et lanios Christiani in matricibus Beneficiariorum et Curiosoet fures quoque vectigales continentur. In Liberius. Decius Again. and this list. a.d. — of the principal Christian and 354. xnt. and for this purpose they were enrolled on the registers of the police (so to speak). strictly we read that. 336.'"* a catathis last catalogue the deaths of the popes begin to be registered from seem to show that the had been probably compiled from some older work. and was when he heard of the appointment of Cornelius.d. : the De Doctrina temporum. in a.e.. Nescio dolen- dum an erubescendum sit. . or Bucheriajt being taken from its first editor. . But the most important of these documents is undoubtedly the first of the three. lists or burials of the popes from Lucius to Julius 352.. and of. In genuine Acts of Martyrdom the question is sometimes greatly enraged When asked. xii.

that the proofs of this new and unexpected fact are so strong that they amount ahiiost to a complete * De demonstration. up by the Holy Pontiff Several of these at so many of the martyrs' monuments destroyed by the Goths. 20 astical property is restored bishops that the surrender the sacred books are after a persecution. 372. R. and twenty-five This statement cannot be reconciled days. by later popes many are preserved to us only through the copies that were taken by learned ecclesi: astics or pious pilgrims in the ninth or tenth centuries . but it is time that Dio- and that the hierarchy cletian confiscated the loca ecdesiastica. more or less correctly. knowledge and even recognition of And ''' made to \ ordered to be demanded is it it is their position in the eccle- very curious to observe how- some of the difficulties in this catalogue are immediately cleared up. is was. it is certain that they have proved to be of the greatest use in the hands of De Rossi. It ments more ancient than itself. engraved by the same Furius Filocalus. and other sacrilegious barbarians. siastical hierarchy. some few and some also have been These monuments. S. recognised. Rossi himself Liher Pontifi'^'^^^^' by the Librarian Anastasius. are witnesses of the utmost value on questions relating either to the history or the geography of the Catacombs. lists may have been originally procured. if we suppose it to have been derived from civil and official sources. that at this time the episcopacy ceased for seven years.Litei^ary History of Roma Sotterranca. six months. Lombards. the Lives of the Pontiffs our next authority. . Inscriptions of To these we must next add the numerous inscriptions comI->amasus. II. was list Again.) and set tombs. were restored. we read in the Libe7' that Maxentius required of St Marcellus that he should deny that he was a bishop. wherever recovered by De they are found. from the first. . the from them them and their clerics All this seems to indicate a certain special edicts are issued. like the Mai^tyrologium Hierony- Rossi does not hesitate to say. formed out of docu- called. as it is sometimes (less correctly) yet remain in their original integrity. for instance. be this as it may. from whatever source these list. (because he had not been and his name accordingly does not appear in this However. pQgg(^ i^y Pope Uamasus. even with the dates given elsewhere in the same observable that was precisely during it this very (at least legally) Pontificalis suppressed. Thus. The Liber Fontificalis. is against . it is stated of the year 304. or.

made at the century. on the body of the Acts there are clear tokens of a writer in the time of peace. which. they are not contemporary with the martyrdom contrary. or the historical them. a genuine and original document. with those of the sometimes of these had been beginning and about the middle of the eighth and another it Two to detect the truth. traced to the times of St Damasus. and enable us useful. and suspected that her history might perhaps have been a myth imported from Sicily. of Ado. are certainly traces of a true not. are Other Martyr- but they are inferior in importance to the Acts of the Martyrs. or the barbarous diction. followed some other authority. they have found criticise it and distinguish . between the and fifth centuries . since a number of circumstances which they narrate were most exactly confirmed on the rediscovery of her fourth that they * The liturgical prayers sions to them. Usuard and others. . even when not authentic. Certainly there could be no object in changing the dates without reason the compiler can only have translation of the popes' relics. often Acts contain most valuable fragments of truth. or the tone of legendary exaggeration. . monuments Disgusted by the flagrant ana- chronisms. tion of beginning of the sixth in the may even be but a porif Its statements are often at variance Almanac and the most ancient Martyrology. both in the preface and in the itself. for example. both of Leo and of Gelasius abound with allu- of the . of Bede. 21 mianimi^ and there had been at least three versions or editions of it before the days of Anastasius. Often they record some they are accounted for by the fact that mstead of the day and place of their original burial. The Martyrologies sometimes useful . The Acts of St Cecilia. especially in the matter of dates yet these very variations are .Ancient Records. difficulties which abound in easier to reject altogether than to whilst a more learned and cautious examination not unfrequently succeeds in detecting many and genuine story. which were so thoroughly set aside by Tillemont that he questioned whether there had ever been such a virgin and martyr in Rome at all. in their present form. critics Tillemont and other of his school have dealt with these venerable of antiquity too summarily.* nevertheless it is equally certain must have been composed upon very minute and truthful records. not to a yet earher period.

where he records the visit of the Crusaders to Rome. . which relics were certainly hid from every human eye at the time of the compila- relics at the tion of the Acts. belonging to the tenth century. 22 end of the sixteenth century. ii. were accessible to the prede- cessors of De Rossi. and still more by actual discovery.d. with which the in value * See Note t In tlie F). they have been of great service in enabling De Rossi to reconstruct both the history and the geography of subterranean Rome. on a various readings even of the Acts. however.* rials before him. are all surpassed by two others which were discovered about a hundred years ago in the library of Salzburg. All these documents. it own successors used towards himself was not such the story. easy to detect the it is critical MSS. excellent edition of Duffus Hardy. in Einsiedlen and a third. and it is probable that the original compiler did not use greater license in dealing with the mateintroduced by later writers. To him belongs the credit of having demonstrated by argument. by Eckart.t but as this description speaks of the Saints subterranean sepulchres. about a century later. .d. however. it is manifest that the chrostill in their nicler has copied it centuries before his from some document written four or five own time and there is internal evidence : 650 and 680. than his In either case. historical or geo- and as most of these spurious Acts (if they must still be branded by this opprobrious epithet) were written before the sacred deposits in the Catacombs had been translated from their first resting-place. which little coinparison of the still exist of these additions and embellishments They are precisely such as we might have anticipated . was pubhshed by Mabillon. The same may be said also of some incidental notices in the ancient Liturgical Books of the Roman Church. from a MS. from a MS. and were freely made use of by them. torn. Moreover. graphical Itineraries of pilgrims in the seventh century. in 1685.Literary History of Roma Sotterranea. the immense importance of the information to be derived from the ancient Itineraries or local guide-books to the sanctuaries of descriptions may be One Rome. . in the library of Wurtzburg. Another of these Itineraries. 539-544. and published as an appendix to an edition of the works of Alcuin. These. a. of these seen in the works of William of Malmes- bury. nor to distort its as to destroy the substance of principal features. that it was written between the years a. in Appendix. in 1729. resting 1095 .

and which they afterwards take away. The pieces of linen were calleil brandi. their : is custom is only to put a placed near the holy body. many of which still remain. be misled by the word " relics^''' and picture to ourselves. "When the Romans they do not touch the bodies piece of linen in a box. reported by the ancient inhabitants. which He writes to the Empress Con- present the relics of the saints. tokens of being an epitome of some larger work. list of . is not the real journal or description of what had been seen by the traveller himself. MSS. on his right hand or spot. had been accidentally internal evidence that bound 2o It up. written first is and abounds with topographical notices of all that saw. We must not. 327. certain from is one of these. though following the same general plan and taking each road in succession.Aiicient Records. but goes across from one road to another by by-paths. Papin Diplom. as * It is has been published See also + the virtue of these brought scissors and cut the linen. St Gregory himself or specifies the only kinds of relics that in his day were permitted to be away by carried stantina : the faithful. No. In the same category with these Itineraries the of relics collected by the list Abbot John.. bears it However. together with many of the relics themselves. Queen of the Lombards.'"! ])y Marini. p. above ground or below.. The . is still to be seen in the cathedral of Monza. written on papyrus. Rome and make a fresh beginning every time. may be in the classed Papyrus days of St Gregory the Great. and sent to Theodelinda. and the other many not on the The a genuine Itinerary. and proceeds northwards through the Flaminian gate and he does not return to in visiting the various roads in order. lib. the bodies portions of the bodies of saints. so that the minute topographical details which they record have reference to the original condition of the Catacombs before their sanctity had been profaned or their relics traditions obscured. 30. p. rather. some Greeks. was written between the years 625 and 638. Epist.-a. second. In the time of the Pope St Leo. from whence pro- relics. and the little parchment labels attached to them. CXLIII. and that the most exact. . according to modern custom. ep.. iii. This list. the writer his years later. left. doubting of ceeded blood. is He to the east or the west. both of them were written before the practice of translation of had begun.''' however. starts from the centre of Rome. 377.

and the happy boldness with which he quently seizes upon some fre- or hint about a fact. unnoticed. It is sufficient to say. By comparing natural) in the order of his visits. therefore. this local order with the topographical notices in the Itineraries. These This work an nl^S^rer! De Rossi's. from the lamp that burns i^efore the statue of the where people take oil Madonna and from other del Parto. that a careful amply repay all Rossi has many important tions concerning the localities of particular tombs. * This custom may even now be observed in the Church of Sant' Agostino. 24 But besides these. been enabled to decide with accuracy De into these details ques- To follow to transcribe many would require us work. St Gregory often sent these oka These glass phials to persons at a distance. but which eventually leads to valuable discoveries. him in little were the by John the Abbot and in the list of them he records every shrine which he visited. that they can neither be omitted nor reproduced form. and by the remains which his researches have enabled us to see and examine for ourselves. must perforce leave untouched . deliberate. drops of the oil from the lamps which burned before the tombs of the saints were frequently carried away as relics and . are the principal sources of information of which Rossi has made use in his Roma Sotten^anea . without injury to their substance. The and and by the help life-like narrative of it has cost him to do this can who take the pains to follow him labour which only be appreciated by those full De through the slow. we hope to we be able to extract from his pages sufficient matter to set before our readers an intelligible account of the history of the Catacombs. and would weary the unscientific entire pages of his reader. Many threads of his argument are so subtle. and this (as was relics collected carefully latter who study of them will are capable of appreciating the keenness of his criticisms. work should be read exactly as he has himself written it. sometimes almost wearisome and examine in detail the mass of minute criticisms by which he insists upon justifying every step which he takes and for this it is indispensable that the whole method of his operations. nevertheless. yet so strong and so necessary to the establishment of his conclusions." . . shrines. of them he has constructed a very its history. before fact. . sufficiently supported both by the language of ancient documents.Literary History of Roma Sotterranea. in any compressed These.

ORIGIN OF THE CATACOMBS. and our know- are often ledge of the subject has been so in of name much improved point of accuracy and of extent. if we what to fill is con- make our statement it at present proofs or arguments. conduce will and the general convenience of our of by any when we in the several parts of the picture in detail. CHAPTER I. GENERAL DESCRIPTION. and not a very determinate geographical in the one— are a vast labyrinth of galleries excavated bowels of the earth in the hills around the Eternal City ''^^ ^^t^"^- . We as concise as possible. that clearness. at least from the accounts of friends or from popular literature. ^ ^HE I J- daily-increasing celebrity of the Roman Catacombs might almost seem to render a general description of them unnecessary . not strengthening readers. the leading features of that marvellous city of the dead which has received the appropriate Sotterranea. but leaving these to be supplied come both to at least of shall late. so many errors mixed up with these popular accounts. (General de- ^ the cau- not by per. subterranean Rome ? Roma Nevertheless. who does for not know..combs. it set before them at once some outline tained in the following pages. Theirposition but having no etymological meaning. if sonal observation. BOOK I. The Roman Catacombs —a name consecrated by long usage.

but in those built. and vary The galleries are in height which they are dug. and every niche once . the other. city itself Their extent superficial soil ever. three. for these are often levels. from the even five.— Roma 26 not in the hills beyond the amount of if on which the walls. to say. which they underlie. so that. four. that is stretched out in one continuous line. pass Sottcrranea. beyond the I. not as to the third milestone . enormous. on both sides are pierced with horizontal niches. the actual length of their galleries on various is was according The walls like shelves a book-case or berths in a steamer. city. there are certainly not less than 350 miles of if but in and they cross and recross one another. for they rarely. them. or pia??i. they would extend the whole length of Italy from two to four feet in width. on the whole. to the nature of the rock in itself. or Fig. m excavated Gallery with Tombs. on each of these levels one above . sometimes at short intervals.

century. ^'''•-l . niece of Vespasian . they were begun . within the city . succession of shelves may be made and the for a that room doorway opening into a small chamber. Roman Church numbered the faithful titles. or St Mark. corresponding to the and besides till In the the year 410. interrupted for a is 27 as the galleries. • be used as burial-places of the to the capture of the city third m - 1 by Alaric in or parishes. chambers are generally pierced with walls of these way graves in the same intervals this moment. T apostolic times. still survive the next two centuries . or belonging to Originally they this belonged to private families or individuals. on the and the Jordani. because they were originally begun the land of those who lived at various periods in Flavia Domitilla. Maximus and Thraso. as on the Via Appia. also a cotemporary of the on the Via Ostiensis lay . on the Via on the Via Appia . lastly. twenty-five or number of her twenty-six of them. Priscilla. . At various contained one or more dead bodies. all the villas or gardens in which they were who had embraced of wealthy citizens devoted of their substance to His ancient titles owners. as SS. family. their formation. Basilla. or. upon Other Catacombs are known by the names of those who presided over Ardeatina all attached to various catacombs. who or at least of the Tiburtina dug being the property were taken merely from the names of their lawful lived in the days of the Apostles. these. : Lucina. Prsetextatus. and Hence most service. on the Via Salaria Vetus . for example. on the Via Salaria Nova. there are about twenty others. . Via Portuensis . isolated monuments of special martyrs. Apostles or that private family. These names are still who bore them. or of the principal martyrs who were buried in them. Commodilla. Cyriaca. These vast excavations once formed the ancient Christian ^ Rome r cemeteries 01 and continued . on the Via that of St Callixtus. whose property . by some ])eculiarity of their Their number names. Pontian. Hermes. their and others of the same same name. Protus and Hyacinthus. of smaller dimensions.General Description. many of which the faith of Christ.

Via Nomentana. a portion of the cemetery. and of a sand-pit which to the same scale . how easy it is to distinguish the galleries of an These plans represent arenaria from those of a Catacomb. and ad dims Lauros on the Via Labicana.— Roma 28 Sotterranea. but a form of sepulchre not altogether unknown even among the heathen families of Rome. or hindrance. may judge readers themselves. ad Cataciunbas on position. in the (both drawn and the greater width of the passages excavated in the sand-pit. with important modifications. of a uses. _ Plan of Arejiaria at St Agues. At first. as the Via Appia. commonly called of St iVgnes. are attention. by the Christians . even from the miniature specimen here set before them. and characteristics suffice to which at once arrest the impress upon our minds the essential difference between them. and \ x"^ \ common in among use the \ \ \ \ \ \\ Fig. adapted to Christian development. of learning who have had an opportunity of examining these excavations. the entrances to . Modern now that they were also originally de- signed for this purpose and for no other deserted sand-pits research has {are?iarice) that they were not . without the let work of making the Catacombs was done openly. and the greater regularity of those in the Catacomb. Jews both for in ^ V 2. that they Their origin It has ahvays been agreed among men were used exclusively by the Christians as places of burial and of holding religious assemblies. placed it beyond a doubt.) lies over it. Rome and Our elsewhere. or quarries.

which the Pagans could only repeat. burial-places was called in ancient times either generically.-'' sometimes also martyr iiun. cramped and and even the fettered. a subterranean place. II. should fall became now the effected Part of Catacomb of St Agnes. the tomb. vii. lest liberty of what was holy under the profane gaze of the unbaptized. new and Fig. much necessary to withdraw them as public eye . it as possible from often difficult entrances were in the recesses of deserted arenai'ice^ Christian art was and the freely decorated with paintings of But early a sacred character.. i. Explanation a sleeping-place. Each of these hypogcBiwi. hill-side. a new name of Christian origin. or to signify that of the faith. 3. 29 them were public on the high-road or on the galleries and chambers were in the third century..e. * Euseb.e. 11. ox coemeterium. i.) was the burial-place of martyrs or confessors ordinary grave was called hats or loaibis.i (its Latin equivalent. probably without understanding.— General Description. it An coJifessio. of St Peter. t Hence the crypt under the high altar of the Vatican Basilica the Confession. E. is if called .

in which case there was no special name tinction's * sake we may be allowed for to call it it. had any to have specific in the galleries themselves. and fossores. whence they were — Sepolcro a meiisa or called arcosolia!'' Table-tomb. but the In most of these chambers. sometimes also graves were . chambers or hisonium^ trisomum^ or quadriso- them was burial in do not seem galleries . if it dug by Sotterra7iea. The called depositio. 4. in which . one or more tombs a long oblong c/iasse. more elaborate kind are to be seen of a like a sarcophagus.— Roma 30 it contained a single body mii?Ji. Fig. but for cotta. however. The contained two. and closed by a heavy slab of marble lying horizontally on the top. three. the niche retained the rectangular form. name . either hollowed out in the rock or built Fig. dis- a table-tomb.t Solium was used to denote the urn of marble or terra the Pagans sometimes buried their dead. and generally vaulted a in semi-circular form. + De Rossi calls it sepolcro a viciisa. 5. The niche over tombs of this kind was of the same length as the grave. Arcosoliuin. Sometimes. or four. and w^ere called cubiciila. up of masonry.

others their deaths [JVatalitia. or whereon the holy mysteries were altars some of hence. whilst . . pants . It probable that the holy mysteries were celebrated also in the is private vaults. three. hundred persons might be collected Catacombs whilst a receiving shaft or air-hole. sufficiently large in itself for use but in order that as Interior of a Cicbiailuni in St Agnes. or places of public assembly. luith chairs 6. {lumiiiare^ pierced through the superincumbent In all even four still to assist at the larger same act of number might have been dispersed in the ciibicula of neighbouring galleries. soil up to the open air. might assist at the public celebrations.— 1 Ge7ieral Description. way this in some as many as a parts of the public worship . 3 cele- the cubiada were only family- were chapels. and received . two. their occu- many on as possible and bench heivji out oj the rock. Those of the arcosolia Avhich were also the tombs of martyrs were used on the anniversaries of birthdays) brated as vaults. on the anniversaries of the deaths of and each one was these private occasions Fig. or of the cubicida were often light made and ventilation through one close together.

all the principal were removed into the city-churches by the care of succes- sive Popes. be found them by the assistant priests Indications of this arrangement are not only to may in ancient ecclesiastical writings. during a period of sixty or seventy years. an considered the marvel of his age for learn- ing and industry. and sometimes plundered. and when this beginning had been done. generally written in and all engraved by the same artist. there the Bread of Hfe. above others in other . the catacombs were naturally neglected. having formed part of the original remaining where they were By and Catacombs recjuenie for the faithful. benches design and the chambers were when peace was by. the were constantly visited as objects of pious (. first made.D. and by degrees forgotten. by the Lombards and other invaders of Rome." he . and of course the graves of the Popes and other principal The number martyrs became special centres of attraction. number verse. 750 then neglect. and sometimes his The own work of restoration or decoration at the tomb. episcopal chairs chairs.. j-g]j(^s gotten. But these having been desecrated.a^combs and or deaconess. in his devotion to this work : he also set up a of inscriptions at various places. when still the presiding deacon for interest. in which he some- times commemorates the triumphs of the martyrs.Roma 32 Sotterraiiea. as hewn out of the living rock. so that more commodious means of ways and improve to enlarge Pope Damasus distinguished himself chapels within. published a work in 1578 on the " Ceremonies of Christian Burial and the Ancient Christian Cemeteries. so that in oblivion for nearly when Onuphrius seven cen- Panvinius. friar. turies They remained and a Augustinian half.. brought to and deacons.^(. continued to be celebrated here as long as the festivals bodies of the martyrs remained in their original resting-places. of the faithful who flocked to these shrines on the annual recurrence of their respective festivals was immense it became necessary entrance and the to provide and exit. they still be seen in the very walls of the Catacombs themselves. restored to the Church. from the middle of the eighth century. till the transla' A.

(as is clear yet be seen from the window of and that of St the chapel of St Cyriaca in the Basilica belonging to his own order. authors. same It and a . how the during degrees of success . Treading order that this work may be done Catacombs cemetery of St shall consider the light art and well. . three of them were at all accessible. the ancient desire happened. work has been attempted by many this last two hundred and how. them all Hence volume. and that But we may .Genei^al DesciHptlou. own our with various Commen- day. which for the present aims only at putting within the reach of English readers the fruit of steps. cemeteries. doctrine. more interestmg than far of religion and of learning. . fruit in 1578. . except by a and a comparison of be discovered tents with the notices to of was impossible to it reconstruct their history. on the Via Flaminia. San Lorenzo. to be the another of Re-discovered light . that in an accident brou2:ht to year. from De Rossi's labours. in ancient It has been already shown in our sketch of the Literary History of the Catacombs. both of much time and labour. is 78. these itself. which had been careful examination of them. has far outstripped in the extent the opportunity and importance of and the necessity his discoveries. enjoyed some advantages beyond most of both his predecessors. their con- books. and having. in years. after to describe the which we which they throw upon early Christian in faithfully in his foot- to trace the history of the first their beginning. moreover. having devoted to great natural and abilities untiring industry for its study more than twenty years. however. which lay under property Valentine this from his description) was soon enkindled. either know something more about such venerable monuments of antiquity. the datore de Rossi. we propose Callixtus in particular and then . having had his interest awakened to the subject from his earliest youth. But in the interests could only this lost. 33 could only gather their names from the x\cts of the martyrs He and other ancient documents. meaning that at expressly states that only may the single gallery which — that at St Sebastian's.

. with dcve pai7ited on it. sJtoiving lo%ver end of and make a review of the legal and social position of its brief professors even from the days of the Apostles. -].c shaft of the li.Roma 34 satisfy Sotterra7iea our readers that the history foundation. Fig.- ^cciiuu uj K-ndinoers in Catacomb of Saints Marcellino and Ptetro. it introduction is necessary that we shall give rests we should go back of Christianity into on a sure to the first Rome.

CHAPTER II."t of which Cornelius was a centurion. that that were '' among in the Christians Rome must have been it For we almost simultaneous with the birth of Christianity. 8. X Rom. Christians was " spoken of in the whole world "J as early as a. " '" and on the return of these strangers to their homes.d. probably returned to native city soon after the appointment of the kingdom of Judea. 57. II. know Among first the witnesses of the miracle of Pentecost strangers of Rome. the wonderful sight they others. 10. accompanied their Herod Agrippa too would have given a fresh impulse to the if to Rome. and high rank who were native Qi-geks the time of Caesar Jews. and . at the accession of Caligula.d. this a. * Acts ii. the Gentile converts once communicated circu- the Jews of the capital. there were several of noble blood made profession of this faith. had witnessed would be at had heard would be and the solemn tidings they mouth mouth among lated from to Moreover. r THE in the metro- sowing of the seed of the gospel first poHs of the ancient Pagan world obscurity. 42 as the date of the coming of the Prince of the Apostles to At any to and these movement them from released from prison. t " lb. From r. It is certain. the faith of the which assigns Roman . Jews and proselytes . involved in some is however. THE SOCIAL AND RELIGIOUS POSITION OF THE FIRST ROMAN CHRISTIANS. St Peter. X. and same time miraculously Caesarea. "the in Italian band. who had been about the would agree with the tradition rate. i. even from the first. and it is the opinion of learned and impartial judges that.

Cor. It was only Romans under the Empire. and tenets. openly addicted less themselves to Jewish usages. the senator and martyr under Commodus. to equal proportions. us of the than either the records of earliest times. Ancient metrical it. and not least into the highest. and when a Jewish sect ventured to transfer obedience from the law of Moses its to the gospel of Jesus Christ. we relative of how " of Cesar's household " Paul sent a special salutation and easy to see is it the Church of Thus no memorial has reached names or condition of those whom St the legends pious or the scanty and imperfect these are. was more exten- that the spread of Christianity even among the imperial from the very sive. and We Scattered notices of ^ i • i Cormth tne Church at theiT^ of adherents in its have embraced Jews. I 380. of (clarissima. buried in oblivion. the seem the capital of the empire would Romans Greeks. and families at Rome. . in the most ancient parts of * History of the d scq. rank had more or citizens of every . vi. the consul fact of his martyrdom .Roma 36 Mr downwards. i that viz. .). celebrating the praises of another named Liberalis. i there were not to the flesh. in all other respects also have burial. noble Other inscriptions times. See also 26.. holding the highest office in and laying down his life for the faith. not many amongst mighty. + vii. Eusebius has told us. the State. we only „ of Flavins Clemens. writing so know little beyond that little which long after the event. ecclesiastical history would have led us to Indeed. in more recent their husbands. i. been found. not t nevertheless everything combines to show among the higher classes. " Jews had thrust themselves society. many noble " r." ''' are not unmindful of the Apostle's testimony relative to ^i i in nearly number — • them many wise according . recording the Roman ladies of senatorial common graves of the galleries in the the Roman cemeteries. whose memory noble patrician. Merivale. to expect. rank by is been found. 436. . and at so great a distance from the scene of inscriptions have know of Apollonius. Domitian." says Roman into every Many Sotterranea.

therefore. Sts Peter and Paul. a e. that contact with them. is. before Pagan world. Nevertheless we at least Indeed us. some length it : of these it facts will % that have not reached to Christian writers that in the be well annals of the early for us to dwell uj^on at in this place.. concubine of Commodus. X Hist. 75. that Vespasian to the throne. this intelligence has been confirmed Philosophumena. but says nothing as to their names or number. and heard He is ^^'^" ^^^^ ^'^' indebted for our knowledge of some of the most are upon commend in the and we know. as the history of a we Catacomb depends allude to the early conversion of family of the Flavii Augusti. it by Marcia. 4. .t again. some of the of the family which gave His elder brother. 65. or at least of a great interest in towards partiality own our until. iii. Rome chiefly in he must have been brought into somethmg of the Christian faith. some doubtless the destruction of is records during the last terrible persecution by of Christianity to writers. Ad Scapul. newly-discovered the and and Ter- beginning of the third century. 18. described by the great historian of the empire as * Tacitus Hist.g. c. Titus Flavins Sabinus. day. excepting indeed that in another place he says boldly. iii. but even the senate and the palace. 37 from the pages of a Pagan historian* that we knew of the profession of Christianity. tullian. had been Prefect of the city in the year in which the Princes of the Apostles. and it is certain.Position of the First Roman Christiaiis. that not only were the the whole Roman empire full cities of the of Christian people. it wrote about it is interesting it temper or practices as a special theme for to Pagan was not altogether overlooked by it whose histories Pagan rather than and remarkable One Church. from the testimony of Eusebius. f Ecd. of the ^^"' . writing at the us that Septimius Severus protected Christian senators tells and their wives. suffered martyrdom. in by enlarged it. One cause of the extreme scantiness of our information as to the early Christians in all ecclesiastical Diocletian them and there was nothing .

Chris- we do not martyrdom and Domitilla's Flavius know. 13.* a mild man. who were named respectively. anxious to spare the lives of his fellow-citizens spoke of ties . iv. gives . to the cause of a certain listen to all these conjectures as change which seems to have come over him in his declining years.— J^ 0/71 a Sotterraiiea.wii. iii." + Instit. the consul. who had a horror of all unnecessary shedding of Towards the blood and violence. t " Infructuosi in negoliis diciniur. % 42. l. by the same name Flavia Domitilla the younger bore her husband. i^ 2. two sons. his this a certain degree of probability to the conjecture. banishment are attested by Dio Cassius. 75. her who was married the daughter of his cousin. whether ings towards the verted to it ? but at least possible that he can have it is is lean- Christian faith. although he was his nephew. the question naturally occurs to us. accused by some of great inactivity and want of interest in public affairs others thought . and amongst them the facts of Clement's are. others again his retiring habits as the natural result of the infirmi- we Whilst of old age.§ His words " Domitian put to death several persons. Terliill. . close of his he was life. their tutor. the consul. I. or even been actually con- a question which cannot It is it had some now be answered com- certain that charges of this kind were monly urged against Christians t and . Flavins Sabinus seems to have had four children. sister to the as Emperor Domitian. the fact that some of descendants in the next generation were undoubtedly of faith. 65. § ApoL. Vespasian junior. that Flavius Clemens. of whom the most conspicuous was Titus Flavius Clemens. Flavia called Domitilla. and Domitian having been intended to succeed to the throne . At what time their parents and what was the history of became their conversion. the consul and He martyr. Hist. and * Tacitus Hist. 38 man whose innocence and justice were unimpeachable . junior. but Clemens. him only a man of moderation. and mother. and the famous Quinctilian % was appointed by the Emperor himself to be tians.

and 381. Chris- tianity that. who was a granddaughter (on the mother's side) of Titus Flavins Sabinus. Position of the First Romaji Christians. We at present only care to insist upon the Christianity of this branch of the imperial family. Pandatereia. her aunt. going Jews their . agreed that the atheism and adop- critics are Clemens tion of Jewish manners. is received critics we may add per- with greater respect. also suffered exile.t There was yet a third lady of the same noble the family. now known by the name of Learned Maria.'''' . suffered banishment. we can imagine and even death to scorn by many modern but the testimony of Dio Cassius. on which charge many others against 39 to death. too. here urged against Flavins and were his wife. like * . on its with what vehemence the pious legend would have been laughed also. bearing st Domitilla. martyrdom of the consul. same name of Flavia Domitilla. half-way between Ponza and Ischia. cannot understand the motives which have led some modern writers to call However. facts whose importance and the will soon be recognised. the charge of atheism never having specifically against the Jews. that a cousin and niece of the Emperor not only professed the new religion." an island opposite the Gulf of Gaeta. Had Martyrs immediately after the death of the apostles.. vii. in reality nothing else than a profession of Christianity. The charge relation of the Emperor's. same cause —profession lie accuses the consul " cojitei/ip/issivur of the iitaiicr. and others had but Domitilla was only banished to . Sta. been condemned.'"' been brought Both Christian and Pagan writers afike testify to the persecution which Domitian tuted against Christians towards the end of his life insti- and we . and consequently a niece of the consul. who although he had Flavia Domitilla for his wife. it concerned with this fact. after the of atheism was brought had also manners and customs of the and some of them were put goods confiscated was a also them both. Merivale. to which haps that of Suetonius itself. we are not in question. for t the She. it been handed down in any Acts of the was within an ace of mounting the imperial throne. but account.

too. it. historians did not refuse to insert in teaching of our that even Pagan some narratives their account of the persecution and the martyrdoms that were suffered in Some.i). We in lady was accused of having embraced the superstition . . and Eus. his in " Chronicon. and the grandfather of Crispina. Pamph. this rites was referred by Tacitus. but "in continual sadness. others. many mentioning. who pronounced in the more to which ought not. speaking of It is in we have already has that striknig passage to which and which testifies Christian religion. Pomponia Pomponia Grecina. exile have marked the time accurately. Cliron. to be altogether omitted Grecina. century. torn. supposed that there It is generally by a Pagan ancient notice. however. for we and shall that meet name it is Bruttius. still conversion the the wife of Plautius. in the 98. Qf . faith Eusebius this lady that this time shone so far " : The and wide. It is again in the cemetery of the very same He St Domitilla whose exile he had recorded. d. was punished by The same of Pontia." that the matter of her husband. another is that who conquered the year 58. amongst Domitian." no one.Roma 40 Christian faith. any more. of " a foreign to the judgment presence of a number of her relations. we mean read that.. her innocent . who. Flavia 97. He had by referred.. so clearly to the marvellous spread of the even before the expiration of the first has just had occasion to mention the latter and he says part of Domitian's reign. Migne.) to for her the island the fifteenth year in Roman consuls of those testimony for Christ. refers. interfered with her in this matter * St p. wife of the Emperor Commodus. Britain under Claudius. of Flavins Clemens. Christianity of a Roman writer. end viii. Hieronym.^' writer." * gives the name of one of the authors to he of daughter of a the Domitilla. that she lived afterwards to a great age. therefore. sister (a. Sotterranea. A. ed. was a friend of the younger Pliny. whom worth remembering. ' of lady of rank. Iiiterp. one of the days. 605. Opera.

" Im})ulsore Chresto.* confessed that the language in which this history is has the history with the Catacombs itself nevertheless . showing that a person family was certainly a Christian in the next generation. procurator of Judea. and The political position of the fij-st Chris^^"^' be found to furnish some very interesting A still however. " Mox X Tb. refusing to adjudicate upon and of names. and of your law. It must be is recorded we have read from Dio about not so precise as what Flavii. was considered the glory of her character. they will are. 12-17. drove both Paul and his accusers from his tribunal. 19. || J^^'^- re- . at upon the Christians as first. xx\'. deceased."§ * " certain The vertit. These glimpses • y-ii T • r • and imperfect as they Christians. 29. xiii. xxiii. It is certain that. and the ordinary interpretation of the " foreign been intended as having superstition. and one on which easy to throw sufficient position valuable period in the history ot the first examples of " undesigned coincidences. slight when we come at the social condition of the first 1 1 to study the Catacombs. affirmed to be alive. '• II in gloriam questions of their and of one Jesus. much more religious . XXV. are subject." whom Paul very terms in which Suetonius Aniial. in Claud. is more imis it happily the political or of Christians in the eye of the law."j: and Festus explained to Agrippa that the clamours of the Jews against the Apostle were about own superstition. the Imperial Government looked They only a sect of the Jews. consequently their freedom with reference to the rites and a. neither 41 it the so intimate a connexion has point of contact its with them."t " questions of a word Claudius Lysias wrote to FeHx. Gallio. has from an inscription lately received considerable confirmation found in the of the same Catacomb of name and St Callixtus." for Christianity. 32.nd usages of burial.—— Position of the Fii^st it Roman Christians. the fectof the^ proconsul of Achaia. and buried in that cemetery. were xviii." portant Roman light. saying that Paul had been accused before him "concerning questions of the Jewish law. + Acts § Suet. lb.

in the eyes Romans. xiv. xix. Ant. figures afi'orded to all the promises. i. Acts xxviii. 5."§ This is are in customs without proved by the Rome St Paul. J and (as just seen) under Claudius. the Jews were banished from the city. and which we know included the Christians Aquila Priscilla. the Jewish religion. and preach tions in to them without prohibition. and being allowed to assemble them at his lodgings. 2. Now Judaism.''' while they indicate Jews against the show faith. § lb. finding at all fact of very many Jews.xviii.Roma 42 Sottei^ranea. and claimed that was the fulfilment of their religion and of Judaism. Church continued to As long." was expressly recognised Roman laws frolii the days of Julius even in and protected by the we have Caesar . 8. as Tertullian says. it is evident that this protection extended to both classes of proselytes. 3. 1 1. Ad A'a/ioncs. + Joseph. . both the Jews and the Christians were regarded of and the same as belonging to one how easy to see Romans the the matter. and from incidental expressions Suetonius. to keep their ancient being hindered so to do. " both in its national customs and distinctive its Rome itself. therefore. lo. From inscrip- on Jewish Catacombs. X religion. which permitted " the Jews.t and though under Tiberius. yet this was merely a temporary suspension of the decree of the same emperor. 3. 1 7-31. mentions the expulsion of the Jews from Rome under Claudius. ^ " Nosquoquc ut Judaicre religionis propinquos^ sub uinljiaculo insignis11 simev i-elii^ioijis ccrte licitar — Tcytull. by the a disturbance raised at the same time and that. not is it could take any other view of was notorious that the Christians worship- it ped the God of Moses and the Prophets. a few years afterwards. religious rites. law both They were "and lived I^). 5.1[ * Acts xviii. and thus enjoyed the protection Judaism. as the Christian be confounded with the Jewish the Christians would enjoy the in their assemblies akin || to and protection of the in the burial of their dead. types. since Indeed religion. who the world under us.

104. be a Christian. § Nerva. renewed Nero. was the beginning of cruelties against Christians afterwards. could be revived at any time. xii. the author of the work so far as to say (c. or " his banishing Domitian. g i. + " As soon they fell vi. a. p. and proselytes. lawfuhiess there was no question. in as elsewhere. the Jews and their proselytes also persecuted connected with the for matters and members of it. . speaking probably with exact historical accuracy. note viii. and his be to it illegal to persecution of Christians for a period of thirty years after Domitian." J does not appear. however. and putting to death even same Emperor Christians." Orig. Aferivale. vigorously denounced their supposed Christian co-religionists. however. that there was any further open were published declaring It First persecu- accusations and unjust punishment of the Christians. p. II 449.. Mamachi as the Christians established their ii. vii. Sev. as in fact Nerva. Tertull. 361 . were protected by preted too tion De liberty. independence of Judaism. his the statutes which created the distinc- the " religion " of the Jews . under the ban of an + Sulp. Pliny's successor. 5. for whoever and and their operation. tona. it was on the death of Trajan distinctly says that letter to Pliny's letter to Trajan. must not be inter- " famous of the Christians. Sueton." The Tews. false " Nero. may have been else Nerva. strictly. Mortibtis Perseaitorum'^'' even goes 3) that the former condition of own fiscal regulations. or else proscribe it. to her This. however. Hist. as we have seen. in l^omit. however. 41." says Sulpicius decided between these alternatives. lib. * Merivale. 381. and became. 5.|| so that Lactantius. Severus.d. 43 about whose religion. Both Jews Church was then restored between the impiety or " atheism repealed The family. and decrees the religion was forbidden even by express laws. Rome.— Roman Position of the First under the shadow of that most famous Christians. The burning t of Rome by " This. illicit religion.'^ became necessary Roman Government that the reli- gion proscribed the first by the Roman ^^' it should either legally recognise the Christian religion as well as the Jewish. . Apolog. vi. Thenceforward cause of the persecution of the Church. though had never been for awhile suspended.

execution of the law. nor to seek for them." t was always suspended descended. Church. that those to trial." % which. origin led whenever the jealousy of the State was awakened. 4. * Tertull. and would by no means change From not be dismissed. and brought before the tribunal. and on which they depended. % Merivale. Apollonius was required to defend himself before the Senate. the be broken on the wheel but . vos I * was the cruel but plain Roman law against the very existence letter of the Christians. Apolog. " as there who had been once of long standing with them. special edict traitors was a law first three centuries. vi. and rebels. this general outhne. of the and their only means of escape were to be found in the hindrances put way of accusers by benevolent and in the And when even tolerant princes. v. and the Christians worshipped Christ as the Emperor's reply leaves no doubt as to the state of the law. them before the to drag Jupiter. in the reign of informer was on pressing the Commodus. then. the sword over the disciples. did not always prove a sufficient protection. H. this the malevolence of individuals insisted Thus. unless they consented to renounce their Non licet esse faith. It is no part of our present purpose pursue the history of the Church's fortunes through vicissitudes during the have given principle more it were made insecure. when the Senator Apollonius. and the to suffer no for. and martyrdom by suffered decapitation. the laws required that they should be punished. always was required "Sometimes them and invite ceive a vow to the genius of the to sprinkle it altar of with incense. was accused condemned to of Christianity. if they they were at once liable to capital punishment as refused. . their purpose. should the time of Nero. God. 21. and con- Emperor. for while he counsels Pliny not to originate active measures against them. to It is to all its enough to have pointed out the How this and development of the Roman Catacombs affected the will appear clearly in the sequel. E. 451. vi. yet he tells him that if they were denounced. f Euseb. .Roma 44 Sotterranea.

i.D. required a special it decree against the Christian cemeteries. from the refusal of the . ipso facto by all 1 once used r for sacei-^ purposes of burial It did not. such as with in A. Mem. become had . 2. ROMAN LAWS AND CUSTOMS AFFECTING IT BURIAL. classical scholar need be reminded of the sacred character which attached to such places Athens it chosen to among peoples of antiquity.tected by ordidoes not follow. tended by law over we meet first exclude them from the protection exall No burial-places. protect.\ and one of the chief consequences of this religious character. facit. . _ chres who of those professed would be interfered it with. or any necessity for concealment. ii. In entered into the preliminary examination of men fill the civilised the highest offices of the State. 8. § 4. * Xen.CHAPTER III. "'^T 1 . language of the time. In fact. for this could only be effected the ceremonies of a ritual consecration in the technical In • special privileges of the law. — Marcian.'"' 111-1111 Rome. It could dum mortuum Privileges of Roman tombs. religiosus . Digest. or even to tolerate Christianity. which henceforth attached to it. § 13. was its exemption from many of the laws which regulated the tenure or transfer of property. . + " Religiosum locum unusquisque sua voluntate infert in locum suum.^^^'^ ° r Neither the correspondence of Pliny and Trajan. nor any other cotemporary document of the first two centuries. land which had been -r^ was protected by indeed. can be alleged in proof ot any difficulty attending Christian burial. to 203. Roman law to Christian sepulclires pro^. whether they been negligent in the care of their father's sepulchre. but it became. 6. . that the sepul. .

that the Christian Emperor difficulties. up for Maximin this merciful provision . xlviii. so insignificant were these..M.. 24. 89.— — .. Thus. t The Roman Government . the Christian. others also. belonging exclusively and it for ever to the families of those who had been buried in In times of war.. and during any prolonged period of disturbance. denvered to be edict. those rights observed Hence but the law. it.. * Cic. J by a new . 90] shows that this permission was only necessary as far as the portion of the sepulchre above ground was concerned. by the burying his lives to the burial to any who asked distinctly confirmed.. his part. who had forfeited their also permitted the bodies of those .. pp.. on ancient inonunie7itu7n in other words." or certain specified in some members only of fact of I have my and the family . not become the lawful property of a scription and . rare instances. De Legibus.. at .) my it Roman monuthem hceredes ex This tomb and all testa7ne7ito that belongs can neither be bought nor sold heirs with the rest of my property but must ever remain inviolate for the purpose to which destined viz. sunt. the sacred : henceforth does not descend to it remained always the same.'"' man by usucapio.N..T. not of the same family. made. as a place of sepulture for myself family. H. 2. or pre- was inalienable.." .S. Roma 4^ Sotterraiiea.. " 7ie seqiiatu7^ . t De Rossi ii. or. frequent recurrence ments of these to were probably not always it. and that there was a regular system of fees which removed all In fact." Arimathea going in to Pilate and l)egging the Body of Jesus. and though he himself might be an outlaw..EX. without any desire on mere civil strictly or something equivalent to letters... put his sepulchre under the pro- tection of the Roman laws. 24. and without whose permission no serious alteration could be Christian mar- allowed the honours of tyrs burial. yet his burial-place was secure from disturbance. for . 1865. X " Corpora animadversorum quibiislibet pdentihts ad sepulturam danda This law illustrates the fact of "Joseph of Digest. to time inspected the tombs.H. Constans confirmed the Pagan Pontifices in their authority over Roman sepulchres.. {Hoc it is least. and under the guardianship of the Po7itifices^ who from time. Diocletian and them. {Bulletiino.

&:c. generally a relics. pears that quite a moderate-sized area for a might have extended and other pos- buildings. 1800 feet ment given on Roman was very much it : these inscriptions Horace* in Sometimes of course feet square. ^ ^i-J^f^^" plan ^^'^ . of preserving and honouring the sacred there Still tion no is trace in the Catacombs had two centuries of such prohibi- first and. 12. feet. as a matter of . by 500 less. that a Roman matron of noble rank. FR IN IN • pedes — . e.g. more /// froiite. survived might not have the consolation they so highly prized. and perhaps even the sessions attached to monuments which sepulchral Rome feet backwards into the field. P. a marble * slab. from their origin pious Christian. • belonged to the monument. is that the viz. some of the most ancient fact. will if w^e •' character. much classical Roman 125 and how many feet of frontage. The by 300. from ecclesiastical history that some of the Christian martyrs among precisely w^ere reason of the exception who faithful who were the few excepted. way. From . AG • P. • /. this very circumstance. it that this permission Of was ever refused. invested with a sacred law included in monument for consider Christian protection also its stood. 47 Gusto?ns affecting was only under very special ciicumstances. says Ulpian. own buried the remains of some famous martyr on her pro- perty. I Sat. but the Roman the area in which the Size of Roman available for the necessities of their adapted was the sepulchre that not only Roman itself cemeteries. The extent which the private burial-places of to made Christians could be brethren in the appear more clearly ^ * faith.Roman Laws and and Btmal. we know course. example [so many] 24 feet by 15. also is it 16 was very Ancient the measure- once a part of the monument viii. which not unfrequently was formed beneath it./ us [so how many many] . gardens. it ap- sepulchre or less.. the hypogewn^ or sub- terranean chamber. each gives us 1000 feet Sometimes larger. for instance. and the expressly mentioned.. — agro^ pedes pubHc roads leading the line into tell upon most of the Letters inscribed it.

remains to show that the property altogether was not than twelve Roman yz/^^r<^. . p. 180 iji agro . we cannot tell Unfortunately the slab is called at least. but also the private or public roads which crossed the property. feasts to . so that the exact measurements of the whole. however. as because certain funeral-rites were to be celebrated there year by year. {custodia) who looked sites for the was often added. ^ ^ the subterranean exca- above ground to the limits assigned yations should transsjress ° ^ <=> the a7'ea of the sepulchre small a?ra might be number now of bodies.or nearly 350. 48 Romait Lazvs and Customs affecting Btirial. illustrate these ^ lest remarks. and The Catacombs themselves not only Plan of Cata- hmits of the excavations. not only this slab.. itself. showmg . for example. which forms part of the Catacomb of St Callixtns. I. not perfect.. &c. dimensions of which froute.g. was buried in the middle of the third century. and other inscriptions are extant. and given to the museum at On Urbino. the gardens and vineyards of which swampy land on which grew nothing but the it reeds. on one side it was bounded. (it is Harundi7ietum^ and the ditch by which.. were set apart as a perpetual combs shows the mode and by which the person was taken endowment. and provided the festivals. cccxcix. agri puri jugera decern)."'^ The necessity as belonging to a single mausoleum the vastness of the to be erected. originally confined within an area the can be exactly determined — 100 feet ifi * Gruter.. consisted. the care that ^ requi- for his support the gardens. with sofas.. &c. sacrifices to be offered. A and all house also lived things necessary for the convenience of guests. and in which St Cornelius was but also show . specifying an amount of property almost equal to this. Enough. Huic monumento cedunt an assignment of property to a single tomb was for so large much not so monument {e. be given. Inscript. vineyards. and depth are the usual measurements of frontage carefully recorded. made The how a comparatively available for the burial of a great crypt of St Lucina. and for these purposes semicircular recesses {exedrce)y^^xQ provided.000 square less feet. after the annual in monument. which was dug up many years ago on the Via Labicana.

secure to themselves and an inalienable resting-place for their to their poorer brethren But though the charity of the more wealthy Christians dead. in from apostolic example. et divites. whose bodies were Christian find by laid side cemeteries. 16. allowing for galleries destroyed. and we may be sure that they took heed to the burial of the poor. de this crypt and considers that. might. Hitherto Roman we have considered by the the facilities afforded laws relating to private mausoleums. guilds or clubs. was in the early ages proverbial. and even of the slaves. of — corporations. 49 and there was a building of some kind above it. D . 14. a multitude that society. possessing property. which in the beginning of the fourth century. 44. servos et dominos interest nihil. provided for the maintenance of those Christians tain themselves. name and Now. by observing the requisite formalities. v. Rossi has counted upwards of 700 in locjili^ M. both in to Rome. i In- Tim. and others not yet thoroughly explored. 45 . which forms a very small and by no means crowded part of the cemetery of St Callixtus. 1 . nos inter pauperes Div. come down republican and imperial were Roman a place of burial in the members of timonies have who were unable worth while to inquire whether there were any provisions under the of a number of collegia. * " Funeral con- Apud — Lactant. was certainly in Now the possession of the Christians. as they confraternities. t Acts ii.Roman Laws and CtLstoms affecting Burial. its side with their masters in the corporate capacity. (prior to the conversion of Constantine. we should to main- laws whereby a society rather call them. under cover of Rome which individual Christians. vi. iv. we as.) if much not at a earUer period. v. 34-37 . 2000 would be a very moderate figure at which to estimate the number of persons buried within this area." 15. Inst.''' yet that the Church. as —whose members were associated with a view to the due performance of the funeral-rites.t it is men might hold use of the called. for the of tes- us of the existence.

.g. belonging to a collegium of slaves. which A purpose to repeat. much was funeral. hunters and fishermen. it interesting particulars as to not be altogether beside our will certain fixed good wine assisted.d. corn-merchants and soldiers sailors. with a keg of a month afterwards. goldsmiths and black- and carders of wool.. A collegium quod est in domo Sergiev Pauliucc. a certain proportion of * sum was For every member who had regularly paid up his contribution. a funeral con- in the same house or family. Sometimes (gene- They were this ciiltores the worship of Jovis^ or Herailis^ or Apollinis memory deceased benefactor whose alitores . 200. and bakers and cooks. reminds us of "the 1864. 62. tmous. et to say Nor was collegium. . 5. extant. and for the burial of the dead^' in the year a. e. not it its would be hard deity.Roma 50 which are scriptions. Abiilli Dextri .* ^inscription. clipeorum L. et and sometimes the only bond of union appears to have been service . collegium was to which was If a of more than twenty miles from One to and then so much besides. lliis . 133. what trade or employment had Sometimes they merely took the DiancE. dealers in drugs doctors and divers. to for his be distributed died at a distance three of the confrater- and so much was to be " convictoruvi qtu ttna eptdo vcsci solentP Can nity were to be sent to fetch the body. testify to nearly eighty of still each consisting of the members of a different collegia^ trade or profession. upon which such some bankers.) It is also worthy of notice that the ancient privileges of these collegia were confirmed by an edict of Septimius Severus about a d. be paid on be allowed member Rome. wine-merchants. statuai^iun title of some they desired to honour. word. There are the masons and carpenters.^ and musicians scribes indeed) the members were united in rally. in a the only bond of fellowship confraternities were built. boatmen and smiths. xvi. and was erected " A long and curious which consisted mainly honour of Diana and An- in fraternity. reveals a number of most nal organisation. these Sotterranea. Church which is in their house." (Rom. entrance. so Amongst those who its inter- vague and ambiguous phraseology have been adopted by some congregation of Christians for the purpose of concealment ? See Biillettmo.

. the deceased member was slave nevertheless to receive buried in The good wine. . 5 If the master of the would not give up the body. Append. xlvii. Christians though the ordinary assemblies of the Christians were bidden bv the edicts of Traian appears from Pliny's made letter. he Finally. all owed received his freedom. we have only to recall the words in which Tertullian describes to a heathen ruler the habits of Christians at makes a small when he one a is the end of the second century: "Every one contribution. t " Permittitur tenuioribus stipem menstruam conferre. a2:ainst clubs yet an exception for- Uictoerice). that he might not grumble afterwards. themselves of societies. be slave." confraternity.. torn. I. allowed them for travelling expenses. common all is is only willing and able voluntary. since The amount it is is. was to any of the members. who met together every month make a to small contribution towards the expenses of their funerals. Roman Laws and Ctistoms affecting Burial. iii. de Champagny. as the legal sanc- was expressly favour of associations which consisted of " poorer in members of society. He the funeral-rites. dum tamen semel in mense coeant. who- was requested to entered. on a certain day in the month. or leave a dispute as a legacy to his * heir. or chooses. he the coUegitun an newly-elected president the members. complaints or disputed questions might be mooted at these festivals." t To rites understand how Christians might shelter their funeral- under this exception. In connection with these collegia^ it is to be remarked that. Antinous. it no were.'' par le Cte. 22."— /?4vj/. amphora of must {inagister) inaugurate his accession to office by giving a supper to in i all members dine together Six times a year the honour of Diana. fund of piety . not as for . expended. provided he compelled. 399. in feasting * " Les Antonins. being a If effigy. " to the end that our feasts ever wished to study may be merry and enter this the rules before all glad. and the patron of the collegiimi and the allowance of bread and wine on these occasions was specified. — so much to every mess of No four.

. m . — Tert. ed. and six of silver. Dupin. but in feeding and or in drinking.. this description whereby the reader agapa. up Provision was to laid.'' &c. Purgat: Coecil: feature in post Opiati Opera. by some disciple of the school of century and now two pages of in the binding of a MS. sed egenis alendis hnjuauduqne. pletion of the cei/a menwrice which the testator commenced. .. &c. sixActa teen for men. Nam quum velit. of . which was freedmen. were held at the tombs of the martyrs and the Fathers of the others of the faithful. couches and benches also were to be provided on which set in bronze. apponit charge of two imposed upon the be neglected.— Roma 52 Sotte^^ranea. burying the poor ^' and even of &c. .' further important illus- still which had once been engraved ^ sepulchre in Langres rites. Apol.. in which his bones should be be made in . and of the same metal. and six cruets." besides two seven candlesticks. or Christian love-feasts. Finally. vel die. before they had degenerated into the will scenes of excess and superstition so feelingly deplored and condemned by fifth century. and even garments for the Orchards and other property were assigned for the was it to be who named. a yearly contribution. small brazen candlesticks and lamps with their chains.. 168. forty-seven of women's. size guests.''' This Subject has lately received other practices connection m |-j. ' ' to meet.. there were found also eighty-two garments for women. " In the legal inventory of the goods which were in the house whei^e the Christians used confiscated under Diocletian in Cista. It was to be finished two statues of himself of a certain other in marble —and in front of it. Alcum the eighth or nnith copy have been discovered his the tenth century in the library at This curious document begins by ordering the com- Basle. the an altar of the easy opening and the for were to be it — the one marble. had already accordance with in exact him the plan he should leave behind all in was copied thence .g^|-JQj^g f^-Q^-j with funeral- marble on a ^ Pagan ° Roman will. thirteen pairs of men's shoes. inde non epulis et si . Nor is this the only be reminded of the which. 39. and certain are the testator's freedmen were to " Modicam nnusquisque velit.. or in indecent excesses. all chalices of gold. . make menstrua stipeni left in fines heirs if they should allow this duty to modo finest shutting of this cella maintenance of the sepulchre. + This reminds us of the history of the man in the gospel who "had not on a wedding-garment. et si modo possit. t * Carrara days for those opened.

S. Sept. EX ING " Euelpius. c. Silvani fratris openmg to already of days on list such entries as the following this ordo there are MarHas we have of the martyrs.D. who composed instance of ^^'^ ^ "'"^ ^°" ."'"' noble martyr of Christ an admirable cover for we have described. the monument seems sometimes itself. Tertull. 39. 53 out of which a feast was to be provided on a certain day. we may communicate with the combatant and . . Ignat. for they practice of observing the make known " the day and the time. and . Apol. gives a long ordo canarum^ or which convivial entertainments were natali C(Eseniii pairis . Even nmnicipi. it must be obvious to all what and other pious practices of this Christianity was provided as and by the existence of such institutions That they were actually so used by Christians seems almost certain when we compare with the foregoing inscriptions the following Christian monimient. \' ASTERI.. The inscription. of the celebrated martyrdom . I. 107. in Idus viii : ^§'-> Oi'clo coe- Ruji patroni CcEsemii anniversary of the dedication.— Roman Laws a7id Ciistcmis affecting Burial. xix Jan. The constitution of the collegium^ of which said so much. A. v. a worshipper * Mart.. Asteri denotes that Asterius was the poet Cf. natali . C. Natalis vionumejiti : on a pagan 7iatalitia be celebrated narum. SEVERIAXI. MA. Id. natali . of the . one of the Roman — AREAM AT [AD] SEPVLCHRA CVLTOR VERBI CONTVLIT ET CELLAM STRVXIT SVIS CVNCTIS SVMPTIBVS ECCLESI^ SANCT^ HANC RELIQVIT MEMORIAM SALVETE FRATRES PVRO CORDE ET SIMPLTCI EVELPIVS VOS SATOS SANCTO SPIRITV ECCLESIA FRATRVM HVNC RESTITVIT TITVLVM.t Word. has given this area for sepulchres. t Ex ijij^enio this epitaph. have been to Maias was first Anniversaries. that being assembled together at the season of his martyrdom. and duly consumed by them on the spot. dis- covered recently towns in Africa : in the ruins of Caesarea. . 9. or lately found eye-witnesses of St Ignatius' to the Christian testify Ccesenni xiii k.

unknown sake of concealment and \ " Areoe non sint !" its The to belong to the first general edict to theology. From First express edict against Christian cemeteries. own cost. was a and a however. brethren Holy salutes you. 257. In fact. still they were known Christians as their exclusive property." identity of the expressions cultor verbi. in all we have that said. that has restored this tury. Terfiill. with the corresponding terms used can hardly be the result of accident.D. and therefore no special necessity for secresy and concealment.— Roma 54 and has built a cella entirely at his Holy Church. * This very term. to which we later may have been It is original and the words the sense it. 3. it is Ecdesia frati'tinv' a period subsequent to the perse- had been destroyed. but both forbid us to suppose that any change language of the epitaph. then. as we now have added expressly cution. aj^eam^ cellam^ mejnoriafn. by the It is true that this in- at the foot of the tablet. being frequently held there was the cause of the invasion of the sanctity of Christian graves by popular violence and express legal enact- ments. &c. ad Scapjilam^ c. belongs to Africa in the year a. the assemblies of the Christians would be less liable to interruption at the buildings erected over the burial-places than anywhere And it seems that the fact of these assemblies else. incmoria to the Euelpius with a pure and simple heart ! than the middle of the third cen- destroyed either in the persecution of A. destruction.d. scription. 203.t their These. A. savours of being adopted for similarity to collegium convictornm. and probably differed externally in little or nothing from the burial-places of the heathen which surrounded them . that at Carthage there piopular outcry raised de demand for an invasion which aj'eis sepiilturariim 7iostrariim. were not subterranean cemeteries. 257 or of 304. He left this Spirit.D. by are then told Tertullian. it appears certain that the earliest ages there was no special interference with Christians in their burial of the dead. Hail. . born of the The Sotterranea. during tituhis. at which the had been made in the cannot assign a date collegia^ not the original stone . The has come We historical notice of such first down to us.

or at least of secret assembly. LVCITE^ CVMPA %^. 257. and was aimed rather at their use as places of worship. ad. Christians. than as mere places of burial. CE W i Fig.— Roman Lazus and Citstonis affccfing Roman Catacombs by which the BnriaL 55 were affected was pubUshed by the Emperor Valerian. DEO 5ANC y< VNI P. not if After this. they enter expressly of the imperial edicts concerning the all. 8. . so that the relations between the the Christian cemeteries will henceforward Roman laws and be most conve- niently considered in our direct chronological account of the Catacombs themselves. ScpiilcJiral Stone found in a cemcicry on the rin Laiinn. into most.

the own house on the Caelian. in this and being a mixed company of Greeks. consult to matter . 2^ . BEGINNING OF THE CATACOMBS. application to the old walls but with the exception of the burial of Saints in their secretly buried its secrecy. indeed one limit set to their place first . and Jews. a legal right of burial within Cic.CHAPTER IV. ii. the corpse was either buried both practices appear to have been always used the few privileged families who had the walls did not avail themselves of it. viz. * Even Among the Greeks. there were not wanting to them to discharge this duty in the . either in the ' mural ^ social or religious position of the freedom of action to interfere with their The law posing of their dead. we do not find any trace of a Christian cemetery within the circuit of the walls of Aurelian and Honorius. Roman burial» TT has been shown that there was nothmg. and the bodies by St Pudentiana. their Beyond these own convenience. Romans. this prohibition. or burnt. they had the examples of various nations from which to choose.. were free or tastes. limits they laws. but this attached to was not peculiar by the ancient left Christians in mode in the them either the means Roman to the Christians. It of dis- There w^as choice of sepulchres alike. most becoming way. excepting in one or two instances where the pressure of per- them forced secution Christians for seem never The law was to a while to unusual have disregarded really restricted in of Servius Tullius John and Paul . as to the all Rome entire liberty. de Leg.* and was strictly forbidden bury within the walls of the city law^s to and or the will liberty. and.

to enclose the ashes in the family sepulchre. was ^^^^^ and ^ox^^h^^ This. their comparatively small size . as in marks which principal these Pao-an sepulchres from the Christian ceme. visited by the 55. but only recesses for sarcophagi. latterly almost in was universal.t The the which are half-buried. . as contrasted with the all-embracing catholicity of the Christian cemetery and that the loaili of the because it it was their custom to close the chamber had once received loculi Pagan sepulchre were often left open. 57 In Rome. with their exclusiveness cemeteries. from the later times of the least at Republic. . since the chambers which they were situated were frequently * Plin. inasmuch as they have chambers cut in the tufa^ with horizontal niches for bodies the Scipios whereas the tombs of . on which road are chres of the Nasones. in faithful. . from . Warriors. which. for ever when destined occupants. are both irregular in form. have been found Etruscan tombs. Milano. . and have no graves cut it were. f Opere di Nat. Beginning of the Catacombs. which he saw four miles out of Rome. wall.. lying at full many niches. also the sepul- These and latter. however general. and custom. in containing only the remains of a single family. with the full-sized its still be seen sarcophagi. resemble the plan which was adopted by the Christians more closely than do the tombs of the Scipios. Hist. but to burn. showing that that great family followed the ancient practice. in the living rock. the bodies of the dead. while the Christian its were always hermetically sealed. a number of these little called a columbariuin or dove-cot. 10. was not to bury. described others that might be some by Bartoli.. i. and in a recess m The urn was then placed an urn.contrasted distinguish ^ Christian teries are — . . Fabretti gives another example. on the Via Flaminia. as though the place had been a deserted quarry. like so containing Pagan colum- -11 its baria^ pigeon-holes. Ennio Visconti. a greater or less extent at different periods. and outside the ancient Porta Capena Rome) may (though within the present walls of sepulchre of the Scipios. named..'^ primitive the not length in their armour. vii. to the ordinary custom.

outside the Porta Portese. side of the Via Appia from the Church of St Sebastian. than Rom. Italy. Garrucci. P. of the rock was not altogether Jewish mode particulars. There are no instead of an upright position.t Bosio. &c. however. which was more far Verde. Roma. it is How- not worth while to discuss minutely the chronology * See Murray's Handbook for Southern t Cimitero degli Anticlii Ebrei. 361. From the variety of names. wherever they have settled themselves and the nature of the soil 111 Vigna Ran- permitted it — One was in Palestine. cient for the purpose for show cata- abundantly to are unknown even To the Jews combs numerous examples are to to the had always been it - . suffi- which they have been alleged. and somewhat nearer to Rome. per X Bosio. hewn out that the practice of burying in sepulchres of Rome. 142. properly so called. aibicula. ancient. '^ and in Rome discovered not long since on the opposite dan in i. are closed with stone combs and terra-cotta. like those in the Cata- but the lowest range are sunk beneath the .. in itself. describes a Jewish and at Monte Catacomb which he saw on Monte Verde. it has been conjectured that here the Jews rather imitated than set an example to the Christians. inscriptions are in Greek. and the stone closing these leans against the wall in a slanting. with unmistakeable Jewish expressions and symbols. 1862. locidi floor. and the absence of the usual exclusive occupation of the tombs by one family which characterises most Jewish sepulchres of a similar kind. excejjt that they are not quite so regular. - m viz. Vigna Randanini. amongst which the seven- branched candlestick holds the first place. Southern Italy.Roma 58 These and the examples referred .. . Sott. hill.J however. and . are not of the essence of this of burial to Sotterranea. be found every part of the world. and seems certainly to have been of an earlier date the Christian cemetery of San Ponziano on the same ever. the in Here the galleries resemble those of the Christian cemeteries very The closely. but sometimes an opening leads to a small recess where two or three graves are sunk behind the ordinary range of The locidi. Pagans familiar.

'" or quote the instance of the Father of the Faithful himself. without any rarissinic. We do not for a that wherever these letters were used. and others have tried to maintain) for of the discoveries for which diligence of ment of De we Deo Maxiino. i6. * Isaias § and so have been used thoughtlessly." says aliis de De Rossi. 59 of the specimens of Jewish Catacombs to be seen in need only Rome.— — Beginning of the Catacombs. Solcsm. so they continued also their ordinary usages of daily social Roman they burnt their dead after the ashes mto . first that as they continued to dwell in the midst of their unconverted countrymen. Christianis Spic. in attempting a chronological arrange- Rome.§ letters not frequent end of the third century. them the customary dedication to the only authority given for this statement • -1 1 and mscnbed over Divme Spirits T % The " the frequent occur- is rence of the letters D. r life in particular. We language of the prophets when speaking refer to the of places of burial in the Old Testament. biU buried. adhibitam epitaphiis iii. fashion. gathered their Christians did • 1 1 the sepulchres 01 their patrons. vi. of course. has ventured to say of the writer. " that . partim oscitantia. whose only possession in the land of promise was "the field wherein was the double Abraham bought cave. they moment doubt were intended to stand for Dis Manibus. laid the Body more still hewn out sepulchre Arimathea for a possession in of a burying- purpose to name to the a rock in which Joseph of of our Lord — an example which was not likely to be without effect on His earliest disciples. on the tombs of the early Christians. causis. Christians in Rome. which place. . tlieir ." which is new and certainly quite inadequate to support the weight of so startling a theory. partim fuisse satis constat. xxii. 17-20. " Quam xxiii. 444. 55'- + Gen. Fabretti. J Merivale."t new the It is. A modern indeed. and not (as Boldetti. "ot burn. . M. to fix the date of the Christian epitaphs to the it is are indebted to the skill the Christian inscriptions of have been found But that we are able on which these — and they are extremely rare. one and Rossi. by which time they may per- haps have been almost accounted a characteristic of mortuary inscriptions.

J conclude. x. xi. ed. in.^ they are found. — lb. and he considers that one at least. and insisted on whence they came. c. in D.g. c." instance. demned restoring We the destruction of dead bodies by them to the earth. bespeaks a The whole of the inscription referred to stands thus Christian baptism. They only came into use among in the midst of the heathen themselves mider the Csesars. men knew not how. 1838. ii. refers to the inscriptions in the columbaria of Claudius. advertence to their real meaning. Minuc FelixVeterum et meliorum consuetudinem humandi Octav. and seem to prove nothing but that such names were not uncommon in Rome. 468. we have very distinct testimony. ida. iiii. 451. the surviving relatives ill-instructed in the faith . V. d. recently discovered. -^ tombstone may have been bought with the already inscribed have been . mode Rome. or by Mr it S. ed.— Roma 6o Sotterranea. Anil. riiii. of course. . ^c. that the Christians con- of burial adopted by the early Christians the spirit of Christianity soon the characteristics which distinguish its made itself cemeteries from the sepulchres both of Jews and of Pagans. + Mr Merivale. that there was nothing strange or un- natural in the of on the other hand. . Sentia Renata. X Execrantur rogos et damnant ignium sepulturas... monogram itself. as containing several of the same names as occur in the salutations of St Paul to his fellow-countrymen Rome. Di due Sepolcri Roinani del Secolo di Augusta. Senthis Felicissiinns Et Ainabilis Filia Duicisshnce. indeed. assumed by the survivor The instances of identity of name are only seven or eight out of 250. Roma. on the not pretended that amongthe innumerable cinerary one hand. any one of which seems sible than that suggested who put one to us Merivale. M. in Sentice RenatiC q. 1 852. more For easily admis- whilst. Pidro Cainpana. in another place. although felt in lire. coupled with the sacred Or the — c. then.-^ a single specimen has yet been found with Christian emblems or inscriptions. letters up may many other explanations might be given. it is. We do not know of any Christian inscription in which the title ainabilis is often given to the deceased. da Gio. — frequentamus. it is urns of the Roman columbaria. just as the Christian Church * first itself grew up.

f:xamples. consisting each of a single Others again. for the nation. burying their dead according to a fashion to which the First cata- work their would it at as city. may have been afterwards indefinitely enlarged. Porta Pia f VALERI M ERCVRI ET JVLITTES JVLIAN I ET QVINTILIES VERECVNDES LIBERTIS-LIBERTABVSQUE-POSTE RISQUE EORVM AT RELIGIONE M PERTINENTES MEA M HOC -A MPLIVS IN CIRCVITYM CIRCA MONVMENTVM LATI LONGI PER PEDES BINOS -QUOD PERTIN ET AT IPSVM MONVMENT - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - It is - - slated in his Acts that he - - - - - - - - - - - was buried "in the garden of Justus. and which enabled them at also their to follow in death the model in attain. proportions which nor the manifold uses sible that of the sides and opportunity served. occasion foreseeing the all would ultimately It quite pos- serve. here and there on different required Him who example of private. as in point of fact Christian subterranean sepulchres have really been found in the neigh- bourhood of Rome.Beginning of the Catacombs. not enormous was Accordingly. best. claimed as and around in the religions true preserved intact own its kingdom of God which own its was good that all and. many same time combs. and particular portions only appropriated to private use by means of inscriptions. it. at the same time. chamber only. there was absolutely nothmg extraordmary or requirmg explanation way did but use their liberty in the that r ^ c • -K \ them suited of them had been long accustomed. begun with the same intent. they began cemeteries life. small the faithful and .^' the in beginning of the Christian Catacombs. just outside the MONVMENTVM Nicomedes. . such as Catacomb of that recently discovered in the in the garden of the Villa St Patrizi. Judaism and Paganism. is some of these cemeteries may always have remained the burial-place of single families. a " holy identity as stand shall 6i But ever.

proscribing the free exercise of the Christian religion. monument for the use only of those of is my belong to No religion. ANTONI RESTVTV FECIT YPO S GEV SIBI ET - VS - - - - - - SVIS FIDENTI BVS-IN-DOMINO. or interfering with the privacy and sacredness of They their graves. It it in public else. between his death and the accession of Domitian. or under Nerva and in the earher part of the reign of Trajan. to his attempted to secure the fulfilment of whose for benefit desires to own religion. of Malmesbury also .'" places his tomb The author quoted by William very near this gate of the city. therefore. and it is very possible that to one of these periods this inscription really belongs." by declaring my that the dependents " Avho precedent can be found for such a phrase as this amid the tens of thousands of pagan epitaphs which are still extant. from the sepulchre of those M at no great distance saints. again. but by no one eyen a Christian could not have used his I'eligion state. near the city walls. that place of burial had been include those only who belong Each provided. this desire.Roma 62 may or this other. before persecution was begun by Nero. it could have been used by a Jew or a Christian. - Both of these monuments are very ancient. and when once had been condemned and declared unlawful by the might have been used. or. merely announce with simplicity and candour. yet be seen in a most ancient part of Nereus and Achilles. as an inscription on a pagan monument might have done. them seems to Neither of have contemplated the existence of penal laws. which the Catacomb of Sts Sotterra^tea. in the and it is one case by limiting the use of the hypogeiim to those relatives " who believe in the Lord. conveyed any meaning It is doubtful whether at all to a pagan mind would have it ." in the other.

THE FIRST AGES. briefly to collect the informa- ^°"^ . have already enumerated the principal documents from which the early history of that Church and the persecution under E)iocletian. Our readers will not expect us to produce the testimony of cotemporaneous. interesting portion of our Apostolic upon a most oris^in of some subject. So terrible Roman Church history of the was the tenth escaped destruction. at length the outlines at least logical history of Roma Sotterra?iea. Httle rehable information of the Cata- could be obtained until the archaeological genius of succeeded in reducing to through scattered monuments found means we have and in so Catacombs themselves. on which. however. that hardly any of the ancient records of the We first for all that can now be done is is to be reconstructed . Catacombs during the and last ages. collected by Bosio De By these of a chrono- which we may hope that and enlarge. or nearly cotemporaneous authors. the Rossi order the fragments of tradition the writings of antiquity.BOOK II HIS TOR Y OF THE CA TA COMBS CHAPTER THE CATACOMBS WE now enter IN I. future discoveries will correct laboriously and verifying these by the others.

4 6 Roina • Sotterra^iea. Sixtus L. Telesphorus. Hyginus. A.. 203 and the same . S. there. the cemeteries ascribed by tradition to apostolic the Vatican. the successor of in the Apostolic See. monument even of their martyrs. in the light of the replies : most searching archaeological and of Christian art persons who appear of Trajan . places where the bishops might be laid. the crypts of the Vatican first clami on our attention. has been said or impHed that the history of the Cata- It combs probably from the burial of the dates Are Christian. discover precise I upon which Among it is dates of those a bold statement. i. and Victor. then. the cradle of Christian some at least of the proofs based.D. however. would have the times. I. '^ Iniilt and adorned the {constrnxit meinoriaui) of blessed Peter. It is and other is added burial- that he recorded of Linus and of Evaristus. since had been ordained priest by St Peter. to Catacombs ing sources. sepul- whom and. we derive from those tion Catacombs themselves may be for and then to examine the whatever confirmation of it they able to give. of apostolical traces — " Precisely be found Roman first any of the in antiquity? De exist- Rossi in those cemeteries to which history or tradition assigns apostolic origin. had they not been almost destroyed by the foundations of the vast basilica which guards the tomb of St We Peter. after St Victor. especially as the cannot. is was buried recorded to . most ancient notice of them that we have confirms in some degree what has been said as to the perfect liberty of the first Christians in the burial The Liber Clement chral he' Pontificalis states that Anacletus. no other Pontiff * R. 185. and we purpose in the present chapter to bring together Papal crypt on there I find memorials of belong to the times of the Flavii and finally. and This times/' '^ inscriptions to ." himself was buried there and Pius Cletus. I see. the last of . Eleutherius. pass them by altogether. is criticism.

* on the Vatican the mind passes naturally to the restmg-place of the apo-^tle of the Gentiles been cut away mjifos to ancient these Rossi believes that the sepulchre of St teenth century. constriixit in the First Ages. inscription of the unfortunately. 1864. Lucina.d. the has hill Paul extra for the Basilica of St and hence the greater part of the Catacomb of St . first however. J2 mark import- St Paul's on ^j^^j^ . 50. is it sometimes called been destroyed.. and what lias in galleries yet remain are so choked with earth and ruins of various kinds as to be almost impassable. make room on the other But here. A.f explorer of Piso in the et locidi^ marks the year same Bolano^ for- a. indeed. 72 . the anniversary . or of St Commodilla.e. it no longer It must is possible to ascertain to wliat cemetery this inscription l^elonged. \ There is. and of Rome. discovered here also yet a third insciip- * Biillettino. iio.d. be remembered that a very small proportion of the inscriptions have the date of the year upon them. but. gotten that read Boldetti Nevertheless. very place early in the seven- this name of LINUS. a third year of Vespasian. more ancient dated Christian i. The day of the month was sufficient to the particular year was regarded as of less ance. covered the tombs of Chris- it likely to impossible is it notices with any existing be disturbed to confront It is St Peter's worth mentioning. consuls a. a. too.D. bearing simply the side of the river any time at For the reason we have monuments. p. within this must not be it Catacomb It was scratched on the mortar of one of the and the consulate of Sin-a A 107. as ancient records. Seiiecio et second was also found recording the names The same most the come down ancient inscription with a consular date that has to us.d. even though would not be tian bishops.The Catacombs have been buried at the vicinoriani is The of a that such a monument. during the already stated. place. in marble. De and we have seen that . Linus was discovered in From monument above ground or second century. that idea conveyed by the words Roman custom according to the usual 65 Vatican until St Leo the Great was laid in St Peter's. 461.

years. Farewell. . this inscription to epitaphs.symbolism had assumed a more fixed and stereotyped charac- .^yg less than forty martyrdom. beloved. . The who resting-place for Titus Flavins Eiitychius. XVIIIl MES XI D Ill HVNC LOCVM DONABIT M . as the is known. and certain symbols rudely carved at the bottom (apparently intended to represent loaves and fishes). con cha])el in it. a ana. friend. in the property of the family of verted by the apostles from the language of . the differing widely The the family. tian show and a particular said Pudens. Rossi considers one of the most ancient in : DORMITIONl r FLA EVTY CHio Qvi vr . first can hardly be a mere accident that these rare and cotem- place." place where it was found. been dug same the in body of the apostle They may be taken |-q while the Flavins. ANN .. three His dearest days. ORBIVS HELI VS AMICVS KARISSIMVS KARE BALE . lived nineteen Marcus Oibius. scenes depicted in classical most of them from the usual well-known subjects which after-times repeat themselves so frequently. . and other style of the members of frescoes. " As a gave this spot. Gi^eca^ is supposed to have been the burial-place of St Pudentiana. Catacomb was of St Priscilla. eleven months. x^oint poraneous dates should have been discovered St Priscilla on le la. T. XIT . . its Paul. on the Via Salaria Nova. Cappdla inscriptions.— Roma 66 which tion. the ancient nomenclature differing from the usual Chris- style. . St Praxedes. age of the Flavian emperors. It be Christian />. . . and the praenomen. when in Christian . . Rome De Sotterrmiea. and precisely in the cemetery where years before had been deposited the as certain proofs that a begun here not long after his The cemetery ]-. the end of the the to century.

such as we find them third century. tohc salutation anchor) . which was on the third mile of the Via Salaria. that t See page 23. of Titus on the a special family of inscriptions traced in vermilion . De Rossi's more mode scientific of procedure seems to have been more successful." When Panvinius compiled his catalogue of the cemeteries. in the point to a date anterior to any such systematic arrangement." as somewhere between the roads though that have manner. Monza. be- Yow^. He served that the Abbot John. however. The Catacombs ter m the First Ages. Avhich . after " the oil of St Agnes and many others" on the Via Nomentana and before " the oil of St Vitalis. and unlike epigraphs in Christian later their language (being sometimes bare names. and. ^ bemg Lc r is made r of the Cemetery of OstliaiUlS Or ^ not far from the cemetery of Novella. In like in the Liber Mirabiliuni^ between that of St Agnes and that of St * See this Priscilla.* he down set in use this as when having been the oldest of Peter preached St Bosio. not excavated in is the iufa^ but regularly built. Salaria." mentions " was enthroned {prius first oil and others on the Via from the chair where Peter the apostle sedif). sometimes the apos- PAX TECVM. in which he gives a brated shrines of of list Rome in oils the papyrus MS. name TITO FLAVIO FELICISSIMO construction of the principal crypt.. were situated been named. and attempt to identify whilst . and confirm to this in a remarkable manner the high antiquity assigned cemetery by tradition. in the index of the cemeteries page 32. St Alexander. 67 the beautiful ornaments in stucco. tiles. In certain acts of Pope Liberius mention „ cemetery 01 Ostrianus as - . is." to the other antiquarians have failed in any all it all. Petri.t at ob- from the lamps before the cele- which he visited. the faith " because it was Romans. — all the the for the reception of sarcophagi these variations from the uniformity of Christian subter- ranean cemeteries. . very often the symbol of the the classic forms of the characters of the inscriptions on marble the . without any loculus in was evidently intended walls. like those in the baths .

iibi p7'ius in the martyrologies of ad NympJias further confirmed been found here enthroned first . are illegible. and found a crypt. . however. and others of the same Ado Petriis baptizabat. once the deceased {libci^td) f See Note C in is of Lucius CloAppendix. with leaves in stucco-work. Petri Sotterranea. Petri). do not bear marks of greater are at present accessible there antiquity than the third century.— Roma 68 same two roads." he writes. Ulpii. also an historical character. class freedwoman neighbour- this style. not the but the pontifical chair. this situation ex- which he found still open. form. upon which Father actly corresponds with that of the cemetery Marchi bestowed come so familiar to Catacomb of St his labours. iibi some cemetery by the their classical " sedes in inscriptions which have and laconic stated to have been the * Roma Sott. "the Peter was chair in which —and which was sedit and Bede hood is known also as the Coemeteriiim The extreme still antiquity of nomenclature. being almost letters. Rossi observes that is it now well ascertained that the ancient custom was to place in the tribune. " one sees a large niche like a tribune. "without the light of a candle. light-holes. and within the niche are seen some red which. tells us that at present undis- is unknown to us. but all remain are beautifully formed whicli niche must anciently have been the sufficiently spacious.^ hundred instances the names are of Claudii. tweeii the — St Peter {fontis S. Aurelii. evidently of from the frequency of the luminaria Near one of these and the beauty of the ornamentation. betoken a most ancient date. all Roman all Agnes and which has therefore beunder the name of the visitors but the galleries and chambers which . in other copies Now. and In nearly a Flavii. Bosio. the place being altar. 438. all . he went down by a square hole (which covered). near the basiHca of St Elmerentiana. Bosio seems to him to read like an account of the crypt where was formerly venerated on the i8th of January."'^ De under that . and this passage from altar. placed the cemetery of the font of is Ad Nyinphas S. some few obliterated.

but that her chamberlains suffered death by the sword. St Jerome f tells us that in his days was frequented by pious Christian pilgrims. whether for a \ Kj).in the First Ages. that she and two of her female companions were buried in a sarcophagus at Terracina. not rather to be classed The Cemetery of St Domitilla. farm." Whether she delighted really to visit with devotion shed her blood at the acts of Saints They ticity. on the Via Ardeatina. " who this island in which Flavia Domitilla had suffered a life-long martyrdom. 86. Flavia Domitilla. connected with what has been already mentioned as one of the most remarkable the annals of the early facts in Church. the cells last for the faith is uncertain. and on the road named which have been found there show once belonged them the The . to the or only the relationship between the deceased and the person up the setting with perhaps the epithet of affection. as is it and its claim deserves a more detailed examination. claims to be of the ancia. and clearly that to this very person. . and were buried in a cemetery about a mile and a half out of Rome. tablet. little from the old classical type. that had they not been seen by Marini and other competent witnesses tion. same age. One it of gives the measurements of a sepulchral area of 35 feet and 40 in front * See into the field. in their original posi- and some of them been marked with the Christian sym- bol of the anchor. these epitaphs vary so fact. pas^re 39. is situated from Rome. or of her chamberlains. on the Via Ardeatina. added is 69 names. the profession of the Christian For Imperial family. The Catacombs dius Crescens often nothing whatever . the Nereus and Achilles being of doubtful authenstate. however. in a farm belonging to their mistress. w^e might have hesitated whether they ought among pagan monuments. now known by just at this distance inscriptions name of Tor Marancia. we have spoken in this faith by some of the whom Domitilla was the same of a former chapter as having been banished* to the island of Ponza. Saints St Domitilla at Tor MaiNereus and Achilles. In dulcissimo or dulcissimce. pagan or a Chrisad Eustoch.

at the left-hand you have descended a very handsome after steps from the open air. cemetery. declare like those in the beyond tity itself. It is ancient and remarkable Christian Its position. within the cemetery also are equally unequivocal. monument we cannot had been granted ex pasiaiii . front of fine with gallery.* ments have been found within the cemetery cemetery of St Callixtus. now concern of the us and hill. .Roma yo tian Sottein^anea. hejiejicio Moreover. lived one of the of terra-cotta. alas the ! in most yet discovered. the with only four or five separate * See page 39. does not This. yet which iden- its nobody now doubts but that at Tor Marancia we have certainly recovered that cemetery which. no historical monu- events of his day. in ancient times. of Domitian. flight pointed out as the probable scene is two of the burial of the the and sometimes of Saints Nereus Achilles. with a cornice for an inscription spaciousness of its on the outer surface De our attention. in the second story. or at least in its bourhood. men- special tion of the exile of Domitilla in his narrative of the public Although. which induced Bruttius the historian sort of connexion was the reason this make to from Bruttia. was sometimes called of who its and died now. all introduces us as special friend days to monument a of the Flavian family. by the name of and of the chapels. power all of reclamation. part of the Rossi unhesitatingly certainly the highway (which this usual perished) brick- space . One side St Domitilla. which underlies events the ground all indulgentia Flavice DoniitillcE^ neptis Vcs- ex is say. has some member or monuments . another and the others of the same. close to work. claims it discovery no great distance from at of however. saints. therefore. but at immediate neigh- this farm. a recent . two or three other inscriptions have been found Gens of a Bruttia Crispina and others of the which we may between infer that there two the was some and that famihes.

the one on the right was probably {c) place of meeting for those of was to assemble here deceased Fig. it for the find attached to so Tor MarnJiciii. excavated at great slightest On attempt at concealment. After descending two steps from the portico. that for the schola. . each side of the entrance there was a small chamber. the eminently classical character of . leaving. capable of receiving each a large sarcophagus. g. its it decorations was the monu- distinction. guardian of the many pagan monu- ments of the same period./i^ or on the anniversaries. moved. 7X. these things all in the First Ages.— . or whose duty it to the bears evident tokens of having been a place of residence. period. as the^''^. Before this was . all One of which however have long since been re- of these recesses was enlarged at a subsequent and a tomb in the form of an arcosoliiim made in and the whole hypogcewn was ultimately united by addi- tional galleries to the adjacent catacomb. as we have only a few recesses. it short distance. probably just as was do honour Kiitrnjtcc io a most nncieut Christian SepulcJirc at monument. to we called. . on the left {b) rc/igio. . the fine stucco on . the pathway slopes gradually for a said. The Cataco7nbs many niches prepared for as the wall sarcophagi make it perfectly clear that ment of a Christian family of and without the cost.

— Roma 72 Sotterrartea. lo. we underneath the ground find . Fig. for the first though really two or three graves on either mere shelves in the wall. seen lying about filled with sarcophagi of which numerous fragments . we recognise tlie transition from the use of the sarcophagus to that of the common side. are so disguised . the vestibule had been of various sizes. Painting on roof of most ancient part of Cemetery of St Domitilla. done. them also may still be (of terra-cotta) buried and the date even of the last of these seems not to come below the middle of the second century. locuhis . however. In passing from the vestibule into the catacomb.

— The Catacombs in by painting on tlie the First Ages. Fig. II. nor confined by any of those lines of geometrical symmetry which characterise similar productions in the next century. graves are marked with the of these written in black have seen Priscilla . may be Traces also of landscapes seen here and there. roof is covered with the most exquisitely graceful designs. all St of Lastly. not fearing any interruption by graves. in on the largest tiles — names of just like those the most ancient part of the the Some few the dead. the whole of the vaulted Fragineitt of Daniel in the Lionx^ Deri. which we Catacomb of and the inscriptions on the other graves are the simplest and oldest form. from most ancient ^art of Cemetery of St Domitilla. which are of rare occurrence . outside as to present to passers-by complete outward appearance of a sarcophagus. 7. of branches of the vine (with birds and winged genii trailing with all the among them) freedom of nature over the whole walls.

partly were told to foreigners visiting the city in cemeteries." compiled both more use of strangers and of citizens . of St we could have seen original found. and which much higher it a is is given on skill in execution than any other representation of the same subject that throughout the Catacombs. Unfortunately they have been almost destroyed by persons attempting to detach them from the wall them a . anything but a handful of mortar and plunderers themselves. for those process which. and by them committed writing in itineraries. though another specimen to Sts Nereiis The Good Shepherd. that Clemens were this Perhaps De ! was it himself. an Agape^ Achilles. we have seen . and Daniel or the hea- in the lions' den. the seventh and eighth centuries. that effectually ruined it translated At any walls. the martyred afterwards Clement within the Basilica. chamber or vestibule we should have Would in whose condition Rossi conjectures. while who should come can never have yielded after. man a fishing. small as it is. but these various of picture. partly in the " in the " Book of the Books of Indulgences" and Wonders of Rome. partly also. in the scattered notices of a few mediaeval writers. rate to the we are quite sure that %ve have been here brought face to face with one of the in earliest specimens of Christian subterranean burial Rome. partly it which a for Rome have come Acts of the Martyrs. diligent * comparison of all The fragment which remains the preceding page. as remains broken tufa to the its the very vicmoria of Flavins consul. and us to take a brief review of the results that from our General conclusions from an examination of these The down -y^ ^-j^g visits. venly Sottcn^anea.— Roma 74 anywhere be seen and in chamber assigned by De Rossi in tlie feast."' are the chief historical or allegorical representations of Christian mysteries which were painted here. They may be stated thus stories that embodied in the will be well for may be gathered : local traditions of ancient Christian to us. We have now visited claim made is Catacombs principal tlie to apostolic antiquity . may the Catacombs. tliis to displays a for the sparingly. From authorities.

and scarcely inferior in execution to the best specimens of cotem- porary pagan art . most the in peculiarities are classical style. . but carefully. should all sides of the city. but spacious ambiilaa-a^ with painted and recesses provided only walls. but also with what been led to to expect from a careful consideration of the period which they are supposed such as these : we should have —paintings The to belong. l)hagi . and from authors writing be the at so result of accident or of There never was any opinion preconor rather. and classical or second century. and in every one of these instances. collected with most patient accuracy from different and distant cemeteries on many different periods. not only with one another. and is have an opportunity of examining the selves. with without any distinctly Christian forms of speech actual dates of the that first names. the opinion was that in general vogue a few years ago was diametrically opposed to this. . they are found to be in perfect harmony. and even elegantly. preconceived opinion. It is and lastly. something peculiar has been noted by our predecessors. a system of ornamentation in fine stucco such as has not yet been found work in any Christian subterranean than the second century later dimensions. ceived on the subject. for the reception of sarco- whole families of inscriptions.The Catacombs gathered that some of Rome in the First Ages. galleries with shelf-like graves thickly pierced in their walls. not hewn out crypts of considerable . or seen by ourselves. which either When gives countenance to the tradition. so far as we have an opportmiity of examining them. among monuments gaining universal acceptance has been the result of careful observation of the phenomena. those for it is who them- the fruit Whereas then former . But the opinion which has now been enunciated by I)e Rossi. built with pilasters and cornices of bricks or terra-cotta no narrow . not their cause. impossible such a marvellous uniformity of phenomena. of the bare rock. these peculiarities are brought together. five or six were believed to 75 of the subterranean cemeteries have had their origin in apostolic times.

though we have no precise date of in use in the second century be will its commencement. thus thrown back on the the subject of Christian art to recognise in the social fail political condition of the first we justly first Christians.e. We have a right. fine arts many remarkable ancient to a monuments and any knowledge of the history of the the insig- certain that this state- the modern discovery has brought that mean and must necessarily belong ment cannot be reconciled with that beginnings any appearance of subterranean worlds on a large scale. have to speak more shall and the architectural analysis which we propose to give of a part of the cemetery of St Callixtus will furnish a convenient occasion for distinguishing the various features which characterise the work of successive periods in the construction of subterranean Rom. that and more peaceful age. legal interference. The Catacomb to which we refer is that of St Praetextatus. to of the same characteristics which in the first look for some. now is it decorations discovered of the much more are All to light. it was made whilst yet there and (so far as we know) no outbreak of popular violence against the liberty of Christian burials. least. later first facts who have agreed are crypts lately than those which form the great bulk of the paintings in the catacombs with which we were familiar before. and which have been always Nor can any regarded as the work of the third century. we have at already seen and most ancient of the cemeteries. on . it Sotterranea. and an adequate cause in for and second centuries. which.Roma 76 writers have always taken Roma of for granted that the Sotterranea must have been poor and and nificant. or richly decorated. thoughtful and impartial judge and the laws that all On and usages of Roman is fully hereafter. Roman burial. therefore. nor wdll this expectation be disappointed. middle or before the end of the to say. Our present chapter account another of authentic record was certainly had been no of the \ that is concluded by some fittingly cemetery.

in was brought to it ornamented with some of the oldest and most paintings that had a paper read • * by the legend SVSTVS) was found on one of the (identified light. arcosolium At the Later discoveries completely established the truth of his reasoning. and Agapitus. which to Saints the Valerian. the eldest of the seven sons of St Felicitas. which he argued. he looked about in the still 1857 the labourers employed in the of a very large and beautiful crypt. as having once been Maximus. St Sixtus. and with the descriptions given in the old itineraries — that must certainly have been a this known by of the cemetery anciently part Praetextatus. the Via Appia. solely on topographical grounds in on i. was clear that the absence of Catacombs in this to the ruins Rossi had for the usual Nevertheless.— The Catacoinbs in the First Ages. basilicce 162 who chamber without a its value. arguments derived from the position of the cemetery. and yet in the Fontijicia Academia to classical De 1852. recovered. of St CaUixtus. history. was effected it sepulchres. down laid he insisted upon identifying the ruins of two in the vineyard St Zeno.1 openmg An accuiental 1 has only lately into Catacomb 77 been seen. the one round. remain the dedicated In Catacombs came here for repairs in the also of St Felicissimus and many others.e.. a. on the Via -1. it ordinary feature of a chapel no way detracted from indicated that this was a CaUixtus'. St Pr?etextatus. martyrdom of St Cecilia. companions of rials . Tiburtius. 1848. buildings. On nor the Appia. and and to which were being executed in St course of their quest they opened a As soon or other mate- way .d. and their above ground. and as the place of burial of St Januarius. and as a painting of St Sixtus in was conjectured that it this must be the cemetery In 1850 another crypt of that martyr. deacons of same time. De as scrambled through the opening. Rossi di Arckeoiogia. . but of this there was no sign. the other rectangular. name the and which was famous as the scene of St of St Sixtus's martyrdoui. as compared with other cemeteries. to seek for stones. nearly opposite to the -r It 1111been . lives for Christ on July 10. tiles.

as the new and token of victory. and living rock. Of course these represent severally the seasons of spring. internal face (towards the cemetery) its was a piece of excellent yellow brickwork. most elaborately painted. but that. a third of vine-leaves and grapes (and in all these. birds are and the introduced visiting their young in nests). with solid masonry.. was Christian idea of the ever- lasting reward of a blessed immortality. however. of leaves of laurel or the bay-tree. in which reapers are gathering in the corn . last or highest. of Good Shepherd carrying a This. more indistinct. Below these bands is another border. another of corn-sheaves. of death . most large qiiadratuni^ it. all built had been three sides its careful examination revealed the fact was not hewn out of the <^rypt ^^^^^ Sotterraiiea.. antrum {ingeiis viz. it It is viz. and that had been it three sarcophagi. tian and not hewn out of the rock it we understand firmly built '^ — vault of the chapel by no means age. . and specimens of pagan architecture enable us to and cornices of in red. autumn. in a style inferior to the best classical productions of the divided into four bands of wreaths. is the square cavern. is the is a rural scene. fix same neighbourhood in the the middle of the latter half of the second century (a. and which the central at the back of the arch figure sheep upon his shoulders. summer. one of roses. originally intended only for had once been lined throughout with It Greek marble.d. ornamented with same material pilasters of the The workmanship cotta. further 1 11 i*f '^^^'^ though underground. 175) as a very probable date for The Acts bricks. built with because the Christo it and now be excavated we that see meaning of the words used by the precise describing itineraries — Marmenia) had caused (St immediately below her own house The why of the Saints explain to us who made terra- points clearly to an early date. and winter. "a d firmissiincE fabricce). The last is and probably the intended to represent the a well-known figure or symbol laurel. . it its was erection. has been destroyed by graves pierced through the wall and the rock behind it.- Roma 78 Its architecT n rl fi f* r* oration of second cen- and more contrary.

St Januaiius. Felicis- . in when he read around Fdicissiiii As De Rossi ' ceeded to examine these graves Fig. refresh the soui of whom detail. fifteen centuries relative for the soul of now him they revealed to the antiquarian of the nineteenth century the secret he was in quest of here — viz. the place of burial of the saints whose aid for the numerous examples to l)e seen is in other cemeteries warrant us in concluding that the bodies of ' ' . of which we shall have occasion to speak elsewhere. . . 79 from that eager desire. as the prayer of pro. the edge of one of them — mi RefrigeriJaniiarius — inartyrcs " Januarius." The words had been was fresh. and fragments of words . later generation as near some bereaved he was burying here. believe his eyes these words Agatopus III/. I'aiclt o/an Arcosolinm in he could hardly Cemetery o/ Si Prtetcxtatns.— The Catacombs in the First Aces. martyrs. Agapetus.. simus. scratched upon the mortar whilst yet ago. and . to bury the dead of a as possible to the tombs of the martyrs. invoked . . it . Painting 12.

the commission of Sacred Archaeology were persuaded to take this cemetery as the special scene of their labours. . liave been found but in inscriptions executed with such mathematical precision as these. when archaeologists though it did not . Is whereas the St Januarius belongs to the year a. De *" Only those letters. . which still older than that of St Januarius martyrdom of . or parts of letters. therefore. so are able to say with certainty that the whole inscrip- :— excavations of the commission revealed the existence of another crypt on the opposite side of the gallery.D. yet further evidence was in store come to light until six years later. Damasine in- scnption. were at the time of his burial lying at no great distance. three or four fragments were discovered of a large marble slab. really corroboration of the topo- graphical outline which he had sketched five years before to the Roman for him. 130.d. needed no further evidence in have observed that they are relics once rendered famous De Rossi. the saints. but of a few letters of most certain since. A. and the reader will whose three of the very martyrs the cemetery of St Prastextatus. marked by unusual size. 162. More fragments* have been discovered that we tion once stood thus The Damasine form. amid the soil which encumbered the entrance to Then. this crypt. to whose intercession the soul of the deceased is here recommended. St Quirinus. they are quite enough to enable us to restore the whole. which are in darker tints. so that.Roma 8o Sotterranea.

for principal characteristics . accordingly. or rather of an inscription set Alexander. 99. somewhere about a. so modestly expressed by some generous Rossi. whole cemetery lay beyond the limit we have assigned to the Roman Catacombs proper * Bullettino. Bishop of Rome. and amid its built in some twelve or a portion of an ruins epitaph. century which deserves to be mentioned. but cemetery. loculi an there. There is yet another catacomb belonging to the second StAlexander's. where he was beheaded. 132. place funds at the dis- posal of the proper authorities to enable them to resume their suspended labours both here and elsewhere.d. —have done in as the there at various times in antiquity. and therefore we . this to the St a basilica which was then small subterranean galleries round this basilica. viz. do we repeat the wish. up in honour of over his grave.d.. 1865. In the many have remamed undisturbed to the present day these scarcely belong Moreover. and has lately been restored. in very ancient times.The Catacombs in the First Ao-es. to continue the work of excavation Most De heartily Rome want of in this cemetery. funds. was buried on the Via Nomentana. . both of books and of the enable us to locality. not far from the seventh milestone . It is no longer capable of recog- recorded in the Liber Fontijicalis that St Alex- ander. oldest part of the of the . though the particular mentana portion of it which was of that date has undergone so much alteration since that time as to be nition. and ancient Christian cemetery was discovered fourteen years since . We have no detailed account as yet of nor has its been contents or even possible. 130.* that would do it its the for who advancement of Christian archaeology what so many — and Duchess of Devonshire Pagan the interests of souls could be found some of our own country. 8i <?> Rossi does not fear to designate second crypt as the pro- this bable burial-place of St Quirinus. point out as promising a plentiful harvest. who martyrdom suffered a. and to begin them many de 710V0 in those other places which our present improved knowledge.

There yet remain two or three others which are attributed by the same writers to the apostolic.— Roma 82 do not all at present care to Sotterranea. now united with the Catacomb of St Callixtus. 12. We it at trustworthiness of the we have been in six several instances. the actual condition of a only mention Catacomb most following. examine it. an examination of singularly confirms what the language of these old authorities taught us. but as these have not yet been identified. there is no occasion to enumerate them. or immediately post-apostolic times. as an additional instance of the ancient documents whose guidance We have seen how. Fig. . Tombstone frotn the very ancient Crypt of St Lucina.

" t It is a Tertullian's mention to period. Zephyrinus. disputing with a heretic. or to the trophies .d. 11. we Pope who was Victor's sue. popular violence against the Christian burial-grounds in Africa.* reveals the fact of the common Christians there possessing a burial-place . A. in fact. ^"^' . 312. a. be the common burial-place of his successors Caius. 202. + Philosoph. come under the express down our history of the Catacombs we as of the notice they said before. you to the Vatican. 25. Roman first Public Chris^^. HISTORY OF THE CATACOMBS FROM THE BEGINNING OF THE THIRD CENTURY TO CONSTANTINE'S EDICT OF PEACE. known who have laid For will find the foundation of this remarkable coincidence that the date of of the popular outbreak against the African Christian cemeteries. the cemetery T % These words and require comment. can show the trophies of the Apostles. and set are informed him over naturally excite our curiosity. " if you go the I of St Peter must have been same and. Via Ostiensis.Cemetery of by the author of the ^ ^ 200 " Philosophumena. the last buried in the public jfiemoria on the Vatican. says. intrusted Callixtus with the government of cesser.. of those Church. Hist.^[Q^^ The law. + Euseb. should synchronise so exactly with the death of St Victor.D. at the beginning of the third century.CHAPTER 11. ii. a priest of this Proclus. as the clergy. W /"E have now brought to the period when. Eccl. * See page 54. and it is . Rome some common impossible to suppose that so great a Church as that of should not also by this time have possessed The memoria cemetery. What ix.

on orphans. tions are. not of appointment." i.! but each person whenever he likes. 1866. 11. and has the means. " certain rulers. de honoraria summa. to their heathen neigh- good testimony of chase. but on feeding the hungry. or . page 49. .. it appear. religion and if he likes. . but by the as it which " There preside over us. was there so them the distinction between special and singular about any ? and what that should it have been put under the charge of one of the highest ecclePope. on burying the poor. or be on account of God's sect. and the solemn renewal. of St Domitilla on the Via Ardeatina. of St Lucina on the Via Ostiensis. — of St Priscilla had already many ceme- on the Via Salaria. make in if there up. among us. he describes the Christian society as and as he wished to bours and approved who have be any kind of treasury attained that honour. and several What was others. which have been the cause of so much perplexity to earlier commentators. . also written about the same time. us. and if confined to their houses. pious deposits . not on feasting. precisely at this time. not by pur- {arcce) others. as it sum once a month. . was in if We " ? government of the clergy we to call have no shall mind what said in a former chapter* about the burial-confraternities Rome. it is by these presidents or others on fees paid if might have appeared. to be the true meaning of Tertullian's words. by set side side with this fact the words of Tertullian. All these contribu- for they are spent.— 75////^//. And made their were bought and sold among contributes a small .Roma §4 was on teries sides all Rome Rome ? cemetery of the Sotterra7ica. elders. or exiled. by Let us Septimius Severus." he says. were. \ This has now been clearly ascertained from ancient inscriptions found and elsewhere. entrusted siastical authorities after the also with " the difficulty in solving these questions. the same as was. in Africa . provided only that these also become the * See it to the mines. of St Prsetextatus on the Via Appia. and shipwrecked any are condemned in prison. foster-children of their confession. or at least renewed publi- cation of their rights and privileges.e. old men persons..

Christianity. at this time Christian clergy. The Catacoinbs the i7i Third Century. community its and in set Rome existence availed itself of the protection which the laws afforded to * xVpol. 39. in obedience to life linked together. to but the promote resented.. seemed These considerations justly the deacon grew some sense. that St Zephyrinus " in- trusted Callixtus with the government of the him over the cemetery. meet together to all under cover of a mere burial-con- tians of the third century. c. fraternity. that he who provides for the one gain a powerful influence over the other. save only the bishops.. from the history of St Laurence and many other sources. and that the care of the poor one of the deacons.. will enable us to appreciate more import of the words we have quoted from the author of the Fhilosophufnena. to and from this passage. to be almost a law in and is and judge of the other the guardian was that .. know. viz. 85 provided they suffer these punishments for the profession of from It is clear elsewhere." The was entering upon a new phase of it sure to is deacon. the very deacon had been originally instituted for this purpose. we that they did so. special province of office of distribution of alms was the Indeed. that would have been easy it make and even been said that has Roman for the Chris- collections for other charitable purposes. whereby the that law of any society are so intimately moral and the material into an archdeacon and numbers and the deacon kept the register (jnatricula) of their offices. . to the priesthood to shut the . succeeded to the vacant see deacon ment of the highest rank that in and inferior to none. because first this it Rome. But not the poor only. the clergy also received what was necessary for their sustenance out of this common By and by. the to say. he first became. chest. * by the Church. clergy. his authority Hence it came on the death of the Pope. not a priest. was sometimes door against his attain- in the hierarchy. they are supported worship for purposes of religious and we can hardly doubt Moreover.

en- to the Christians as a and martyrs repose. 5) : De Mort. Hist. ad jtis corporis pertinentia. or the celebration of the agajx^. to the testimony of the first made.. used in the case of Paul of eKK\7]aLas oikov. 30. certain corporate bodies. of which we have practice of the probably seen an instance in the more ancitnt fabriccB attaclied to the * '' Catacomb of Quibus permissum 'alteriiis eoriun no?nine. Ecclcsiaruni. in Pontificalis. collegii. X and Constantine." which the Liber Pontificalis states that Callixtus priests whom property should be held. and. quod communiter agi Digest. who and these constructed above the cemeteries. and which present day. according to the common Romans. . " called. when we find that Other cemecom" divided the regions among the Deacons. Pont. Eccl. communem.* one of its members was appointed name the common The cemetery. fiat. and 1 •> ordered numerous buildings {fabricas) to be con- structed in the cemeteries y\ It seems imply that other to wealthy Christians soon followed the example of those had given the cemetery of CalHxtus were probably fabricce little to the oratories Church . x'Mso the words.. The long peace from St Domitilla. either for purposes of worship. sed alia etiam habuisse noscuntur. or syndic.. been same Liber striking confirmation of De common according laid in this cemetery." habere est . 2^58. [apiid Lactant. and Euseb. agatur. from Zephyrinus to Sylvester. Fabianus. A. where many the Popes were buried here. 4. x. the societatis sive cujjisque habere res communes. syndicum. Compare with this the words of the letter of Licinius Persec. g p^bian. per quem.'' &c. 8. as those laws required. body and . . — " Quoniam Christiani non ea loca tantum. and by trusted to Callixtus whose as the agent.. *' Tov r?7S eoritm. o & & teries for mon use or the Church. it was one common ^ ^^^' why henceforward the Vatican . the coe^neteriimi CallixUr Popes buried its was " the cemetery on the Via Appia. id est.D. vii. ad quae convenire consueverunt. % ^ec fig. § i. flist. at page 71. thirteen having certainly the therefore. 1 .— Roma 86 Sotterranea.. And is it Rossi's conjecture that this a was cemetery given to the Pope by some noble family for the whole Christian community. non honiiniini siugn/orum Samosata.. t Lib. Eccl."— Euscb. is even to the This also explains to us and no longer at out of the eighteen. § 48. iii. arcam . business should be transacted.. I. et actorem est corpus proprium sive fierique oporteat. or of mere guardianship of the tombs.

was.d.") — Letter of St Dionysius of Alexandria in Euseh.D. Fabian a. of that Emperor. t) hunted out. Ep. but St. Gallienus revoked the edicts of persecution. that Decius the Not cemeteries. ^ come down has not of 11. 257. and sent throughout the empire a rescript by virtue of which the possessors of loca religiosa belonging to the Christians make confiscated by Valerian. yet. tion of .. II II. 13. c. Deems In January a. however. 82. 260.." pressions prove the exclusively Christian origin of the + See § jiagc 80. Hist. blies.. 257. he directed rescripts to particular bishops by which they might recover the free use of " what they call their cemeteries. II. ian forbidding ^^'^^}-^ ^° ceme- . and beheaded in the cemetery of Praetextatus. Eccl. 250. which broke out in a. Although the edict Valerian. irom words Edict ofValer- spoken by Emilianus. Prefect of Alexandria. (St and Pope visits all we learn that it forbade the sacred assem- In to the sepulchres in the cemeteries. notwithstanding occasional dis- turbances from popular violence. or from the Acts made any of the Martyrs.. c. were to of each church. Pont.d. By loca religiosa churches or places of assembly . persecution short the of Maximin. -_. Sixtus II. 250. Laurence was the chief of them.The Catacombs in Third Century. and restitution to the bishops seem to have been meant all for besides this general order.. Persecution not appear either from the edicts does it a victim to the persecu- fell of Decius. the 87 reign of Caracalla to that of Decius might well have encour- aged the Christians to erect such buildings. Lib. And '''''W both the one and the other enter into the account which has reached us of the acts of Dionysius.. the successor of Sixtus * to "Neither you nor any others hold assemblies or to enter toJiat shall in you call anywise be permitted your cemeteries. % St Cypr. ^^ itseli persecution the r to us. Euscl). and other similar interruptions. surprised.d.. .J " because he had set at nought the commands of Valerian. with his deacons and sacred ministers. Hist. Pro-consul of Africa.d. fact. word "cemetery. Eccl.* and by Aspasius Paternus. and allowed them make to frequent use of them. a. special decree against in .." § In A. either (These ex- vii.. from ecclesiastical history. vii. and we have seen the tombs of two others. so.

'' among cemeteries Sotterranea. and that a great number of the faithful having been seen entering the subterranean crypt on the Via Salaria to visit their tombs. testifies much at a earlier period. in another place.XQ told that. days of our meetings . when after the ages of persecution had ceased. dioceses. skeletons of floor. i. however. whom the they had come all in front of buried alive. women. even as the martyrs to venerate. and a vast mound of sand and stones to be heaped so that they might be it. the heathen Emperor ordered the entrance to be hastily built up. J he says. there were found with them. St Gregory adds." But it is specially to the latter half of the third century that those accounts belong which have come down to us of Christians being pursued and overtaken and sometimes martyred in the Martyrdom in cemetery.Roma 88 of whom is it that " he divided the churches recorded. that tombs of these martyrs were re-discovered. Pont..." Hence came concealment. areiiaricE. .>. and most secret congregations. " " We are daily and betrayed and caught unawares our in very assemblies and congregations . from the besieged. under Numerianus. entrapped. to the occasional interruption of Christian worship by a sudden invasion of the heathen. only too evident to the Christians that was. It necessity of henceforward they could not reckon upon the inviolability of their graves .d. Christians attacked in cemeteries."+ and again. + Apol." he says. J Ad Natione. often detained in our "You know the hence we are besieged. visible and TertuUian even now in the staircases leading Even in other ways. a. Dionysius. not onlv the relics of those worshippers to death. Thus. vii. in an account preserved by St Gregory of 'p^^j-g^ ^^^ ^. and children lying on the but also the silver cruets {urcei argentei) which they had down with them for the celebration of the sacred mys- * Lib. 7. and and constituted parishes and the priests. and from is it this we must period that date those studious efforts to conceal the entrance to the cemeteries which are arenarice. the martyrs Chry- santhus and Daria were put to death in an arenaria. still addressing the heathen. taken who had been thus cruelly put men.

some might all in- this time. c." are De Rossi's words in " Rome dans sa Grandeur.! to our own that genera- inscription perhaps. or even the through which our ancestors once saw so moving itself a spectacle. vii. doubtful.. darkness-loving race. against the From Aurel- legally recognised. fngiens persecutionem Diocletiani in cryptis habitando. . and opening a adjacent wall or rock.. at a mass celebrated in the it Instances like these explain the third century. in the sixth century kind— this still in the without disturbing. Nantes. . some fragments of the window see. % " Caius martyrio coronatur. I'^useb. Charpen tier. Hist. t " Cette esperance est fondee j'oserais presque dire. proach of the Pagans at "a its These things might in miniature. abstained from making any of changes by which he usually decorated the martyrs' those tombs. Christian Pompeii be seen in St Gregory's and De Rossi holds out hopes . elle sera remplie. 6. to pull * St Greg. little before his death." part 2me. testify the importance attached by the faithful to their cemeteries. . EccL. now regarded by they were The edicts of Aurelian.."" Third Century. assisting. even to the length of ordering the buildings occupied by Paul of Samosata at Antioch " be given up into the hands of those to in communion with Christian bishops of Italy and Rome. De Gloria Mart. that this monument so unique in time. p. II . X " Latebrosa et lucifugax natio. but contented himself with setting up one of his window valuable historical inscriptions. of Christians and even Popes § taking refuge in the crypts. Turon. i. them may be restored even traces of tion. 30.— The Catacombs Damasas was St teries. at the of the reign of Diocletian." J ditions of the common and the numerous Catacombs ifingJ^^^'^^ tra- even though the authenticity of period. down the 28. ^" ^^\^^. a Church which he had and the jealousy with which their enemies. commencement we find the Christians taking courage. c. as were. same many may be of them re- that the Christians were skulking."|| show how pre- carious a security for the cemeteries was even that legal re- cognition still . Pout." Minuc. in the 89 unwilling to destroy so touching a He memorial of past ages. Felix.^^ ."— Lib.

D. a vast region of the deepest cemetery. Augustme. secution... Strato.d. to provide for the necessities of the faithful that which had been discovered and- Government. St ^g ^\^^^ ^\^q Donatists " recited the Acts in which it was read how Melchiades Emperor sent deacons with the letters of the Maxentius and the letters the Praefect of the city. 90 new old churches and to build and we ones. .Ro7na Sotterranea. but the former " a ciibicidum which he himself in cemetery of a matron in the them Priscilla named And Salaria. said Melchiades had sent with the /oca eccksiastica." have is left perished. yet a significant trace of Pope Marcellinus. 306.d. 303. . of a lineal regularity hitherto unique in of that level Roma Sotter- ranea. The storm Cemeteries confiscated. a. and Rome acts of confiscation in : " and the latter '' had prepared in the requested leave from and made a ccemeterium on the Via Priscilla. bears witness to the efforts of the Pope. but the property of the to the per- Church was not restored until St Augustine tells Testimony of ^^^^ Pontificate of Melchiades. with open its light-hole. At the close of Maxentius put a stop a. that of the Praefect of the praetorium to they might receive the property which the aforesaid Emperor had commanded to be restored been taken from them to the Christians. persecution. because in the also tliis that calumniated is the deacon rest to receive the above acts name in time of to be a t^-aditor Melchiades on found also among the . on the Via Appia. whom . in the cemetery of St Callixtus. churches erected during the peace were burned and demolished. were neither of Papal crypt of St Callixtus. while persecution in was raging. burst Church with the frightful The violence in a. some other place than forfeited to the Restored to Church. 303. shall presently same tmie constructing a see the deacon Severus about the large double sepulchral chamber.D. the farms or gardens under which the cemeteries lay were confiscated and though the \ them buried reposed in the fact that his successor Marcellus.d. 311. upon of the tenth persecution. and The Donatists the was declared Donatists account of Cassian. A. A. under Diocletian. as having .

^ contemplated in this istration of the this is the St Fabian. r 1 • from the time roT-i01 bt l^abian. Marcellus. Coll." Titles were. hi the titiili for for . corresponding cemetery or cemeteries. the re-organisation of the parishes and their cemeteries that " he constituted the twenty-five we readt Rome of fact. and the priest cemetery * or also. 34-36. the sixth and appointed seven deacons. .The Catacombs whom deacons Melchiades sent Pontiff having this whom body of Cassian. cum Donat. and placed him Sicily. century and a half Thus. recovered the cemetery of St CalHxtus through his deacons. at least ^^^ each its <J^vn cemetery. from Rome among the city of in is it Pontificalis. Anast." 91 In were named Strato and his predecessor Eusebius. and restores) twenty met with in all the objects which are arrangement are stated to be the admin- sacraments and the burial of the dead not the only occasion on which we . one of the in But even while the persecu- Catacomb. buried there the died in exile in largest crypts in the tion &€. the titles by the same authority to have later. . . outside the walls. of much older date than the time of number might have varied according number of the faithful. Punt. each church had St Aui. and learn from authentic records that the care of the cemeteries entered into the details of ecclesiastical management. Marcellus had provided. Vit. \ Lil). as best he could. 7: //^j. though their to the increase in the recorded in the Liber St Peter. nearly a divided the fourteen regions of five.^7. font.-7-ieach withm /^//<? that.. divided priests. is said Rome among now Marcellus more probably which constitutes (or the is number most frequently most ancient notices on the subject.. iii. was raging. or parish ^ ^"'^*^"^^' The the deacons . It seems probable i. of course. priests of the title had jurisdiction over the In the time of St Damasus. two of who had Third Century.* to the Prsefect. that Evaristus. Brev. ii. the city had its 1 •.. the the burial-places for mar- of the tyrs. X Blauehiiiii. in the city as parishes {dioeceses) for the reception by baptism and penance of the multitudes who were converted from among and Pagans.

. . i.. seven sub. which he priests. xviii. under ordinary circumstances. that we the days of St Cyprian t in priests attached to the Sotterranea. fortytwo acolytes. f Ep. rt/iVo' Euseb. Don. more than 1500. after two the more." Cornelius to Fabius of Antioch. — A". " Felix qui presbyterium subministrabat sub Decimo. S. If same church. above the ceme- §) It is city. iit iii. [Hilar." X " There were forty-six priests. 43. in I Tim. at this law system of administration might. and confirmation of the theory here suggested. and ostiarii.— Roma 92 two and even priests. that the diaconos esse oportet et aliquantos presbyteros. even during the ages of persecution.. — ^'' Diocletian.deacons. Ambros. and Archelaus and Dulcitus being the two priests of the title to which that cemetery belonged. how not difficult Roman what has been said upon the respecting burials and burial-confraternities. * " if we suppose. may be quoted that is among And in the in illustration perhaps the following cemetery of St Domitilla. H. seven deacons. one of whom other ministered in the to understand.* the other. whilst the (or. in all fifty-two widows. if down sets in titles would account vacant.'''' menSee also the E. ALEXIVS ET CAPRIOLA FECERVNT SE VIVI IVSSV ARCHELAI ET DVLCITI PRESBB Moreover. all of which the goodness and love of God doth nourish. Nunc autem septem bini sint per Ecclesias. § This name seems to have been in occasional use from the days of . c.) this find as a subordinate to time of St Cornehus to have been twenty-three. jussu being the official expression in use the heathen magistrates of that time for a command or permission given by one having jurisdiction. inscription on a grave-stone. have been carried on without any interference from the Government. 4. qtiadraginta et quod excurrit basilicas. with the afflicted and needy. lectors.]. ii. vi. one we might suppose number of the some of them were number of Roman two for the cella each title. 205. tioned by Optatus.J might well have ministered or oratory (in later times basilica tery. exorcists. for the at forty-six." as we very reasonably may.

transcribes. that find clear and abundant proofs an archseologist own . consistency. he has An archae- resources. Reflections on ^|. that each But about we seek this there can be no dispute. his deacon.g history of time dependent on some particular parish theCatacombs. if his own at least.— The Catacombs in Third Centiuy. for the new from on the contrary. is . or interprets annals already and which difficult to is few bones dug out of the bowels of the earth. but by acute and cautious induction. and give form. for himself and his relations : CVBICVLVM DVPLEX CVM ARCISOLIIS ET LVMINARE IVSSV PP SVI MARCELLINI DIACONVS ISTE SEVERVS FECIT MANSIONEM IN PACE QVIETAM SIBI SVISQVE. which records that Severus. made. not out of his careful examination of every fragment that remains. but. administered by their chief deacon (or archdeacon. from various sources to gather his materials . at that within the walls. It would be easy belonging to the cemetery was only when . it we and the precise province of to supply these deficiencies. set before a skilful professor of struct the it whole form of the animal comparative anatomy a to will recon- which they belonged . the Popes who succeeded Zephyrinos continued 93 the retain to cemetery of St CalHxtus under their own immediate jurisdic. belonging to the time of Marcellinus. often happens that these theoretical constructions are singularly justified archaeologist is by much later The work discoveries. system in the following inscription.) a double chamber. with arched tombs and light-hole. . An faithfully transmitted by his predecessors. '^ same illustration of the j^mtjer '^/'"^ct of the care of the rope. and most part little life to the whole to supply that ologist. is . he and It imagination. based on a most If is suburban composed He may have must be able to distinguish the true from the false. to show. to penetrate the thick darkness envelopes the history of the earlier ages. by the permission of his Pope. of the same kind. {jiissu papcE sui. he be really a man of learnins: and . of an historian only rearranges. as he was afterwards we have another called).Cemetery tion. and fifth from a multitude of testimonies sixth centuries.

throws but a faint and uncertain light upon the obscurity of the subject but he justly argues that harmony which he has been able the wonderful between . it and countries to contribute stands in his in this imperfect readers will have been struck with the not rather to say so posed. often of hetero- geneous materials. intelligent use of every fragment. in like manner unknown before our own time and learned commentators of each of these has been quota to this ous work . and separated so far asunder. . to unfold the during and some readers may be disposed the materials for De are too scanty." compiled in the seventh or eighth century vie?ia. written in a spirit of bitter personal hatred against a Pope of the third century. collector of old curiosities. and only brought to light in the nineteenth .Roma 94 science. that the most unwearied diligence has been able to bring together. if taken alone. sepulchral inscriptions also. it to think Rossi frankly acknowledges that each fact that he has been able to collect. at the end of a chapter to set before our readers a con- Rome tinuous history of the subterranean cemeteries of the ages of persecution. are The a very strong presumption of truth. its if it. and even now that even system of their Such a history has never been ecclesiastical administration. and not a mere Setterranea. so unlike one another. both in point of time and place. has been com- . " Lives of the Popes. This remark seems not uncalled in which we have professed for. the Philosophu- . ecclesiastical historians different times made by De Rossi chapter of history as and even . the variety of we ought a body. full and life-like own volumin- abridgment of number and fragments out of which so complete a skeleton. aims at discovering and restoring annals that are and careful by means of a lost. facts to establish and documents. of the third century. written before.

and graves within and around the basilicas gradually superseded the loculi of the Catacombs. W ITH the conversion of Constantine Milan a new era opens combs. as the other principal cemeteries had already had. 360 two out of three burials appear to have taken place in the subterranean portion of the cemeteries. Mark. A. next in coemeterio Balbinoe. The inscriptions with consular dates probably furnish us with a sufficiently accurate guide to the relative proportions of the two modes of burial. 4IO. that cella is to say. near the entrance of a subterranean cemetery now already existing. in crypta. having always pre- in a basilica.d. had probably been built by him.CHAPTER III. 3 1 2. Pontiff. sat in the Gradual disuse ^^^^ cemeteries ^f^t^^P^'^'^f'^^'^'^'^ given to the St CaUixtus successor. the was the last first and the Edict of history of the Cata- in the Pope who Eateran. while from a.d.d. served his name. TO THE SACK OF ROME BY THE GOTHS.d. not. From a. to which he assigned its own priest and guardian. 369 the proportions are equal. Callixti in crypta. 364 to a.D. 338 to a. During the next two years hardly any . A. was in like manner buried The terium consiitint . which. who was buried — /./ had coemeterio in the subterranean cemetery of Church. FROM THE EDICT OF MILAN. explained by the Liber Pontificalis to be a basilica qtiam or how- his sepulchre in coemeterio Priscill(z.D. but his he probably coenie- built a small basilica memorice. and though subterranean continued to be practised. ever. Sylvester. Other instances might be given to show that the cemeteries in which succeeding Pontiffs are said to have been buried were above ground really basilicas . Melchiades. yet the example was not long in set by the burial Pontiffs being followed.

tak6n from the Christians. . first care of the Christians. as to go down and hence the long sacrificing had opposite to St and chambers site at to in the flight of present the of hundreds of graves illustrious sepulchre many. which the eralleries ° for the for the martyrs floor of the for the sake of Damasus le Peter's. and history supplies The Basilicas it. but after that the sub- terranean crypts rapidly into disuse. fall This marked and sudden change demands an explanation. it faithful shrank from disturbing their original resting- became the ordinary custom of the ground on the side of the to cut hill in been excavated. and Diocletian. ardently as laboured in the search for the bodies and the furthering: ^ of the devotion to the remains of the martyrs. and as the places. The Vatican hill Paul's outside visible in the behind St the the walls.. Roma 96 Sotterranea. is the language of St Damasus' and it tombs. illustrious martyrs whose bodies lay con- cealed in the recesses of the various Catacombs. away the must have been dis- in particular.^^^^ secured to the Church was ^y'"^> to once at honour those when peace and liberty had by the conversion of Constantine. to that church Damasus still of San Lorenzo in Sometimes. and thus gain access caused much damage to Catacombs. inscrip- . yet found means to encourage that devotion without destroying the character of When the subterranean cemeteries. are witnesses in St Agnese fuori a great depth second steps day. inventus colitur" tions. Catacombs j^^ one St hill . tombrof^mar. by which we descend Devotionof St pl^^sing to to 7nura. and galleries had perhaps been buried Catacomb Such a wholesale the was necessary it surface to the martyr's tomb.' away cut hill Agro Verano. there is made the cemeteries had been over to other hands by evidence to show that the Church pro- vided for the inviolability of the tombs of her more venerated heroes by blocking up the galleries which led to them was a labour of love in after-years to re-discover* these * "Quaeritur. to this practice. . Basilicas more or less sumptuous began to be erected over their sepulchres. notices of burials above ground appear.

Jerome gives a vivid description of a devout feelings Roman St st Jerome. known by tradition. G " • ^54- . and supporting with arches of brick and stone work. widened the passages so serviceable for the crowd of more of stairs leading to the flights 97 pilgrims. exactly corresponds with the time of the labours of St Damasus. and that the faithful away with a Some. Almost all the cata- fragments of the slabs. even underground.d. in Plates I. and III.* Now. came own bones desire to lay priest St Barbazianus. nor have any inscriptions been found. excepting those of Damasus.The Catacombs in the Fourth Century. which he composed by a very able was necessary.-. " being educated at Rome. bringing to continually tions. age and * I was a boy. as the who visited the it is tombs of the martyrs. Hence the type is well Damasine students of Christian epigraphy as the characters. in precisely the known to same form of letters.^^. the precise situation of which was only St Damasus then removed as to make them more constructed the earth. 370. and all their lives of on such a visit beside made theirs. little cells hermits in their immediate were assiduous in visiting them. air liis It is Damasus a singular fact that no original inscription of Pope has ever yet been found executed by any other hand.^p obvious to conjecture. applicable to the ordinary condition of the common galleries. the sudden return to the subterranean mode of burial Catacombs as in the years a. and caused in be engraved on marble ter. youth's but his words seem more immediately ." he in Specimens may be seen writes. and led the neighbourhood. combs bear labours illustrious shrines. 371. than to any that had been specially decorated by the Pope. p. company with other boys tastes.i. at the end of the vokune. opening shafts to admit the friable iiifa and light and walls wherever galleries. is inscriptions honour of the martyrs.j. in to a peculiarly beautiful charac- Furius Dionysius Filocalus. " When I used every Sunday. artist. where practicable. light it and modern discovery traces of his labours. and adorned the chambers with marbles. to visit the of my own tombs of the apostles and martyrs.

its thus throughout the subterranean crypt possible to perceive the brightness the absent sun. it is Although the recesses^ twisting That same is now altar-slab * St riieron. indeed. and illuminates the threshold of portico the . Ix. a ' to see the fulfilment of those words of the pro' admitted from above. as you advance ness as of night seems to get further. form narrow chambers with dark- the pierced vaulting And down To into the hollow bowels and enjoy the such secret places polytus conveyed. the c. even though the turnings shut out the comes to : a crypt buried in darksome secret recesses a of day. bowels of the in the but as you go forwards.' " . same tune. city walls. we have been labours as He have been.. the words mind ' : The darkness of the poet very silence fills Here and . directs The as light far as the surface of the opening. of the so dark. in Ezech. that one relief to the horror of the and full is Let them go down alive into Hades. stairs light. and when. clearly commemorate the results oi some such . writing of the is his description runs thus " Not far from the orchards. . written about the cemetery of . there its lies tomb of and St Hippolytus. the words of the poet Prudentius. light of body of Hip- stands the altar (niensa) gives the . through the doorway. near to the spot where dedicated to God. the dark- more and more obscure through- out the mazes of the cavern.— Roma gS and to Solterranea. to your On '" the Prudentius on contrary. .. there momentary suffices to give a immersed find yourself again night. Damasus describing those of St in Into pits. walls on either side as you enter are bodies of the dead. among well-trimmed the steep path with winding one. dom this some galleries. in the utter blackness of come spontaneously the soul with dread. StHippolytus. there occur at intervals apertures cut in the roof which convey the bright rays of the sun upon the cave. at ran- yet a considerable quantity of light finds of the mountain. and the whole place seems almost phet.' little light. way and way through that. go into the crypts excavated there The earth.

animated by one and the same desire. and which the Fourth Centiiry. and. while Wondrous those is m who is feeds the dwellers of the Tiber with holy food." \\\^festa of the martyr. Wealthy hands have put up tablets glistening with a smooth surface concave mirror [of silver]. one dense crowd both they imprint their kisses on the shining they pour out their sweet balsams . : The' noise on the various roads on all the native of the Abruzzi and the Etruscan saint. send forth their white-robed host long-drawn sides on equal terms waxes loud line. faith hurrying shrine. That little chapel {cedicidd) which contains the cast-off garments of his soul [his relics] is bright with solid silver. his dies natalis.festa of the vomits forth her stream of Romans. it the sanctity of the place and pray." large He goes on to describe the pilgrimages to the shrine. has granted power to obtain whatever any one asks of him. overlaying the entrance with Parian marble. they bedew their His description of the scene on faces with tears.The Catacoinbs sacrament. " The imperial city Scene on the . all the youth of the place until the setting of the sun. reminds one forcibly of the which the modern Romans stream out San Paolo when a fuo7'i le to way in San Lorenzo. assists the it granting what they need. the faithful guardian of its 99 martyr's bones. in a them forward to the Albano's gates. to whom and that Christ. they have lavished sums of money on the ornamentation of the work. relief glorious priest I will tell ! with what return to enjoy the privilege of embracing thee. religion collects together into Latins and foreigners silver : " Early in the morning : . festival or a station is held there. or to any other of the old churches. bright as a . our God. or to umra. not content with Shrine richly ' jevoutlv visited. and the plebeian crowd. too. oftentimes prostrated myself in prayer and found joy I O Yes. . I know owe that I all this to Hippolytus. ! the altar when I. jostle their patrician neighbours. at men by hopes of Here have is hand for mercifully sick with ills both of soul and body. and with somewhat of poetic come they to salute worship there Love of licence continues : they [the saint] come and go . keeps laid up there in expectation of the eternal it Judge.

its mouth be but hard by is No doubt. They destroyed the symmetry of the chapels with new monuments and sarcophagi. each with his wife and children The broad road. xi.'' testifies to of a single grave near St Cornelius. is then." in which two ladies bought a bisomiim for themselves during their lifetime IN CRYPTA CTVS from two fossores. 153. One safety of the constructions by indis- ancient inscription speaks of ^'a new crypt behind the saints. This devotion to the cemeteries. with royal magnificence. wide though too narrow for such crowds . rcristcj)!!. caused them to be used again as burial-places so frequently in the time of St Damasus. is another church {iemplwn)^ enriched. . that that cavern. his fields scarcely contain the joyful people. they excavated loculi at the back of the arcosolia. SEREPENTIV S EMIT LOG M A QUINTO FOSSORE AD SANTVM G RNELIVM * rrudcnt. NOBA RETRO SAN SE VIVAS BALER EMERVM RA ET SABINA MERVM LOG V BISOM AB APRONE ET A BIATORE • Here is another inscription which chase " from Quintus the fossor. * and then follows the description of a " supposed by many basilica. the countryman of lofty . as we have seen. and even where the space wide. in may to be the basilica of San Lorenzo Agro Verano. creet excavations. the crowd so great as to cause delay. possible to the saints. cS:c. and often endangered the Examples. which. a similar pur- 11. which this great gathering Damage done to Catacombs by indiscreet visit . peasant come. suffice to is there on to hasten delights is Samnite. which not sparing even the most beautiful paintings with their forefathers had adorned them.Roma loo Sotterranea. was not always regulated by prud- In the anxiety of Christians to be buried as near as ence. the fierce Capua and of Nola. stretched.

The Catacombs A third in the Foitrth Century. the price that was paid It is . were supported by the Church. Christ.. were themselves But even though not sufficient ground for is obvious. i. should be considered that there this opinion. priests that such It is no longer j7tssu of the Pope or of the and such a tomb has been made. . yet. at least. vestige of contracts of this kind with fossoj^s has earlier than the first are very their been found of the fourth century. generally supposed clerics. to not difficult. 142. loi records the purchase of a grave for a father and mother and one daughter. the work of excavation was no They are under - . whose most devoted and laborious servants they were. Inscr. and. a and few obtain desire who obtained us of one that. no doubt. but the names of both buyers and sellers are recorded on the tomb- and even stone. the manacre- . * Nevertheless. in the earlier ages. this short come to light later But the monuments period which testify to having had in their own hands the disposal of new graves in the Catacombs. it is always fossors. longer continued at the public expense under the special care nient of the of the parish priests. therefore. . together with the witnesses to the contract.' "°^ bargain between the deceased's friends and the fossores.. the privilege the thresholds of the saints. under the altered circumstances of the times. and no record last years men of the existence of this body of than the quarter of the numerous during fifth has century. . A fourth inscription of the year 381 (during the Pontificate of Damasus) tells burial " within many multi ciipiimt It appears et " of thmg which quod {intra liniina sajictorum. the it No and the that sellers are the fossors lowest order in the hierarchy. they must have been on very intimate relations with the clergy. that. understand how... " above the arcosolium^' tomb of St Hippolytus. ""' rari accipiunt). but that it was left ^^ as a matter of private -^/^^^^'''^. the whole matter entirely It is under their had been allowed management. at this time.. of which we have heard at the so very much from Prudentius {at Ippolytv svper arcosoliv). to fall more we must be .

" X Rapid disuse Whether of Catacombs for burial. them when that is well saved. [merely] to stick close to the a good life is the best approach to the saints' tombs of the saints Not with the body. written at the request of his friend. Appendix. and to write upon a tablet in the papal crypt the reason for his not being buried within it: HIC FATEOR DAMASVS VOLVI MEA CONDERE MEMBRA. whatever cause may have evidence of the dated inscriptions makes + Rom. '* Here I. in his epitaph lately found at San the faithful plainly. i. not only more by still those desires were by these and other the fact that or short treatise. m . X LhUltitino. in which he explains and them. How common attested. allowed to regret that they should not have used a more whole- some severity in withstanding the pious but indiscreet desires of the faithful. wished to bury my limbs.* justifies Nevertheless we may easily imagine the displeasure with which so ardent a lover of the cemeteries as Damasus would regard a system which tended St to their His own example spoke more eloquently than destruction. ANIMA TENDAMVS AD ILLOS QUiE BENE SALVA POTEST CORPORIS ESSE SALVS. . the Note D. 214. but rather hinders. result. to be buried to build himself a tomb above the cemetery of St Callixtus. also. "It nothing helps. or merely ^ . 33. . being put in . we must make our way to merits. 1 864. CORPORE NON OPVS EST. it may prove the salvation of the body . one had a greater right and yet he was content there than he. but forms the subject of a long by the great letter. Sott. . tells Sabinus.„ from in . St Paulinus of Nola. the way. Damasus. but with the soul. St Augustine. No any words could do. SED TIMVI SANCTOS CINERES VEXARE PIORVM. but I was afraid of dis- turbing the holy ashes of the saints. that the only a place near the saints is to imitate their lives way to obtain : NIL JVVAT IMMO GRAVAT TVMYLIS H^^RERE PIORVM SANCTORVM MERITIS OPTIMA VITA PROPE EST. consequence of any direct prohibition.— — Roma I02 Sotterranea. it is sufficiently similar inscriptions. difficulties produced the * See ." f The archdeacon Lorenzo. .

1^.— Fresco in one Rome rapid. some by captivity. 400 to 409. in a. be found. 410. i. to speak From 117. v. &c. after a. all by loss of wealth. and there was neither time nor means to adorn the sepulchres or even to pay the customary honours to the departed.d. Proleg. 16. scarcely ^^ to use the language of St Jerome. the one " The Roman city the In that fatal year. ed.d. brightest light of empire lost its all head . t Hieron. take ^^''''''''' . the decrease is still more a smgle certam example is the world was extinguished more truly. i. Fig. the Fo2trth Cenhcjy. Ezech. Between a.The Catacomds in it clear. * Inscr. Christ. until. many by slaughter. whole world perished." t Rome was taken by Alaric. 103 that after the hri^i furore for subterranean interment during the years 370 and 371 there was a rapid disuse of that mode of burial.d. of the oldest Cttbicula o/the Crypts of St Lncma. 373 and 400. in lib. and.* to . the citizens were reduced. the subterranean epitaphs are only one out of three. Mi<^ne.

in a.d. in the prayers for the dead and benediction of graves. to burials in and around the Still fre- quented as basilicas. 410. SERIOUS Catacombs abandoned as burial-places. was concealed for a time in the which he afterwards ornamented. they shrines. to A. yet neither then nor at second sack of Rome. liturgical 426 their will. Occasionally. never to the subterranean cemeteries. we find any record of their having destroyed either the cemeteries or the basiUcag of the martyrs. 410. in times of popular tumult. in- on and ceme- The fossors' occupation was gone. and the to refer to them closer examination.D. Pope Symmachus. saints. f " Ecclesire et corpora Marlyrum exterminatasunta Gothis. be found to relate to basilicas teries above ground. however. though they ceased to be used for burial.d. have been used also as places of refuge.D. as the storm passed over.d.f As soon. after a. The Catacombs. Pope * Lib. Thus Boni- Cemetery of St Felicitas. carried havoc even into the peaceful sanctuaries of the Vitiges. The books of the fifth century refer constantly.d. their 457. was the ruin and damage done to the Eternal City by the Goths in a. seem face to I. Pont. and name ceases to be mentioned. in one copy of the Liber have restored and beautified the cemeteries of The irruption of the Goths under Vitiges. . yet continued to be frequented as shrines and places of pilgrimage. Still as places of burial scriptions the use of the subterranean cemeteries was never after this and notices which seem resumed. 4IO UNTIL THEIR FINAL ABANDONMENT. the martyrs. Profaned by Goths under 537. fifth century. however. as IV. towards is said.— CHAPTER FROM THE YEAR A. 537.""" the end of the Pofitificaiis. A." LUk Pout. do in a.D.

"f Rome by Totila.g. " It runs thus : Dum peritura Geta posuissent castra sub urbem. however." + lb. Hostibus expulsis omne t Lib. often very imperfect.— The Catacombs Rifled and Abandoned.d. according to the ancient practice. about a. he used diligently to celebrate the solemnities of As teries. when necessity still had compelled the citizens to relax the strictness of the ancient laws against bury- on the ing within the walls. " instituted a body of priests to celebrate masses every week. 735. Totaque sacrilego verterunt corde sepulcra.. Moverunt Sanctis bella nefanda prius. ^^^ . continued their care for the ancient Repaired by John III. saddened and replaced some of the broken epitaphs of St Damasus by some of which copies.. have been confined to the cemetery belonging to that Sixty years later.d. It was to venture far outside the walls. in the gallery at the Lateran. cruets. to the special praise of Sergius that. him damage which. About remain. cemeteries began to be formed Esquiline and on the becoming dangerous The Pontiffs. Nee tamen his iterum posse latere fuit.* 105 this time. But the re- turn to the old custom of the priests of the city-title serving the extra-mural cemetery every Sunday did not last long. I. title. Martyribus quondam rite sacrata piis. It is re- corded in the seventh century. Sed periit tituhis confrado marmore sandtcs. we repaired the Vigiliiis to see. cemeteries. he would. the care of popes.. Diruta Vigilius nam posthaec Papa gemiscens. ring to this practice. and ordered that oblations. about a. refermay be seen in the third cohimn of the collection inscription in Callisto. site of the old Praetorian camp. and holy sacrifice] should be supplied from the candles [for the Lateran Palace throughout the This was after the desolation of cemeteries every Sunday. Gregory III. presently to be seen. lere. 568. Quos monstrante Deo Damasus sibi Papa probatos Affixo monuit carnuiie jure coh. ^^^*" . a zealous restorer and builder of churches. "during the time of his priesthood. The honour of Eusebius in the cemetery of San A copy of some verses of Pope Vigilius. ii07iavit opus. Pont." t titular of St mass through different ceme- Susanna.. and arranged that in * e. "restored the cemeteries of the holy martyrs. are told.

756.. . in from profanation. these subterranean cemeteries had been neglected and ruined. Pont.g. Lombards this ruin had now been made they had broken open the graves and for some bodies of the saints. 219. should be carried palace by the oblationariiis^ through name A. dated June 2. which describes the martyrs' shrines. Milan X Rom. even as early as the One fifth mentions the bodies of some above ground. but also to hide in the very heart of the city itself the victorious limbs of Saints John and Paul. and the oblation for down from the the celebration of the masses. 761. yet by the impious more complete carried off . tion of bodies of saints from who should the priest There saints ground is had been cities." This looks as if these martyrs were then the only saints whose bodies rested within the walls and they . . even before the siege of some of Astolphus. _ prepared for their reception." in the Preface John and Paul. however." he says. In a constitution. removed from whom the Pontiff would on the occasion.. that upon translating order to save them relics of the saints. so that they have been defiled with all * Lib. it is said. the the vigils on the days of their natalitia.t Rome. " people have been very slothful and negligent in paying due honour to the cemeteries allowed to have access to them . "Of Thy merciful providence Thou hast vouchsafed to crown not only the circuit of the city with the glorious for Saints passions of the martyrs. round Rome. had never been anywhere else. I.Roma io6 the cemeteries situated all Sotterrajtea. with great until after the devastations and committed by the Lombards under Astolphus. animals have been even folds have been pur- posely set up in them. time of St Ambrose. reluctance."* supposing that some few bodies of for in oftlciate we know as they were in other their original resting-places to churches Catacombs. he complains that. In tlie " Sacramentary of St Leo.d. on a large scale the sacrileges a. 756. Sott. Rome by whereas. Paul century. and not saints being in basilicas have been originally buried It was. % of the itineraries. in the i. " From that time for- ward. t e. resolved I.D. distinctly by Paul keeping lights for elected in the following year. whom we know to in the subterranean cemeteries.

because the to imitate the inscription in Sta Prassede Sergius I. 56. Paschal was constrained The in every nerve to bring back the ancient honour witness to his zeal Leo Adrian III. Seeing. with God's help. which has now in the saints. this have thought I it good. all and abandoned. crypts of the martyrs were being destroyed thither all. and Santi Quattro re-translated to these churches reUcs which had already been removed from the Catacombs and deposited elsewhere in To Rome. Pont. they also and Martino. v. city of this still attests how he translated two thousand three hundred bodies on July 20. belongs the account of many being carried to the Pantheon these times also doubtless cart-loads of relics of martyrs . to revive the interest in these sacred crypts. and Leo IV. Silvestro Coronati . Vet. to remove the bodies of the martyrs and confessors and songs spiritual and I I virgins and with hymns and of Christ. careless indifference to 107 and deeply lamentmg such holy places. t See the long enumeration of their works in Lib. of by Paul was not followed by either of his immediate successors. or and magnificence of the cemeteries. in fact. and . and . xcviii. Stephen latter strained site Lists of father. Script. have I Sylvester. example of Paul. house the Rome. successor. * Mai. SS." and there must have been more than a hundred The example Popes on the lately was born and bred. greater dignity of the churches which they had either built or restored.The Catacombs Rifled and Abandoned. have brought them into have placed them in the church which honour of St Stephen and St built. viz. long before the tombs in the subterranean cemeteries were touched. xcvii. II Lt Nearly his restorations Notwithstanding . in which I descended to me by inheritance from to us. then.. the of them bore were continued by his all the efforts of these I. 817. sorts of corruption. for the 11. a record which has been con- founded with that of the rdiquice placed there by Boniface IV.^ whose rehcs were thus my set have come down translated. Paschal I. continued the same work.

restored in a. in their turn. in . noticed by a pilgrim of the eleventh. their of lamps kept burning in some of monasteries. some church and the cemeteries. St Valentine. hurried forward and completed the The ment. viz. and which was called all ancient documents. of course. 860. ing to the Augustinian Order. regarded work of much so further and abandon- ruin them sacred treasures which had caused with still be to and veneration having been love removed. there was no longer the same motive for protecting them or ornamenting century combs may be and thus the said to have had ended fifth Nicholas I.. and only one subterranean cemetery remained always open and frequented by pilgrims. Roma io8 Final aban- All the Sottei^ra nea documents which mention these translations assign donment of Catacombs. just as the of the pe7' . the translations. and St Saturninus. When we come to the fifteeenth century even these disappear. oblivion into which they glories of the Pope history as cemeteries. the same which may still be seen beneath the Church of St Sebastian. Like the cemetery of St Agnes. ca^nieterium ad catacjinibas. them the cause of teries to the abandonment and ruin of the ceme- and. beginnmg them the celebration of mass {quod multos temporwn cursus ab twelfth centuries in half of the ninth first as shrines or places of pilgrimage. some of is ended the history of the Cata- we eo discesserit) still read of . and to have in the eleventh visits to fell them which were near are the which remain to us of any attempt Catacombs of Rome. and again by a writer of the twelfth century.. written in it lay under property belong- and hence was not account of the Roman utterly lost churches and the fourteenth century. as we find the cemetery of St Valentine. only three of the suburban churches attached to the cemeteries are mentioned. to last to to the general and only records keep up the ancient Henceforward only those or monastery were visited out of curiosity by occasional travellers. on the Via Flaminia. sight of In a statistical clergy. .. those of St Hermes.d. and But these insignificant exceptions the vicinity of and said to have visited them.

day. a ad be for all subterranean excavations purposes of burial. (because it was still in different and always composed at the other cemeteries. Paris. open. all When. languages for the use of pilgrims. then. retained its ad St Sebastianum apparently. Malta. it 1 neighbourhood of Rome. as the and names of the cataciimbas. for the in which the word we read cemeteries cimeieriwn cateciimbas Via Appia. similar excavations have to to . and this alone Martyrologies catacumbas. and whose circus built ruins in this neighbourhood are so well visit in a of that part of the campagna in which St Sebastian's situated. and wherever been discovered. Catacomb^ as appHed to the comb. not only 15. and also for the very grave topographical plexed and misled tian's 09 word. where name accounts Origin cemeteries. the in used as descriptive of the locality of St Sebas- is Roman which has per- archaeologists until the present belongs to the sixth century.Joi(nd 171 Crypt of St Lucina." error respecting the cemetery of St Callixtus. Sicily. This is an important fact to be noticed. — Very nnciciii Sa}to/>ha}^iix.The Catacombs Rifled and Abandoned. appear this particular spot became synonymous with a to the cemeteries visit and the term Catacomb gradually came name regarded as the specific in the but also in Naples. the locality of cemeteries was forgotten. is known. Roman called the circus ad the other Roman remained known. was anciently place in the Libri Indulgentianim. because both for the use of Roman this The earliest cataciimbas the all Roman document now extant But was used before it this. else of the . occurring so frequently and Lives of the Popes. various times for of list by Maxentius.) have been ignorantly confused with Fi(j.

Queen of Christian by reason of the greater number and extent of cemeteries. and the cemeteries much says Rome are forced to acknowledge roads.BOOK III. the greater magnificence of the buildings and sepulchres which adorned it. the' The it. as the who used same road and indisputable. CHAPTER ITS Pre-eminence " of the Via Appia. was constructed. TN J- in DISCOVERY AND IDENTIFICATION. titles We the greater variety of conquered nations it in the is still more And upon same for the greater number and another place t he speaks of one of this road as standing to other cemeteries relation as St Peter's to other churches Roma Crist. . ." its it connected with gives to this just. its Unfortunately t P. 172. CATACOMB OF ST CALLIXTUS. all the others are only small or middling provinces. 73. number and history of Christian martyrs. and it. he Sotterranea. both Pagan and Christian Rome. and makes it Father Marchi/"" says Queen of title boast with good this both because of the grander scale on which it of reason. of celebrity of the events of glory incomparably more solid." the history of Pagan " the Roman L Via Appia bears the proud roads ." Art celebrity in " the colossal region of Monum. Pi'lm. Rome.

martyr. and in a third place. and there are the sepul- chres of the Apostles Peter and Paul. Tiburtius. first. where St Cyrinus. Pope and confessor. Januarius. then. on the north side of the same road you come and Maximus. martyrs. Julian. rests Eusebius. . his great field De of his labours. Sixtus. you arrive by the Via Appia at St Sebastian. Pope and martyr. and you go down by steps on the western side of the church. unless we enter on the Via Appia at some into the details of the cemeteries length and . [in the Zephyrinus. Felicissimus and Agapitus. rests. and in a fourth. Dionysius. in which they rested forty years . road. and in And rests. and deacons of Sixtus . work already published have We not exhausted his narration of them. is On the same an innumerable multitude of Pope and martyr . and most of 1 1 already it executed. has been the especial and the two volumes of and the won- have been the discovery of to narrate this .1 Discovery and the plan of his Identification own work was of San Callisto. martyr. St Zeno. martyr. One all. Pope and martyr. martyrs. of these guides. St Cecilia. and you bishop and confessor. Pope and martyr. " After. Cyrinus. martyr. authors whose body lies in a very low spot . to the holy There you will find there will St Urban. and in a third church again. Pope and martyr. enter into a great cave. rests in a . Eighty martyrs rest there below subterranean cemetery] [in a church] above. martyr.Testimonies of wards. another place. at martyrs : St there Cecilia's. virgin and martyr. tell us upon the be better able to follow the course of and to appreciate subject. before he effected an entrance into the cemeteries his imagination which so strongly impressed we have now ders Indeed Rossi. De Rossi's both their ingenuity and im- portance. complete. writes as follows: — . be doing shall not justice either to the subject or to our author. we will hear what our ancient guides of the seventh and eighth centuries have to for so we shall investigations. first. the most ancient and accurate of some time describing what he himself saw and visited at between the years 625 and 638. Valerian. Flavianus.

virgin. each apart . where she same road is lies Church of St the and St Zephyrinus St Calocerus and St Callixtus. virgin Sotterranea. Pope and martyr. is many with there also St Cecilia. the brother of Valentine martyrs rest there. St Parthenius Not martyrs rest there. details of any apparent accounts. city. Without entering into the minute Division of discrepancies between these two agreement is abundantly manifest. Cornelius ?. off." &c. with the cemetery belonging to Another. Valerian and Tiburtius . some way and martyr. martyr. who was the eldest of the seven sons of of Urban. and then he continues: Appia. in the cemetery of and Cyprian sleeps also near the is Sixtus. There also the martyr Cyrinus is buried.. . and near the same road St Sebastian. Soteris. and there St Eusebius. And Tiburtius and Valerian. or centres. of Felicissimus * I'hese are the two and . whose body Soteris.<?. and 800 from thence." &c. Tljere arrive. the Church of St Sebastian. same road a church of many martyrs. lie. where he sleeps and there St Tharsicius . . Cyrinus. One. contained the graves of St Cecilia's husband and brother-in-law. itineraries mentioned two of St Sixtus's in pp. in which they rested forty years. the — " Near the Via other martyrs one tomb in lie. .\gapitus. on the eastern side of the martyr. on the north side of the road. the most distant from Rome. their substantial Nobody can read them attentively without observing that they describe four distinct groups. Cornelius. route described by the next witness'^" proceeds in the opposite direction. and near the Pope. of Januarius. 22. and to the holy towards the north and then you leave the Via Appia. After off. Felicissimus. as you go towards Albano. of Agapitus. where he himself sleeps is . of martyrs' tombs on the Appian road. 23. I r Roma 2 cave some way other cave side .. Felicitas far Church of St rests . and The in an- lies \_sic\ in a church. you come this. Zeno. is it. the many Church of where are also the burial-places of the Apostles. . By the same road also you go to the city of Albano. lies He has just described what was to be seen on the Via Ardeatina.

known stands on the Appian road. under the name of St Prsetexpage 77 . Felicitas in . as containing an " innumerable Popes. St Cecilia. It is described are specified several virgin Lastly. Pope and martyr. on the western cannot. whereby we descend opinion that these also might we can now be found to the De Rossi is without much diffi- grave of St Cyrinus. before Ardeatina. we should begin by saying necessary that is terms. page 128. seems manifestly designed to inclose particular point or points of interest. and Ideiitification of San and of many other martyrs. . and others. the eldest of the seven sons of St more glowing still Callisto. show you " the steps side of the church.Saints Peter ^1"^*^ . St road and cross over to the Via this we only with the third of these groups that more immediately concerned nevertheless. is well still St Sebastian's. bat .Discoveiy deacons . according to a very ancient and authentic tradition. latus. there is and martyr. are 13 1 of Januarius. be will it a few words about the first* The by Constantine over the basilica of St Sebastian. St Tharsycius. of. It rests. multitude of martyrs The third f whom amongst and cemetery of the holy the church you leave Soteris." though culty. sake. the bodies of St Peter and St Paul once found a Temporary temporary resting-place. be- tween two and three miles out of the city . irregular that it The form of this building would never have been selected by any is so o?th?relics^of archi. without interfering more than was absolutely necessary with what * . but has this of read the inscription with which Pope still Damasus adorned his back of the high altar tomb. tect for its some own . indeed. lay around yhe second has been already spoken it. We can also go round to the and examine the semi-subterranean building in which. been more Roman perhaps than any other portion of the visited He Catacombs. and a friar from the adjoining monastery being always ready to act as guide and descend into the extensive subterranean cemetery. . built tomb where body of the to every visitor of martyr this Rome. in H Paul. . and the fourth will be described. in tlie next chapter. as far as our present knowledge of it extends.

feet. This pit divided into two equal compartments by a slab of marble is its sides are also cased with marble to the height of three and His its vaulted roof apostles. or seat of stone. Sanguinis ob meritum Christumque per astra sequuti. Discipulos Oriens misit. Aetherios petiere sinus et regna piorum. and depth. according to the testimony of both our ancient witnesses. of the area Damasus feet a large both pit or double grave. they were Peter and Paul. followed Christ to the stars. . is the spot where.Roma 114 We Sottei^ranea. you be allowed to record these things [of the heavenly host]. runs it is up one of setting historical inscriptions. still round the more the sake of com- Church by associations to the connected with her days of persecution. quod sponte fatemur. hov/ever. led<Te. cannot therefore assent to the theory which would recog- nise in some ancient heathen temple it probable that was erected merely it memorating a spot endeared for was begun by Pope Liberius it provided a marble pavement for same time at the it. " Here. If you ask their names. Marchi conjectures) its floor. seems probable It certain that and otherwise adorned his usual metrical and A low be seen there. Nomina quisque Petri pariter Paulique requiris. as we willingly acknowThe saints themselves had. O new ." May Damasus stars U)x your praise. The East sent disciples. which may step.'' must know. suos potius meru't defendere cives. destined for the use of those who about two six is In the middle a small square aperture. and sought the home of heaven and the kingdoms of the blest. obtained to defend her own citizens. each near the scene of * '' Hie habitasse prius Sanctos cognoscere debes. " the bodies of St Peter and St Paul rested for a period of forty years.''' interior. covered with paintings of our Lord and This. widening at the depth of feet into and seven (Father recited here in choir the psalms and public offices of the Church. breadth. by the merit of their bloodshedding." Their first g ^ere. There is some difficulty in unravelling the true history of this temporary translation of the bodies of the apostles. that it but think . measuring between in length. then. Roma Hnec Damasus vestras referat nova sidera laudes. that saints once dwelt. Rome. We have seen that they were originally buried. is .

and we cannot whilst they rested here The language tell. in justification of his refusal to her request. must have been brought. while it of Pope Damasus.and Identijicatioji of San Discovery his own martyrdom. start- for just Paul's. by which ways the bodies of St Peter and Paul St What happened exactly them to given above. joins Appian and Ostian Ways. recrimination. and only in a private letter. respectively easily and Romans. the relics. a history that might here- subject of angry and jealous between the Eastern and Western Christians. to be in to for St Paul. and says. bodies and 1 the one on the Vatican Hill. now was probably which they carried as far as this spot their off along which we have been homeward journey by way of Brundusium coming directly from St . been had no such motive built dedicated reticence. the Ostian Callisto. which we have hints at the claim of the Orientals the successful opposition of the we can of reserve. writing two centuries later. A chapel having the Imperial Palace at Constantinople. to and begged from the Sovereign Pontiff nothing less than the head of the great apostle. relates the story of the comply attempt of the Oriental Christians to carry off his relics soon after his martyr- dom. These mes- and countrymen. But St Gregory the Great. moment- examining. the other on sources. adjoining the basilica of St Sebastian. fellow-citizens their where they claimed sengers so far prospered in their mission as to gain a ary possession of the sacred the Appian Way. Christians It is well known that at the time from the East came to recover when they their bodies . that as soon as the Oriental Christians their 1 But we learn from other equally authentic Way. just This appointed place of rendezvous before at this point a cross-road. ing on their 5 they sent some of the brethren to remove the death. them as had heard of brmg them back to the East. with St Gregory.^ —" suffered. which would be seen by pilgrims from after all become a parts of the world. enrich the altar with Empress Constantina wished the some considerable relic. bears evident tokens understand his unwillingness to perpetuate on a public monument.

doubt that the Romans first them laid last words There is no buried them where they recovered them. having been counted worthy to do this in the places where they are now buried." by the goodness of the Lord. up by one William. ^^ G in- have now seen that the writers of those itineraries all thought worthy of being mentioned in connexion with the A basilica of St Sebastian. Erroneous ^ fifr^'Th tury. a storm of thunder and lightning so greatly terrified not them and dispersed them. E[). * An inscription Opp. however. then went out and took up their bodies. . torn. lain near the basilica of St Sebastian's for a period of forty years. 30.. first half are too indistinct. would certainly press us cemetery which lies to guide. Second trans- Peter's relics Of the relics of St Peter there are faint traces of a second translation. as [the relics] of their fellow-citizens. and having as far as the second milestone from the city. make any more attempts.. embodied on St Peter's Feast one of the lessons formerly used in P>ench Church. which is assigned by some writers to the They of the third century. and These '"' of St Gregory do not seem to be quite accurate. set ii. in or near the cemetery ad catacumbas^ and there was an old tradition. St (ireg. of the present day descend also into the subterranean around and underneath the church. that after that they durst The Romans. and if we shall see there inscriptions professing to point out to us other and yet higher we are persuaded to accept his invitation. and we must be content to ignorance as to the authority on which was believed by the it writers of the itineraries in the seventh that the bodies of the apostles had acknowledge our and eighth centuries.6 Roma 1 1 Sotterj^anea. however. which said that they in the were restored to their original places of sepulture months lapse of a year and seven . however. to be depended upon. nor after the there any reason to is suppose that the body of St Paul was ever again removed. but when called is them assembled together and attempted carried them them in the the whole mass them up to take from hence. laid place which of ad catacumbas . objects oi interest.

. who had once been buried and even somewhere But whilst we admire his piety. is A this ? quoted glance at the ancient our suspicions as to the truth- sufficient to arouse is two authorities are mani- fulness of these inscriptions. ^j^g slab. and in respect to which recent discoveries. to a was examination of ancient documents. one was written whilst yet the bodies of the martyrs lay each in its own sepulchre. MARTYR. inaccessible partially open . which he had no means of deciding. to purchase both this He per- and the adjacent and three years afterwards. during the excavations of 1852.Discovery and Identificatio7i of Archbishop of Eourges. but than St Sebastian's having on complete it much a large fragment is in the cellar Reasons nearer to Rome of a marble NELIUS . we cannot accept his testimony upon a topographical question. bids us venerate Ceciha St San of the other inscriptions also. not to lose the faithful in this neighbourhood. speak of the tombs of nearly half a date. the other half of the same marble slab came to light of St ^^"^^ ^"^* . tomb of here the same or a later in Callisto. °^ why middle of the third century. Whence documents which we have hundred Popes. cemetery ^^^^^''^"'^• the upper part of the letter R. as well as a more proved It demonstration that he was certainly wrong. when we remember that the one another festly at variance with in . 1 1 7 the year 1409. followed by the letters Cornelius. how plained were cemeteries remained came it religious feeling and unknown. have critical in the year 1849 that De Rossi found of a vineyard on the Via Appia. and we can other ancient one this still easily understand the which prompted the good Archbishop to make an appeal to the devotion of the memory have already ex- that whilst the to pass in the of those glorious martyrs in places like this. and of several thousands of martyrs. since the and we can scarcely hesitate making our choice between them. vineyard . He immediately Epitaph divined that this fragment was part of the tombstone of St Pope in the suaded Pope Pius IX. and that the other belongs precisely to that very age during which the Catacombs were buried We most profound darkness and oblivion.

in the depths of the subterranean this vineyard. his end of volume. St Cecilia. single chapel had once been in more famous than the laid the bodies of Excavations having been on it St Cornelius many Popes made in of. It was found at the foot of the grave. in which of the third and fourth centuries. Holy the set Writ.Roma ii8 Sotterranea. immediately fastened firmation strong as text of vault in which Damasus had As inscriptions. he had himself by a diligent study of satisfied documents within was very his there reach. inscription The fragment was were re- the beginning of .^' up one of * See Plate I. so that De Rossi's contained the It first. the cemetery this rest. a ancient all near. at most celebrated work of excavation proceeded. for had evidently been made it cemetery which underlay the at other half of the letter R. Damasine upon this as " a cou- that this was the Papal characters. one over the other. that the tomb of was a and that St Callixtus.'"" . or rather the same letter (H) repeated three times. as the beginning of three successive Damasme mscription in th e Papal crypt His keen eye recognising the well-known beauty of the lines. thus crowned with the seal of absolute certainty. a hundred and twenty other fragments of the same lines 4-6. bearing three letters. though not absolutely within the limits famous cemetery of which it. accordance with his sugges- fragment of marble was at length discovered. and in another chapel adjoining tions. CO. with the letters happy conjecture was KR^LI VS VmAUTT R'fc C Moreover. preceded by EP on a lower line.

all San 119 Callisto. just where our forefathers read faith first it fifteen occasion to examine with it in its appeal to sible to it it We hundred years ago. and that the mediaeval inscriptions underneath the church of St Sebastian were set only help to perpetuate the found the guished first and up memory in ignorance. of an error. have been put together. from which it is impos- escape. more closely by and by. Fig. and now A fresco representing the Baptism of our of the cithicnla iti the crypt Lord in one of St Lncinn.— Discovery and Identi/icalioji of These covered. We now as a decisive proof. in the shall have when we meet own place in the interior of the cemetery. They con- third of the cemeteries so carefully distin- in the itineraries. now . 16. and the few missing portions having been suppUed in letters of a different colour. and which we ourselves also are happily able to distinguish again. that the cemetery of St Callixtus has been re-discovered. the whole may now again be read.

certain peculiarities of form. history. call it indeed by this name for convenience sake. as for so debted to De Rossi. Distinct ar^^. This Roma is almost a new branch of study in the subject of Sotterraiiea. we are in- was scarcely possible any clear notion of the manner had been constructed. II. of several distinct groups of excavations. since their the plan of any one of them was very incomplete in for which knowledge of . and because the cemetery which Callixtus made really the centre is and most important part of the vast subterranean city on which we are about to enter. Callixti leads us to the vineyard beneath which lies We this celebrated cemetery. doorway. actually united. from one another. with the words Coemetermm a carved above it. S. for which. it is each having made up its own In truth. and for many centuries past. /^~\N ^-^ the same Appian side of the Way as the church of St Sebastian's. but about a quarter of a mile nearer to Rome. but which was determined by the leries. or other similar much more by the disposition of the main gal- different tokens. though now. and of most . and the situation of the roads or buildings which diate Defects of for- may have been in its imme- neighbourhood above ground. They may be dis- tinguished not only by their contents. earlier writers to gain these cemeteries Indeed it much else. in each Cata- comb. size and shape of the area the fossors were at liberty to occupy. or families of inscriptions.CHAPTER 11. and still capable of being distin- guished. DISTINCTION OF ITS SEVERAL PARTS. however. at least in outline.

in this respect. . and the only one which is of any size strangely inexact. than ' ^ ' it was before. Important discoveiies from which renders the process of surveymg and mappmg these Michele De . either as designed by The subsequently modified in execution. is To these.San Catlis to. Father service in a scientific point of view. vented by Michele in- De Rossi. . how- any chronological order. r ot the streets 01 pleie as those of any modern have entered into some fruits the light which they throw can hardly be exaggerated. but pursued a simply The whole of eclectic principle in his choice of specimens. ^ ^"^1^ ^"^^^f method of hope by and by mapping sub' city 1 subterranean Rome com- Already we above ground. for the illustration of Bosio's For the main object not one was really complete. never pretended. and terranean gal- as tlie value of on the history of the Catacombs With his map of the Catacomb leries. subterranean crypts far easier. but this also was too small to be of much Finally. their in construction had been rather to show the sites of particular monuments than to exhibit the interior whole cemetery. to allow of his drawing any general conclusions from nice distinctions that might be observed between one part and another of the excavations. brother of the archaeologist. . D'Agin- court added another. . Catacombs were the and him a monument of primitive for his sphere of observation was too limited antiquity. . . . to see the Under maps we may his auspices. arrangement of the originators or as its maps four additional supplied by Aringhi are mere fragments. to observe He Rome. maps which Cardinal Barberini procured much labour and expense at so book. as well as more accurate. to be and the only portion of his book which he completed was intended to branch of the subject. the architecture illustrate this particular of the Christians in first ever. Marchi produced a very valuable map of what he believed about the eighth part of the Catacomb of St Agnes . Distinction of Ai^ecF in they never had an opportunity of seeing any plan at 121 himself had not lived to prepare that part of his work the half-dozen Bosio all. . and of . of his labours. Since his time a complete revolution has been effected by means of a most ingenious instrument. .

In a future book we which stayed their further progress. to trace with certainty several features in its velopment which before it was impossible we are able growth and de- We to detect. have existed before the subterranean excavation./ appear to have been originally left free. or the building which clearly must spot. ?icar to is that we are which was once called "the crypt of the cemetery of Callixtus. its having a small Pagan sepulchre on either Like the tombs of the Scipios. as far as will we M. lying open before us. dis- tinguish the boundaries of certain arece^ originally quite inde- pendent of one another. or break off altogether. the and first it fifty it occupied extended 230 feet /." The original limits of this area can be determined with the greatest precision. feet. see the ing the form and respecting the mathematical precision . or some Pagan /iypogceu?n. follow- of these arete with limits we mark by paths others. for example. our readers as minute will set before an analysis as our space will allow of one at least of the more remarkable groups of galleries in the cemetery of St Callixtus. not so much by reference to their construction. turn abruptly into another. Of Roman these 230 feet. some cham- ber or gallery in this or an adjoining Christian cemetery. a frontage of loo agro. and other renowned sepulchres on the Via Appia. after proceeding for a considerable distance in one direction. At present we distinguish those groups.Roma 122 Sotter7^anea. as by their inscriptions and other contents. but united of more or We less irregularity. at a later period first galleries. itself is still traces of some there. at that precise building. and which the Christians dared not undermine or there was . thus forming an area in front of 100 feet . and a glance at the condition of the external soil at once explains the cause of the There are digression. which will enable them to appreciate the importance of Rossi's invention. of St Callixtus. Crypt of St The most ancient area included in the Catacomb now examining Lucina. De only enumerate and can. in consequence of side of it. of Cecilia Metella.

first (R. it is easy Christian epitaphs which have in various Caecilius Faustus. from Cicero that this on this their burial-places it excavations were members of property belonged to some . in the members of the family.. the beginning of this century. S. when he was Hence c. 210).^.^ De Rossi considers monument (R. from the corre- on the Quirinal. and afterwards of Heliogabalus. Camellia.g. then. . Gens the . certainly lived whom his first and number of * tian more than one e. towards the end of the and it of the celebrated Atticus.. the grand- daughter of Marcus Aurelius. that these century.of Ai^ecF in San Distiiiction by 50. ^ and ino/uu/ieufo). Caecilius. darissima fcemina or piieila. who had families {ai'ca adjecta .^ Behind form a striking object from the road. this that the earliest Christian The made. honesta femiiia. S.. &c. Christians had nionuiiieiita Orif^inally l)e- longed to the . it ii. Q. . exhibiting these names mixed ways.. and that he passed been found here. were found this precise spot. Pomponii Bassi. in the centre of vast ruins still was beneath . as is darissimus. i. et >}iausoL\i Qgj'^g Ccecilia. we note among the "illustrious dead" who this aristocratic who were dis- adjuncts to their names. name cannot. columbaria and inscriptions be- monuments longing to other Pagan no great distance from at of the Caecilii. of that he Now. vir official lie in cemetery certain descendants of the Antonines. lived on the friend maternal uncle. was one road 01 the and about . We know Laeciiia. clearly connected with Annia Faustina. 27) as a witness that Carnis. v!) which stood the monument''' whose extended another this area 12 Callisto. the Quirinal the house . and quotes Tertullian (De Resurrect. Moreover. . and the wife of Pomponius Bassus. a Faustinus Atti- probable that even this was originally a Chris367). It be considered a fortuitous circumstance that and Catacomb galleries of this part of the light and other memorials of epitaphs of the gois^ but real marked by the tinctly chambers come there have to and several Caecilii and these not mere freedmen who had adopted the Caeciliani. to account for the known every classical scholar knows from the Gens Pomponia to the Gens adopted by it is can be almost proved that they inherited spondent of Cicero..

two or otherwise defaced. been twice Rome. &c. consul. in whose property the ecclesiastical records state this catacomb have been excavated. learned among discussions.. St Lucina of whose conversion we have already spoken. I don't wish to claim for it hardly even deserves the But attempts of this t R. who had had some filled One the Christian graves. that the Caecilii. Page 39. cus.'^ frequently this name to We Christianity. &c. De confusion. in heathen kinsfolk by their proper their When known reserve. proconsul of Gallia Narbonensis.) rather than name. a Pompeia Attica. 58. of many of hagiography. i. Attici. L. De whom to names on same the spot. and has been the A. in need not say how of Lucina occurs in ancient ecclesiastical probably the crops up in the history of every persecution. perhaps name of a conjecture. From the union of these all under these circumstances. t " any value as an argument.D. an Attica C?eciliana. an Atticianus. with . from Pompon ia history GrKcina of the apostolic age to the days of Constantine. and that possibly the Lucina. these ladies being of course society and among family names. must have been intimately connected and Bassi the Pomponii. he spoke with extreme caution and is a mere guess. and of the highest offices of the state. 319. We have the gravestones also of some heathen members of the same some of to close sawn family. and the occasion of no slight students name was a Rossi suggests that the subject Christian sobriquet (alluding to the illumination of baptism.I Roma 24 Sotterranea. may have been the very to Pomponia Graecina the year 58. Grsecina and the the " It first first he threw out the idea of Pomponia Lucina having been possibly one and same person. Pomponius. S. it violent . it . kind. of these was of a lived in the third century." he said . prefect of and another of &c. and Rossi ventured to conjecture this property belonged and who were certainly Christian. and that matrons it a real family may have been borne by many Roman in succession without any real connexion of relation- ship between them. and used in Pomponius Bassus.

to new keep it may truth." it subject.Distinctio7i of ArecB in San of the mind. in may monu- able to explain what was the mental evidence he desired. ship between the or that the profession of Christianity had prevailed in either He now family. he is it is worth. he says. shall ticulars by in have occasion to return to these genealogical par- a future chapter. and im- possible not to admire the modesty. yet place volume. 125 the faintest ghmmer of Ught amid the thick darkness of antiquity. which arouses efforts itself at Callisto. which immediate neighbour- hood. with reference to the "although his guess has learned. impossible to deny its favour. at least serve to keenly on the alert for every scrap of additional information which future discoveries bring to light. or at least sufficient fragments of inscriptions. and out of which prudent study may extract the knowledge of full offered in confuso''' historical De now facts. publishes inscriptions. his immediate predecessors and successors. written early in 1864. discoveries shall At the end of the on a more solid foundation. two floors of galleries had been already excavated and . it must not be taken for more than volume. But before the making of involved considerable alterations in its in the middle of the his sepulchre. had no positive evidence either of the relation- Pomponii Bassi and the Pompon ii Graecini. as illustrating the fact of Pope Cornelius having been buried here. however. and belong- this ing to the end of the secoixl century. yet that Bassi. learning. that been very favourably received by the new and more important monumental until first In the middle of the second volume. and seeks to rush forward to the acquisition of awaken and attention. found in cemetery. apart from the other Popes. third century. Pomponii it is has a great deal of probability in it and one of a and although even now the argument has not the force of demonstration. and to announce that he had found He it. only guessed at and Rossi wrote thus in his same 1867. two of which testify to the Christian burial here of Pomponius Graecinus . and ingenuity which We it has been supported.

but same side of a five no first or six in a row. the crypts of St lAicina having. it is is not one sixth of the extent unusually limited. indeed. as by themselves. another plot of ground. many bed- and most of ornamented with symbolical paintings of the highest antiquity and importance. are in portions of evidently late construction. uniformity of plan in the form and decoration of the roof. opening out of the broad spacious a/nbidacnn/i. the unusual height of the galleries. 200. at a and depth of not more than as the hill slopes rapidly. About Cemetery of the time of Marcus Aurelius. as in the crypts of St Lucina. from the necessity had been dug below the surface . as their con- struction and development wnll form the subject of the more minute analysis already promised. Only two instances of and both of these arcosolia occur. that area.. and the frequent recurrence of square. there are to . It we have contains seen. twenty feet It Sotterranca. prmiitive area the Characterisof this continued area. not opposite one another sides of the gallery. of these floors of the lower. family) for the It bordered on a road which joined the Via Appia and Via Ardeatina. in the second century.. once many tombs formed a cemetery of a very peculiar form. and was 250 feet by 100. We shall not enter its measurement now upon any de- tailed description either of this or of the next area. the galleries would have run out into the open upon the same . properly so called. one another. Most of these chambers are adorned with paintings of a very early style. 01 tics far The level.Roma 126 The upper filled. second half of the no great distance at from the crypt of St Tvucina.. of the case. such as are to be seen only in one other part of the whole . had they general characteristics .I). narrow chambers. cemetery are a certam marked oi this air. It will be sufficient to mention here. This was the first area of the cemetery of St Callixtus. richly the cubicula opposite like so rooms out of the passage of a private house them very in . was given (apparently by the same same purpose. and several of their chapels are of sufficient importance to claim each one a chapter to itself. be<nin before A. but opening on different one out of the other.

^00. about A. cross.. were buried here his in this ^milius here epitaphs of an an y^rnil Calocerus and Parthenius.D. all more is we do not One combined the (the Constantine) to is we have find in either of those a great variety of representations of the or less disguised. belongs to this area.. which seems to represent two martyrs or confessors standing before the tribunal of the heathen magistrate. we should be disposed Callixtus'.. whom Moreover. and a a also belonged to the consul.. some of time traces of their having been first A faced with slabs of marble. an ^milianus. or - ^ . but in the find for cigro^ Arcosolia hnnijiarc. irom the family names which occur in this third area 01 bt cletian. Tulinus. Petronia. same dimen- third area. to the eyes of the which was afterwards name and Rho— the is Labarum of This also seems exactly correspond with the age we have attributed the question of chronology the cross clearly settled to it . Distinction of Arece in cemetery —graves . at the cost of side... but that adopted as of the peculiarities monogram of Christ's well-known Chi and not amongst them. neighbourhood. It is certain and we find Partenius. 93. on the outer 127 having no more than the ordinary opening yet so excavated interiorly. ]>. by the dates of epitaphs found here.. If we may conjecture Enlarged . are Inhere not is them we much seems last. pro- bably has reference to their history. as to In a second area. and a paint- ing here.* belonging to the end of the third and The inscription of the Deacon Severus. . ... . yet still initiated sufficiently significant.. ^^milianus had apppointed daughters guardians.. we first. . sions as the and painting in the chambers. bodies. indeed. of the have belonged to the days of Dio- to perhaps a few years earlier. which names be had property . to suspect that had been it given to the church by Anatolia. measuring 150 feet in froute by 125 and made not long after the posite sides of the pathway. many be capable of containing infinite labour. the crypts in /// find large crypts by the same lit both here very abundant. to that he .San Catlis to. of this area. the wealthy daughter of the Consul ^milianus. on op- galleries. which described before.

he not long since. an is on exceptional everything area scale of first the in that mentioned oiandeur. Balbina. its in effect At by the archae- an entrance. yet The two cemeteries really adjoined not perhaps in their of time. . with double. ventilation from the same himinare . his eye on some suspicious-looking fissures in the soil. . traces of the seats for the presbytery. and really lies Boldetti erroneously fixed cemetery is by others on the Bosio and having been where locality as we have now found the Catacomb of St Callixtus. i. but though he managed found nothing to reward * The to his search. that of Sta. assemblies. neighbourhood. Balbina. sake of and although we do not see any . but in course first full one development. t R. probably because and moveable from place to place. 265. S.Roma 128 Sotterra7tea. and even quadruple cuhicnla.d. Sta. hewn out of the rock. made they were of more this is costly materials. in her own and we have already seen that the itineraries spoke of a separate church erected to her honour somewhere from distinct another . which St Ambrose be- Soteris. Soteris. a communi- cation was established between them. a virgin of the family to longed in a later generation. She had been buried cemetery 304 {coemeterio sud) a. in the precise spot indicated ologist De situation long since. it. Cemeteries of To same date belongs the also the adjoining cemetery of Sta. in the neighbourhood of St Callixtus'. which of the old itineraries on the Via Appia. Rossi. not of burials or twice all we find here receiving light and for the clearly. Soteris have not yet been De Rossi has only sufficiently explored to allow of their being described. three chambers united instead of two."^ and of The same is to be said also of another Sta. . as in the somewhat analogous chambers in the so-called cemetery of St Agnes. as each attained its beginnings. Ardeatina. last. or the episcopal chair. treble. Once beginning of the fourth century. following his usual guides. determined its but was unable to recover it.t His brother fixed the ruins of an ancient building and this placed by some between the two. several areas of the cemetery of Sta.

as it was called. This particular fundus rosai'his must have been for some reason confiscated to the imperial fiscus. chral purposes. two others. and the other upon four long and narrow openings at the corners. Should be the largest and most regular group of subterranean crypts that has ever yet been seen. In particular.Disti7tction some unusually heavy of ArecB in San wander about and The Commission Catacomb. 336. or strewing with roses. galleries. but in a Christian way. 129 Callisto. the adjacent at right angles . buried. and nearly doubled by the dis- proportions of this subterranean labyrinth that the all is It is not only of immense excavated on several different is levels. much investigation De in the newly-discovered of Sacred Archaeology are too means crippled by want of be able to pursue the to Enough.d. after which Constantine again devoted it to sepulfield.'^ 7'osarius. has many illuminated by shafts of grander proportions and more highly-developed architectural forms than any he has found before. and funds were specially set apart for celebrating this dies rosationis vel violationis. but which he believes be found to end will his anticipation be in an equal number of realised. he specifies one Iwninarc. and built a basilica here. but it is large crypts. him for time he was able to this an hour and more for new opening rains revealed a into the bowels of the earth. The it Rosatio. has been seen far. which opens on the subterranean excavations with not less than eight rays of Two many serve to illuminate as each ending in a circular apse . . in Constantine endowed this cemetery was who was Pope which he was himself with a fundus a. which are not yet explored. however. and an adjoining was a rite observed at some pagan tombs on the anniversaries of deaths. We must remember. extent. but hexagonal or nearly so. his imaginations him with amazement. to enable Rossi to say that the size of the necropolis between the Appian and Ardeatine roads covery . which here cross one another four descend light. that considerably enlarged by St Mark. not square. this will cubicida. however. surpass and fill founded on previous experience. large rectangular chambers.

late years many valuable discoveries have been But of made by means of them.CHAPTER III. and Father Marchi took Itineraries). at the bottom of the at the entrance of the first chapel by the number of walls. in the interior of the we do not intend Damasus provided sister. over whose doorway ^^ crypt. to pass them by for the present. by St Fabian in the third century. as notice. sometimes of St Cecilia (because built immediately over the tombs of those celebrated martyrs). they are called. / i i the words Coeineterium S. THE PAPAL CRYPT. Even of the history . his mother. Entrance of /^^ N the papal \ entering the vineyard. however. more St Sixtus. which cover the new thing to pay any attention to these rude scribblings of ancient visitors on the walls of places of public resort. we will this.'"" Graffiti ^^ on the ^' As we descend staircase restored. and still more It is we by means of an ancient are struck. identifies and be the Church of St Mark and St Marcellinus (both of which are mentioned De it which for the burial of himself. and to go forward to the modest building which stands before us vineyard. to discuss only remind our readers that whereas was supposed by Marangoni to have been the St basilica it to it in the we have already had occasion to as the cella memorice^ sometimes called of Rossi. as comparatively a stairs. and to take pains to decipher them. . graffiti. we come to. It will we come we read to the first be more convenient. into the interior. . Calhxti^ crypts of St Lucina. however. and they have proved to be a most interesting subject * See page 86.

&c. and the i. most convenient and the in accessible parts of the wall. Maximus. even as late as the end of the fourth century. can be shown to be later than the days of Constantine. later period. 2.1 The Papal Crypt. being. Of the names we find two classes one. good wishes. as them. are type.^ Vivas. Te IN PACE. and generally run the same form as the earliest and most simple Christian epitaphs. the most ancient . The live feeling which prompted the pilgrims who visited these shrines thus inscribe in sacred places the would of it fain benefit. as Felix. tombs they are calls guides through Those with which we divided into three classes. Vivas in in eterno. . Probinianus. or old classical Leo. manifestly to a above the first. on the walls of the barracks and theatres Pompeii. ." are at present concerned lastly. and most numerous.. kinds. lastly. and in the prisons Pagan Rome." e. are such as Lupo. belonging the other. somewhat and in names of like Names. Deo Cristo. Polyneices. for ever. whether found on the tombs of Egyptian kmgs Thebes. in in because written high inaccessible places. Prayers or acclamations for absent or departed friends are mixed among the most ancient names. Of three . or acclamations. &c. prayers. Bonizo. cellars of Here Christian Catacombs. " the faithful or. all of these may be easily read on the spot of which we are now speaking. Ildebrand. scribbled such Rufina. with the occasional tions. Prayers. * These simple forms have never yet been found on any epitaphs which On rings and articles of domestic furniture they are sometimes found. Joannes Presb. Thee in peace. mere names of persons. Vivas ©EH. saluta- on behalf of friends and relatives. BIBAC IN ©EH. echo of history and De They are either the adjunct of their may be titles or. or dead. &c. 1 3 of study. in God Christ. especially they have proved to be of immense importance. more the Eustathius.g. " ''" ZHC en Mayest thou &c. in the Rossi justly infallible the labyrinth of subterranean galleries. living or they are they are invocations of the martyrs on whose Numerous specimens of inscribed. is in to names of those they loved and natural to the may be found even among human the heart : instances heathen themselves.

Ro7na Sotterranea. Sofronia^ vives^^ where we can hardly doubt but that the change of mood and tense reflected. same of the language of fervent love and hope. had been exchanged at last for the bolder tones of firm. fed by earnest prayer at the shrines of the saints. mother. a corresponding change he repeats in the inward feeling . live with thine own. vivas in and almost by. prayers place. for their good. is addressed whose name always enjoyed a special pre-eminence in this Catacomb. Sometimes the holy souls of all to the same lay buried in the martyrs are addressed collectively. I . he wrote." One Example. thou shalt live. Goddess of Phyle. and sometimes one individually this prayer generally to St Sixtus . almost unconsciously perhaps. the Christian pilgrims of the third and fourth centuries visiting this a come the holy places in names of some dear "for their ejaculation. Sofronia. that " having the great Isis. and manifestly belonging and invocations of the martyrs who these chapels. he scratched on the principal altar-tomb of another chapel. mayest Sweet Sophronia. having visited the island of Phyle in Egypt. Sofronia dulcis. Domino . Sofronia^ vibas then. wSophronia. by and form of a regular epitaph. with to Just so. and yet once more place. son of Aristomachus. along the precise path of one Sofronia or sister. 1^2 Thus. Sophronia. of these it is specially interesting to track. good. "x Invocation of martyrs. does not appear.g.. he makes of his parents.. * Soplironia. and petitioned to hold such or such an one to in remembrance. thou the Lord. at the entrance in- years. wrote the some pious or relative. thou shalt ever live in God. writes there. semper vives Deo . Before entering on the vestibule of the principal sanctuary. or itself. memory affectionate with his heart —whether full of the most wife. unhesitating confidence. in larger characters. thou live in mayest e." Catacomb of friend remembrance there all St Callixtus. an in the cum tiiis . II. one Sarapion. after hundred terval probably of fifteen He had come of his pilgrimage. there are also in the Same age. ^^^ besides mere names and short acclamations.

your prayers Aurelius in remembrance Dionysius. or St Damasus in * In epitaphs of the third century spiritinn. of Horace's Divos rogat in patenti prejisiis ^gceo Otiiini which . or rendered otherwise illegible. bene navigct P. i6. % . 133 Marcianum Successum Severum Spirita Sancta* in mente HAVETE. graffiti at % Od.. There in in ask that Verecundus Ask a prosperous voyage. there same antiquity. mente hahere^ points found on an inscription in Pompeii. For and perhaps about the same it is to be observed that many made petition to to the saints time. on two Christian epitaphs of the third and fourth centuries. spoilt." a simplicity and a warmth of affection is which savours of the brief petitions. something almost De says so frequently repeated in them. PeTITE SpIRITA SaNCTA UT VeRECUNDUS cum SUIS bene NAVIGET." he says.J. /. and used by St Cyprian in one of his is " have in mind. ET OMNES FRATRES NOSTROS. in mente HABEAS IN HORATIONES AURELIU Repentinu. Christ. Marcianus Successus may . It is classical Rossi. the renewal of the stucco. often I. all his friends both for Holy in remembrance Holy our brethren. AIONT2IN EI2 MNIAN EXETAI (for EXETE. of these graffiti have been the middle. his brethren have remembrance Have ye Repentinus. they are very different from the dry and verbose epitaphs of the fourth or centuries fifth about the reminding third. " our brothers and letters : your sisters in ])rdiy&x?>-" fratres nostras ac sorores in mente hab eatis in oratioiiibus vestris. Garrucci. and other changes which were made in chapel by St this Fabian. for rest earliest about these Their ages. published ii. S. or not much on later. is Insc. cut off in by the enlargement of the doorway. instead of spiritus. they live with good. perhaps about the year 245. is us. my parent and Sixtus. may have souls. used for the soul or t Optat sibi by tit spirit of a man. These nameless pilgrims made the same the saints in heaven that St Cyprian earth. one of the is 370.) . SaNTE SuSTE. is the to indeed.— The Papal Crypt. an- ^^^^^^' . t OtIA petite ET PRO PARENTE ET PRO FRATRIBUS EJUS VIBANT CUM BONO. Pompeii. '' Holy Severus and and have souls. cxii./ and the phrase.

^^ ^^^ threshold of a very is enough warn us to special sanctuary of the ancient Church. xvii. This same writer speaks also of the world as expressiis in oniaiiientnin niajestatis . and in not un- frequently speak of the glory of the Church triumphant under the title Holy of the City. and to excite our deepest interest in we may will find it to contain.. stood. and abundantly easily legible. pect that all were led to ex- to visit a Christian burial-place and place of worship of the third or fourth century. Apoc. brought back from Sardinia. the remains of day many arise to receive It New He Jerusalem. which should one new life and rejoice in His presence for ever. was written whilst yet the plaster it an apostrophe it is undoubtedly the is to one Pontianus. xxi. Dei. Tertullian dc Speclac. Examination o papa ciypt. The inspection of these ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ graffiti^ then. — Apolog. where he had died this and buried in very chapel by St Fabian. . of those that has been thus mutilated most ancient of was wet. Our first we were about that impression on entering We probably be one of disappointment. There yet one other inscription on the entrance of the is somewhat chapel. 2. but the greater part of the recent masonry we see around us construction. whom De Rossi believes to have been the Pope of this name. ."" looked to enter as a type or figure of was adorned and made venerable by martyrs of the Lord. is that manifestly of quite when this chamber * See Psalm cxxi. and for all. Roma 134 One Sotterranea.. The truth is. c. c. of a first but what he did write show the cient to remarkable different kind.. but too Unhappily the writer never finished be passed over. I .. is it suffi- enthusiastic devotion with which his heart was warmed towards the sanctuary on whose threshold he It Domini^ cujiis evidently the some Gertisale civitas et oniamentiim runs thus. xxx. the upon the chapel he was about the future Jerusalem. to in exile. Martyrum idea present to the writer's Holy find both in mind was Scripture who of the earliest uninspired Christian writers. The same as we .

deprived of soon gave way. had served into all it for it it complete state of ruin. St fifth periods of dif. wherever it and of the chapel Thus we . supported on four pillars .a The Papal Crypt. by Again. . the flat detect altar — covering of which was once the meiisa whereon the holy mysteries were celebrated. It was not a a table-tomb real arcosolium^ . however. still it. belong probably III.. the whole chapel was faced. each retaining We to are able to trace very clearly three Successive - Stages or conditions of ornamentation original painting. was possible.. end of the suggests at once the presence here of an altar in former times. at a later period. abundant tokens of the more ancient condition of succeeding ages. . its decoration in - . decaying soil. -. so left in itself was the original process of altar. re- some remnant of its can trace also the remains of the marble slabs with which. and even this later the century. but what we have called moreover. period takes us back to the earlier half of Sixtus \\\. the vault of the chamber. as the Liber Pontificalis tells us. platoniam fecit ill The Ccemeterio Sti Callixti. by means of three ferent coatings of plaster. so and put that. but in the wall behind this platform we can the existence of an older sepulchre hewn out still and more simple kind of of the rock. and every kind of rubbish. be preserved was abso- it and otherwise strengthen This has been done with the utmost care.decoration. if any portion of it be visited with in a condition to lutely necessary to build fresh walls. access was gained to usual. was rediscovered in 1854. having four holes or sockets in it. the raised step or dais of marble. frag- ments of marble columns and other ornamental work. in a only through the luminare. and so as preserve. which lie scattered about work of made St Leo on the pavement.. the front of the sepulchre not a mere wall of the rock. when. as many the adjacent was 135 centuries as a channel for pouring fragments of grave-stones. When brickwork. which. to safety. the last pontiff whom we of to the read that he restorations here before the translation of the relics Pope Paschal I. its was was this usual support. moved.._ . Ancient which we see directly opposite to us at the further chapel.


excavation, but


an excellent piece of brickwork, precisely


such as we find in the crypt of St Januarius in the cemetery of
St Prsetextatus,


which we cannot assign a


the earliest part of the third century

— indeed,


probably have belonged to the end of the second.
of these two altars seems to






later date


might not im-



corroborated by

other indications also, too minute to be appreciated without a

personal inspection of the locality

adjoining chapel

this or the





alteration in

at a very early period,


necessitated the translation of the martyr originally buried in
this principal


tomb of

and De Rossi's conjecture

the cuhicidum ;

most ingenious, that

martyr was no other than


St Zephyrinus himself, the original designer of the whole cemetery,



therefore, the chief place in the

might very naturally have been reserved

pope was translated


had become common,
one of the old






that the


body of

early date, before the practice

proved by what we have already read

Itineraries, that his


above ground^ and (as









a church



Tharsycius in the same tomb with him.

Thus, spite of the ruin and the neglect of ages, and spite of

Original epi^

f^tV d cen-^^


work of restoration which has been thereby made necessary






original condition


clear traces


The cause

continued veneration

remain both of


and of the reverent care with which succes-

sive generations of the ancient



Church did

of this

their best to


extraordinary and


revealed to us by a few grave-stones

which have been recovered from amid the rubbish, and which




not to the precise spots they originally

occupied (which we cannot


yet certainly to the walls in

which they were


on the opposite page.



exact copy of them







have every reason to believe that these are the original

tombstones of St Anteros and St Fabian, who

sat in the chair

of Peter from a.d. 235 to 250; of St Lucius,





and of St Eutychianus, who died nearly

reigned in

thirty years later.

Rossi says so most unhesitatingly, and his special familiarity

with ancient Christian epigraphy renders his verdict almost



objection that has been urged against them,

from their extreme brevity and simplicity,
proof of their great antiquity

ment of any weight whatever


the claim which

whether originals or
Bishops of
Rarity of

It is



nor do we


that has


a strong



a single argu-

been adduced against

Rossi makes for them.

At any


later copies, they are the epitaphs of four

in the third century.

a remarkable




significance of

which has only

been appreciated, that neither Bosio, Fabretti, Boldetti,

nor any other of the ancient explorers of subterranean Rome,
ever found an inscription bearing the
indeed, that in the


age this

more general

was used

games, and





that de-

the Pagans in a wider


may have been

It is true,

subsequently received.


the Greeks, for example,

and public

for the president of the athletic sports

for omitting the title


in use

of Bishop.

had not acquired


terminate ecclesiastical sense which

The word had been


a sufficient reason, perhaps,

on the grave-stones of the

the middle of the third century, however,

sense was well defined, and accordingly







three out of these four grave-stones of the Popes.


here on

The tomb-

stones of St Cornelius, also, and of St Eusebius, popes and
martyrs, which M^e shall presently see in



fifteen or



in the

cemetery, are

cemetery of St Alexander,


twenty years ago on the Via Nomentana, at

least three epitaphs display the



fact that so



many have been found

in the



whereas they have not been found elsewhere, might suggest to
* See page 65 on the toml^stone of Linus.

The Papal Crypt.


an intelligent student of archaeology that perhaps


practice in the ancient

who had

burial for those



to reserve


was the


special place of

the highest rank in her hierarchy.


confirmation from the

this conjecture receives strong

which we learn from various sources, that the


earliest successors

of St Peter (with a very few exceptions, which can generally be



each in his own sepulchre, " near Care

lay buried


body of blessed Peter


in the


just as the bishops


of Alexandria were buried near the body of St Mark.


was an object of great jealousy to the several Churches
should be buried in the midst of them

that their bishops

in their



tombs were appealed

to as a testimony to the apostolic

and doctrine having come



mate succession of bishops.

sus, writing to St Victor, carefully

in different cities of

of the Church



them through


a legiti-

Polycrates, Bishop of Ephe-

enumerates the burial-places

Asia of the several bishops, " great

as he calls them,



he alleges as witnesses

Caius, in like manner, disputing against the

in his behalf, f

Cataphrygians at the end of the second century, appeals to the

tombs of Saints Peter and Paul


die at a distance from his

body of


and of

a bishop

see, his


body was

considerable inconvenience


ordinarily Their bodies


the \q^^ fronf a


Pontianus from the island of Sardinia.



these Popes were brought back to

though two of them

at least

had died

in exile



in the

Emperor's leave had been







for the

allowed the bodies of exiles to be brought

interment, provided the


St Eusebius from Sicily; of St Cornelius from Civita

The bodies



so also Optatus in his con-


troversy with the Donatists. J

brought home, even


instances here alleged, the translation was

* See the Lihcr Pontificalis at the end of each pope's life
also the
testimony of the Itinerary, which, after mentioning St Peter's tomb, immediately adds, " YA Pontificalis ordo, excepto numero pauco, /// eodcni loco in

tumbis propriis requiescit."

+ Euseb. H. E.
i Eusei).



— R.




v. 24.










made until
Church made it

a change in the imperial policy towards the





Nor was

possible to obtain such leave.


an honour peculiar to the bodies of deceased



were restored


the contrary, the relics of St Ignatius



body of Dionysius, Bishop of


Milan, was recovered by St Ambrose, and that of St Felix,

Bishop of Tiburtium, martyred at Venosa, was returned to Africa.




the best explanation


which can be given of the attempt made by the Christians of
the East to recover the bodies of Saints Peter and Paul.


There would be always, of course, some exceptions



practical observance of such a
likely to

custom as



to the

Rome was

be the most frequent witness of these exceptions,


bishops were constantly flowing thither from the earliest times,
propter potiorem principalitatein^ as St Irenaeus says, and proofs
are not wanting that this was far

ages of persecution, than

Thus we


in the

we should have been prepared


learn from St Cyprian that sixteen bishops

from other sees were present
Cornelius in the year 251, of

more common, even

Rome at the election
whom two at least were


of St


and two others arrived from the same country not long

afterwards; and St Cornelius was able to call together no fewer

than sixty to take counsel about the system of discipline to be

That some foreign bishops,

observed in reconciUng apostates.
then, should have been overtaken


was nothing improbable

unwilling or unable


sure that the





prised at finding

not bishops of
* It



interment. *
traces of

Rome, even

their dioceses


we may be

Hence we
bishops, who

in this very


not sur-

certainly were

chamber, which we be-

a.d. 314, that foreign bishops

should have a church assigned them for the celebration of

— Cone. Arel.,

See also Euseb. H. E.

Rome bv


their sojourn

would have made honourable

was a decree of the Council of Aries,

the holy sacrifice.



recover their remains,



by death during

v. 24,

St Anicetus,

can. xix., ^///c/ Collect.

in Jin., on the respect

Reg. Max., i. 266.
to St Polycarp



The Papal Crypt.



have been specially prepared as a place of burial for

lieve to

date of

the popes from the




indeed, and


editions of the Liber Pontijicalis



beginning of the third century.
others, following




place the burials of St Anicetus and St Soter, popes of the

middle of the second century, in











the older recensions of that

they are placed in the Vatican, where at that time

popes were buried.

this is



mistake, with reference to St Soter,

originated very probably from

some confusion of the name

with that of St Soteris, virgin

and martyr, whose cemetery

has been already mentioned as being in this neighbourhood.



pope of


distinctly recorded that

it is

he was Popes

buried in the cemetery of St Callixtus was St Zephyrinus,
chief author.

His successor, St

sided over

was not buried here, but




peculiar circumstances of his death.


after a judicial sentence



so long

was owing

did not





pre- Zephyrinus.

to the



and under the penal laws of the

government, but privately, and as the result of a popular tumult.


was thrown out of the window of




cast into a well,






in Trastevere,



the nearest cemetery, that of St Calepodius, on the Via

Aurelia, which has


cemetery of St Callixtus.

been sometimes called another

was succeeded by St Urban

Urban, and a broken tombstone was found

which had never belonged

to a

in this very


mere ordinary grave

the wall, but had served as the mensa of an altar-tomb,

bore the




stated that St

St Praetextatus,
lieves, as




and although

Urban was buried

in the

it is



cemetery of

De Rossi bemen of learning,

on the other side of the road,

Tillemont, SoUier, and



have believed before him, that there has been a confusion
in the old martyrologies,

bishops of the



from a very early date, between two


— the

one a martyr, who was

buried in St Praetextatus, the other pope and confessor, buried





in St Callixtus,

next in order of succession was St Pon-

who, having been banished


his pontifical dignity,'''

to Sardinia, there resigned

and was succeeded by

monument we

Anteros, whose




chair of Peter only for a few weeks,







position, afie?^ that of St Anteros, caused

to introduce



name and

observed that






of the

two popes,

inscription on St Fabian's tomb,





intended to denote the fact of his martyrdom.



an element of endless confusion into the

history of those times.



records of the

early chroniclers to invert the true order of these

and so



martyrdom before the death of

Pontianus back to Rome, and buried




His successor, St Fabian, brought the body of



Antherus or

and because he

sought out the acts of the martyrs in the
Praetor Urbanus, he suffered



of the


had been added



This suppression of the



not cut nearly so deep as







would seem as

the stone was fixed in




of martyr could hardly

have been necessary as an act of prudence, since neither the



St Cornelius in this cemetery, nor that of St


in the



cemetery of St Hermes, observed the same

Rossi conjectures that perhaps already

not lawful to publish




claim on the veneration of the faith-

without the sanction of the highest authority, which, in the

present instance, was delayed for eighteen months, in conse-

quence of the Holy See remaining vacant during that period
in other words,
* Discincti.s


though actually a martyr, St Fabian was not


word used used

in the

Liber Poutiftcalis.

The Papal Crypt.
once a martyr





Fabian and St



Lucius intervened St Cornelius, of whose burial we shall have


to speak in another chapter.




omitting the O.

versal in the


rather to private than public

found on a few Pagan monuments of about

it is

Another example of


on a monument,

Jewish cemetery, and

in the

lying in






This elHptic form of termination of a

on many graves




name was one which belonged
use; yet

we have seen

St Lucius




quite uni-

may be


place in the pavement of this


AHMETPIC stands for Demetrius.
of whom the tombstone has been discovered

very chapel, where

The next pope

diVao'agXhQ debris of this chapel

recorded of the four

it is



St Eutychianus; nevertheless

intervened between St Lucius and

himself that they also were buried here, and there


we have seen numerous and


already examined.



no reason

Indeed, of one of them, St

to question the truth of the record.



authentic memorials in the




Catacombs generally;

of this Catacomb, and of the


the martyr

we have

the cotemporary evidence of St Cyprian f that he received the

crown of martyrdom


one of them on the 6th of August

Valerian and Gallienus had issued a decree


ceding year forbidding the



celebrating mass in the






Papal Chapel (so to

Catacomb of



the pre-

assemble in

St Praetextatus

— probably His martyr-

narrowly watched than the Caiacombs
in St Callixtus'
when he was disless

covered and seized by the heathen soldiery, led into the




prohibition, St Sixtus was

of this

known and





judgment, brought back again for execution to the

scene of his offence, where he was beheaded in his episcopal

or at least so near


Many memorials

Optat. de Sch, Don.

f " Xistum
die et


cum eo

Leipsic, 1858.






was besprinkled with

of his martyrdom

may be





diaconos quatuor."




Cyp. Ep. Ixxx.,

Iduum Augustarum
ad Succcssuni., ed.



in the

of the

instance, the figure of


Catacomb of


St Praetextatus

sitting in a chair, with a

as, for


standing by his side, holding a book in his hand, or elsewhere
of the chair only; paintings also of St Sixtus, with his


Moreover, a small basilica was



the spot of his execution.


built there to


of the deacons


with him, Felicissimus and Agapitus, were buried in this cemetery

but St Sixtus himself and others of his companions were



buried in St Callixtus', where St

memory by


the following inscription

afterwards celebrated


" Tempore quo gladius secuit pia viscera Matris
Hie positus rector coelestia jussa docebam
Adveniunt subito, rapiunt qui forte sedentem


Militibus missis, populi tunc colla dedere.




cognovit senior quis tollere vellet

seque suumque caput prior obtulit ipse,



feritas posset



Ostendit Christus reddit quz'/r^emia vitre
Pastoris meritum,


gregis ipse tuetur."

At the time when the sword [of persecution] pierced the tender heart
I, the Pope buried here, was teaching the laws of
On a sudden came [the enemy], seized me seated as I happened
the soldiers were sent in then did the peoyile give their
to be in my chair
necks [to the slaughter]. Presently the old man saw who wished to bear
away the palm from him, and he was the first to offer himself and his own
head, that the hasty cruelty [of the Pagans] might injure no one else.

of Mother [Church],





renders [to the jusl] the rewards of

merit of the pastor



life [eternal],

Himself defends the mass of the

manifests the


This inscription alludes to circumstances of the incident it
Probably confounded with j-gcords, which were doubtless familiar to those for whom he

that of St

wrote, but the




of which has

does not even mention the






now unhappily

of the


some of the spurious Acts of the Martyrs

predecessor, St Stephen.

Pope whose martyr-

and hence, the whole history has been

what reason we cannot now determine



right in



— from St Sixtus to his

cannot doubt, however, that


for St Sixtus,



on the

strength of the cotemporary testimony of St Cyprian already

quoted, partly on that of the graffiti at the doorway and else-

the this ancient That St Marcellinus had tery. The type. It is in and that it true that they scarcely contain ten perfect letters out of the three or four the whole inscription in italics . therefore. history. and still more. especial charge over this and directed excavations that were '^ made in the cemetery of St cause of this change the cemeteries that were notorious of all . same cemeit. impossible to question their identity. Nor this place-. they were on the Via Salara. where in 145 the neighbourhood of this subterranean sanctuary. scarcely leaves room for doubt this come and other ancient to us in the martyrologies. * See page It Popes from would have been 93. so 7i'as coupled with alleged. was buried both buried in . his burial have recorded authorities already seen very interesting proof.The Papal Crypt. up hundred which formed —they are the few which we have printed — nevertheless. two small fragments of the stone itself have set survived to too are their testimony is very chapel. St Marcellus. perhaps. nevertheless. once explained by reference to Diocletian had the history of the times. it is in set up. These. . we have in it . showing the marked pre-eminence in which the memory of St Sixtus was held in reverence here from the very earHest times. itineraries. and the confiscated jisais access. but it is probable also that precautions would be taken to pro- tect so precious a sanctuary as the sepulchre of the falling into the hands of the heathen. monumenta of critical now known. after following him through a examination of down all the notices on the subject which have Church minute to be handled in really needed . possession of them is it. Not only would the Christians cease to assemble and to bury there. being of the Damasine peculiar Next to St Eutychianus came St Caius in the of Popes list and though we have no monument to produce of cemetery. neither he nor his successor. to the all had taken most public and Catacombs was no longer possible. what has been already the fact that this inscription of however. the at Priscilla. K St Caius. Pope Damasus was tell us.

and although now cannot with any certainty identify probable that is it it. we New Popes in the history of Chris- customs are now of necessity introduced. just as Pontian's by Fabian. accounted why for the galleries in the sanctum sanctorum were actually in this way. all inaccessible. St Eusebius Melchiades. but lay each in his own cubictihun apart. in the Maxentius did not indeed restore the after the Sicily. the one pointed out by it seems extremely De Rossi. . that De Rossi has been persuaded —merely by an examination of the monuments of the place. small and we . during of persecution. we are told by some of the ancient authori^^^g^ ^^^^ buried in another separate crypt. of which we shall had been fine crypt. or curious coincidence. and that the top or cover of the sarcophagus in which he lay which may far still be seen on the from the Papal With floor of is that one of the crypts not vault. once at it is and St the next two Popes. the long succession of martyred and a new era opens comes to a close tianity from St Sylvester. prepared for Melchiades the last Pope Catacomb. Moreover. St Melchiades. especially have to speak presently.Traces of the Diocletian persecution. yet did not Papal vault. from an architectural point of view diate neighbourhood of blocked up — that this He can whose lower steps were imme- some time or other in the ages even point to the staircase in the tufa. all cut if off. easy to do c either tliis c ^ ^ by blocking up the approaches by means way. or old ones are at least considerably modified. but that Pontiff died an exile in and body was only brought back his to Rome some years afterwards by his successor. Ro7na 146 1 some other if be not it rather an almost convincing proof of the accuracy of this con- Michele jecture. was then buried in a very It it. occupy graves loca ecclesiastlca until death of Eusebius. thereby rendering the whole we accept this theory. . Christian sepulchres are basilicas or mausoleums made freely above ground are erected for the purpose. too. least a at is it n ^^ ^ taken irom the adjacent eartli ^^ Sotter7^a7tea. though buried in the cemetery of St Callixtus after its restoration to the Christians. and m • • galleries. Melchiades.

Sublimes animas rapuit sibi Regia Coeli Hie comites Xysti portant qui ex hoste tropaea Hie numerus procerum servat qui altaria Christi Hie positus longa vixit qui in pace Saeerdos Hie Confessores sancti quos Grseeia misit Hie juvenes. refer to &c.Inscription of ing chapel without making a few remarks on one part of the restoration Damasine at least. puerique. and many other particulars we must own work. as a place &:c. senes eastique nepotes. buried in oratories of this kind. . The Papal Crypt. history. of the now is out any history of the changes or its decorations. g. able to appreciate its is unquestionably correct shall find ourselves meaning now than when on our entrance into the much first Hie congesta jacet qua^ris si turba Piorum. of burial. . either in details its is On all authority. however. St Mark. restoration " all it not attempt to draw shall Rossi has given his readers a beautiful sketch of the chapel. which completion its has been suggested their original places.. Sed cineres timui sanctos vexare Piorum. Quis mage virgineum placuit retinere pudorem. refuses to be abridged. : — the it {^^f-^i^ ci^Dt"^ . at the sides e. Corpora Sanctorum retinent veneranda sepulchra. therefore. still the remain in columns and of the marble found lying upon the ground. portions of the lattice-work the no mere product of be recognised amid the wreck of But its for its use as a sanctuary. De here. We must most not. . to De fit it XV. 147 have already seen that St Sylvester himself. void of in nearly — by what may former splendour. as often elsewhere. take our leave of this interest. all placed near the entrance of the Catacombs. Hie fateor Damasus volui mea condere membra.) (Plate underwent. and Papal Crypt. as he believes *' we complete. better we saw aibiculuin. it to have been — in at the contrary. .. but not within Our them. some it is bases of the pillars and the it were for these Rossi's after form same time. were Julius. reminding them. St and even St Damasus. that own his even required its monuments this fancy. which We inscription.

who long lived in peace Here the holy Confessors whom Greece sent us Here lie youths and boys. the one diate connection with this part of the cemetery. indeed. predisposes us to Prudentius sup- poses his friend to have asked him the names of those had shed (iituli) very their are innumerable do . as the better part. first from Prudentius. he says. xi. and * some may read the short inscription. lie heaped together a whole crowd of holy ones. Their noble souls the palace of Heaven has taken to itself. make concurrent testimonies sider the subject it in the corner of this very Such a number of worth while to pause and con- somewhat more attentively. and replies that the epitaphs it would be the relics of the saints in Rome that so long as the city continued to worship Pagan gods." the poet seems to allude to a number of martyrs laid together in one Lirge tomb. with a certain class of writers. 1-17. Sotterranea. "Who chose. this. a pit of extra- ordinary depth chapel. the other of 800. In the lines. who guard the altars of Christ. lie bear away the trophies from the enemy Here a number of elders. name for the faith in inscribed on their tombs. the just. . and their chaste offspring. martyrs in imme- speak. But Vast number o ^^[^Jj^s "^^^ I feared to disturb the holy ashes of the saints.. Here is buried the Priest. Here I. if you would know. Here who the companions of Xystus. confess I wished to lay my bones. Damasus. difficult to their blood who On many their wicked rage slew vast multitudes of tombs. and is it old itineraries which to be seen a singular fact we quoted some in tliat in the parts of the Roman whereas both of the beginning of this book of 80. to keep their virgin chastity. but there are Peristeph. before is we still to be seen pass on to St Cecilia's. such as we know. Roma 148 " Here. It is indeed. i . common. .'^ were Catacombs . Rome as a literal statement of the truth. you of the martyr. to set these statements on one side as manifest and absurd exaggerations language of Prudentius is precise. These honoured sepulchres inclose the bodies of the saints. for that He Rome. it and yet the and an accurate knowledge of the laws and customs of Pagan accept . old men.

and the unhappy four hundred were put once. and only- You can " express the number. and when the people threatened violence. if satisfied that condemned was by no means improbit had been provided by the ancient a master was ever murdered by his slave. were known only to Christ as being His special friends. that we have nations amongst have different rites haps no religion at us. death together with the suffer Such a murder happened culprit. " and ceremonies. and this. 62.''' of those able. An. 149 ascertain the number which but nothing- {congestis corpora acervis). xiv. were his fellow-slaves to Pedanius Secundus. way than by . that the law should take {nihil its course mutandum). such wholesale butchery in the year a. of lately one been the Prefect of the and who was the master of four hundred The slaves. and his language and argu- ments are precisely those which we can imagine to have been used again and again in the second and third centuries by orators " Now persuading a general persecution of the Christians. also many others which are silent as to the name. innocence of the great majority of these slaves was notorious. 43-45. to death at Tacitus has recorded the speech of one of those who took the chief part in the debate. coupled with the unusual number of the victims. Let us put side by side with this a narrative from the Annals of and Tacitus. or per- impossible to keep such a rabble {conluviem isfam) under restraint in any other * Tac. it is who religion.d. all whom It be the law appears that Rome law of w-e shall that. It w^as decided. the troops were called out. lie heaped up together" more and he .The Papal Crypt. matter was discussed in the Senate. and some of its members ventured to express compassion. and to deprecate the rigorous execution of the law.. one grave. apparently by a very large majority. the whole line of road was guarded by them. particular specifies in learnt that the relics of sixty men had been which he in whose names laid. who had city." said Cassius. a foreign all. created a considerable excitement among The the people. however.

'^ for the relics of so On the whole. however difficult be. Book earth. injustice to We point. we have many Popes who the inscription of already given a full account. author of upon Mortibus Pe7'secutorum^ who was when great. and whom Damasus next commemorates. indeed. enjoyed a long " The life or bishop {Sacei'dos\ " of peace. their no distinct names are " in the memorial of them remains on * C. of Life. guilty. Of the companions of St Sixtus. and the by De Rossi . there- be no solid reason for what ancient authorities gener- subject. that of Lactantius. and of the had been buried in this chapel. are enumerated Neo. some innocent persons will perish with fear." the only testimony that could be alleged this is Sotterranea. nor will our readers have any difficulty in recognising St Melchiades in the priest. confessors sent from Greece. however. fire ambiirebajitur).Roma 150 True. they on the number of many to how it was possible have been buried in one grave. Of the remainder. Maria." after the persecutions had ceased. we conclude fore. who had names of some as Hippolytus. and thus burnt together {gregatim This explains to us have told us on this tells us condemned was very Christians were not executed all sides. Adrias." but . in this or that particular instance. this a co- at least temporary witness of what he describes." are to be found in the various martyrologies. XV. and who that Nor only add. to verify the it may number recorded. wherever be always incidental necessary to is it example of severity striking make some for the public good. and Pauhna. or the will De there will certain individuals. that there seems to calling in question the truth of ally but surrounded by singly. the But.

on transferring the scene of her history from just now Rome to Sicily. the rock in the corner of the Papal Crypt. Perhaps a more careful examination may detect objects of interest still remaining on the walls. or would insist.CHAPTER IV. CRYPT OF ST CECILIA. bidding us venerate the grave of St Cecilia in the cemetery at St Sebastian's. but understand and enjoy them when they are found. irregular in is is completely flooding it with no altar-tomb. that our minds should first if we would it is necessary be stored with some knowledge of the history of St Cecilia. no cotemporary epitaphs of popes or martyrs. before whose tomb we may perhaps provoke who know that the sceptical are. it 20 left feet behind us. mosaics. criticism of the last century endeavoured to throw a doubt upon the existence of such a martyr . introduces As we us at once into another chamber. cut somewhat irregularly through Chapel Cecilia. pass through this first impression we receive from this chamber one of strong contrast with what we have just The room much is other had been larger only it : is by 11). square (the shape. 14 and has a wide lumina7'e over light . nor indeed anything else which at once engages our attention and promises to give us any valuable information. we have seen the announcement of a French archbishop in the fifteenth century. at least. This confident statement a smile in some of our readers. yet we see nearly it. NARROW A doorway. more than a quarter of a mile of St . doorway we observe The that the sides were once covered with and the arch over our heads adorned with slabs of marble. Moreover.

this point. was so their constancy. as they have though yet. brother. is Pope Urban. but a patrician herself She had Her father. we as we must set before leave this them. then. We their minutest details. many even of first give as much in necessary for our purpose. has been gained since that time. recent discoveries have proved that they are unquestionably true in all their chief features. that he too was brought to the faith. the legend of St Cecilia. for the saint was given . must have been a pagan. named by Valerian. husband to visit Appian Way. and presided at their execution. distinguished her rank . whom lying hid in a cemetery he was instructed and baptized. and interpolation be freely admitted. knowledge. as we have said. most using the exact technical words which been brought up a Christian from her pagan. Tiburtius. the moved by vow St Cecilia had already consecrated to the service of her Lord in the state of and on the day of her marriage she persuaded her virginity also earliest infancy. by was his martyred for Maximus. What fresh Sotterranea. but also to insist with confidence upon the correctness of our in stead its And ? to set aside our judgment as peremptorily We first some sketch of The Acts History of St Cecilia. probably a Christian mother. and therefore. secret having in marriage to a young . however. and then point out the few but important particulars in which sound criticism obliges us St Ceciha. century. was a maiden of noble blood. . are setting we come down cannot lay claim to any higher antiquity than the and up hope thoroughly to our readers on these questions before chapel. nobilis^ darissima. born of parents of senatorial rank precise upon to correct them. of very amiable and excellent dispositions. but assertion there no danger of later critics rising is aside those of our predecessors? satisfy own their corruption fifth to us. refusing oflftcer on the to who offer So These two were presently sacrifice to the gods. then. the language of the Acts Iii^enua.— Roma 152 oft'. which enables us not only to detect his error. of the legend as is shall. in popular its form. of her Martyrdom.

and as as it in soon. for history. was thought common in Roman any reason. leaving her yet blood. When fect. or room of the in the palace." was wont she remained there for a whole day and night. wounds. and received the crown of martyrdom with them. heated "seven times more than it whenever to avoid publicity. so now that. but. as have seen. upon her tender neck. the faithful of her . certain it is that the law did not allow his more than three strokes went away. there- the executioner had withdrawn. but she was sound and w^hole as at the beginning. this unlooked-for intelligence was conveyed to the pre- he sent one of the He head. to be given. neither w^ere her garments changed. The manner work was not complete. yet at the end of the time it was found fiery furnace. were buried Catacomb of in the 1 53 These all we St Praetextatus. entered the Cecilia it Caldarium. desirable. as with the Three Children in the with this virgin. that her Cecilia still lived. room appointed her. he ordered that she should be shut a and the furnace was to be heated. he though bathed in her own of death having been thus changed. or whether his hand was supernaturally stayed by the hand of God. the ancient pilgrims thought them worthy of special mention. no lassitude oppressed her limbs. as . found her in lictors the very proceeded at once to accomplish the axe fall wath orders to strike off her his errand. warm bath in her the walls on all own up best and that the pipes with which be heated to such sides w^ere perforated. Three times did deep and mortal sight of so noble a victim unnerved the heart of the young and executioner. secret execution are very it Almachius thought as punishment should be as secret as possible. was no longer necessary that the door of the chamber which she lay should be kept closed fore. nor was a hair of her head singed." fire had passed on sweat stood upon her brow. " the fire had no power 'over her body. where.Crypt of St Cecilia. should Instances of this kind of degree as to cause suffocation. w^hether it room of her inflicting was that the and victory. and alive. nor the smell of No her.

as blood that it all and was the love of Jesus. and letting her and his deacons bore Callixtus.* just arms and hands early Christians.D. dipping their handkerchiefs or any other piece of linen they could spilt for breath as "your Holiness" — have always nourished. same evening her body was placed wood. into the presence of her in the attitude in fall she breathed forth her right side. and of giving you the intent that it may be made The bishop had no sooner a church for signified his assent to her dying requests. For two days and nights she continued as were. her. hovering." remmd " I have might not die during these three I had an opportunity of recommending — the I morning written in the is beloved daughter. A. to succeeded to the see of Peter The use of a coffin was very unusual among the among those who were buried in the Catacombs are arguments which oblige us to believe that one sion. and given her his blessing.Roma 154 Sotterranea. between it life and death Pope Urban the venerable — in this state. stretched upon the marble pavement. just as third necessary again to is it needs. she spoke sight. and Urban out of the city into the cemetery of St in a chamber " near his own and martyrs.. calmly awaiting the moment of her and crowded round as they that they might reverently collect to find in her sacred blood. there was used on this occa- . house and neighbourhood flocked in to receive the last They found her of the dying martyr. several their and on the . the bishops in a That God. had been therefore precious in His according to all release. this house. ." The history more remarkable and equally important Pope Paschal I. gently together pure upon her and passed spirit." she said. our readers that we are only repeating what Acts — came to bid farewell to his prayed. than. nevertheless. rough which she had died where he buried her colleagues. title to by which the popes were then ad- we now address them dressed. turning her face towards the ground. of her relics Q^^j. coffin of cypress- the legend of St Cecilia's martyrdom. to ever. it Body of St lated by Paschal I. Such is * least is still narrative. at . until I had first your Blessedness" whom " the poor. " that days.

Cecilia it in Trastevere. carried off had been besieged and four in a years afterwards.! as well as his co- temporary biographer.Crypt of St in January A. it told. and opened. and Cecilia. dream or vision — it us the story. with linen cloths stained with in rich blood rolled up at her Paschal himself silk. cophagi met his eyes. tells feet. It Two marble sar- Trustworthy witnesses had been already in their presence was found one of these sarcophagi was to contain a coffin of cypress-wood. deposited under the high altar of the Church of Sta. silk gauze. removed were those of the popes from the Papal relics thus He Crypt we have just described. 817. and clad garments mixed with gold. she was so close to him that they might have conversed In consequence of this vision he returned to the together. some fragments of which still be seen at the end of the Church of Sta. he came upon a wide vault beneath the altar. plundered. but he could not dis- relics the these the who tells by Astulfus. Found of the title of St Cecilia. which at that Amongst time were lying in a deplorable state of ruin. the Lombard body had been whom Rome by king. Nearly eight hundred years afterwards. the continuator of the Liber —and told him that when he was Poiitificalis translating the bodies of the popes. lying in a cypress us that he lined the coffin with fringed spread over the body a covering of placing it coffin. summoned. i 55 the following July he translated in 2300 martyrs. and found the body where he had been search. may incor" . The * See page io6. fresh and perfect as when was first laid in the It was tomb. Cecilia in Trastevere. within a sarcophagus of white marble. and then. St Cecilia appeared to him is Paschal himself at so at length he reluctantly acquiesced in report that her cemeteries had wished to remove of St Cecilia.'^ Some however. same time the the cover her tomb . and in course of his excavations in the sanctuary. made ' considerable alterations in the church. into different churches in the city the relics of collected from the various suburban cemeteries. Cardinal Sfondrati. t This vision forms the subject of an old fresco.D.

The body retained. Pope Clement VHL. a more striking The Lord keepeth all not lose one of them I"t One is it not surprised at the profound sensation which the intelligence of this discovery created in the Eternal City. Its and through could be seen the shining gold of the robes herself was clothed. would be difficult to He will conceive. cardinal himself drew back the coffin-lid. * signal vindication of the Church's traditions. precious lining and the body nearly silk still entire. the cardinal gently removed this silken covering. all its coffin . 127. a singularly touching in manner.— Roma 156 Sotte7^ranea. R. was perfectly incorrupt. on which were She lay clothed still which the in her robes visible the glorious stains of her blood. the bones of His servants. S. and the virgin form of St Cecilia appeared in the very breathed her last same which she had attitude in on the pavement of the house in Urban nor spectators were then standing. truthful exactness Cecilia breathing on the pavement of her bath. was turned round towards the bottom of the her knees were slightly bent. t Psalm xxxiii. with her arms extended in front of her body. after grace and modesty. and which neither Paschal had ventured to disturb. without the least displacement of a single bone. and by a special miracle more than thirteen hundred and recalled with the most forth her soul A more years. Her head. Cardinal Baronius to at that time sick at Frascati. make a deputed careful examination of the pre- * De Rossi has himself assisted at the translation of a body from the Catacombs to a church two miles distant. a more consoling spectacle for a devout Catholic. '' . 21. she looked like one in a deep sleep. but the fabric was First colour had faded. right side. and at her feet were the linen cloths mentioned by Pope Paschal and Lying on her his biographer. lying on the marble slab on which it was found. ii. and drawn together. mourning over the schisms and heresies of those miserable times commentary on the Divine promise. . of golden tissue. its transparent folds in which the martyr After pausing a few moments. appeared the gauze with which Paschal had covered eight centuries before.

and which. size.g.^ at among the MSS. EAMDEM TIBI PRORSUS EODEM CORPORIS SITU HOC MARMORE EXPRESSI. has no special bearing upon our subject. a cotemporary) with copies of which Carpentras. we mentioned been found by Sfondrati.— Crypt of St Cecilia. who had frequently seen the body. 157 cious remains. of Peiresc. Valerian. EN TIBI SANCTISSIM^ VIRGINIS C^CILI^ IMAGINEM QUAM INTEGRAM IN SEPULCHRO JACENTEM VIDI. bodies were same age and seen. as the inscription intimates. It — Hoc habitu inveiita est. accounts of its curiosity space of four or hve weeks. the sang the Mass. An 17. {e. two of which. and beneath it he placed a statue by Maderna. during which for the tomb was again left and when the Pope himself Cardinal Sfondrati erected the beautiful high- which now stands over the saint's tomb. lying incorrupt in her tomb. yet we cannot help adding that in the other sarcophagus which as having tradition. and both he and Bosio have what they witnessed." " IPSE " Behold whom I myself saw marble expressed for thee the the very same posture of body." the image of the most holy Virgin Cecilia. same Saint in Fig. on St Cecilia's day. and devotion All Rome came to satisfy the virgin martyr lay exposed for veneration altar . 1 have in this Madejfia's Statue of St Cecilia. the remains of three parently of the (translated from St Pr^textatus'). the inscription. engraving also was published at the same time — a few may yet be found in foreign libraries. according to the ought to have contained the bodies of Saints Tiburand Maximus tius. closed. ap- had manifestly been .

executed apparently in the fourth. between two sheep. there came to . still monuments of the cemetery. confront the whole of this marvellous . down chamber the wall itself These — the — he this there appeared a Latin cross also were wall. of which a specimen has been found in the Catacombs even our own times. that is. or immediately after. 158 beheaded. beginning t mention her grave. or perhaps even the * R. and the abundant hair upon was thickly matted with blood.. 164. even to the very As the work of excavation itself. but of both the outlines and colour were too indistinct to enable identify Below it. Paintings in the In II mi are.. this of earth. done at once. fifth . to throw any light so lar as upon it. they We and can be made exist. 113. of the luminare^ not of figures of three saints. woman to lower the must soil first be removed pro- on the wall of the luminare^ in the usual attitude of prayer. those of the Pope Paschal Popes. S. whilst the skull of the third was broken. With which he longed to penetrate it. have been the instrument of the death And now we must nation of the . . came upon the much faded. '^ and which the Acts of St Cecilia's martyr- in Critical exami- dom distinctly state to of St Maximus.. This false ? says that he found her all topographical these notices saintly true or the question which must have agitated the is mind of De Rossi when he discovered chamber immediately contiguous that there to that in was a second which the Popes Its discovery had been buried... Still t See pages iir. all full .Ro7na Sotterranea. as it though the martyr had been beaten to death hy thosQ phimbaicB or leaded scourges of which Prudentius and others and tell us.. first. The chapel was top of the buninare^ and through the luminare the figure of a this him light. ii. have seen that the Acts assert that Pope Urban had own buried the Virgin Martyr near to his we quoted the itineraries which at the Both colleagues. narrative with the actual crypt. immediately before. ceeded. . . and we may easily imagine the eagerness and excavation -But this could not be by De Rossi. to the place body quite close whence he had withdrawn the bodies of his Are predecessors.

ancient of St Cecflia was executed on the surface of ruined mosaic work. De Rossi had never had any reason to expect a representation tomb of either of these saints near the of St Cecilia. with his name is Side by side with this. Still come Catacombs receive to for in a high-born and might well be intended further a niche such as to to the seventh century. upon the same wall. we found in some other parts of the large shallow vessel of oil. tianus. at the side showed no all Cecilia. such as wealthy Roman bride.1-1 ornaments of this place. perhaps. were used to feed the lamps burning before special shrines. and with rays of glory behind form of a Greek cross. woman. a painting crypt. The continued renewal of ornamentation ations. Sabas- having his head tonsured with the corona usually found on episcopal portraits of that period. - Examination of these paintings shows that they were not the ••1 origmal i. dress. which may be attributed. portions of which ^ it and the figure of St Urban can hardly have been executed before the tenth or eleventh century. in it in the but on the full flat pontifical inscribed. a figure of St Urban. and of men. whose martyrdom was of St Cecilia. or precious unguents. and ornamented with bracelets and might be looked necklaces.Crypt of St century but they were . dose ^^"d on the wall of the upon the to the entrance from the burial-place of the popes. in ancient times. proclaimed by a palm-branch springing up by his and Curinus. if we postpone for the present. surface of the wall. which. richly attired. more decor- . and both ^Signs of ^^^. we find wall. trace of 159 their names inscribed any connection with the history They were Policamus. sent St Cecilia. and proceed save us from some embarrassment.. The rr^i •• paintmg may Lord's head still is be easily detected. of a is the and to repre- down. what we have to say about them It will with our work of clearance of the whole chamber. niche is At the back of this a large head of our Lord.r. The niche in which our painted bears evident traces of having once been encased with marble. represented according to the Byzantine type. As we come nearer to the floor. this last side. therefore.

and the back of one of the papal graves in the adjoining chamber. he adds that these fragments to bear tokens of a later date. subject cannot be allowed to . translations of relics were being made. because the cemeteries in which they lay were utterly ruined. and that between the back of this recess. . or is it may have been walled up or otherwise concealed. and is the most sceptical of critics certainly recovered a lost thread claim to have discovered the original one of the most ancient and famous of Rome's resting-place of virgin saints. ^ difficulty this ^ i. this . with that perfect candour and truthfulness which so enhances seem to him that there all his other merits. capable of receiving a large sarco- phagus. It will be asked. what j i. may. ^t Cecilia • i was buried. it . for the express purpose of baffling the search of the sacrilegious Lombards. will confess that we think we have here may of tradition. and he is also able to quote from his at own an ex- perience the instance of an arcosolhim in the Catacomb of St by the erection of a Praetextatus thus carefully concealed Evidence of this from inscriptions. side of these paintings the wall. . this does not show had not been another wall of the same kind earlier period. the debris Rossi has found several fragments of a wall. HowTver. although. any part of the Catacombs. if by the that immediately a deep recess m and . be the true explanation of . possible that the doorway.i6o in Ro7na SotUrranea. n wall. too thin ever to have been used as a manifestly Among serviceable means of a curtain of as support. . Moreover. or the recess. and ing chapel. our ignorance on . and. but concealment . however. Here was the tomb original of St Cecilia. how is it culty in finding her • • • i i Paschal really visited the adjoin- if possible tomb where this is really the place if • i tliat To ? he could have had any we may this reply diffi- by remind- ing our readers of the condition in which the Catacombs were at that These time. there scarcely an inch of rock. Nor of this spot De is this mere conjecture. especially and ninth the eighth and historical a sure is prolonged beyond mark of high religious interest attaching to that particular spot when we add is centuries. both.

De had almost Rossi said is of opinion that we have and documentary authentic the translation on the walls of the chapel amine closely the picture of St with number of a classes . she could also obtain burial band and others in the her hus- for cemetery of St Praetextatus on the other side. I shall There is ge7is. that of one Septimus Pretextatus Csecilianus.1 Crypt of St Cecilia. shall find If it covered the one class quite irregular both as to place and visited the shrine. whereas St Cecilia was privy to the Urban. It is to the Itineraries tell the end at this it. this that of blood or we cannot doubt cemetery was originally the private property of that and that the Saint herself belonged stone even seems to memory now lying in the worthy [of lived and exclaims served Thee. 6 1 outweigh the explicit testimony of Paschal. a grave- chamber. his place of burial close to that Does not and his vocation] for three not repent of The names on and here it. — w^e — evidence of we ex- itself. another is a who by name or pilgrims these. graffili. which this the subject. " If I have and Thy bless I will are very suggestive." name. named Ildebrandus. consisting only of the had we distinct Thus. monument of them. and two . it and modern receives both from ancient least important among these number the is of epitaphs that have been found here belonging to the C^cilii and other noble famihes connected with them by These are so numerous marriage. one is Bishop Ethelred. have of the Virgin Martyr herself. who had The ties denote some connection between the families? this so that." to pavement of some testimony on ofter God. and several of names of confess themselves to be strangers. Cecilia. a " servant of thirty years. express title. and the abundant corroborations which Not the sources. us that the husband and brother-in-law of St Ceciha were buried in the Catacomb of St Praetextatus w^e find a Praetextatus Caecilianus privileged to . either From the ' wdiich are easily divided into tw^o style of writing. lying hid in the cemetery under her movements of own property on one side of the road. Again.

whence in this the same time body was his Some as St Cecilia's. with which we began. Verification j^ yg^ and correction of the Acts of Cecilia's St Cecilia. which. but the mother of the priest There is names which suggests who was of a that the last signature of all or secretary. or signing the decrees of a Council in another. it the only exceptions . arranged in four lines. graffiti as . held a. — after which appear on the shoulders of the pallium were not in use before the tenth or eleventh century. translated about of them appear also on a painting lately discovered in the subterranean San Clemente and others again man in the subscriptions to the decrees Council. as suffice to raise but when such names as George and Mercury appear. still later date as an than that of ornament to her C^cili^ Martvris. remains to say a few words about the history of St martyrdom. neither can be attributed to chance that several of the same names appear on the painting of St Cornelius. something about this signed bescj'iniarms. is in fact. in one No of this kind appear on the picture of St Urbanus.— 1 Roma 62 The other class of quite regular. others written in a running hand. almost exclusively the names of priests woman to this rule being that one added it is fore her. and are signed same of a Ro- course some of the names the mere repetition of these would not ]3icion made having been it cannot be rejected an improbable conjecture that these men were among the leading parochial clergy of some official Rome. only Decori Sepvlcri half obliterated scroll or tablet her body had been removed much of a . down Spaniards. Leo. visited. arrangement of the idea of an official act . in a sus- some both instances with the letters square. we have already St Cecilia. Benedictus. and peculiarity of writing. says a remaining by for the crosses its side. who attended the Pope capacity. added S. presently to be same Catacomb. and was. or Joannes. that she and is appears amongst them. are very common. attesting the translation of relics in instance. seen. sepulchre. such Of 826.d. and containing others write themselves graffiti is Sotterranea. We have already 1 . as of identity .

177. V. .d. the Church. Pope time when Alexander Severus ruled fixes the date to a The name of the empire alone. For the them con- though there were more than one Urban yet the mention of . that as "' many mere translation of. E. that the what we cannot now derived we tell. fifty also.. The chronological difficulty is now shifted from the emperors Secondly. First. in chnn<Te ol to the pope. martyrology of Ado. that the saint suffered in the times of Aurelius and Commodus. and yet we have seen that in substance their accuracy has been marvellously confirmed by all that has since monuments discovered that the been discovered. and the Christians enjoyed tranquillity. viz. ?>. may be but we obtain date. but that deny if that they they denied the charge they should be at once dismissed. I. or indeed directly assert. The Acts that a furious persecution death. adds. should be punished. the very has reported the edict of those as should refuse to were Christians. by recalling the probable occasion of some of their present errors. she could have had anything to do with St Urban. was raging at the time of St Cecilia's and they speak of the edicts of the reigning /.6 Crypi of St Cecilia. the difficulties will solve are manifold. ask how If St Cecilia suffered a. however. whilst still retaining the Urban. Catacombs almost enable us to restore the Acts to their primitive form. martyrdom of This is very certain that he from some ancient authority which he trusted. and it trust it The language known Ado belonged to the year 177 or thereabouts? St Cecilia if Whence years before that pope. our readers will Bishop. are in fact a words which Eusebius in Emperors. in the The truth is. it consistent with the Not only were two princes who hated and persecuted reigning. with apparently unconscious inconsistency. now becomes of the Acts facts of history. but the words of the judge as he pronounces sentence upon the martyrs are precisely equivalent to.7>/(r^j. 1 3 acknowledged that the Acts are not genuine. * H. chief difficulty that has always been urged against cerns chronology. in change of nearly this did particular item of his information.

in adjoining Urban had been a therefore they were one St Cecilia and chambers. both of the pope and the virgin martyr. the connection to between them must have seemed obvious and copyist who the license. it should become Urbanus. common to all historians. this question at once. and could be seen in immediate proximity one another. pope confessor. lay each in their original tomb. as and Ercolanus acted that the Bishops Caldonius at we one time in Carthage for St Cyprian.Roma 164 But they can also answer Sotter7^anea. the existence of two at various times the other. had only to use or causes of effects which he St certain. bishop of the one. a bishop. and exercising a sound criticism of contradictory notices that have to propose another mode field dis- of ob- upon the multitude come down to us. and a bishop friend of hers during life. the other. some unknown see the one. and occasionally acted know for him. yet having a larger servation. and admiration of her distinguished So argued the scribe of the fifth merit. buried in St Callixtus'. by calling to mind what has been already alluded bishops of the same Rome. and since the interpolations were made whilst yet the bodies. Bishop of . buried in St Prsetextatus'. As every trate or prefect. of assigning the motives Urban were buried of the and the transcribed or compiled the acts. and the same Urban. And other exaggerations. so way of magistrate becomes the chief magis- was only natural that Urbanus. We need only suppose Rome these two bishops was resident in that the earlier of during the episco- pacy of St Eleutherius. whereas we of the nineteenth century. and the Pope had given this honourable place of burial to the saint. and name to. "YXi^ corruptions of ancient Acts are ordinarily in the exaggeration. though removed to a greater tance from the time of action. name of had to record. the Pope. . because of his affection for her. and to repair the wholesale injuries destruction which she had suffered from the of her ancient records . . venture of reconstructing the history. or sixth century. consci- entiously doing his best to chronicle the glories of the Church. a martyr.

tyrologies nor ecclesiastical historians have left us his to Illyria way of this modification of St Cecilia's body was probably placed set in this chamber apart for the burial of the Popes. Callixtus. of no other Sebastian that can be meant here but The the famous martyr. for the general Pope Zephyrinus. who. having been used See page 154. whole embraced the Christian faith before the close of the second century (so numerous are the Christian epitaphs of that period belonging and that they then transferred to them). —probably and those it. life. to forthwith ap- pointed his deacon. by the staircase and vestibule which now and enlarged the chamber considerable labour and at expense. as a solution of the difficulties which his brother's architectural analysis throws in the history. on among any record of the authority of two ancient the rel'cs translated to the churches of Rossi suggests. and Optatus. that * De this altogether lost. after the Papal This would account contrary to the usual cus- t Peristeph.t lay in his was invaded by the barbarians. it. of Polycamus. Rome about the year 420."' but that new entrance exist.Crypt of St We more disposed feel 165 Cecilia. who use of the Church. in this instance. to take charge of became time the most extensive and important of in subterranean cemeteries ally a a . and buried his not far own city. that her Crypt had been for the coffin tom. painted We know believe that the pontificate of in —the btmijiare was opened over we upon figures its sides. that St Cecilia's vault into it was and all it the origin- Damasus opened very small and dark chamber. whose saints on Cyrinus or accoimtecrfor Quirinus was a martyr and Bishop of Siscia in lUyria. as the large brick arches and walls abundantly prove. cemetery. note. and was done that this many who pilgrims for the better flocked to a somewhat later period at Sixtus III. and a this considerable portion of the adjacent ground. of it. it. the history is but when body was brought in the basilica of St Sebastian Of Polycamus off. Only witnesses. because the cemetery was her own property family. or at least several important branches was buried that her . visit accommodation of the Finally. to believe that St Cecilia here. . in basilica is the days of Prudentius. vii. Sabastianus. neither the mar- we know.

and their figures in not. 18.1 Roma 66 Sta. it like was their names were Perhaps tell. in Numidia. Optatus. and his original place of his burial. and that his body was brought to Rome A. his relics may have been the interior of this linninare merely and because we cannot those of St Quirinus. in the ninth century. Prassede and of San Silvestro in Capite. We can only conjecture that he was the Bishop of Vesceter. On the me-nsix 0/ an ArcosoUuJii in Cemetery of St Soteris about . then in men's mouths. more probable St just painted by way of ornament. Cecilia's. and that the tomb of Polycamus had been very near Whether Rome had been the scene of this Catacomb the We til ink it that were brought from abroad. in Rome.D. This seems also to be the only account that can be given of the appearance on this wall of the third figure. and about the same time. martyrdom. of whom we read that he was put to death by the Vandals. Setter ranea. VLPIO FLORENTIO BENEMERENTI QVI VIXIT ANNOS LXXVII DIES XI QVIESCIT IN PACE III KAL IVNIAS Fig. were those of Polycamus and Optatus. 430.

Tillemont. chambers we should . rests in a in cave some way off. and the fragments were eus. therefore. ST EUSEBIUS. that . and integ. and others. go on to say that Eusebius. and we as being the nearest. after and " the V. had furnished a subject of much discussion Baronius. Immediately he remembered the tion about a certain Eusebius. it caves or subterranean Eusebius first. had almost for granted that the Pope Damasus in whilst others thought it verses.. just our guides would have led us to expect. and the other popes paces from the It with letters not both of these will take that of St viz.. which. having inscrip- been found old MSS. EXEMPL. form. Crypt innumerable multitude of martyrs of St " that rest near them. ship. pope and martyr. in fact. to incredible that history . monuments of necessary that is That we may complete our off. Damasine in a character somewhat like the Damasine in inscription. and St Cornelius. nelius cemetery of St the for the popes' chapel. to Tillemont and the Bollandists. where between St Cor- much more than a hundred latter. visit It lies. taken it like its sense and author- Eusebius spoken of had been the pope of that name. yet very inferior in execution. as to Some. The only perfect words were scinditur and seditio. in the year Fragments De Rossi came upon half a dozen bits of marble. was whilst searching 1852. without any indication of the place whence it had been copied. another cave still farther review of the historical Callixtus. mentioning St Cecilia and the popes. and had attributed the .CHAPTER THE EPITAPH OF T HE Itineraries. pope and martyr.

the excavation was completed. as elsewhere throughout had been poured interest. When Importance of cryp^ 1856 in and as they removed the spot. the earliest opportunity of publishing the discovery in a lecture before one of the learned societies in to penetrate and place. should have been so absolutely silent about incidents of such magnitude to the Church of Rome. it was easy to see the this importance which had were now recovered. air. ing to once attached Not only was them from the upper the subterranean itself. They were guided of necessity to two chapels. the representations of the seasons (appar- and other accessories of ornament . De luminare^ same in all the crypts of historical open centuries tlirough an for soil Rossi discovered forty other fragments of the inscription. on different sides of the path. and chose rather them We De some to to refer priest or bishop holding a less exalted position. a double-handed vessel. this But just described. into the interior of the cemetery at this The to set the question finally at rest. One was about 9 feet by 12. the fitlly had yet to work of excavation enabled wait nearly five years before the him He Rome. The smaller one had once been highly decorated with paintings. but the main figures . need not say towards which side leaned the opinion of Rossi. and slabs of marble. and the paintings. to the chapels that there a staircase descend- but walls had been built in who to prevent those entered from it going astray.1 Roma 68 Sotterranea. opposite to one another. labours of Commission of Sacred Archaeology had been employed during the interval in disinterring those chapels of the popes and St Cecilia which have been they returned to which here. with a bird on either side of among All it . larger. but the mosaic it is still possible to distinguish ently) among work one of the most common Christian symbols. the other considerably 16 by 13. and losing themselves in the labyrinth of sur- rounding galleries. mosaics. had finding these fragments just where he after reason to believe Pope Eusebius had been buried and he took . is now sadly ruined.

The Epitaph of St Eiisebius. he was disposed to think that earliest efforts of the artist perfection might have been one of the who subsequently attained such number of specimens but as the . say with confidence. that are Greek. he proclaimed his firm persuasion that the stone. a restoration of ''^'^ 11 see both sides of the in the later editions of his works. because it also because But everybody can see title itself. it became more and more convinced in a later age partaking of tions. and modern restora- In his lecture to the Roman other of 1856. interest of these 1-1 mscnption. and among the few symptoms of Byzantine are may later date the old forms of . r . —a tlie restoration^ as characteristics of which are not improvements. The and general design have perished. however. at it had been end of volume. discovery in this place that call centred in the ori«inal position o r the one side pagan times scription belonging to is -11 middle of the smaller we may has been so placed. . . antiquaries in the summer that it increased. he was a copy made we should now many say. set Inscription to Eusebius. The at St Sixtus'.. which • -1 occupies the now was not course. this ' its On in been published its We honour of Eusebius. indebted for so De Whilst Rossi had only recovered three or four fragments. but that See Plate TT.. 1 up by Pope ^ ^^ ^ ^''^ ^\V censeventh t"i-y. there On peculiarities. &c. was not the original on which the epitaph of St Damasus had been first engraved * . only of a prayer. The • Of room. so were able to leave here the same tokens of their presence as they left m are mostly in Latin. in order that stone without difiiculty. chambers. but it an imperial is in- on the other. same general graffiti are of the somewhat character. a Damasine. 1 69 walls of the opposite that the pilgrims chamber were never cased with marble. we the whole. 1 it it had even before lays claim to at a glance'"" that it was never executed by the same hand to which we are many other beautiful productions of that pope. Damasine. the inscriptions . have disappeared ?ne?ite kabete. that they belong to the fifth century rather than to the third. and ^. which he was then partially recovering.

disStraightway both [the pope and the heretic] were and strife. and on set up this to Eusebius.e. of III.. tlie artist who had engraved was Furius Dionysius Filocalus. on another occasion. either side of the verses. of had it also. illustrated the civil and ecclesiastical calen- which we have spoken elsewhere as being one of our time." The inscription itself ran thus " Heradius forbad the lapsed : to grieve for their sins. wrote this. fragments that appeared title had been very probable that this most valuable ancient Christian documents. banished by the cruelty of the tyrant. both of these conjectures of De In course of Rossi have been estab- When by most incontrovertible evidence. have already quoted * an and De Rossi thought Damasine He inscriptions same who had the dar. i. of course. a worshipper i" and lover of Pope Damasus. in some of John 498-574). and with increasing fury began sedition. See page 105. t lished Pope inscription of the titu/i of Damasus. although the pope was preserving cord. which had perished. fighting. Eusebius taught The people were rent into those unhappy ones to weep for their crimes. or We Vigilius.d. slaughter. or at least publicly hazarded a conjecture that the damage which he expressly mentions that he had restored might be one of them. reads Dainasi sui PapiP^ which is confirmed " . (a. "Furius Dionysius Filocakis. the old De Rossi X Used. in by other inscriptions.— 1 Roma 70 Symmachus. all of Catacombs by the Lombards and the marble tablets on which they were engraved broken all at could be found were put all together. sense of worship. honour. a single Bishop and Martyr. t See page 19. parties. the there the top and bottom of the tablet the following — DAMASUS EPISCOPUS FECIT EUSEBIO EPISCOPO ET MARTYRI. "Damasus. that they did their best to repair the which had been done others." file of letters reveals to us FURIUS DIONYSIUS FILOCALUS SCRIBSIT DAMASIS PAPP^ CULTOR ATQUE AMATOT. Bishop. or whom we know Vigilius. in the . Soltei^ranea.

1 The Epitaph of St Eitsebius. as. and amongst these copy the whole instance. second line. the sixth in inscrip- the other all man who two which had escaped the search of the to Damasine bits of the original seems have been an ignorant man. and . 1 ^ 1 1 j. and supplying the omissions of the copyist may now seem very easy itself. fruits of his m^cnp[-^^^ of . for which the copyist entirely omitted from in. therefore. not without reason that recovery of this stone * The as De Rossi rejoices in the importance one of the happiest original can be seen in Plate III. difficult for where there is those we must remember who saw it no separation of the from those of another. the the original Former editions of this ^1 TTT 111. 1 It is that it was only on the stone letters of one word curious." and on the 7 i bore his exile with joy. at the Hiscription. and the were too obvious to be overlooked but seditiocaede of the fourth line was dissolved into sed ede in the MS. looking to the gave up the world and his Moreover. to observe in MSS. in one MS. He the third line. et loca word omino. specimens of its class .^^ brought to hght several executed with the same faultlessness as tion. only to able to transcribe the letters which were before him. which.. first adopted by Gruter in the penultimate. changed.. he could not supply. whilst the . and even leaving. the word were one or bits attempted or seventh century . the bonds of peace inviolate. -1^1 XT inscription with its restoration in Plates 11. to any scholar. occasionally. into homine^ and in another. Our readers have an opportunity of comparing . end of the volume errors much more and although the task of correcting the . however. made at correction sum in the in earlier ages. a vacant space that a letter where he was conscious was wanting. * life. He Lord shoi"e of Sicily as his Judge. which have come down to us (the writers of which never saw the original stone) the fresh blunders introduced by the ineffectual attempts The substitution of sua for insertion of m in the third.. a diligent search among the minute fragments of Fragments of the original -11 11111-1 r Stone and marble lymg amid the rubbish 01 the chamber g^jj ^e seen.. is into It omnino is .

self-satisfied members of temper many in the Christian flock. Its interpretc- Every student is familiar with one phase. refused to He Pope Eusebius. nor have trace behind in it beyond question. It in is. therefore. of the tion. page of ancient history just rescued from the devouring jaws of time. at least. has brought out in bold relief to It hateful severity the tme mother the Church. schism of Novatian has impressed upon us the existence in those days of a hard. to and welcome the penitent returning to oil into the to his had not been so conscious perhaps of another the Church had to encounter. days. omitted scholars of Alcuin's or dedication title its nor did they give any information as to where they had seen Baronius. as never to have come to the knowledge of Eusebius the historian. which time. memory Roman said. the recovery of a lost fact. . we are able to see the circumstances of the times be interested it in studying this how admirably belongs to a Now. which would fain close the door of reconciliation against these miserable apostates. this Mercy of the tender and merciful conduct of our wards apos- ^^er ready to follow the teaching and example of her Divine tates. disputes of the second and third centuries. any other cotemporary records. could have so entirely perished.. Sotterranea. and the of one of life its chief pastors. as belonging to the we have accept it could not believe that of so important an incident in the history of the Church. The chapter in the history of the Church. proud. But we difficulty same souls. pour and wine wounds of bleeding Head. as to the proper ' discipline to be observed towards those unhappy Christians who had denied the faith fession of paganism. that the identity of the person spoken of will left is put it fits into and our readers . however. as it. Roma 172 labours in this cemetery. who had transcribed it. like that of the elder brother in the parable of the prodigal son. We home. about this other side. on the had not watched so keenly her prudent ness in imposing conditions upon her grant of firm- forgiveness. for example. and relapsed into the outward pro- The under the pressure of persecution.

by deeds they have committed : " sufficient tears. than the wound.The Epitaph of St Eusebius. which they had obtained from martyrs or confessors reconciliation of the and the . strength and fervour. illustrate in a most Roman the way striking The of her character. this part clergy to St Cyprian. priests and deacons immediate for upon a insisting middle course. until of any the and com- more dis- persecution of That persecution had been preceded by a long Diocletian. and that less not once only. of letters us the lapsi^ armed with letters of recommendation. but again and again idols. pressing faith. and demand too easy an acquiescence with their facilitatem et nosti'am quasi remedy must not be that the remedy be applied too the be created will : " diirain ful say hastily. 1 73 would not wanting in cotemporary tempered by is . Many. but when the persecution ceased. severity. a new and more fatal if wound Let the groans of the penitents be heard. both of Eusebius and of his predecessor Marcellus. {pronaifi nostrain blot out before God. 1-1 1 . speak quite see of Peter when the clearly as to the tradition They show and practice of the Church. especially . St Cyprian. records very distmct testimony to her exercise of a divmely- wisdom inspired in this particular and the . pontificates. * those eyes. which have wickedly looked upon tears. too. would fell fain • to from the rulers of the her peace we do not read this cause. they Marcellus He was firm in upholding the under Mar- was resisted with violence. them shed abundant let . written at a time was vacant. that so may They crudelitatem). . After this date. turbances arising from term of peace. . primitive their away return. the unlaw- and they repeat maxims of kind again and again. relaxed 1 overweening presumption and violence who would of apostates. between too great severity and sternness. Consequent disturbances P T speaks of riots and disturbances having been caused in some this . penance from those who and exacting wholesome obtain Nevertheless. 1 towns of Africa by the' extort fain Church an immediate restoration munion. during from therefore. Church's discipline. there it. which men's minds had somewhat . in his own letters.

not out of any professed hatred of the Christian name. SEDITIO. was bitterly hated by all those unhappy ones. had any right to plead for a mitigation of it. that people might recognise the merit of Marcellus. is com- the strife and we learn with of this nature was capable of and drawing down one of the heaviest civil power. same tion of the history. sedition. to such exile. These things Damasus having learnt. was dictated by the merest determined on sending the Pope into contained in an extent factions. and the bonds of peace were ruptured. Sottei^raiiea. but merely in the interests of public peace. discord. MARCELLI UT POPULUS MERITUM COGNOSCERE POSSET. HINC ODIUM SEQUITUR." -^^ and Eusebius. CRIMEN OB ALTERIUS CHRISTUM QUI IN PACE NEGAVIT. [the Pontiff] was expelled the shores of his country by the cruelty of the tyrant. it is easy to recognise a continua- Perhaps the Heraclius. named in the later inscription as the leader of the heretical faction. SOLVUNTUR FCEDERA PACIS. the epitaph with which St and whose political motives. HINC FUROR. and slaughter. was desirous to relate briefly. edict of toleration love for Christianity. because he preached that the lapsed should weep for their crimes. H. least of all. For the crime of another.— 1 Roma 74 by one who. MISERIS FUIT OMNIBUS HOSTIS AMARUS. LITES. » " The truth-speaking Pope. and the public tranquiUity was disturbed by the violence of the contending who had no that Maxentius. C^DES. which Eusebius was engaged much surprise that a attracting the attention punishments of the strife is clear . the nature of in the former. FINIBUS EXPULSUS PATRIAE EST FERITATE TYRANNI. contentions. ^'^ compare this epitaph on Marcellus with the recently- discovered one on Eusebius. This history Damasus adorned is his tomb VERIDICUS RECTOR. . Hence followed fury. as he had denied the faith even in time of peace. hatred. LAPSOS QUIA CRIMINA FLERE PR^DIXIT. Angry passions were roused.EC BREVITER DAMASUS VOLUIT COMPERTA REFERRE. who in [a time of] peace had denied Christ. was 'the very man whose memorated in apostacy during a time of peace Anyhow. DISCORDIA.

day of The it gave another. Parthenius and who Calocerus. since the Passio of these martyrs was always celebrated on the 19th of May. then.* are coupled by them with St Eusebius.CHAPTER VL THE SEPULCHRE OF A ST CORNELIUS. . for was made. their in- names the same here written in the Catacombs. nor Catacombs belonged to them before that to the transla- the Bollandists be right in conjecturing * See page 102. tion Churches. The words Idus Fefrua Parteiii Martiri Caloceri Martiri. the ruary. tertio The reader pilgrims. however. martyrdom. Inscription to Jj^gj^j^^g g^j^^l ^-''^lo^^erus. will not if who need not a certain. save only that to the left. Can nth of Feb- This date. At the entrance of one a graffito of insignificant appearance. in the in is their relics to eighth century. yet really of considerable historical importance. If he knows anything. of the old Church calendars. how S we leave the ciibiculum of St Eusebius we observe the ruined walls around us must once have shut off every gallery from the visiting of pilgrims. and others also yet earlier. for their iiatale. indica- of the burial-place of the two martyrs. he may wonder at the date assigned. remembers the testimony of our ancient to be told that he has here a probable. tion are these. did not mark the for the calendars yet of the translation of their relics from the Roman San So does the martyrology of Bede. half being of these on is either side of the gallery. where we soon come upon another double chamber. scription Silvestro date as which records the translation of Capite.

this galleries spreads over the whole Catacomb without any regard to the ancient hmits of the different remarkable No for the entire arecB. and believes this third in the to certainly very strong. The evidence its Catacombs give Rossi does not hesitate to the earliest years of the fourth. to These that of St Lucina. conclude belong to an age pos- terior to the regular construction of both the hypogcea. tarry We to attract our attention. Each ^^/ of different arecE^ their height is labyrinth has and the higher system of its staircase. considerable countenance.Ro7na 176 that refers to it some Sotter7'anea. for the most part. . but as they come in contact with portions of very variable. any regular plan. Ecclesiastica but De century. and adopt He it. nor even an arcosolium. cross- directions. it is not found in the Acta of the Boliandists but on the authority of Papebroch in his notes on Usuard's . translation to have first support of this theory in must be content necting the crypts of St Lucina with those of St it when all been the loca were confiscated by the persecution of Diocletian. painting nor slabs of marble. The lower flat is chiefly absence of every kind of ornament. within the poses of greater security under some special for pur- danger A * ? comparison of the statements by various ancient authors seems require to Recent discoveries it. no aibicuhcm. made in places their martyrdomi in the middle of the details are too in search of the We Labyrinth con- Callixtus. The union of the different groups of independent cemeteries into * This conjecture Sollier gives Martyrology. the horizontal level in each of the two stories in which they have been made . indeed there for is nothing are traversing that vast network of galleries which intervenes between the cemetery of St Callixtus and They than either cemetery. earlier translation of their relics from one Catacombs themselves. place to another. by the way. ing one another in all They galleries are of later date are generally very narrow. have noticed tomb need not minute is it. and then pass on rapidly of St Cornelius. We for insertion in this place. and impossible to be reduced observe. relieves the which we may therefore monotony of safely its long straight passages.

as M . certainly a re- to it who bore have existed. a Church. It is all the official buried in the now^ an acknowledged fact h. and it is supposing fact that this relationship. Roman family.77/6' Sep7tlcJire of St Corneliits. who attentive observer to pass that St Cornelius should have been Family of St ' buried at so great a distance from the other occupants of the Holy See . wrote in the aside. would have connected him with the owaiers of the very cemetery in which. the apologists The proceedings and spoke Greek. and if men have he happens to know that learned long since fancied that they could discover grounds for suspecting some relationship between Cornelius and the Gois Cornelia^ he will note this separate place of burial as a circum- stance seeming to corroborate that suspicion." The Apostolic ians of the early Church. and He whence not to recognise fail opportunities of fossors accomplished not improbably. he was buried. many very ancient epitaphs having been found here of the dwieiii. were in Greek. it an unimportant circumstance that the epitaph of St Cornelius should have been in Latin. of those who were ^ papal vault. may have been down to of any noble suggested by the fact that the days of St Sylvester. writes in Church was Greek. cils tribes of the same language. At first. owing the very different levels at which their principal galleries to The had been excavated. one vast necropolis was not eftected without 177 difficulty. also be set on thinking will. will portion this the point of junction. which are scattered Fathers. the Christians of to was the official Ian- seven Coundid Western her ritual and liturgy. even in first Nor ot the St Paul.\s epitaph in ^^^^^^^ ]f^^^\' Gi-eek <T^ua£je that the earliest language of the Roman citizen. ^ be considered so to call them. came it \\\q traverses between the Papal many have will appreciating the ingenuity w^ith which their task. Greek So does St James " to the twelve abroad. whilst epitaphs. it only Pope. were carried on Christendom lay it and histor- and her greatest theologians. Rome. as well as of the as altogether Maxiini Nor can Ccecilii. by a singular exception. this is the the name markable perhaps. of the labyrinth which lies Crypt and the tomb of St Cornelius.

bishop. . viz.'"' The Sepulchre of St Cornelius. no trace of any slab having been We may on the surface of the grave. and then repeated in day to this this ancient use of the a deep impress on our own. both of the architecture mensa or satisfy us that and let into neighbourhood of was made on a lower galleries.Roma 178 soon as Sotterranea. but with the difference that has been pointed out before above the grave that the space There lie is flat as a token of greater antiquity. pilasters are of . first Greek. examine the grave kind. all liturgy. here at was not of the usual find this. yet these * History of Classical Education. of dimensions and cient to receive three or four bodies. therefore. and at a this tomb. even of the seventh century. nenus was certamly a departure from the ordmary practice of that age quite as . psalm. catechism. will of the Some of the older tombs are partially blocked up by the pilasters which flank the tomb of the pope. and the inscriptions in the surrounding it in a that the wall to conclude. all. nor was we itself. Latin inscription. sarcophagus which its top served as the close examination. will be found in which the responses are made in a Latin translation Greek language has terms. mon loculi we should have expected was neither one of the com- It and which. there is no regular chapel but only a gallery of unusual width. and pope. is rectangular. eucharist. in a corner of which a large grave has been excavated. homily. too. altar.. for with which the galleries or the walls of the cidncula are pierced. baptism. level than that somewhat later period. nor or altar-tomb of a chapel. on the grave of St Cor. it Roman sacramentaries. position such as its to seen. much so as the fact of his burial in a And when we come place apart from the rest of his order. 3. suffi- shape not unlike in the grave of an aj'cosolium. in left such as hymn. p. not circular. the grave of a martyr pope. that the body of once occupied the this A pope was buried empty space. as we have of most of the other popes. ecclesiastical and . then. priest. served for the is it tombs precisely an arcosolium Indeed. ceased to be a generally-spoken tongue.

designedly introducing slight variations. We all result his difficulties. But the occasion of transcribing the epitaphs as to . which was written in two fragments only remain. Both above and below the opening of the tomb are frag. to support the huninare. together with the bottoms of the six last letters of the second line At first sight we have recovered it made by De itself Rossi. enabling us to read with certainty the lines. restoration of these two inscriptions has been larger deliver- which he was entangled. the we suppose the sarcophagus been placed to have older. the Of halves of seven hexameter latter line. which appears above. important inscrip- crypt of Sc ^'"^ ^"'^' The upper one was unquestionably the work of DamaThe letters of the lower. first and the first two letters much letter of first of the last two lines. — certainly of the De and laborious fruitless. probably of the same date as the They itself. tomb very great antiquity. eight or ten fragments remain. containing the type. the lower one. therefore. than that the arches made by Damasus . yet present a {q\\ points of difference. is such as to com- who have resist given due con- must not detain our readers by for so long a time his in many proved utterly at length cleared and furnished him with a clue him from the labyrinth — ^^^ yet the attempt most interesting account of which latter . 79 i as which in much finer. the upper inscription.The Sepitlchre of St Cornelius. to mark monuments that it did not belong to the numerous class of up by the devotion of set Of that pontiff. away ing all and the with very great force to sideration to the subject. and to the wall. once covered the inner sides also of the excavation and much upon same are covered with the finest stucco.Fragments of inscriptions in ments of large slabs of marble. nothing. though strongly resembling the Damasine type. sus. repeating Rossi's efforts. still adhermg containing a few letters of what were once tions. suffi- cient to warrant the conjecture of De Rossi that they were executed by the same hand. and of the happy inspiration which we cannot Of might seem madness to attempt the complete Attempt on the strength of such slender data as these mend all.

. mathematical precision that no emendations can be admitted which would materially increase or diminish the number of each line letters in and. be correct.^GROTI DAMASI PR. and. POPULISQUE PARATUM AUXILIUM SANCTI. The he supposes them to have been originally written. and De that several of Rossi's restorations reproduce favourite expressions and forms of speech. if rise but care for work. TENUFT MAGE CURA LABORIS. his usual modious a time life may up will it him [here below^].TEJVTA'JV *« at .— — 1 Roma 80 Sotterranca. you see the venient for the people a pure heart. sick as he is. that has kept If this reading made and . so that his danger.n?iare. Damasus love of life. viz. in estimating their degree of pro- must remember two things bability. secondly^ that : Damasus was in the habit of repeating himself very frequently in his epitaphs. DESCENSU EXSTRUCrC' TENEBRISQUE FUGATIS CORNELI MONUMENTA VIDES TUMULUMQUE SACRATUM HOC OPUS ." way down has been constructed.-J/v'MORE CORNELI QUONIAM J' I A MEMI5RA KY. ET J'ALEAS SI FUNDERE PURO - CORDE PRECES.SIRICIUS PERFECIT OPUS CONCLUSIT ET ARCAM J/. that no critic some of his would have seen any reason to question its genuineness " ASPICE. the reader fii'st^ that in- kind were engraved with such exquisite of this scriptions . ESSET UT ACCESSUS MELIOR. QUEM NON LUCIS AMOR. to suffering in this and a more com- tomb of from severe St Cornelius. : sf? ". and his sacred tomb." would follow that Damasus additions of a Iin. This work the zeal of Damasus has accomplished. DAMASUS RIELIOR CONSURGERE POSSET.drt be better. illness. when he was with what you that. and the aid of the saint might be made con"Behold! a pelled. and this harmonises exactly Rossi would suggest as a probable restoration of the second epitaph. Had the following we are confident epitaph been found in some ancient MS. ence of type will distinguish the differ- conjectured restorations from the parts that are certain. and the darkness dismonuments of Cornelius. staircase perhaps was considered De pour forth your prayers from though it has not been in better health.ESTANTIA FECIT. in order that the approach mii.

in so many confirmed them to the utmost. as the most ancient calendars and missals assure us dar. M. an extraordinary misstatement.^ in Kal xinii. IxiUerini way of St Cyprian had II. just as they are no\v. (^]x cd. the 1 6th of September. those least inclined to pass over slightingly be the will . was told in such a name Leo.g. same day. purely conjectural who know De nevertheless. Ca/lisfi. and the celebration was held so Africce the . 96. much more is He even his very lightest conjecture. as most positive instances. we read often quoted.'^' the Bucherian calen- and : Oct: CypriciJii. though in cotemporary and corre- his tw^o saints different years were martyred on the and . Natale SS." Of course. on Cypriani^ via Appia in in one of his at cemetery of St Callixtus. same Callisti. and so careful not to over-estimate tliem when made. so modest in is making them. St Cyprian. though even this as almost to betray the truth that the " Sec also S. been so much that the bodies both of St Cyprian and St Cornelius rested in the same cemetery (of St Callixtus). therefore. Cornelii et Now De Rossi had found old guides. to which he had indebted. This same tomb of St Cornelius example of certainty his po\ver of by subsequent will supply us with an Frescoes happy conjecture. viz. <^^ of St Cyprian. confirmed with He had discoveries. and enclosed the shrine with marble. on tlie e. whilst yet subsequent discoveries have. RoJuce cdebratur in Roman liturgy. often publicly expressed his confident expectation of finding at the tomb of St CorneUus some memorial of These spondent. " it 1 completed the work. assurances of some other writers in tlie on similar subjects.. an old codex of in day. their feasts were. .— 1 The Sepulchre of St Cornelius. this spot in the the liturgical prayers for the day all belonging equally to both . that we almost the same feel we do confidence in his hints and guesses at truth. this restoration than the preceding one Rossi best. ]>. Siricius 8 for contains the sacred remains of Cornelius. always celebrated together.

Here of value as a note of chronology. It is still his hands. executed in the Seepage is earlier the wall at the end of the gallery. et ('y]irianus r/c. are the figures of two other bishops. at the grave of St Cecilia " Cornelius same style.////. re-discovery of the tomb. . we compare If it. extre- the only note of this is mani- Indeed. cross marked upon the mity in On front. specimen of a pallium which we saw on the is Urban. in and is habited in pontifical vestments. wdiich are palliiini^ Urban St and may and dignity expressed lead us to assign to indications seem it a . executed. this wall received. the St Cecilia. He later copyist. declaring them to be St Of Cornelius and St Cyprian. on the here. too. with the other at the shall observe a difference. head of St Cyprian would date. shoulders. be noted Nor tomb of in the much to point with in the 112. the cause stands at once revealed. it is the later work was Each of the hard to determine with certainty. first ornamentation which it. with a legend by the side of each. some degree of did not other certainty to the These indications are chiefly painting on the other side of the tomb.'. bishops carries the book of the Gospels possible and even oi graffiti When underlying this later work. but that the pilgrim or copyist had been led into error by something he had seen tomb the at of St And Cornelius. * on the lower the whole style of art beginning of the ninth century.1 Roma 82 been added by a Sotterranea."^ was satisfied that this blunder had not been made without a cause. we figure of St however. more ancient to detect traces of upon course this had not been the painting. on Here." each having f Plate V.t painted side of the grave are two large on the wall Byzantine in the style. even including the pallium^ which had not yet been confined as a mark of distinction to metropolitans. Immediately on the hand right figures of bishops. to but one be recognised on these paintings St Cornelius festly superior to that at the force is nowhere found on paintings or mosaics higher antiquity whicli tomb of that there which there are crosses also on the earlier than the tenth century.

and popes name the yet confined to the bishops of Rome.'^' found.d. we would attribute the paintings 824. title It is to Leo we III. know from whom we other sources to have been buried in the same who was venerated in the Western Church. a. been originally designated by his 1 own proper name and J title. a saint It is whom we have had occasion to mention before. " and the legend which runs round these pontiff". Gloss. Roman . There some is part of the legend . for example.D. but the versiou used Church in older times liad virtulcm. ii. find given to other later. t The Vulgate has \\zx& forliiudiiiein. See Tomasi 0pp. It is expressly recorded of him in the Liber Pontificalis that " he renewed the cemetery of Appian traits .— 8 The Sepulchre of St Cornelms.." I Thou will sing art Thy become my and these words of thanksgiving would have been ^ See Ducange. connexion with the have now been in the IV. the second pontitf of that name. a. in the p. if we consider difficulty in tlie quia factus strength. of course. and runs thus Ego autem cantabo virtutem t Tuam Tuam it but the earlier portion taken from the 17th verse of " Xystus and Cornelius on the has a singular significance. in Verb. " es et sitsceptor will extol as the Thy por- work deciphering the is clearly 58th Psalm. for exaltabo inisericordiam . . subterranean of San Clemente. t. as the 847 . the translation of relics in the basilica of Sta Prassede.. down to the ninth century or later whose name may still be seen on the tablet recording cemetery with St Sixtus . whose is. support and . of this latter Way Sts meusT et . A. mercy. that now examining. and in of the presbytery of Sta Sabina. but of whose real history nearly all traces scs XVSTVS pp title down cemetery has been already explained this rom to the is the we that .. of Eugenius II. io8. That one stands xvstvs pp rom the name of the other began with though only one can plainly scs O. on the 27th November. are 795-815. .d. now be deciphered... extremely probable that this was St Optatus. in one of the pictures lately dis- is covered Leo same middle of the ninth century or Fapa not having been It The lost.

^^^ as a the relics collected by come from this very place of a vase. 111 crypt of St Corue- lius. . Avhich (we gather from Prudentius) '^ was not always directly over the body of the martyr. affectionate * 111 the prayers. have been collected from mulated some few drops IvOmbard Queen Theodelinda. however. and immediately before his picture. was older than the time of certainty that Itself. the graffiti upon the painting of nothing special to commemorate. necessary for the celebration of the holy mysteries. . ^ . one ex oleo S. through the instrumentality of We the Em})eror Charlemagne. as a construction of masonry. that here some of that work of "renovation of the ceme- Xystus and St Cornelius. off among . as else- floating wicks of papyrus were always fed in these holy places. The low round block Pillar his ' or pillar which stands by the side of ' . is this is not made out of the natural rock. saturated with substance.175. and had then been almost miraculously delivered out of the hands of his enemies. then. and from which the faithful were wont to carry Among precious relic of the saint. it may or altar. and precious unguents. we have can hardly doubt. St Cornelius They are mere record of Sec Note E not we have old and ecclesiastical in Ap})ciiclix. l)ut Hil)polyl. John the Deacon. but only somewhere in the immediate neighbourhood." which tery of St attributes to him. mouth of one who had the suftered such extraordinary contradictions. biographer . though we cannot much covered with a l)e Rossi conjectures that one time have supported the iiiaisa. where full no doubt. Ordinarily. at say with was made cotemporaneously with the tomb it we can Leo IIL. ConicJil must have in fact. there was placed at the martyrs' shrines. and. for the many fragments Graffiti. and misfortunes as Leo had. calumnies. of one of those large shallow vases. . Cornelius' tomb. as but they are. with which the oil here. somewhat coarse cement.Roma 184 specially appropriate in Sotterrarieq^. . of similar pillars in some other parts of the For Catacombs. some unctuous the rubbish accu- at this spot. 171.

are such as these. have been almost tempted to look upon it as its De precise date Rossi would an original and cotemporary memorial of the martyrdom. Fresco 0)1 ivall of ancient crypt in Cemetery of St Lncina. . Kiprianus Diaconns^'' graffito &:c. " Leo prb. yet lutely far it interesting to is have recovered even this scanty notice of the existence of these martyrs. though were it it is This graffito is certainly of impossible to fix not for the contracted prefix of Sctus. The Sepulchre of St Cornelius.. i(j. . /" more ancient in this wise.^ Fefn/s prb. or to assist those for to all. thereby corroborating the statement of one of the ancient guide-books.— . once take part in the translation of the sacred relics.. T/ieodorus prb. Another and under the neighbouring archway runs Cerealis et Salliistia cum xxi. &c. great antiquity. Fi(j. of men who who holy sacrifice. 185 to offer the perhaps. They came here either did or. '' Scfus and although we know abso- nothing of their history. which placed their subterranean shrines somewhere near to St Cornelius. names and titles.

Twenty years He later. Rochette spoke more confidently. The antiquity of Christian THE subject of early Christian art has been unhappily the battle-field of paintings. because of pagan hands to purposes of idolatry when D'Agincourt. ventured to assign a few of the paintings he had seen in the Catacombs to a very early date. they were considered rather as exceptions than examples of the general rule. Raoul averred that the Ian- . given of the ancient decorations of the And it own teaching and practice upon important point. And writing about the year 1825. that hard to gain an impartial hearing for any history that this difficulty last few years . De Rossi. others. CHAPTER I. had been generally it in the first ages painting with a very jealous eye. Raoul Rochette. and in the because the paintings that have been lately still more than before the voice of antiquity as bearing un- equivocal testimony to their this may be has increased rather than diiTiinished discovered have obliged Catholic writers to claim strongly is Roman Catacombs.BOOK IV. CHRISTIAN ART. such violent religious disputes. and had looked upon its prostitution in licentiousness. Up to the end of the supposed that Christianity last century. Opinions of D'Agincourt. THE ANTIQUITY AND ORIGINAL TYPES OF CHRISTIAN ART.

Types of Christian Art. art to cry poor productions.. and had ceased before has been the fashion with most it subject. * the He art "Handbook taken of the no adequate concep- says that " as regards the distribution Tableau des Catacombes Romaines. Lord Lindsay himself. and for the antiquarian by the study of ments. . had been misunderstood that. down in the paintings of the which the meagreness of only equalled by the feebleness of execution." and " the frescoes." Within the " last few years. 187 guage of TertuUian." complains that Catacomb engravings pictures in former days give tion of their style. 1837. later writers have taken a higher and truer estimate in both of the antiquity and of the value of the specimens of they contain. ed. scribed it whether it tive and he concluded by saying. It was said by Niebuhr that ancient Christianity began writers upon the Catacombs invention as is '* . by no means true of the and since the recent discoveries them. 176. and apostolic may now w^e history has been its with claim some of the antiquity for monu- much confidence almost existing specimens of Christian painting. speaks of the Catacombs as " Thus which we for the most part closed up and inaccessible. ." t But Niebuhr s dictum was certainly an exaggeration. — for the Christian by the authority of the Church. Kugler. 39. f Lord Lindsay's Sketches of the History of Christian Art. always a violent and somewhat exaggerated writer. &c. ." Catacombs as they now But are this is . tliat " the question entered into the views and principles of the primi- Church to authorise the execution of such paintings has been long since decided. i. whereas he was only censuring a particular abuse of the art which deserved he was generally (juoted as having altogether pro- censure. 162. in the later editions of his of Painting. the standard of knowledge respecting art and changed. however. and these writers have generally shown that they are not very intimately acquainted with what they so confidently condemn. Bruxelles. obliterated by time and destroyed. in the very passage from have quoted.

" f And again. and elsewhere again. types. and even of families. fresh from the of the image-hating synagogue.. 1S51. more ancient of those been introduced.1 Roma 88 of the spaces and mode Sotterranea. Sir C. i. for the present. the variety. the conversion to the faith imperial of powerful personages." he credible that the faithful. and he aside the sets objections of Protestants or others. that the arabesques remind us of the paintings at Pompeii. who little by were. of decoration." &c. cd. he " will only say that the . and of the Antonines. and light in the Baths of Titus. 196. . and in opposition to the practice of the primitive Church. they approach very near to the wall-paintings of the best period of the empire . the freedom of the when contrasted with clearly see becoming more tion towards the the cycle stiff in end of the of pictures which manner and poor third century. affirm the use of pictures to have on the sly. should have so promptly and so generally adopted and (so to speak) baptized the fine arts ? " And he answers. the richness. fully conscious of the of the subject he delicate nature hesitate to claim the first is handling. . was in deadly conflict with idolatry. facts of the case. he attributes to others the middle and end of the second or beginning of the third century. certainly very * Page such as members of Domitilla and Flavins Clemens. that so grave a question deserves to be discussed in a special treatise but that. of Trajan. as it in I concep- — these things prove the impossibility of accepting the hypothesis little. . Eastlakc. as being sufficiently dis- posed of by the "whether says. of Hadrian. t Roma and develop- Sott. yet does not century. asked. " The flourishing con- dition of the fine arts in the days of the Flavii. and the great number of their professors in the metropolis of the empire. in the age of the it is when apostles or of their disciples. 197. and universality of the pictures in the subterranean cemeteries. as the true date of some paintings in the crypts of St Lucina. or the earliest part of the second. in the cemetery of St Domitilla. De '"" Rossi. much favoured the introduction 14. bosom may be " It the Church.

significant of * Le Normant considered some of tlie paintings in St Domitilla's cemesame style with those in the well-known pyramidical tomb Caius Sextius. Protestant tes- timony to the effect. for At first. . here more that and was there. . by Rev. 3."'^ and even the most bitter anti-Catholic writers of our own country have been obliged to yield to the weight of now be adduced in its support. as their numbers diminished every day. De German confirm critics. ment of Christian turies . the " subterranean cemeteries. all the multiplication of facilitate of Christian art during that period ful more the expense of others make to new works if the faith- in liberty. 321 Rome. difficulty to their same devices always . 1863. B. Welcker attributed the paintings in the crypts tery to be of the of they mural decoration as as the ideas occurred to them. And. fact that these sepulchral chambers were used also for purposes of religious worship presented no even used many of the the Pagans had used. the gradual but continuous impoverishment of public and private fortunes. Bullctt. on the contrary. they lost the conditions required for the flourishing of Christian art. 32." Le Normant. even in proselytes. W. " that ornament with painting is it to their and the Christians did the same. Welcker. ornamented early Christians their mind of The was congenial it to the Christianity so to illustrate the faith. this and other French and m judgment the strongest same manner. excepting anything introducing. however. of course. p. seeing no reason why honour the dead to .C. p. so that. immoral or idolatrous minds. something of St Lucina to the t Letters from first century. The they should not. the pictorial art. S.Types of Christian Art. t " not because to Pagans had been wont vaults or sepulchral chambers. . in power. decHne of those same fine 189 in arts the third and fourth cen- die increasing cost of the handiwork of the painter and the sculptor. — R. but because was the heathen custom so say. i. have their own way of accounting for evidence which can though.'^ writes one of these. they it. Witte. and their ancient. Burgon. if I may m say so. 250. which induced even the senate and the emperors new monuments at this could not much had gained quite as much.

excluding in and these would whole cycle of Christian subjects would be created. or The birth and woman in prayer. find the earliest speci- . and explains an observation which sometimes made. the result and advancing step by step towards but rather. made most important changes it ^1 r the power of the early Chris- imitative language in painting than words to express them.. where m ' it natural. iQO own their creed. it No ideas require w^ay this in the has gained a footing. we do not efforts of indistinct excellence . This seems to be the natural and necessary order of things and it once at strange. that " wi art ne sHmprovise . (see Plate VI. well-known Christian symbol.) or to the religion of the art growth of both. that in the the most ancient are not certain for a few on a Pagan or a Christian are looking same geometrical same general arrangement of the of the roof. 1 ^ quite true . flowers. as though has been art illustrates common to the nations of rude and formless essays.^' presently you detect in familiar them to more the altogether. with "you chapels of the Catacombs moments whether you There work. finally.. new forms until at length a and more widely from those which were ' perhaps. naturally go • 1 once a new idiom of Greek or Latin. division " the subjects. but just as —and in new — so Christianity has they require on increasing day by day . same fabulous animals.Ro7na Sotterranea. notions. and you are at once satisfied as you are studying. remark of Raoul Rochette. the same foliage. the same graceful curves. in it were something recognise in the history of Christian of imitation —beginning . that the first antiquity. departing and new language of every country or at least modifications of old forms heathen.!• /^^." the is some of writer. on the contrary. the it same Protestant by and by the whole was excKisively is hardly an exaggeration to say. a figure of the and birds Good Shepherd occupying ment of the composition. and that was no more tians to invent a was produce to doubt this is at new art. the figure of a some other It is a Christian art the centre compart- or of Daniel in the lions' den. and fruit. until Hence Christian.

" J He. certainly in execution. and A 191 r/. " Placuit picturas vii. non debere. Church to interfere by natural progress and development of the by pagan perse- legislation with the art." * I % Wisdom ii. yet if For the Christians were not a new distinct nation. Then it II " "pictures to be ^ placed in a church. its progress famous canon of the Council of Elvira was passed. either geographically or politically." Count de Broglie Cone. men. but made up they were and of persons gathered out " of nations all and peoples and tongues . § Praef. as Raoul Rochette happily Pet."+ and they nowhere tribes refused to avail themselves of anything that was good." § Him we who had now become visible might be led to the love of did not forbid His Church to avail herself of the pictorial art as a means of rendering spiritual things and thereby moving and instructing the minds of sensible. cumstances . . explained. 36. il. whom among Whereas. obliged the which fruit in that the violent invasion of her sanctuaries. can. that the conscious and Rather. interprets this canon as forbidding any but symbolical paintings. not necessary that we should suppose the action of It is the Church in this matter to have been at deliberate. A. purchased people."'^ knit together by the closest bonds of a supernatural charity. "the creatures of they lived. xiv. II ^ persecutions was This disciplinary enactment was. heretofore" the gifts or occupations of those amongst — (by painting as well as by other means) God had — " been turned to an abomination to the souls of men.— Types of Chinstian mens of the art to be the best.D. Canon which forbad is of the which the Christians of those days found them- cutors. nee quod colitur et adoratur in parietibus depingatur. t Apoc. not always in conception. and a snare to the feet of the unwise. 9. " expressly that through things invisible. useful. Dom. 9. then. Miss?e in Nativ. they "a indeed v/ere a holy nation. Illib. and cir- it was only after the lapse of two or three centuries. 303. or beautiful. the birth and earliest growth of Chris- was wholly spontaneous. the natural tian art selves first in ecclesia esse of ^°^!"^^^ °^ Elvira. or that ^ ' worshipped and adored to be painted on the walls.

reason to fear that the sacred subjects painted on the walls. and deterIt is a chronological question which be brought within very nology on their in testimony in matters of doctrine. " Le fait but he had not at his vient id a Pappiii command by which the evidence of this statement it du a tenth part of can be With our present increased knowledge firmed. manifest. the truth. but the heathen soldiery had penetrated even the most hidden sanctuaries of the in the ful depths of the earth faith- and there was only too much . utmost importance is some paintings faces. that whereas those Chris- tian paintings. we are able to say with confidence.Roma 192 expresses it. . would be turned often into ridicule. lately found on the walls of Caesar's palace. of their chro- or at least testify to their not having . which critics in art have agreed in considering the most ancient. to?ite accidentelle^ Not only tontc de circonstancer had the churches above ground been often violently entered. them at all. we occasion to speak of the date of this or that painting ^-j-^jg \^ o consideration of the mining the value of its cannot often Nevertheless. under almost unintelligible symbols. have always hitherto been found in the most ancient parts of the excavations. that this have shall often precise carry evidence boundaries. ported in the most striking way by by the naturally suggested all sup- It is also the facts which recent excavations in the Catacombs have brought to our knowledge. Even just quoted could say with raisonnement . In the course of the following pages. however. This explanation of the decree circumstances of the time when is it was passed. those chambers (on the contrary) which belong to the latest period of their history exhibit but few and poor specimens of decoration.^'' whom we same author from thirty years ago. or often have no vestiges of painting about Means of dis- th(?dates"of paintings. have now as to conthe chronological succession of the several parts of the Catacombs. " Sotterranea. and some of them destroyed by order of the emperors before the time when this decree was made. after the fashion of the blasphemous caricature of the crucifixion.

in that spirit of fulsome adulation may be and it it or other pre-eminence. use became yet more frequent and its finally. be seen by the side of the birds. ceased to be looked upon as a token of divinity. but (at Ravenna) on Mary those of Justinian and his wife Theodora. His Holy Mother.Types of Christia7i Art. round the heads of Christ or of His saints. and shall have to speak most of these glasses range from the middle of the middle of the fourth century. or held in their heads . Sta. so that. on the other hand. It is scarcely possible to define with accuracy the period at which Christians found it is first in the began to use In the glass cups or plates it. but not placed upon their Our Lord is represented in the act of . or others will scarcely later. which- should be rightly called) of the age of Constantine. it ornament. and on a wards among p^\"j invented even on the heads of it century. all 193 such or such a date to . which belong to the later age. third to the of them. crowns own hands. said to have been thence it first their emperors. Catacombs. been executed previously stance. proper to royalty artistic Hence. as. Christian mosaics of the in was placed not only on the heads of Our Lord. which char- seen round the head of Trajan in the triumphal arch of Constantine. but with what meaning . may being offered to them by crowning Saints Peter and Paul. and the angels. the apostles N "^ ^'^' . and was considered simply as an the Thus literature of the period. 433) even on that of Herod. but the nimbus be found on a dozen of them. generally allowed that is it it is In those of the church (or mausoleum. This ornament had been used by Pagan artists for the . Our Lord has the nimbus introdoes not duced and passed to the Greeks and Romans. of which we very rarely to be seen . for in- which exhibit the nimbus^ or circular aureole tliose of glory. After common. in some also In many saints. fifth medal of Antoninus Pius. placed acterised both the art deco. and at St Major's in Rome (a. belonging to the nimbi/s. days of the empire. ration of their false deities clearly appear.The use of Costanza. far otherwise. the Egyptians who.d. ever it itself In the mosaics. in the It is . altogether.

at least. p. 441). such ornamentation would pro- bably not. distinguishes when he with greater accuracy says that was used it Our for Blessed Lord occasionally before the days of Constantine. or it unornamented.d.d. the saints in general.t a more recent and cautious authority. similar distinction is be noted to of St Agatha in Ravenna. Sotten^anea. Our Lord and on the The same decorated head of the angels it is form of the Jiindms is used on the head of Christ in the mosaics Sabma of Sta. only found on the heads of Christ and St Peter. 436. Nimbus. fifth first and evangelists next. Catacombs which represent a bishop round sixth ii began to We be given to the Blessed Virgin and Saints in the fourth century. under ordinary circumstances. the apostles (as also the symbolical animals that in the was head of our Lord.. evangelists. be renewed. Rome 424) and of St Paul's (a. then. 1867. both in (a. Martigny. and others either have . 44 it . as their bodies still age of to adorn reposed De Rossi says Peter and Paul is in After their translation. 39. . his head. their it many them. but here has more modern form.— Roma 194 have A not. and. it century Christian artists either but after that time its concludes S. 40.* lastly. p. * in- for as the . . we know paintings with certainty that they belong to a perhaps to a period considerably later Church delighted struggle. none plain. used to distinguish would seem. at It all. in verb.J. and constantly afterwards the fifth but that became century. then His Holy the Mother and the angels. in stances. enclosing a in its it mosaics in the cross. ^ BiiUett. pp. t Dictionnaire des Antiquites Chretiennes. In the cemetery of St Domrtilla. from the beginning of and universally before the end of the was not till the rule for Whenever. it which represented them). used or omitted use became universal. Marangani. Acta St Victorini. was only natural that she should continue tombs as the in or martyr with a nimbus period later than the ages of persecution. where the apostles. it the angels. of the year 400. and Padre Garrucci. in venerating the heroes of her past long. it saints indifferently. towards the end of the seventh that all we meet with any therefore. for . that indifferently.

. the tscc. . is be referred. that there . that the invention of this tessera took its origin from the famous vision of Constantine. of the Christian artist always bears a certain propor- tion to the general skill of his cotemporaries . in the Catacombs paintings of the temporary examples which The skill . if not a work of the age of Trajan. on the border of the garments of the In older paintings. and there are not wanting may be compared co- with one another. • pamtmgs the age of the some form of 1 ^ /^-i 1 Letters on ijarments. determmmg • .A Types of Christian have already seen some examples of these tombs of St Cornelius specimens of their for and St Cecilia rt. however. Another chronological note of easy application. or '^'^• the cross. . nionotnam some other the appearance of the letter K. ^jyig^ . which characterise the works of art first or second century For the same differences produced by Pagan hands during those periods are reflected also. is its own art internal evidence. the the Catacombs. execution of his work II2. quite plain. seem the practice of ornamenting with these letters does not have become general until the beginning of the fourth cen- to end of the third." tury. only the dark- ness of the place and other unfavourable circumstances would naturally lead us to expect * that GaiTucci. the vestments are either principal figures. for example. . need of such palpable Iniemal is . cvi- dence from choice " subject. from one of the days of Hadrian. and of some use m . or of is m • letter. . 1 later paintings at the and these may . 95 suffice class. . yet no certain example of use in paintings has yet been discovered before that time. . or at least the In other instances. Vetri. yet certainly — a work of the from one of the third or fourth. in their degree. or with a few light purple stripes upon them and . its It is not often. tokens as these to deternnne the period to which any particular specimen of ancient Christian cases. . . do not believe •-P. cVc. the presence of the monogram or other of its manifold varieties. p. to In most whether of subject or of almost or quite sufficient to enable us to distinguish — style. may in one us of suffice to assure For although we the comparatively recent date of a painting. 113. .

is not always. justified by a careful examination of the two classes of paintings. biblical or. this cycle had received a fixed traditional form. guides. was then figures. therefore. this expectation though usually. imitated from the types of classical garlands. It had become. We must also take into account the place where the paintings are found. consecrated. and the epitaphs or other indications of time And neighbourhood. of learned theological end of the the skill third century. The school. We cannot. winged flowers. and was constantly reiterated. of De Christian much new its first light on the history of ancient Following his guidance. but borrov/ed these without scruple from the works of the Pagan springing forth. at least. By it and freedom would appear. fantastic heads.Rojna Sotterranea. certain order In in this respect that the researches Rossi on the history and topography of the Catacombs have thrown so Sketch of the is it in the beginnings. decorating under imperial patronage the palaces or temples of the city and . seasons. symbolical subject^ genii. 196 would be generally somewhat that of his fellow- inferior to craftsmen. and Christian art was . it was intent only on creating or select- certain necessary types or figures that might stand for the or Qirisdai/ ^^•'S ^'^^' religious truths itself to make ornaments of desired to represent. always trust to mere the internal evidence of style and the degree of merit in the execution. and gradual development of Christian painting. we are able to trace a art. it It did a complete provision of appropriate accessory its own. and this is the age of Christian painting.. not concern &c. as it were. and was used with great under the direction. was gave the religious and completed by an abundance of merely decorative By and by it principal figure in the composition. vases of fruits or of the personifications ejitourage leading characteristic of the Roman first some art. the cycle of symbolical types grew more rich and complicated by the addition of the mystical interpretation of biblical stories. from the midst of which Christian character to The the whole. freely such as birds.

79. the more regular which mark the roof of St Januarius' t chapel Praetextatus. Our sketch of the history of Christian art will not embrace In apostolic development this at all . the . suggested by these harrowing representations. its 97 Egypt or modern one another. 72.* as being probably lines works of the first century . 103. Towards might almost say that they disappeared altogether. These had already begun when third century. the crypt of St in p. Even the introduced. so fixed and immovable were types. St the second. character. in in t Fig. Scenes from real details of bloody and publicity of Christian worship had The age of life are now martyrdoms are on the tombs or the walls of churches painted liberty century. 9 in p. if not quite. as well as certain on either side of a milk-pail ^ Fig. the middle of the to decline from Christian epigraphy the formularies of were gradually developing ." histories 1 "always But the like biblical had now almost superseded the use of symbols. ii altar. and in next the one century. and the in the basilicas finds a pleasure in the contrast. the and again of the vine on the roof of the entrance to St Domitilla. 13 in p.). Christian art. the end of the fourth or beginning of the fifth radical revolution which the conversion of Constantinehad and effected in the social set an equally distinct political position of Christians mark upon symbolism has passed away. and always unlike nature. Rossi speaks of the painting of prophet Isaias in the Our Blessed Lady with Catacomb of Sta Priscilla (Plate X. as in ancient Greece. he attributes symbolical paintings of the or sheep to fish carrying a § basket. to apostolic times.:|: and lambs placed on an which appear on the walls of a cubiculum X See Plate XIV.A Types of Christian almost hieratic in its rt. . ourselves to that more which more especially it and which the progress of dis- covery enables us day by day more clearly to trace back to the highest antiquity De — almost. we confine mysterious and interesting form of belongs to Roma Sotte?-ra7iea. § Fig.

Roma tqS Sotterranea. that no school of art have already quoted upon which they Raoul Rochette's early C'hristian art. either The consciously or unconsciously. We words. some Pagan composition. had gained for it this author insisted a (-crtain measiu'e of accept- . Nay. or of ability some pagan shepherd. Hke Minerva from the brain This writer. its presence here could only be accounted for on the supposition that the artist was imitating. at least. The by the fact that. ^ '^^^ words must be said as to the models were formed. springing into existence fully formed. and could be clearly seen. receiving the caresses animal had no place . was in their representations of the details into Thus. they often figure the put into the shepherd's reed or pipe. upon Again. hands of the same this. while the great bulk of the bibHcal paintings through- out the Catacombs are generally allowed to belong to the third. and caused them to introduce false and unseemly most solemn subjects. but also in all the He composition. too. this on the con- another parable identified with the wicked. of the other peculiarities of costume. further still.' can be created of a sudden. too far when he insisted that there positive imitation this had l^een always a direct by the Christians of pagan models. de- he maintained that the Christian artists were so servile in their imitation of these Pagan models.trary. however. and pertinacity with which his theory. Refutation of the Pafran^ models of Before examining these first efforts of Christian art in detail. that it even led them astray from the teaching of their Divine Master. and could only be the effect of some reminiscence. not only in the general imitation distribution of the whole. but. of the statue of Pan. of the they dared to paint a goat Good Shepherd and as . according termined by the same cause. in the sacred parable. minor accessories of the painting were. details of each even imagined that they had been guided their selection of subjects for painting Pagan models there were that there wxre none. of in one that might be copied. Liicina. carried his theory of Jupiter. and all the to him.

and by him attributed to a Christian Catacomb. It now is ascertained that this cemetery was the work of one of the Gnostic and we sects. are off the soul of the earth. was no thoughtless or profane adaptation of one of the of Pan. was placed in the hands of Christ as the Good Shepherd.stic ceme- misled in part by certain paintings of a semi-Pagan character. ."* charming Christ as Or- the wild beasts by his lyre. the principal arguments by which ance. we are told that Alexander struck at Alexandria. It was precisely same reason for the that the syrinx. Severus placed in his Lararium statues or pictures of Apol- and of lonius of Thyane. and the His taming of the wild beasts was taken as a faint shadow of our Lord's softening the hard hearts of men by the persuasive sweetness of His preaching.g. messenger of the gods. * it See Plate had a special X I. according to the theory we are combating.Types of Christian Art. published by Bottari.^ surit Pluto and Proserpine. reeds. appears there in paintings is as the deceased and descending with horses. 199 Nevertheless. Christian Catacombs. In paintings. a figure which was very popular in the [he ^shepherd's first Christian era. it was That it has of late Raoul Rochette had been years fallen rapidly into disrepute. being often repeated on P^P^ °^ centuries of the medals of Antoninus Pius. being an ordinary adjunct of all shepherds. when such fact. or pipe. carrying in a chariot drawn by four some abyss in the ings of the no longer and Christianity which prised at the mixture of Paganism exhibits. e. resemblance which the Fathers delighted to trace between Christ Thracian bard. under the names of Dis- pater and Abracura the Divine Fates. The kind has ever been found. supposed confirmed being to be now destroyed. but. and Christ. in the of Orpheus. then. it It insigjiia very rarely appears in the most ancient imitation. and Marcus Aurelius. of far-fetched. There was nothing some of Abraham. significance. was most to have been expected. which were Moreover. middle of the and Mercury into it In the genuine paint- nothing whatever of this only mythical personage who the Thracian Orpheus. theory ^^^^^^^^^ i„ <^no. .

though again hereafter. a certain dogmatic value. All figures or scenes of a really polytheistic signification remained. so that Christians could feature of the ject know then. however which their closely Christianity any rate. Vetri. was even staff. p. quite certain that. in fact. and although these extent and importance. . 4. may have education had been received. 25. and to keep them quite I Voter ii. it some Pagan pastoral character." * pastoral staff itself St Gregory Nazianzen early Christian writer has 7\ know " I said. loiijjiv'iTi sheep by the pipe. and so requiring explanation. Raoul Rochette seeks to confirm his theory. when applied to the chief " Shepherd and Bishop of named by The souls. for they never failed to eliminate from their imitations everything which was really inconsistent either with the doctrines or the convejiances of the Christian religion." j who even need not pursue may be if it this sub- necessary to recur to it only express our convic- w^e will difficult to find similarly simple. % St John x. is impress upon our minds ivc. to or model. The their all of the monuments. only another It said that " the sheep follow their shepherd because they So far. due tial way when He of setting forth the same truth as our Lord expressed his voice. Christian paintings of that period have been divided into six classes . We before. and * three centuries." + and another that shepherds are skilled in their art seldom use their crook or their . yet complete. from the presence of the pipe in the hands of Christ being an anomaly. throughout the whole proscribed from Division of Christian painting into six classes. 63. carefully first may classes are of very unequal be found practically impossible treatment. their first to those traditions at it is imi- and examples of the Greco-Roman school tated the traditions in And. it will distinct in worth remembering.Roma 200 Sottcrranea. explanations of every particular by which M. abptyt. fidelity was united with a most scrupulous and en- lightened wisdom. any further now. hardly have failed to introduce had never been painted tion that it it artist denoted an essen- it At present would not be in process of time. yet the division ser^•e to f Sec Oarrucci. but lead was.

abundant valuable information on we any other authority than terranea then of or the history of the to give a topographical. the parables of the Gospel. The Good Shepherd in the centre of the ccilino. and art. however. nor incidentally.— yet. Fk. as merely call allegorical some of . then. which.of one of the most ancient cnbicula in the Crypts of St Lucin. The characteristics of the subject. Such the and is De the is all of scenes from the Liturgy. third first and is called symbolical.a. of His Holy Mother and the saints scenes from Church . on Christian epigraphy. Rossi's division of this part of our subject. 20.Types of Christian Art. ideas. we speak of sacred pictures of Our will Divine Lord. have largest under pictorial emblems. The second we more The will or less accurately. Fourthly. advantage of his direct and immediate guidance so entirely as work of the lives lastly. edition of treatise saints. of biblical histories.. either from the Old or New- Testaments. the The main shall not it object of his and chronological monuments of each Catacomb. . Sot- . gives these subjects. the main may be class of paintings. 201 shall all seldom have occasion to quote his as to the teaching of Roma upon any of them. religious thoughts or expressing. It is not a nor symbolism. they represent. in it must be remembered that we we have hitherto had. historical.

of symbolical paint- prudence. represented. SYMBOLICAL PAINTINGS. and integrity that those not depicted for a work of care and delicacy. many persons. It requires has been so often abused and a field for the unlimited indulgence of the imagination. not unreasonably. this object the mere says. in which the object in interpretation. is made is convey order to in eye we mean It it that may come has even been wittily described as a system which " anything or nothing may be made to mean every- thing. " and although we do not see statement idolatry which introduced that " it and consecrated was the dread of in Christian art a system of merely typical representation. in hensive character. it is quite certain that symbolism has always held a very prominent place in the history of least at the very period with Kugler. and not which we are most concerned." yet he is certainly I . therefore. art. and it both learning. are inclined to listen with profound mistrust to any specimen of before them.CHAPTER 11." Nevertheless. that the exponents of an other words. T) ^ Symbolical paintings J^ set before the beyond The convention. ings yet itself. Roman art denoting the now become at time. they now engaged the thought any authority for his . in speaking of " instead forms of directly of art had abstract idea . the to connected with own its mind some it sake. but further either naturally or idea by . symbols of a more compre- Instead of influencing the feelings. Symbolism explained.

or of those amongst whom in Rules for icnowledge of the thoughts will give us certain tlie artists is ? A they worked. an apparent agreement between tliey support. the any real identity of agreement might be merely third. if it can be and modes of thought and expression world at such a time. Thus. or not long afterwards. meaning fortuitous. and the Christian formed a part of the or with their predecessors form that school and atmo- to which the sphere were dominant artists. as an argument interiM-etation from primitive antiquity against " withholding the cup from the laity" in the administration of the and careful readers must feel at Holy Fucharist. and for to be found whom themselves. will For instance. proportion to the in some modern com- number and clearness of the texts that can be quoted. and speciously supported by the arguments of And mentator. duced. intelligent once that he is doing violence . common intellectual we cannot hope in the interpretation of the works of property (so to to find a surer guide art of the same period. writing about the same time that the symbols were being painted.Symbolical Paintings. a witness or witnesses can be pro- if. cotemporary with the perhaps. single text from a Father of the Church. guided What are the laws as the The art. some passage century. or the position and weight of their author. artists lived . more valuable and trustworthy as a guide than a is infinitely whole volume of hypothetical suggestions. when an Anglican controversialist appeals to the picture Instance of of a dove or doves drinking out of a vase. however ingeniously invented. in an obscure ecclesiastical author of the ninth and some Christian painting of the second or would not suffice to assure us of between them But be the certainty of the interpretation which . who had helped of thought in shown that certain ideas in speak) of the faithful. right in assigning this typical 20 J and symboHcal character leading feature of the earliest productions of that question then arises. by which we must be our interpretation of ancient Christian symbols in Obviously the truest key to their meaning anything that and ideas of they lived. on the contrary.

not by the shrewd conjectures of the by the distorted reasonings of the learned. a symbol almost more frequently used of hope. 19. seem to be inconsistent and therefore we must be content inconclusive. and our belief that the early Christians used intention. in \ to hold our judgment in monuments await the discovery of further which may throw fresh light while. or suspense.* and the instruction Anchor. Thus. early ages a the to guilty of is controversy which had not then been dreamt of wise. professing to interpret is a flagrant anachronism. first and then with inscriptions written only also to Holy Where these and Scripture.Roma 204 monuments he to the Sotterranea. 106. St Paul's Epistle to the Hebrews. Contrari- certain in details its introduction of a goat in- frequent as the having been intended to denote the sheep. then. ° hnnf^" hope . as mercy of Christ explanation his upon insist in receiving receives even sinners to repent- immense support from the well-known language of Tertullian and others of the Fathers. when we observe how commonly it it it is found on the gravestones of persons bearing the name of * Heb. and to by a with one another. fail us. but by the strictest rules of argument and testimony comparison of the various ornaments. such of a stead infinite ance. and from the general testimony of the earliest history as to subjects of dispute in the Christian Church. words . of the various symbols used in the deco- ration of the graves and chambers of the Roman Catacombs must be determined. t Ted agog. expressive confirms us with this in as old as Christianity the in ancient parts of the Catacombs than any other. a writer. without fear of contradiction. <^f St Clement of Alexandria. iii. should execution. carrying back he . interpreting the numerous paintings of the if Good Shepherd. nor controversialist. there are at least some symbols on which we may speak on our In the mean- obscurity. The sense. by appeals to the writings of the early Fathers. vi. that the a token is itself most .! are sufficient to show us anchor. .

. names of * See. a soul its A Christ's fold. Elpis. but even the same words. we so used not in any this did we have find not only the same symbols. the sheep. paluinbulus si?ie which resemble soul. the dove was primarily Our Lord's Baptism. of living but the and deceased . by the Fathers § a dove without also called appears The Holy the plural number. its it and out ''goes in course. cannot be necessary to appeal to any authority beyond It Lord the discourses of our blessed that a ini^ lamb or sheep represented one of dove also was often used bird seems more earthly tabernacle its finding pasture " in this Of life. p. . evidently by design. fig. and we have already seen a type of the way to denote a Christian soul rest. to justify us in say- 119. where the trident is suggestion this foundation very the cross. in a diminutive {oxiw. " Innocent one epitaph belonging to a the two deceased are written over the 12 in X Inscr. for example." (Sec. the find man. and especially. is so formed. § St Cyprian de Unit. Anima simple soul. of the saints generally. especially to have denoted the soul after had been released from into himseh". and had entered Holy Ghost. gall. either in 205 Greek or Latin form. Christ. . and the same title as the designation of the departed souls of the just in Ghost biis is sine of the fdie . «h^^ep ami clove. The Holy Ghost is Spiritus Sauctus. Sometimes the anchor (Isic. still militate against On it. De Baptismo. Elpisusa. as Spes. &c."" substituted. 82. still sometimes for the is. t in a painting of assigned to which But it use in the secondary sense the contrary.J iti?ioee?is. ex. as is it of all more apparent. used in these two senses. and again and again we Catacombs the deceased to felle. f See Tertull. 15 in p. such its Elpidius. itself is the .. viii. Faliini- on the gravestones same words applied the very souls of young to the souls of it. or with others aninia simplex. and in this title. Hope. Sometimes the dove children. anchor. fig. engraved side by side with hisoniuni. as to suggest to the Christian eye the idea of hope Christian the and . Eccl. ix.Symbolical Paintings.

Sometimes the dove vase. been introduced merely as ornaments seem birds in the have to corners of the vaulted roofs of the chapels. especially those bearing a . it that it is meant has departed in the of His Church. for this bird ponit spirituale os ad fontem HIE EN GEO. common such others again.. deceased friend Nebridius." possibility of dispute all an bears it mouth. . says. p.* however. use in Christian third centuries. Beneria and Sabbatia. il and the pahii-tree Speaking of ix. as for instance in fig. other symbols. found c. "Jam potest. § Adv. Conf. . says.Roma 2o6 Sotterranea. seem to proclaim a Christian redeemed by the cross of Christ. as the dove. 11. however. in fin. We heads of two doves. even older than Christianity herald of the peace of times also the word sense beyond God from itself Pax is God and of it is a " the Some- § added. Valent. the sheep and the dove on the tomb- stone of Faustinianus. ii.|| where the union of the cross-shaped anchor. God. Sometimes two or more symbols are found united on one monument. that must not every bird. either painted on the walls or carved on the gravestones of these cemeteries. thereby marking the . was meant Some to represent a dove. and in possession * Inscr. as enjoyment of the eternal happiness branch in though to denote the more frequently still . that peace of % olive- itself. i." t the well-known for the The of immortality. et bibit in some quantum epitaplis. i2. the very beginning. . is Baptismo. and placmg all hope his in it. seem not improbably to have phoenix or " palm-bird. just as they were used by cotem- porary Pagan artists palm-branch in their been intended emblem The dove mouths. Brink and on drinking-glasses. symbol of peace. 3.. conchide too hastily. 421 t The Greek name + See St Aug. was never in especially of the second art." &c. Bitlldt. or pecking at grapes. now released from the chains of this earthly coil. Christ. ^^^^ ^^ soul's '^ phoenix. to assert of the soul of the deceased.. as TertuUian its drinking is and refreshing draughts fruits and viz. and De i?i his is the same. See page 52. he Tuum Domine. 1864. viii. and then.

Anijnce interfectontfn. even after figure Epitaplifroni very Fig. 9. Sometimes the symbol was engraved the tombstone was m its place. the stone with The its blunder of the fossor. f Apoc. xii.i " the souls of them that were Indeed. mosaics of the lourth. will |J^p 7t'^7/ ^^"^' ' . to represent the twelve Apostles. and the disci- This question of the period during which the symbol was used being of some importance. we may venture to say that this slain."' and from some of the monuments themselves which and in which we see twelve doves sitting or around the At a much cross. the to first half of the third have ceased altogether had ended." fragment of the alphabet of Christian symbolism has never been wholly for- gotten or fallen into disuse. and sixth centuries. the fish. use of the dove as a symbol . written name r r rr^ y fixed the upside down. with the same mystical meaning. 1622. 152^ ed. This cannot be said of the symbol we would mention . Ep. which is the next sacred The fish: most important perhaps of ^^ all. some respect. and certainly as ancient as any. who had in • ^ remained still • ^ the in 'I'lii^ liever ^ ^ syml^ol dropped. Paul in. p. of the twelfth century. in the British Museum. birds flying under the blue vault of lieaven have the legend. nlth. even as early as in and may almost be said as soon as the ages of persecution pUna arcani was relaxed. as we learn both from the letters of Paulinus. where perhaps the dove was added by way of correcting. as in the annexed of the hoped-for peace. we * S. in a in Spanish MS. vi. later period. survive. a?icieiit part of Catacotiib of St Priscilla. century. ad Severum. but whose use grew gradually less frequent. 21.— — 207 Symbolical Paintings.

indeed. crosses. or on the aniboncs of Ravenna. In the inscription of 234. it is Of 400 and But A. more words about say a few inquire into the mystical meaning of the that there is no instance of a monument may be found Fishes. more than thirty dated thirteen hundred anchor are found after piscis ab imo. then.. it had almost. 234. the stands alone as a manifest token of the Christian faith fish and we and find it much more so used and third than in the fourth frequently in the second fifth centuries. it is first Rossi considers I)e how three centuries it . sheep. where both the artistic Pesaro. at But all. not one is to and monograms. * " Est -t* homo non totus. epitaphs from the Catacombs having dates. whereas early the mystical use of this sure that the found on nearly a hundred other epitaphs which.D. so that." we must remember that we have not epitaphs prior to Constantine. birds. crowns. But in these any similar instances that might be adduced. It tish. Roma 2o8 Sottein^anea. whereas nearly two thou- sand inscriptions subsequent to Constantine are ornamented with palms. I'hey also form a part of the mosaic pavement of a Baptistery of the age of Justinian. in the sixth century. to appears.d. It had become extremely rare by the latter end of the fourth. and are placed and we cannot emblem began. ceased by the begin- if century. togetlier. on the whole. at representation and the legend accompanying '"' clearly attest it an allusion to the sacrament of Baptism. we are not altogether. any single fish being used with theological sense on a Christian century. and more than him. confidence to the all found on one only after the date of Constantine. from various indications. we go on in this place before it later than the fifth carved at the bottom of fonts. be other and not symbolical in the older Christian epitaphs and paintings. they seem used chiefly for Christian em^blems which are quite clear. the fish and the . and on one before say to among ornament's sake. quite proved that. medius sed In estimating this statement. ning of the fifth we can it^t a. refer with so that. be found amongst them bearing the symbol of a fish.

initials of for the various to their vocation as fishers of men . . ." The fishers of however. Sanct. o of Christ. viz. and to the apostolate. p. its use is fish. Melanges cTArcheol.. Himself was commonly spoken of and represented as a The precise origin of this latter representation . xviii. 23. to the words with which called symbol and gathering together of cast into the sea. We 1 artists have even Body of our Lord iv. § Civ. though not un- idea. : and some mediaeval represented a hook and line proceeding from the very He hung upon + Oratio Constant. unquestionable. . &c. birth to the element of water spiritual and secondly. but the . some doubt. beginning from It Clement of Ale.— Symbolical Painthigs. Coet. Son of God. 8.xandria." the § many successive lines. the cross. as Ii8.. and in suggested that famous acrostic quoted by Eusebius t and St Augustine % from the so-called Sibylline verses. know from the testimony of Cicero (De 54) that acrostics were a characteristic of the Sibylline verses. The thoughts heaven to a net compares the kingdom of our Lord .. because Christ . down to St Peter Damian. c. known art. * all A of most of our readers would naturally recur to ^nd of a parable in which the 209 to be saying " Come men." In olden times it was customary in the Church of France to Divin..'"' was certainly not the leading idea which directed the use of this symbol The either to the Christian liturgies or to Christian Church.. by taking the the Greek words IH20TC XPRI2T0C letters initial of so "Jesus Christ. ©EOT TIOC and then the Greek Liturgy SIITHP. may admit of Origin of its use as symbol . the initials of the next lines give the word 2TATP0C. the hook of preaching. It follows next to inquire in what sense the symbol was used. suggested by these passages. of nations caught like fish. Saviour * Nearly feasts of the hymns provided in apostles make some allusion all the . they speak of the rod of the cross. can be established by a catena of Fathers. ii.. ad + De Cahier.. the bait of charity. § In the original. which gives us. use in apostolic times. . or again. It is even believed that it was in in the the eleventh. Origen. . . Dei. " Cross. universality 01 . c\:c. St second century. in the early fish entered into the cycle of Christian thought and art in primitive times chiefly for two reasons : because Christians owed their new and first. Simon and Andrew ye after me. . and Tertullian. make you I will ^^^^'-^^"• He 'kinds of fishes.

profession we cannot as " figuratively called the fish . t. XV. De Ant. " and in every story of sing these Sibylline verses in church at Christmas with all the solemnity they could. its single letters. as and unity of Person. P. RiL. II. a mystical meaning had been sug- fish. c. See Grotius.— . Jews than the habit men. of Alexandria were of converts from Judaism largely of coining schools that the really the first to originate composed . Cahier in his f Adv.t ''a Hence St two by means of whole multitude Clement names the . of faith. or The name of motto which Judas Macchabeus letters of the have ever had upon Thee among Instances of use by the its on his lips or O the strong. Macchabees. or motto. and were. xii. d' Archeol. by means some other names. i. Lord the the redemptorial office in of of holy names. it gained general acceptance in the became a sacred and tessera. both in it " It contains in one name. Sac. Eccl. have already said that St Clement of Alexandria themselves wonder first that originated the idea. iii. It ful brevity Creed —a natures." says Optatus. these several words taken together We or " fish. Roma 2IO Sotterranea. Melanges lib. is only another example of tation given in the epistle of born to Abraham in his See a very interesting paper by the same kind. The interpre- Barnabas of the number 318. closely connected with them. was more familiar that nothing names to the of initial letters for instance. Our Blessed Lord." make up word 1X0 T the the earliest witness to the use of this symbol is no means improbable The Church it. . * Exodus Marteiie. iii. Lord ? his banners. legend.several figures that miglit very properly {tiirbant) fish as one of be used on Christian Origen speaks simply and without explanation of our seals. 192. Parmen. the servants house (Genesis xiv. or whether these verses ^^^^^ leathers in this sense be made up of the said to is by and we know . 13. with wonder- a complete abridgment of the distinctness. it is of that city was for their leaders or other great of a combination of the and . at any rate when once gested for the word Church. " initial supposed to is Who like to is " * Whether." embodying. 2695. iv. 14). the Sibylline verses received their inspira- from Alexandrine Christians. Critic. lib. c. however.

find a multitude of little fishes. Dei. but Adv. in He " to our prayers. 1863." says St Prosper of Aquitania. showing still further to multiply quotations from how familiar to tion of the fish. into the baptismal font. enamel.1 Symbolical Pamtmgs. would be easy It the Fathers. Christian figure 2 1 Church recognised We Httle fishes. of pearl. it." a manifest allusion to the two Sacra- ments of Baptism and the Holy Eucharist.. with Our Blessed But such an accumulation of proof Lord. and precious stones. tombstone with a Pagan inscription on either * his through the drilled ii.* " are born in water after the example of Jesus Christ our Jis/i" answer tism. in crystal. ivory. viz." says Optatus. § some of them with holes head. so that what before was water " in whose money Adam. is who demanded to those Peter. . Parmen. whose blood both the first Adam and " other sinners. once. iii.J — words which contain "we are daily enlightened and fed. already sufliciently clear. p. + Or the author of the name. protection of his wife Sarah and the enlightenment of the blind Tobias. was whose gall and the second Christ. side. to be worn round the neck . viz. that descends. et Prcedic. 38. which goes by Proniiss." says TertulHan. 39.." the interior remedies of that fish. one with the word SIICAIG Mayest Thou save us") engraved upon (" we find a De Bapiismo. is these hidden meanings of all this identifica- might be found. it them was Holy Scripture were derived from the simple fact tacitly assumed by them that the fish was the recognised conventional sign all. also. were redeemed. we under- "By stand Christ. its back . " or aUusion. in the graves of Hence we mother the Catacombs . which was caught fish fish piscina the coin which was paid as the tribute- at the cost of is. + book Dc Lib." says St Jerome. sacred writ connected with a some the early fish. The " {a pisce)'' fish mouth was now which is called from the first all taken. wherever The important that thing to observe is unnecessary. ^"^1 "^ monumeats of art. for Christ. § Bidlett.t " in bap- liver Tobias took for the By that in the river Tigris." whereof we read.

found it is in union with other symbols. because and fix what each. in which these two symbols are almost inseparable. and. the is more easy of application fish word or the symbol) rarely found is in quite alone monuments the here. Much more • frequently. it number interpret with certainty a of various complications of artistic symbols into which the fish j^JQj^g And enters. dove or an . anchor. Hence. — it is found in conjunction with the . springing from the same source. . dose a Christian tomb. fish sel- we can also. for example. and this comWith a ship. . The conviction even from the most unwilling mind. may have undetermined and probable. test way only that innumer- as legitimate is and as to Christian antiquities. Together they resemblances. it In three or four Used together instances the fish is bearing a ship on its back . it wresting irresistible. a ^^ ^i „ xt^i bmation naturally suggests to us Christ upholdmg His Church. a fish the stone. and so intimately united with them as manifestly to is have been intended as a part of one whole. this if symbol be found united with others of a similar character. of the In more than two-thirds of the numer- cemeteries. an important is For of the truth of our test comparatively easy to assign a mean- it is ing to a single symbol standing alone.ous instances in this left decided in the interpretation of happens that the (either the Roman this It is in and the process when applied Moreover. this interpretation. Thus. as sufficient to claim for a Christian sense. sometimes found in connexion with a ship. and if this same meaning and communicates a them suffices to explain and force quite light all. receives differences of the symbols thus brought together mutually illustrate and and prove as perfect one another. but taking a different form. successful it establish with. to say nothing of gems. — in ^ ^ more than twenty ^ epitaphs. questions have been profane antiquities. since any isolated fact But will often lend itself to several different interpretations. . taken separately. their certainty. able of instruction as fruitful which it is repeated. besides chipping to was roughly cut upon and cancelHng the Pagan epitaph.2 2 Roma 1 now used The Sottei'ranea.

" symbol of the it Deo Another combination of the in Christ. In pace et in Christo. evidence that the certain is Christian connect these representa- tions with the miracles of multiplying the loaves and sometimes. and we understand at once. or Christ. and fishes. as plainly as been written in ordinary often was). 22. Spes in Deo. another combination. twenty instances. and will at fish is it all deserves the most careful study. Fig. Spiritus [tuus] in pace. indeed. " is] in peace. once occur to the reader to artist intended to allude to those incidents. as we sometimes On some written also. ever. repre- senting a Christian soul supported by Christ through the waves and storms of this world. or with the Good for themselves There which is is found also. or added. figure or in word. there with bread. Fish and Even then. or seals.— Symbolical Pamli?igs. Gravestone fy-om most ancient part of St Friscilla. however. with the The name monogram. he nearly always violated the * <^-g-^ I^^ig- 7 in Probably it literal page 55. inscription in it its when the fish Thy of all spirit [be." &c. either in of Jesus. 21 anchor. Spes Christo.""* These all speak and require no comment. truth of the how- Gospel . of the fish the most interesting and important of symbols. or the Shepherd." so. mode only another ancient epitaphs. when found on a Christian gravestone. fish is had alphabet (as indeed letters of the Christo. and as we have already seen that this bird with its oHve branch. a common of expressing the most is find ancient rings lamb or a dove may be seen standing on a fish. Spes in in Hope if it This we meet with in nearly with the dove. we recognise the same is longer and fuller form.

to the height of a symbol. In the a history ' chapter of the Gospel according to St John. for the express Sotterranea. and raise would seem) of showing it and letter. Himself rection. 2. . such paintings suffice to explain swimming and carrying on fish It It In this place. before them '. . woman hands expanded in prayer?"^ of the artist. t See Plate XIII. . It but ought rather to reserve the whole subject as history. since there no history is to which they correspond were signs of religious Ideas and imitations of facts Raoul Rochette rical ^ .) last subterranean chapels there . or as in calls . It Is stands opposite. On . with her mere caprices If these are not clear that they must have been intended to render sensible some doctrine rather than to represent any fact. division of our subject. . and which may be said symbolical. with a man standing before the table. A pariicular instance of these symbols united (St John Its most it elucidation. which seven men are represented seated bread and fish XXI. purpose go beyond the his Intention to hidden meaning of the text were. they were symbolical. apparently In the act of blessing what upon is whilst a it. we should first for speak of frequent recurrence in the Catacombs. . that fitting will place In this be necessary. (as back a basket its three-legged table with a large fish and two or upon three loaves lying It ? — or same the again. and complete of a painting which than faithful truths^ rather them. i. It we should have no wise. to penetrate to the Idealise the Were right to speak of speak of the But what which paintings can biblical history —a —a as these ? of bread ? represent other- we come till biblical to histories. m . not histo- and therefore they their full they a word. to His literal representation. . . find their Nevertheless. to be partly interpretation Is and partly historical provided by the Fathers themselves.t and there is .2 Roma 14 story. 3. Ideographical paintings. panitmg ^'i-]-^ of several the walls . at a table. to . of which be taken as a a Is it might Jesus was manifesting disciples for the third time after His resur- and the evangelist has recorded the circumstances of * See riate XIV. Is .

and giving more it them es[)ecially." f then. for those ' . 13. they land. and fish in like manner. their never- pencil in a pre-eminent degree? which details of the incident. and bread. ought not appear strange or fanciful to any one. important for is it same Seven of the disciples had spent us to observe. did claim their it attention and occupy and even to the exclusion of every other history of the The class. of such a character as to lay a singular claim upon the Christian artist above we theless find. when engaged as fishers of men. f St to many in some of of our readers. to thereon. But when the the night in fishing. and were rewarded by a miraculous draught of And as soon and a lying.. fish laid And when caught. invited them to and " Jesus cometh and taketh bread and giveth them. it He may chance to be new to says that " in the dinner which the * St John xxi. on the narrative of St John. and bade them cast the net on the right side of the ship. Jesus stood on the shore. but on this others also. Most of them also will pro- bably suspect some connexion between the giving of bread by Christ to His apostles (not on occasion only. but had caught nothing. them bring they as of the also come and dine. are these. morning was come. even though. 215 Of minuteness. of St Augustine in the institution of the on one of these occa- He The was made known following commentary. They cast there- fore. of His manifestation after His resurrection) with the taking of bread Holy Eucharist . its details. the manifestation with great ourselves we might not perhaps have noted anything very special in these circumstances. Symbolical Painlmgs. Lord made Luke to by St Angus- xxiv 35. since expressly mentioned that " sions it is them in the breaking of bread.'"" All thoughtful students of Holy Scripture can hardly fail to Explained of recognise in this miraculous draught of fishes a prophetic type Eucharist of the success which should attend the labours of the Apostles. coals Jesus bade which they had themselves they had done He so. came fishes hot saw^ And fishes. all other manifestations as a matter of fact that .

c. sec. also the is bread which came down from heaven. This history forms a suitable conclusion to the whole Gospel. t Keble on Eucharistical Adoration. reriwi magnarum it it sets forth the union of about Christ. by means of the bread from heaven.S'/ Aug.' the the fish caught by the Apostles. Ev. for the participation of everlasting happiness we . :*: fiUura est ultima resnrrectione mortuoium. and ourselves. torn. ii. this world. iii. once a pledge and a at and the and then We more intimate enjoyment of whereof the sacrament of the altar is foretaste. by those seven time. The must be incorporated into Christ. Gaume. first. qualis ubi supra. with — " This which St John though he had many other things uf existwio he would et say. 2. caught. J have said that no thoughtful student of Scripture can words by the justly object to this interpretation of St John's great Doctor of the West. p. . 7?tagna contemplatione . and are associated in the same And happiness. because much the dinner of our is all " His heavenly kingdom under a veil. Tract. as though his in own imagination. since it rests even now universally acknowledged what might have been said. t inas- or in a mystical manner. the Holy Eucharist."— . it were the mere upon . " that so we may understand we too have a that share in so great a sacrament. " In captura piscium commendavit Ecclesia. is fruit of which are far short of that in the early ages of the Church no other interpretation of the narrative was * In Joann. bread. 123. are represented end of true believers to the all disciples " (the number seven being often used in Holy Scripture for completeness or universality).^''* as though " exhibits a kind of link or transi- tion from Christ's earthly to as to say finishes his Gospel. Sacramentum. principles but this For the truth is. Christ who was broiled that fish He added which to Sollerranea. Christns passus) really the fish He . 2460. which they had seen ' Church laid was suffered {Piscis assiis. in that yet in the next world. which is upon the of the fish they themselves had and of bread. of the coals. Christian souls with Christ their Head. Him rest of the Fathers." Lord His Avith he concludes disciples.Roma 2i6 seven disciples. . ed.

who was buried cemetery of St Pierre d'Estrier. Africanus. So unanimous is 2 1 the consensus of the Fathers in seeing here a mystical representation of the Holy Eucharist. is immediately reminded of these same sacraments. to the history of Tobias on the one hand. as " that great Fish wlio satisfied speaks of our blessed Lord from Himself (ex Se Ipso) the disciples on the shore. of course. unless we sup- pose that to the writer himself. or that manifested. Other. of . 39. man at the creation over the fishes of the sea. eT- .7 Sym bolica I Pain tings. 23. ever dreamt of. in Phrygia. which he describes as " that solemnity of sacraments whereby mercy seeks out amid many waters are other solemnity wherein that fish it is those first whom God's initiated. the idea of the fish as a symbol of the Holy Eucharist were per- fectly familiar. Bishop of Hiera- towards the end of the second century one Pectorms (as it . quoted one who speaks of Christ as " that interior remedies we are both enlightened have already fish from whose and fed . near Autun. ii. This interprethe ^^ Abercius. Prosper content ourselves with quoting but one testimony. which. as well as to his readers. ^^l^\^^ ^^P^^ ^^. when has been drawn forth from the deep. but was only imperfectly under* De Promiss." referring. and to the two sacraments of Baptism and the Holy Eucharist on the St Augustine t also. xiii." ^ to the that this is not the only passage of which the Fathers recognised the Blessed Sacra- the altar under the We same symbol.. pious mortals eat. of St Abercius. the would appear). and Himself as a offered fish (IX0TN) And we must remember Holy Writ ment of in whole world. commenting upon this shall same part of the Gospels. t Confess. further remarkably attested by two one." These words would be absolutely unintelligible. probably in the during some part of the third century. This familiarity still is most ancient epitaphs polis. speaking of the authority given to other. The first of these epitaphs has been long known. that Cardinal Pitra can only find a single ancient writer (the who does pseudo-Athanasius) not so interpret We it.

the road. and bread. The bread and the fountain are also t Chapter VII. . Moses to speak of the representations of and the fountain flowing forth . Garrucci. and Bethlehem means the House of Bread. epitaph chronology has been in is was used as we have spoken of was only discovered about thirty years ago in the place already mentioned cussion. /^//j Bdhlemiais . pray for me. " the fountain. fish striking the easily then bread and naturally together as the visible and one great mystery. its The mystical language." will be better explained at a future time.— 8 2 Roma 1 Sotterranea.t come rock. 491. until recent discoveries of Christian thrown fresh hght upon of towards lines many and is only part contained in a few Abercius has been describing conclusion. 533 . Pitra. /cat Ix^iV re TrapedrjKe Tpo<p7]v TOVTov irapedojKe (piXois ^(xdeiv 5td iravrbs. others as late as the middle of the fourth. Oct. and its critical dis- as early as the time of the Antonines it the second century. e/c 8e fxirjs Trrjyijs And bread and the blessed Virgin in i. P. vi. and to he says IlicrTiS 5e irpocrriye. P. but a symbol of Christ and of the Holy Eucharist fish invisible parts of The second and another af^A '^t^ n°"^^^ come . iii. torn. p. monuments had stood. Book.* which concerns our present subject it his its distant travels through Syria and Rome. and set before me from the one fountain. Kat /ultjs cltto Trrjyrjs Kadaphv. Bolland. food for some placing made the subject of much . ix. eat ." and having everywhere. and other Acta SS. 359. of this brought together in a line of the Sibylline verses. Cardinal Solesm. 15. giving wine mixed May with water. Secchi. Kepaa/iia didovaa ravd^ 6 PoQiu eiJ^aLTO virep fiov ttSs 6 " Faith led fish me on cryj/(^56s. one when we the rest all understood when once we recognise that the wine and the which good wine. 6v edpd^aro irapdevos ayvq' Trajn/meyedy}. apTov Kopos ^acrerai dvdpQv. Pitra quotes an ancient title of our blessed Lady. * Spicil. the great and spotless embraced the pure Virgin to dprov fjL€T The this fish she fish gave to friends he who understands these things allusion contained in the words. olvov XPV'^'^^^ ^XOi'crO'.

118. Mel. we and by to. of with it 2 to the fish. 156.''' more probability 1 which cannot be mistaken.^^ . will we add yet other art them- they stood alone.^^ we have put upon fish. or Cana the changing of water into wine at events which had absolutely no connexion with other. the changing or with each most intimately many Solesni. one can doubt what is here alluded and no one. first. Syi7i bo liea I learned assign authorities. so that even those who fourth century. No irlve. think. " receiving it and holding the your in fish hands. it. jSpQaiV 'ZcoTTJpos 5' ayicju fxeXirjdea Xafi^aj/e "Eadie. 560. it may have been as old as are called " the Christians divine children of the Heavenly Fish. historically. d'Aich." \-xQvo% ovpaviov deiov yevos. either of the miraculous multiplication of the loaves ^^^ [io^n^f the loaves and fishes. citations i. and of in Galilee. and fishes. can call in question our right to attribute to the early Christian artists the same thoughts on this manifestly familiar to Christian writers. earher part of the about think it it may have been the to a flavour of antiquity is put together in present form in the its do not hesitate to say that the particular part which has reference it There third." says." " Eat and drink. would in our opinion interpretation ancient and popular symbol of the fact Nevertheless. this together there is the the paintings of this dinner of Miracles of our Lord to seven of His disciples. iii. iv. taken ^^. subject as were so most sceptical of readers. united. which. may satisfy the selves. ^J." and after an allusion to new and immortal their received in the sacred waters life. we particulars. it goes on to bid them "receive the sweet food of the Saviour of the saints. abundantly even if These that in all. dvoLV Ix^'^^ '^X'^^ iraXafxais. . there is added some repre- sentation.9 Pa iii tings. S[)ic. In the days of St Iren^us. which enrich the soul with wisdom. when found particulars are twofold or nearly all. that from the monuments of Christian justify the with bread. * It though mystically they are all can hardly be necessary to make See Cahier.

and as having We denied. they its always departed. vi. but eight. and in other respects also bearing * Comment. credible thing that Apostles on to Lord once turned water that since our and Holy great mystery of the the allusion to the two species in the Blessed art. subterranean. and in Body another makes the same Pope Liberius or rather. ments of transparent too is something akin St blood. 2 Rcmia 20 from the Fathers. lib. I. hidden and mystical meanless. ought not to be counted an it recorded by St Luke. to be He are all into wine. It was the symbolism and not the representation of a real history.^ we never nor six water-pots of wine. bread always forms the foreground of the picture we have described of the feast of the seven disciples. a number of baskets of time and place. but seven. t L)e Virginibus.* says application of monu- in the argument urged by St Cyril of Alexandria. and for this reason they united in one scene events that were really very distinct in Thus. " place he brings the two miracles together. the future and Blood of the Lord is distribution of the foreshadowed . cause they desired that the Moreover. in S. familiar with the j of the both these in and when they are brought together Sacrament blood saw prove that they foreshadowings miracles Sotterra^iea. of a religious idea they aimed at.. commenting on the other miracle as " In the ministry of the distinctly. ancient Christian cemetery has lately been discovered in Alexandria. Luc. which is in- should also have turned wine into Ambrose. more or €. 84. t The Christian artists could not have been ignorant of this spiritual interpretation of our Lord's miracles. The second item ^^ of artistic evidence is still more conclusive.g. ix. to Eucharist . c. iii. he quotes homily delivered on Christmas Day in St Peter's. this occasion. but be carried forward to ing. them both done so in a . be- minds of those who saw their paintings should not rest in the outward semblance of the scene. Similar paintings in a Cata- comb at Alex- andria. from its literal truth find seven or twelve baskets of bread. .

chapels. left.m . the to one In Ro- of and precisely over the the altar where the sacred mysteries would have been celebrated.- — — TA HAIAIA and " The Servants " and \ N\^ ^ the in ^ff^i. say — In the middle is to our blessed is Lord. X.^ corresponding compartment on the number of other side are a certain persons seated at a feast. our blessed Lady and the servants having legends H AFIA MAPIA "Holy Mary'' over their heads.— "Eat- gend over ing the Now. 1 The 6. their heads. which we this have here translated the of benedictions benedictions. viil.lO in which these various scenes are all brought together. verb belonging to it Evangelists is used by the indifferently * I Cor." same word. is word used by St Paul* when speaking of the communion of the Body and Blood of Christ.221 Symbolical Paintings. baskets of loaves before is Him. there are the remains of a pamting. with Peter on His right hand and Andrew plate with o. a certain resemblance man Catacombs. holding a several whilst on the ground lie ^^^ Further to the right the miracle at Cana. with a le- TA2 ETAOriA2 TOT XT E50IONTE2. belonging (De Rossi believes) to the fourth century. Christ.i iiis^^. with the iii'.i His two fish. and their interpre- That tation given in writing.

" is which have details to us with reference to the thoughts who executed them. and importance of ^^'^^ 7x17 ^^^ tedious. and when .Roma 222 Sotterranea. It. St John vi. 26. then. viz. out of place. vi. or at 7 to avoid long we desired it if to For we have solid foundations. perhaps. artist himself. Before the recent discoveries. fervent. 22. yet show that we are building Testament/' some of our to was not possible it as " a and used may have appeared somewhat discussion ^^^^^ on two use the words of St " (to New chalice of the we Here. corresponding verb of the P^ucharist. been accused of wishing to force upon the paintings of the Catacombs a meaning they will meaning sincerely desire to ascertain what we have thought means of doing them with the come down of those We the best literary their and biographical really this is to or for whom done is to prove . xiv. 16. and also of the institution of the Blessed Sacrament. 11. . St Luke ix. Holy Euchar- of which the bread denotes the outward and visible form. there was meant a secret reference to the ist. both in their account of the miracles of multipHcation. xxvi. we most not bear. 41 . instead of have the evidence of the Christian miracles we have ^^ of evidence. XV.. 27. less is any rate j readers. retained. xxii. now bread which was received. 19. 19. this was only a conjecture of * St Matt. and compare and feelings they were executed. the conclusion. 36. the fish the inward and hidden reality. that the kind of sacramental anticipation Summary to denote the blest referred to were understood Maximus) " of the and com- same word was naturally the and has ever since remained."' Lastly. used by St Cyril of Alexandria is it (in word always the very whose city this painting found) to denote the consecrated bread and wine of the faithful waxed the devotion munions became more rare. have been accused of " attempting to connect the the doctrine of Transubstantiation. whereas fish What we have by abundant testimonies that when with really fish and bread were represented together on ancient Christian monuments. Christ Jesus Our Lord. xiv. St Mark.

and . to strangers. and fish. as on a very Examples. where the hieroglyphic of the fish From Holy Table. it is no longer possible for any reasonable man to refuse his assent to the interpretation. It is quite certain that these figures. ancient one found at Modena.Symbolical Paintings. ^YNTRoTHloTv <s)©@ Fig. 1^. side by Gospel side with pictures recording the on bread and histories of the repasts and the baskets of multiplied loaves. less illustrated and by the celebrated epitaph of Autun. see on a Christian tombstone. and of tian gradual development in the hands of Chris- its that artists. letters of the we who English alphabet to ourselves. together with many which had been known indeed long before. provide so complete a demonstration of that secret symbol. 22o acute and learned antiquarians. however unmeaning they might have been were as perfectly intelligible to cotemporary Christians as the hieroglyphics of ancient Egypt to those used them. each holding a loaf of bread in its mouth. but not others fully un- derstood. a couple of fish. then. is the openly applied to the bread of the first moment venerable monument. it — invited threw on of the discovery of that — then a professor in a the attention of the learned this instance of ancient Chris- and the monuments of various kinds which have since been brought to light. thus they put in the strongest light the symbolical link which united those repasts and miracles with the The secret of this connecting link confirmed was no Eucharist. or the When. — Tombstone from a?i ancient Christian Cemetery at Modenn. and represented in this figure. Cardinal Pitra neighbouring seminary to the light tian Holy which symbolism . or to make a demand for more abundant evidence. but the pictures discovered in the cemetery of St CalHxtus set before us most plain and un- questionable representations of the Eucharistic table.

vi. and in the sacrificial rites both of the Jews and had continued the use that the Christians also of vessels of the same material for carrying the Blessed Sacra- ment. where gold or silver could not be had. 396. but of a gray ashen colour. was St who had irresistibly Jerome spent is text from St Jerome. an accurate copy in Plate apparently alive and swimming. whose tombstone cal representation of the ment which had. made of a chalice of glass.| doubt. % See Marini. ." t In the precisely of this kind. ^^''S manner we have no . This bread kind. and De Rossi produces a says he ing.nd mean- • • is In life. Fratr. Holy feel certain that the surit is. and especially by the Jews. Bishop of Toulouse. that this singular painting * St John. intended a symboH- Eucharist. Rusticuni. ad. alias \. therefore. vivors of Serapion. is its not of the ordinary such as was used by the people of the East. bears upon fish. ciibicula in the crypts of St will fi. the barbarous name of mamphala. that blessed sacra- doubtless. cannot 1085.* difficulty in giving a Christian • i i and now life. Migne. we other loaves between them. of which he reminded as soon as he saw this paint- speaking of Exuperius. both something red. •. on the top of the basket. can be richer than one who carries the Body of Christ in a basket and the Blood of Christ in painting before us the basket is twigs. . in ^^ ^'^^^ ^ strange-lookmg ornament which one of the most ancient and of which the reader A XIV. been his strength in gave the sure hope of his resurrection to everlasting Fish carrying a basket of like bread. all his substance for the relief of the poor. 423. however. and it was already known from other sources that baskets of wicker- work were used Gentiles. and he goes on to remark that " nothing. t Ep. but pictures.2 Roma 24 five Sotlerranea. a some- clearly distinguished a thing that seems best to represent a glass containing red wine. as a sacred offering of the Romans by lies first fruits to the priests. Arvali. may be and was known in the middle of to the The bread in it. ed. torn. 125. ^ twice repeated Lucina. i. back a basket of bread. — at We once the most 55.

undoubted fact that milk-pail. on the right-hand side of the Shepherd. latter Elsewhere instances. page 103. In these might not unreasonably be taken as merely one of the ornamental accessories of pastoral without any religious signification. Probably the painting also on the opposite wall of the same aibiadiim is less is another symbol of the Holy Eucharist. or. resting on the back of the lamb itself.— Symbolical Pamtings. and Marcelliitus. milk-pail rests on a kind ofLaml^canyi and the same instrument may be sheep. but its find it. Peter Fig. 26. Fig. though this between two altar A obvious and certain. it it appears also in his hands. Peter and Marcellinus. 225 of the fish miited intended to refer to the mystery of the Holy Eucharist. ancient and the most simple that with bread —was we know. suspended from the pastoral and by the side of the lamb . some most ancient pictures in the cemetery of St Domitilla.'^" seen in the next chamber. . 14. we are reminded of the * See fig. —Milk-pail and shepherd^s by side of lamb frojii Catacomb of St Domitilla. as in life. crook cemetery of SS. as in staff a later painting in the Lmnb carrying tJie milk' pail fro}n Catacomb of SS. inserted position in the pre- sent example seems to indicate something So also when we Good more important. 25.

Lucif. c. the lamb carrying the milk-pail on own back seems its we have exactly analogous to the picture In- just been studying of the fish carrying the bread. upon the question of symbolism with which engaged. i"'^ in Ps. w^e are is if commenting of the 33d Psalm. on Holy Saturday. Gaume. of which it was here in evi- dently intended to be a symbol. i. xv. i. De X Enarr. Amen. may It not be the primitive practice of giving milk and honey to infants after baptism.— 2 Roma 26 Sotterranea. 3 .* deed. ed. at least tradition to the Church. out of place mind to call to also figure of flesh.t and by the lanfuage of St Augustine It is more Still to our purpose to quote the language of St Augustine in his commentary on one of the Psalms. adv. Hieron. milking His flock. lib. She received them upon one another. and with hands crossed —just answered. as and late as the ninth or tenth century. Vetri. c. 63. Eccl. Vetri. ed. the that saint Good Shepherd He " had drawn. Militis. 16. torn. that we are sure our readers we quote from on the title it at some t Tertullian. 62. p. iv. Rit. as a part of the vision soled and strengthened in prison. xxxiii. and some of the old com- mentators point out that the good things of the Gospel are sometimes prophesied and foretold under the sometimes of mixed wine."- the appear- some of the ing to her. The Acts interpreted ^ St Perpet'iia of St Perpetua —generally acknowledged as a genuine document of the beginning of the third century by which describe. and bears De . Dial. 2da. which refers to an incident in * Buonarroti. — a practice borne witness to by Tertullian and St Jerome as one of those things which were handed on by which was continued. Something of the same kind also occurs in other ancient Acts . 32 Martene. will need no apology The Doctor length. sometimes of milk. 301. J and the whole sermon so directly in which occurs it is so remarkable. milk was often used as a symbol of the Holy Eucharist. Garrucci. Cor. See . Ant. and giving her to eat curds of the milk which was con- the all people word and the action then used partaking of the Holy Eucharist.

is it made humble. fore- shadowed mysteries of the Christian Church. in former times a sacrifice of the Jews according to the order of Aaron. which the have read the Gospels. striking of the rock. of Christ. history of the Jewish people lias such a meaning and he . For Thou Melchisedec' art a priest for ever Of our Lord sacrifice former one according to Aaron. and according to Melchisedec. and particular attention to his priesthood. as yet. It is brethren. and the in of the Psalm title And be attributed to another. appeals to his hearers as knowing this fact as well as he does. to the blessing calling which . Blood of the Lord. ihere was not the sacrifice of the Body and . and know and those who is now spread {diffiisum) faithful Put then before your eyes those throughout the whole world. commended . recorded in the historical Book of Kings the incident to say.Symbolica I Paint iiigs. the Red passage through the He and the Sea. which sacrifices." And he continues that so the pride of the disdain to follow the footsteps of immediately as follows : — " But there was. priest Of whom one 'The Lord swore. the manna. ' Thou according to the order of Melchisedec?' Christ. He made For to you. a who Christ is then I is way humility. whether because every other part of the . as a type of Christ killing Satan : — " But what When humility slaying pride. God was human race might not God. not exactly as that : told of one person. in the is it is 227 seems to it the Saint argues that this He change of name has not been made without a reason. But who was Melchisedec?" the history of Melchisedec. Jesus giving it is art a written. two this. humility that to us slew Satan? specially . we can which he maintains discover meaning of the whole into the mystical inquires. then speaks of David slaying the giant Goliath. after . therefore. as you know. the life books of David. He specifies amongst other which details of Jewish story. with victims of cattle and was in a mystery. . or not it it is certainly must have. for is this ever according' this said. incident. the will not repent to the order of Then. because. too. by my speak to you.

viri" der the symbol is of milk./ iwbls).' feed on him. But what mortal could approach that food^ Whence could that satisfies he have a heart suitable come for such food % was necessary It that made milk {inensa ilia lactesceret). not robbery to be equal with God. His Body and Blood. unless fit be passed through What done by the mother. 24. humility Our Lord Jesus . He . . man has that Word whereon the Angels feed. by the also eaten is first it panem . and so But how does meat become milk'? How that food sliould be ^Evicnirist then. and the the Clirist Body and Blood us His to for except . and the powers above. is he were humble. sacrifice taken away. wihed our salvation to be From His . '' The .''' that is. he continues. but because the mother changes the bread to eat bread. it. has But % He would ' In the : Word was with God.2 Roma 28 Sotterranea. * Ps. equal to the Father thought it is man ate the bread of Angels. as it ' . meat changed flesli And 1 this is eats. and and eating. *? • ' the bread of Angels. and which is of heaven eaten of then has the likeness of ' He The Angels man might eat servant. He the bread of Angels. Ixxvh.' that taking the form of a men and in habit found as a man. ' being in the form of God. Consider His greatness Word was Angels eat of for Angels. being made debased Himself. yet. for man has eaten the juice of milk. and the sacrifice according to the order of Mel- chisedec has begun to be. the ' He gave them the bread for. Behold then His humility. still remains whole. and this everlasting food. the same infant not is into milk. and dwelt in us' (/. heavenly spirits which Behold God. in He commended whence has and the Holy of Aaron. ChHS^°°'^ having brought forth bread his to little ones. and to who speaks of the sacrifice of the Body "^ and wine. not be eaten and drunk. but in written. they are filled and gladdens them satisfied . the into her flesh {jpsnm infant the mother iiiater incaiiiaf)^ and so feeds the infant on that very bread. through the lowliness of the breast How and Wisdom of God fed us on bread Because the Word was made flesh. he gave to Abraham. but food beginning was the Word.' and .

'" in order that from the Cross might be commended to us the new sacrifice." Manifestly. pails to it is which we have called attention ments may have had Ave by no means improbable in early Christian to put with the symbol of the bread and the is on the same level it The examples fish. the well-known passages of TertuUian which show the love of the early Christians sign of salvation.v^taTioy why this sign should not be freely exposed to public gaze jthe famous caricature of the Crucifixion. <r>j. though a religious symbolical do not by any means pretend that the milk- and attested is authorities.Symbolical Painting's. borrowed from the language of a few and its Some of our readers of interpretation the other was inces- . so formed in Christian epitaphs as naturally to suggest the thought of the cross we need not quote others.^^^ . and criicis religiosi\\ the cross was the sigmim their frequent use of Nevertheless. may be surprised that nothing should Different have been yet said about the cross or the monogram.J how- not. Alex. a sufficient In the most ancient part of the lowest piiuio of the crypt of St Lucina. santly repeated in every variety of combination. latter name. 229 humbled Himself. then. by a great multitude of monu- meaning. ii. all have been the Christian symbols. which by some writers are stated to common of ever. the one symbol are comparatively rare. even the death of the cross. Strom. borne out by archaeological of the anchor being. and most earliest We have already spoken instances. f vi. is proof of this. But ^^. i6. cross beneath the 6-8. and and for this Christians were CJij'isti^ t'o there were obvious reasons -/. becoming obedient unto death. Tertull. in some This statement facts. ir. found on the Palatine. we meet with a loculiis with the inscription POTOINA EIPHNH with a simple Greek * Philip. . Apol. and blood of the flesh Christ.ajtO!/. % St Clem. is it.

certainty. ed. lately discovered in a part of the Catacomb of San tury and also in .J in the both of which the symbolical meaning. Tau and our letter Cross.. Greek word fix its 26. alone. in the which occurs on an inscription of the d a that it / h Different Jbj->its of the Cross atid Mofiogrntn. monogram (Fig. " : Now Tmi super Signa 4. t see examples of this in the inscription ireTne. Fig. f See Barnab. 2. Greek the the very form of the is ix. § Rom. Marc. c). we can discover are contained. which he predicted would be the sign on our foreheads in Catholic the true The number 300 being expressed in Greek letter Tau. 9. xxxix. 2 30 most of the more forms of earliest or less disguised. for instance. 22.. p. Ep. or in Callisto. and says &c. formed of the the X first with the P. but it two It as it letters of the is not easy to was known is called (Fig. 1863. 27. Ilcfele. c. iii. X Bidlcf.. § and of the monoirram. came itself. letters It seems have been intended to combine the to IHCOTC XPICTOC. frojites. 27. It is /»). own T quotes Ezech. evidently with a We even find the letter itself inscribed combination with the letter P. 22. Cath. • is The Constantinian monogram. 26. for Christ. year 268 or 279. as well as upon others not bearing certain dates. on a tomb- stone. even in apostolic times.— Ro7na Sotterranea. T is made prominent.. 28. monogram belonging to the third cenof Tyranio (Fig. ."'" by to this be regarded as equivalent to the We cross. although the few dated inscriptions \ * Contr. p. date with any to the Christians long before the triumph of Constantine. Jerusalem. torn. Sott. and may be of first considered rather a compendious form of writing than a symbol properly so TertuUian called.. 35. 232).

that this crux ganunata^ as comparatively for the Buddhists and in other connexion historical of and because the symbol . and This studiously that the form -p. plain c. and also the simple the time of Constantine. was afterwards adopted by the Christians and supplanted the also. Garthe coins of . in scutis notat. in San Callisto and the Catacomb of St Agnes.Symbolical 231 Pai7iti7igs. as is A /. or the obliquely as in h and {d and it form of the Cross. in other is placed sometimes found on the garments of some of the figures painted in the Catacombs during the fourth century. with a transverse original Christum an extremely — Lactant de mort. capite not un frequently met with in ancient Greek to in- be seen on some of the coins of Herod the ganiinata. much ut transversa x littera. before that event do not supply us with any specimen of It it. establish among composed is Cliristians. may be remarked modification of a mode It line across scriptions. which a fourfold repetition of the Greek V thus formed was in use an Christian religion. De writers have attempted to It w^as fruit introduction into it the was tradition Christians from . Vetri Or/iafi. slight of writing the Greek P." that emperor com- The their shields. it. no was borrowed by the and adopted for a while concealment's sake. appear on the coins of that emperor. side by side with the earlier forms and {a both b). has been found scratched on the plaster. some French Oriental superstitions. and shortly after his time we meet with the modifications of The of the tail cases the same P sometimes prolonged. no spontaneous invention of the early of early the has been demonstrated. like the c?'iix monogram which Constantinian manded his soldiers to inscribe on * " Fecit et jussus est. where he describes and discusses all See P. by It late them and between Rossi. in whole letter is reversed as in ^. however. rucci. Greek cross. k^ is 6').'^ Latin cross seems to have been used Constantine. earlier in Africa summo persec.. was of Christian Churcli. in galleries which bear every sign of being prior to This monogram. 44. /. Great. but some other rather source. &c. called.

. to Christ post-Constantinian times. apud Spic. it that began and by the end of Once everywhere. De Rossi dc Titul. 28. * Fig. Crypt of St Lticina. N. In Italy in of course. Carlhag. being intended. was used more frequently country than any form of the monogram.— Roma 232 than in Italy.'"' indeed. it Sotterranea. represejiting Ulysses and the Siren. the and the and belonging. XPICTOO NIK A. S aixopha^Hs found i7i iv. Solesm. for the initials of the words conqiiers. or Catacombs a monogram letter apparently. about the beginning of the fifth the sixth century was very common twice also we find on tombs formed from the union of -p- in century.

and therefore we to allegorical. that their minds and souls of certain ideas. they can Parables not accurately re- reproduce them. We do first composed these scenes as a careful statement of and painted them on the walls of their cemeteries or Christians with teaching. by some application been already described under the name we have thereby designed to teach. and themselves sug- said. and strengthened the The teaching was real. they are as pioduced In truth. illustration we in ^^'"'cient art. principle which has artistic 1 of our Lord's parables. though said really have called them is the in r • promised to speak. ii. and the 449 458. being He be understood as saying that the not. hieroglyphic writing to Instead of a single symbol.CHAPTER III. for the sake of believe. they naturally gave expression to those ideas in corresponding artistic forms. we dogmatic purpose. gesting the truths which doctrine. which forms again.7 of those which were suggested second class of paintings at least . ALLEGORICAL PAINTINGS. when seen by others. Spicil. Among that the parables or parabolical instructions of our Lord. but unconscious. Solesm. inspired or suggested. hardly be cular 1 vine. they are but a parti- They proceed from of symbolism. . by our Lord's parables. wish to chapels whole scenes. * rilra. and a further development of the same tion of symbols. full a distinct Rather. necessarily revived impression of the truths they typified. or combina- composition. however. THEwe Catacombs of which 1-1 . The of the vine disciples and grapes was certainly adopted by His during the first century " .

winged piitti amongst the branches does not presence of in probably an example of The something reference else which discover. represented in the act of sowing seed . . of shepherds and other young men carrying a lamb. though cannot agree with those who consider that those men were intended to represent either more probable that they were used as but accessories. or a goat on their backs. * (he any rate. according to the Roman On a grave- fashion with which the artists were stone. to the occupation of the deceased.. at art Yet.— 2 Roma 34 have given • page in Catacomb of Sotterranea. of the Fauns. first C/iris/iaii . but it impossible to say with certainty that any allusion was here The scene may have had intended to the parable.. ]i. senseless classical school of art. The wise and The mere ornaments. that would almost seem as he doubted whether the Good Shep- if herd were a certain sign of Christianity. parable. it rather than men little in the the tomb common in Sometimes.. has made such ^ display of the old heathen representations of Mercury carrying a ram. emperors. Biillcff. not the foolish The Good we figures little or angels. is little militate any way against its Christian sense. ''' . pretty custom of the its first inspirations. according to the sprung and necessarily drawn some of foolish virgins. however. parable of the wise and foolish virgins appears occa- . a sheep. indeed. 01 the cuuiciUa .1 . The it. these naked young of the Nasones and elsewhere have very with what we see on Christian monuments.. he supposed the first or. St Domitilla. or to we cannot now essentially^" Christian sub- seems It from which the Christian school had to be seen. a is man is more familiar. of the cannot be mistaken. in truth. Good Shepherd one which is Raoul Rochette. but burning torches. that Christians had taken the idea of their Shepherd from the traditions of Pagan Gospel. 77. but The foolish viri^ins have been lately found painted in a ciihicnlnni in Catacomb of vSt Cyriaca but the painting is of a later date it belongs to the time of the . sionally m some ^ 7-7 . 1S63. from the most ancient part of the 72. at • i • virgms are least the wise and even these have not lamps in their hands.

58. or that one could be mistaken for the other. it is Good both the St Domitilla's cemetery. amid so frequent a scenes both by Pagan and Christian . is essentially different from is Good Shepherd. 58. we Pagan tombs a shepherd dancing with find in The only one we know which a lamb or goat on his neck. cannot. examples. in it an artistic expressed the wliole dispensation. in a word. mani- and festly alluding to the seasons. Bottaii. could at all 235 be compared with those in the Catacombs. an occasional resemblance. of some ancient and have at classical type . there is walls of the Of course. but Christian artists if so. appreciate the suggestion of Kiigler. us. very rarely. moulded on lamps. of very He ' .t same chapel in the no there was not unlikely that. Rather. in Of course repetition of pastoral there should be artists. seems to have been quite It their favourite subject. departed from the Pagan type least in a thousand different ways. p. chapels. probably to be attributed possessed was selected because sum and substance of * it is the Christian PicUuiTe Ant. however. Shepherd and the dancer are to be found but no one could pretend th?. point of In the ed.. We cannot go through any part of the Catacombs. p. We find again and again. engraved on on sarcophagi . it Rellovi. or turn over the pages of any collection of ancient Christian without coming across Tertullian that it it it ourselves painted in fresco . Rom. upon the roofs carefully sculptured glass. that this frequent repetition of the subject to the capabilities which view. difference between them. was often designed upon sepulchral chambers monuments. a lot of other figures. : and. which occupies the roof or on the walls of so many Christian the grave picture of the principal place in the Once. monument amid such upon a that has multitude of We considerable variety of treatment. or more come down We know from chalices. Crypt. """ among represented quite naked.- A llegorica I Pa in tings. possibly even a direct imitation. traced in gold rings represented on every species of Christian to and rudely scratched upon grave-stones.

but for their spiritual sense. own vouchsafes to receive some of His His gospel was committed them to transport in this into the work He creatures as coadjutors. one fold upon earth. seen. are each capable of receiving a very apposite Christian interpretation. painted in these various and atti- tudes. name and since Jesus title of a Shepherd. all this it was natural and lawful for Him Christian artists to represent with assume Himself had vouchsafed in all the attitudes. such as the crook. language even of the Old Testament. flock . each apostles. &c. but of men. thence Moreover. way to our regards as the more still from His eternal throne world to seek the this the Shep- is special in a Himself offers heaven into the wilderness of of the whole frequently expressed by images is in sheep lost and having brought them together race. the milk-pail. And writers to turn into ridicule although any attempt sense to every detail of an ancient fresco. the pipe of reeds. and the instruments. to the ministration. upon His shoulders we cannot doubt that He was . of the pastoral profession. the action of Divine Providence upon the world and borrowed from pastoral allegories men herd. of which the artist did not happen to have . sometimes represented alone with His represented. Of course." is him to all to " feed Plis His ministers. it may please some to affix a Christian it is hard to see upon which would not absolutely debar us from attempting to interpret the " motive " of any painting whatever. our Divine Redeemer Good Shepherd. and are His sheep. not for artistic effect. as to we have . not of angels. ever-verdant pastures of paradise.— Roma 236 Sotterraiiea. and the commission was given to the Prince of the Apostles. Reasonablyso. stands many sheep sometimes He caresses one only but most commonly so commonly as almost to form a rule to amidst . and in and variously Hence He sheep. other at accompanied by His times attended by one or more He Sometimes sheep. or even a goat. what principle such objectors rely. . into But He came down human life God . but even these. which other scenes might be considered the exceptions — He bears a lost sheep.

which himself. Explanation of men. down is either Christ streams the sacraments apostles are t St John and seen joining their to catch this water. whose duty the work of the Good Shepherd . Peter and Paul. have been quite familiar to the artist. the true Rock"' of the desert. the attempt is but where it both to provoke and to deserve contempt . On either side of the we see two Good Shepherd. before Him each of the two. "representing the whole Apostolate from the beginning to the end. hands The all I Cor. pouring of living waters. that the sense suggested must certain. that such sense seems reasonable to conclude it was intended as. secondly. either from being its contained in the broadest outlines and leading features of his from religion. as sent by side. for instance.f These waters include graces of Christianity. all on to carry is it and. afterwards on lo. that . there to the world. probably SS. and those sheep disposed in various attitudes. rises a rock. that those men natural and legitimate to is it and ministers are the apostles of God's word and sacraments. which it it 237 be attempted to put cannot be proved was ever the age in which the artist lived. 4. hasten- ing away from Christ. Good the Shepherd leading or caressing a goat was intended to be a protest against the hateful severity of the Novatians and other heretics refusing reconciliation to penitent sinners. in order to turn * On it iv. first. Plate XVI . other men busying themselves about other sheep. painting. 13. who occupies the centre. X. on the contrary. or its having been pressed upon his notice by the controversies of his age. &c.. when we find on either side of the Good Shepherd. So again.— A llegorica I Pain tings. through in St Callixtus^ that was afterwards cut very ancient times for the sake of making a grave a sure sign of the high antiquity of the painting thus damaged. that the various attitudes of the sheep denote the various dispositions of those to whom Catacomb of the And this is what we see precisely XVI. conclude. which represents a painting over an a?rosolmm in Plate in they are sent. left own explanation his a sense upon a known to likely is If in writing.

i.e. the represented by two sheep is On standing before each of them. . an unwelcome subject. Sotterranea. he . On he hears with simplicity and affection . one of the two sheep is the other drinking is eating occupied with the this world.. 3.. on the head of the animal that stands with outstretched neck and head without any water at sheep Symbolism. * Palmer's Early Christian Iiisc7-iptio>ifroin the . one it is . which has turned Fit. to- is left . communicate order to in world to which they are sent 'J'he is listening attentively. and he cares and pleasures artist side. to it into the artist to have intended which he has placed whereas a perfect torrent is falling his wards the apostle. See p. do with in all grass it. is his have nothing to will the other side. p.— Roma 238 our heads. Crypts 0/ St Lncinn. the has so distributed the streams of water as they flow forth from the rock. 206. but meditating and seeking to understand tail world. all. that they spiritual condition fall in exact accordance with the we have supposed by the various positions for. its lifted back. the other. 29."'"' Moreover. one of the sheep the other turns he has something else to do and riches of . not quite understanding as yet.

which number. and they are so now that in to anticipate our explana- to leave our and unsupported by symbolical. however. such an intimate it.. to discover the causes to so great a restriction of the artists' liberty. the Old and New Out of The the infinite Testaments. the habit oi decorating their were in Their limited . .. burial-places and places ot assembly with paintings of subjects taken from the Bible. is plain variety of histories in and undeniable. BIBLICAL PAINTINGS.-. more rich and varied than that of the when compared with the abundance of the source from which they are taken. W E found have to Even the keep inviolate that classification itself is Catacombs with which we just. even these seem poor and we had been . . If limited. bibli- cal paintings .... even in the treating of some. tion of others. told that the early Christians . classes of paintings in the The as we anticipated.CHAPTER IV. its their existing monuments that it we find of from an really observed. . easy. and had been invited choice. . but there between the several members of relation frequently intermixed. to speculate we should on the probable subjects of certainly not have confined the range Christian art within those narrow limits which examination of Nor is it which led fact. is same composition. at this distance of time.. This class parables . distinction between the several impossible.. set out. if tary incomplete are forcibly became necessary it we did not wish reminded of this. it its whole commen- we come that We legitimate proofs. to treat of the paintings which represent histories from the Bible. far is yet.

for example : of not this subject cap- not been treated in * Cone. III. " symbolical system of this hieratic cycle. "The Rossi. They wholly to themselves. Sotteri^artea." says Kiigler. religious centuries afterwards during est imagimim strtictiira pic- inventio^ sed ecdesicE Catholicce probata legislatio eiti'aditio* belonged to the details only of the execution artist . . the general design and plan of the whole was more or less was that story selected. even the historical paintings • And under the control of authority." says is established beyond all dispute. in a few instances. and. to The inci- dents that exemplified the leading dogmas of faith were chosen preference to others. they were not . but strictly with a view to their spiritual meaning and since this something of is its own fixedness of character to the art which vouchsafed to employ." and fixed char- Not only were the subjects even in their mode of treating these. Collect. were essentially symbolical. and how variously has it is Noe. the same state of Christian art as exhibited in the tomm dogma imparted always the same. We may apply almost many language that was used so the Iconoclast controversy The : Non it the literally to Catacombs." Take the in the ° baptism*^^ history of what an endless variety of compositions able. all the schools fol. only a few were taken nor did either painter or sculptor often venture . Actio vi. even by inscriptions Noe accompanying them. " transgress the boundaries assigned to them. 832.— Roma 240 seemed both to offer . the choice of subjects. not at own all for its sake of what was associated w4th it in the this or sake. but also by the De by the mode of representing them. nor freely as subjects of the imagination. Nic. and useful fitting subjects for the pencil lessons of instruction or consolation to the faithful. vii. 831. left within a narrow cycle of artists limited did not treat them either accurately as facts of history. torn. not only choice and arrangement of subjects. " and thus in become the arts the index of the tenets that were prominent at differ- ent periods. . Labbe. but for the mind of the Church in other words.

particularly for those in the entrance to Catacomb of the St Domitilla. Biblical Paifitiiigs. In the appears. there is a former in Moreover. Rossi claims for some paintings of the same subject in the Catacombs. which appear on no choice as to referring Nevertheless.1. the contrary. p. bearing Some towards him. upon the waves. and seek one of his resemblance between those eight souls who were " saved by water * many there any legend identifying the person as and once her name for Christian composition there are in the Bullctt. we have a single indi- vidual almost filling the small box in which he stands. referred to chapter. as he justly remarks. no proof of any community of idea between the Christian and the Pagan the form of the ark. Juliana. the third in letters the front of the box. dove. and containing riding 24 eight persons. and Roman removed that as Instead of a huge ark truth. 1865. 21. Q Apamea . De century. of modern art Yet throughout the whole range of the ? Catacombs we find but far as possible from historical one type of it. this painting. I Peter iii. with a raven perched behind them. never woman figurative far to 2. by the conditions of space within which they worked . whose grave it is it is added. t See page 73 . leave us to the liistory of the it may be it on a heathen coin struck to account for this representation Phrygia in difficult patriarch. in all other parts of the differences.t an undoubted priority in point of time. J raven the paintings. in had spoken of a certain See Plate VIII. on which a to not copied his wife stand in a similar box. often not a — the name was painted.'^ flies persons have supposed that this scene was a direct but imperimitation of the famous coins of fect Apamea. and a dove flying towards them and however : Nn or the beginning of the NHE. whilst a an olive-branch. together with a vast multitude of living animals. and this was in a artist. 43. except as to manner forced upon them both. 20. an explanation of Epistles. belonging man and the reign of Septimius Severus. man but a i of the deceased on We have not St Peter. nor is On Noe.

" even creature of confine all flesh. and peoples." and those Chris- who tians are now " saved by baptism. days of Noe. sent forth flesh. and brings to us the peace of is flies man ark. Tertullian. it and hope of the survivors * Acts ii."* and these are " all nations. was the herald to announce to the earth peace and the cessation of the wrath of heaven. . painted upon the walls of a chapel in the Catacombs. and the ark also contained " of every living and wherein was the breath of a to single We must life. •to we cannot doubt express the same general doctrine. the dove of the Holy our Spirit. so Church such among taken from tongues. by the clearly prefigured this scene of a to the earth. as after that baptism (so to call it) of the old world. to after its where the Church . being of the hke form and some of the most ancient commentators on Holy ture draw out the resemblance in all of the deluge cleansed the earth from waters of baptism cleanse the soul who took the to refuge in the ark. a dove sent out of the ark and returning with an olive-branch. . as it from heaven.smo.. so the as those only were saved .Roma 242 Sotterraiiea. in which the old iniquity was purged away." who witness. we find inclosed in an ark." tribes. dc Bapti. as ourselves as now As its details.. vii. Lord also the " adds daily should be saved. has expressed this doctrine with his usual terseness in the following words :t— " As after the waters of the deluge. Scrip- the waters all its iniquities. When. Divine peace. and receiving the olive- branch from the mouth of a dove. And be rudely scratched on a single tomb. being a faithful f Lib." God i. 47.e. that viz. if the same picture denotes the sure faith that the deceased. when the ark was a-building. it was intended that the faithful. therefore. have received from the Holy and are saved in Spirit the gift of the mystical ark of the Church from the destruction which awaits the world. having obtained the remission of their sins through baptism. so by a similar disposition with reference to matters spiritual. comes out of the bath of regeneration old sins.

three days' burial in the belly of the viz. or again. had now entered into his rest. Hieion. their authority certainly * Bottari.. however. the ark ^ dove which belongs to Noe is not unfrequently placed Jonas and the is - . member of the Church. ed. Jerome to the pictures in the own rendering of the and although the language of Ruffinus in his invectives against St lation of the Scriptures \ translation S. m ^ . under the shadow of the booth covered with ivy on the east side of the city " for refreshment his misery fish. . Christian by no means confined themselves life place every in ancient the on the walls. 39. on lamps the of the general resurrection.. X Op.. xii. one mstance. cxxxi. that to Christian bas-reliefs of glasses. and even artists. on the in the frescoes first Old Testament represented was continually repeated It the sarcophagi. Vallas. as he the sun was beating upon his and lay in the rest same .. mdeed.. and discontent. as other incident of his his lying '' it and his de- The were from the jaws of the grave. died in the peace of God. gate St but . right Saint had appealed of his would seem to new trans- for his imply that the learned Catacombs in defence of the word.t as not to be wondered at that it is among Catacombs.. cemeteries . 663. and ordinary grave-stones. when head and the ivy had withered away. should have held the monument connected kind of on it the subjects from the all the in own and one scene in the of the prophet in which he foreshadowed the resurrection. vol. Tav. + St Matt. ^. "^ .Biblical Painti7igs.g resun-ec- ^^'^"• history of Jonas having been put forward so emphatically by our Lord Hima type both of His self. all scholars are familiar with the dispute between Jerome and St Austin as Hebrew word used to the in this place . .^}-. We speak of the ivy^ because is it so called in the Vul- ^'l'^^ 'vy or the ""ourd. . and had Noe and . place. This picture of .. 1735. his liverance from it. viz. p.. life was painted quite as commonly. very near to the history of Jonas vessel which . with and medals." the represented on the poop of the The carrying off the prophet is 243 tish a type of . ii.

to see whose as witnesses to God's truth. but to the history of Jonas . lot. a monstrous dragon. or Saviour. Perhaps it was repre- sented in this Avay as a type of death. favour of St Austin and the gourd.c 97. however. either as conventional representation of the beast Andromeda. sea-horses or cows. real the paintings that is cemeteries should have been appealed to at of a controversy before religious century.i. showing the particular intent at is {in have been a to frequent visitor to them in the days of his youth. in a city which the pro- that to four scenes both we have described sometimes occupy the four highest spaces on the walls of a sometimes only two are given. it fall The immediately under the booth fish is quite unlike any real resembles only some of those marine monsters. too. + Sec Tlate VII. as a Even in was confined it fabulous tale of the Christians. * vSee p3. and a large head and ears. t inhabitant of the deep . with which the Pagans delighted to ornament the walls both of their drawing-rooms and of their mere freaks of the imagination. in this the . used the mere ornament finally in the their as the same figure most ancient decorations. this is unimportant interest to us. and of present point the the of fourth appealed to as already an ancient witness vcterum sepidchris\ by one whom we know" No direct hand. was cast more populous and more wicked than phet had been The sent. the prophet being cast out by the great fish so as to covered with the gourd. by way of distinguishing it from the real IXQTC. opposite cubiaduin . matter. or sepulchres. how salutary a lesson of patience and encouragement it could be made to preach to the poor persecuted Christians. . sometimes also with horns. all in However. Patristic testimony the the course all in close in with which this part of the history of Jonas was so frequently set before the eyes of the faithful : not it is difficult.Roma 244 appears to us to be Sotterra7iea. with a very long and narrow neck. another and occasionally even the whole history . is to one crowded together into one compendious scene.

lib. Baluz. them quotes signal instances as greatness of God's of the mercies and the power of His protection . c. . den lions' 245 Tertull. ^ Heb. the prophet should have been painted sittinrr^ and with seven lions (Dan. for His greater glory. 493) is only which Daniel is than the paintings of the Catacombs. ii. torn. Daniel paintings two the in with ^ fiery of the resurrection. Chretiennes de la Gaule.Bib liea I Pa in tings. 11 in page 73. t the Daniel in standing naked * between the Three Chil""^ ^^^^ outstretched in the form of a ^^^'^'^ arms his represented usually is Catacombs of the lions. Indeed.|| these same histories find their place among the numerous symbols of the resurrection from the dead. v. we Children (as them) who were cast into the wont are also of to call furnace for refusing to He worship the golden image set up by Nabuchodonosor. By otliers of the Fathers. however. these men having acquired the merit of martyrdom through the boldness of all their confession. St Irenseus. See. ed. xiv. 864.. t See centre of roof in Plate VI. circumstances of the day * Le Elant it is was then made their application to the only natural to suppose (Inscriptions. + S. xi.. 19. ix. c. Hieron. taken from the writings men who of themselves lived during the ages of persecution. yet being delivered hands of by His might out of the and preserved their enemies. our Fig. " If equally legitimate.. St rulers. to quote five al)le and of and since : examples of ancient Christian clothed. these various interpretations. If historical truth had been the artist's aim. § 11 Ep. makes § Cyprian. 2 . or Iviii. and all of these are of much later date art in i. mrnace. in Zach. 5. also centre of sarcophagus in Plate XIX. lib. Ixi. are a sufiftcient proof of the kind of use which of the Old Testament histories. " whence and of course they w^ere received as in a figure also either interpretation is . J the Christian dangers as under the extraordinary sufferings and flock persecutions. in the as may have been intended History cross. either as a figure source of encouragement to a which they were exposed to idolatrous or this the history of the Three use the at writing of the fiery command of midst of the in and history. 39). De Resurrect.

and more we find their shoes. the Phrygian tiara. the Three Children refusing to adore the image of Nabuchodonosor from the Old Testament.' Rojna Sotterranea. we are not arbitrarily imposing a sense of own upon our by sure these paintings. even in their darkest hours of this blessed and looked upon the adoration which the Saviour had received from the Wise of foretaste and first-fruits. . and the three Wise Men adoring the infant Jesus from the New. and the preacher when artist lie when he addressed himself to the ear. and suffering because she and world to rulers of this kinds of persecution all not heed the prohibition. just as * Tliey are found together. and other Christian monuments t at i^ee Plate Milan. not only in the Catacombs. and the sarabal/i. And it would almost seem as trial. or trousers. what meaning was rules of interpretation. p. really present of their authors. their garments. as Men of the East as a kind were. and these garments are always of an Oriental character. and persuading even her very persecutors to become her Adoration of '""^ ' ' children and protectors. since we the them find repeatedly bringing together. the used as a type of the history of is by the worship the true God..'^ and them always " wuth their coats. and what lessons they conveyed In the writings of later Fathers. but also in a sarcophagus Biill. and literal too frequent to allow us to is usually represented with accuracy than most others truth juxtaposi- should be mentioned that this It history of the Three Cliildren The and at least. then triumphing over her enemies. at Nisnies. such as St Augustine. tunics. 246 very the that same purpose animated the represented to the eye. 64. history of the Three Children the Church at first forbidden . had enjoyed some prophetic anticipation of if change. 2. 1866. the early Christians. in the most marked way. their caps. IX. these two histories. &c. to the m^d to the minds of those who saw them. Arch. tion of these look upon it two subjects far is as fortuitous. of the it infant homage which whole world should one day give Him. St Chrysostom. . but only seeking to discover. will others." t just as the sacred text describes them .

ii. and cleave the rock. to represent the of faith being typified by the water flowing from the rock. § ix. t St John was foretold says Isaias life. when "^^^^" . (xlviii.r. they them. 8. agrees with LertuUian. des Antiq. Fell. iv. my " 21). bring forth water out of the rock Martigny. unquestionably the end. 1 resurrection the to be Moses sti iking the rock. p." them out in itself which flowed from the rock with the and seek thirst . to look Others. saying § that And God's grace and " t everlasting by the victory more confirmed by ancient authority " " the fountain of . " He people shall drink. they should will lead /. : is since Tertullian J dis- after Christ. artic. is it * was He will fulfilled in § Epist. ed. Diet. torn. in the same compartment of a paint- sometimes roughly sketched side by side on a grave- .. stone Some them more frequently they still . antiquarians consider the point of connexion between to . that if the should drink with "If the gospels Ixiii. prefer upon these two subjects as intended beginning and end of the Christian course water springing up unto the gift life everlasting and over death and the second life tinctly identifies the water waters of Baptism. and a dead grave are together on a sarcophagus.. X 14. De Baptismo. be the display of Divine power out of a dry rock. is And vouchsafed to Lazarus. 247 the worshippers of Mithras or other Easterns are represented on Pagan marbles. seems both more probable this interpretation for .Bib Ilea I Pa in ting s. therefore. 361. " which was Christ. but this man to bringing living water in out of his rocky life analogy hardly seems to be sufficiently close : any other of the miracles of Our Blessed Lord might have been selected with almost equal propriety.* rus." ^'°" 151." (he continues) " Lazare. and are ^he resurrec- of Lazarus. and this and the beginning of the Christian thirst in the desert. St Cyprian also should obtain the grace of Baptism. Another pair of subjects which seem brought together from the two stucliously Moses rock and striking ° the Sometimes they are found ing Hke manner in estaments. which as a resurrection life Jews would us Christians.

These are the principal scenes from the Old Testament tory of which it is necessary that which are taken from the rally New we should speak Testament under other branches of our . 37-39. Plate See t t St Greg. . ' he that believeth If any it might be made And more still clear that the ' . the Evangelist has added. stroke of the lance in tlie Holy Spirit Moses may sometimes in received by Baptism. Sotterranea. he . and the devil. the hand of God coming out of a cloud is % but the to go up into Mount young and without a beard the second. will fall division. Sinai to receive the law. almost as parts of the figure of Moses in the two scenes where he takes is of same picture his shoes. is cleft with Who. In one instance. Ave find these two scenes in the life close together. . is . Nazianz. which made the faithful have reverence which is in Baptism required of all f or . cried aloud and him come and drink of what had been foretold said.Roma 248 Christ. seem to. let me. Jew in is and both the general look of his hair and beard. manifestly difterent. Orat. for the ' Lord spoke Now He this which they should receive who believed said of the Spirit. and the thirsty drinking. Moses taking thirst. where he strikes the rock. all might typify that it who approach the Christian mysteries. that . the flesh. the rock. and this is by some of the Fathers as emblematical of those renunciations of the world." is be seen also in the act of taking off off his slioes. in a fresco of the cemetery of St Callixtus. and the outline of his features. present a certain marked resemblance to the traditional figure of St Peter. he is In having been called by first. as the Scripture in here about Baptism. approaching the burning bush his shoes before treated . reminding them by the prophet. We his- and the few more natushall have occasion also to return to one or two of those which we have * St John vii. 42.''* saith. IV. the oft' Moses represented older and bearded . who His Passion . Him man out of his belly shall flow rivers of living water.

impossible to suppose and a careful study of the order and mutual dependence in which they are usually disposed. though not very exact. the striking 249 prophet the Well of Salvation from which we draw waters Spiritual Rock from which we drink/' conclude our present chapter by observing. to its on the walls. paintings in as.Biblical Paintings. but only " general sense. so that the sight of these paintings on the walls of their subterranean chapels was probably as a continual homily set before the practised minds of the faithful of the and by them perfectly understood. these artistic is com- to take the place of a well-ordered This has been noticed long since even by men who had no really extensive or intimate with the subject.g. seems to reveal a certain theological knowledge in those who presided over their arrangement. minds of the l)hetical to fikely be more familiar to the early Christians than the symbolical meaning of the Old Testament facts of the and pro. the interpretation Catacombs. by e." paintings. its " striking says. mentioned from the Old Testament.. not exhibition. and the Resurrection of Our Blessed Lord . according to Esaias. the constant same subjects makes was no unity first choice it . it Kiigler. who imagined the order of histories chosen for the acquaintance that he saw in adornment of one of these chapels. We on the For the present. some of Indeed. in the Moses more* complete of the third and fourth centuries which glasses found when we come rock. an intention to set forth under typical forms the Birth. but mtimating sufficiently Moses. repetition of the that there in their three centuries. the Sufferings. for instance. with not generally found in the on the sarcophagi. Moreover." he drinking the waters. that we should gather even from the writings of the Apostles them- was that nothing selves. scarcely too much positions might be to say. that made dogmatic discourse. who. gilt may be quoted given by Kiigler. — " we understand the miraculous birth of Christ. have been — these the are Where we is with joy the — the as find kneeling figures rock.

Fia.—Scnlpt?it\' in the Lntcrnii Miiscutii. 47. parallel a branch of the subject to w^hich is we shall have occasion to return w^hen we speak of the liturgical paintings. also writes to the seems to same have adopted from a system of typical parallelism. effect.o. r^'hi^esentiiig the ascent Klins into Jicaven. of veiling the great incidents of redemption and the sufferings. faith. nf ." * This. Sottcrranea. T. the wh^i he first. under the and typical events of the patriarchal and Jewish dispensations. where this principle is singularly * prominent. Lord Lindsay says that " Rome and steadily adhered to. and hope of the Church. however.Roma 2^0 in proper succession. Sketches of the History of Christian Art.

occurs. spirit. manifestations of the same principle. in it is which this painting a part of their history Moreover. as a distinct class of paintings. therefore. and were. and often mixed together in the decoration of the same chambers. in the Catacomb of such event. of Neither the sufferings nor the triumphs of the martyrs employed the pencil of the Christian artist during the three very rarely. as these martyrs had been the of the young lady whose family (we be- this portion of ground for the use of the Church as Historical paintings extremelv rare in ^ '^t''^*^^^'"'^'^. because there is at least one picture St Callixtus which seems to record Two men are depicted standing before a some Roman magistrate on his seat of justice. 1 1 1 1 -. guardians. which it has been conjectured that represents. or at least but Rossi enumerates scenes from the lives of the Saints and the history of the Church. during lieve) gave good reason two martyrs. or rather being led away from before it after their condemnation. three classes of paintings biblical — were They were all 1 animated by the same all only various fact. Nevertheless.CHAPTER V. THE— and in we have hitherto described 1-1 n T 11 those which we have called symbolical. De first centuries. . Saints Parthenius and Calo- were buried in the chamber it is life. cotemporaneous. then the genius symbolical. allegorical. and as there to believe that the cerus. PAINTINGS OF CHRIST. the of Christian we cannot be remained thus essentially art surprised at the utter absence from Catacombs of anything what was then going on Whereas in the like real historical paintings Church. AND THE SAINTS. HIS HOLY MOTHER.

His Holy Mother. or His Apostles. that paintings were executed such as those which Prudentius describes. the § • . is much later. centuries. first Nevertheless. but it beginning of the spirit was not Of fifth and executed course. which De Rossi enumerates together as forming another class of paintings. 164. scattered here and there throughout the Catacombs. for example. slight and although modification with Apostles. it with much hesitation they seem so alien to the multitudes of paintings during the three thing else . That of which except that Lord's Baptism. | and in all these cases young and beardless man. Shepherd. Ponziano very of San in the cemetery He is usually bearded. other very ancient picture in the Catacombs of our no X We know of we have given a copy at p. end of the in this as in every- fourth. for may have or two other ex- amples. . No real por- of Christ. representing the various sufferings of the martyr St Hippolytus. may perhaps Peter and Paul. or sitting in the midst of His Apostles generally painted as a * See page 127. on the In mosaics.§ with + Tableau des Catacombes. so far as w^e still statement this no . or of Blessed It is certainly more remarkable that there should not have trait ' ^'>' *-'^- been found here any genuine portraits. either of Our Blessed Lord. 119. or even the century. or He the may judge from Indeed. Our Blessed Lord at all. Raoul Rochette f has said very positively that consecrated model in the first there was ages of the Church for the figures of these sacred objects of Christian devotion ship . some scarcely ever represented there in is and wor- Catacombs. yet in the main tainly true.Roma 252 Sotter7'anca. Saints • remains to be seen regard to in the is require two Princes of the it is cer- the testimony of what excepting either under the typical character of the Good the act of performing one of His miracles. of the yih or Sth century. contrary. seem ceive to invite a similar interpretation. after the conver- was a revolution till the re- and temper of the countless of a different description sion of Constantine there we the instances are so rare. a cemetery.'' there was nothing improbable in supposing that the memory of their noble confession of the faith been thus recorded One future ages.

253 Him nothing very marked in His appearance to distinguish Once. after in the The forehead the Nazarenes. of a plea- The nose and mouth sant complexion.Paiiitings of Christ. once acknowledged that it is too minute artistic. is 1 a representation 01 Kiigler's description ^f ^ i^l^^j. His head from others of the children of men. ^f ^'y^""^ This painting. J^''^'"'^'^ it given by Kiigler. parted on the the shoulders the beard . indeed. the expression serious and mild forehead. must be be seen. fore- the hair. . in a cubiculuDi of the . calling for. but short and divided . remind some of our readers of the well-known letter of Lentulus to the in which " His hair down upon His the appearance personal the described — manner of shoulders. We to inquire into the genuineness of this letter. but the eye certainly Kiigler not long. flows in long curls in existence. to add just. moderately ruddy. often eagerly sought after by strangers Catacombs. need not stop like the hair. of St Callixtus. as it is imagination may perhaps misnames the now supply our author. is and the age between thirty . perhaps. the same . for the original. and of varying colour. Kiigler supposed that they are generally disappointed. arched eyebrows. in consequence of the description of lyre. its author had of knowing the truth with respect to the description given by Kiigler.''' the visiting is It only is however. to it forty." nor the means which * are the foils to Catacomb. face oval. &c. m . and thus is middle. eyes bright." This description may. it and details it at precise. Lord Senate. and bust form a medaUion. faultless. a down not thick. be the oldest portrait of Our Blessed Saviour we doubt He there if describes is in it sufficient authority for words — these The '' head. flows parted is our of curling. with a is smooth and rather high straight nose. . the countenance without line or spot. dark and glossy. to . occupying the centre of the roof cemetery of Saints Nereus and Achilles. too A lively described distinguish them. rather Roman is smooth and very serene. by . which 11^ Orpheus and his r . but such a statement. the beard thick and reddish but divided the .

whose of prayer. both may have been present the artist together. there praying). and St Jerome Dc Instit. . St Aug". iv.. which the is Good Shepherd. Joann. as they are called (persons on the walls of the Catacombs. Multain figura ecclesiae de Consens. lib. same way. ccclx. handed ancient times. in Virg. (a. Mosaic St Ambrose t Pope Sixtus III.— . the Spouse of Christ Euseb. 18. this attitude speaking inscriptions. 25 . that in the act of a cross numerous were represented saints is. ii. or even Only two members of the conventional. which appear one of a woman. ad Julian. speaks of it distinctly inscription in . the in and rest. explained by is the most distinct terms. that survivors desired the help of their prayers. But. E. c. lo. ordinarily. St Basil. " xiv. and which life The two in heaven. Pudic. i. in in the apse of the which he commemorates the virginal maternity of the Church. Eusebius has mentioned painted likenesses of our Lord and down from of His Apostles. as there are several indica- tions in ancient writers of a certain recognised resemblance between the Blessed Virgin and the Church. type. Ev. either of these. . and showing. II. On one another. and secondly. even as His mind of to a multitude of considerations lead us to believe was intended for for the companion frequently found as a is Holy Mother interpretations upon earth life is I. Apostolic College are generally distinguished from the same these keep with tolerable uniformity the The saints generally represented as praying. that the and others. all the of prayer. Roma 254 Sotte7'ranea. the c. Our Blessed Lady as an oante in the Catacombs Among the innumerable oranti. H. See also Macarius. Ep. and long before vii. we repeat theless. St Basil. the Bride of Christ.ady. 10 Maria prophetata sunt. De De t c. to the Our Blessed Church. 435) set up an Lateran Basilica. first. portraiture of either. in that the saints were believed to be living in God. or else similarly is a employed do not necessarily exclude the contrary." . with arms outstretched in the form and the reason of .* monuments of the Never- Catacombs pre- sent no authentic incontestable example of any real. Hagioglypta. and similar allusions occur in St Augustine. Tertull.d.

may be sometimes we where it Good Shepherd arms between two sheep. to some few stands with outstretched or the Blessed Virgin was intended tions. Church the calls it quite as though the phrase would be at '•" all. And . Hagioglypta. in one of the should not be forgotten § 40. Church interpreta- because the Blessed in this same on attitude the gilded glasses in the Catacombs. filled it is we Virgin is in many more some of instances compartment Bible. way and also Church of The inscription monument runs thus. is correct. Chretiennes de la in glasses. . instance. either alone or between the Apostles Saints Peter and Paul." once understood by 255 by the Church of Lyons about her written letter. Eccles. sible companion instances. 277. v. and can be fied in it hard to believe that any memorial of a private incline rather to the latter. . f Moreover. it is and indeed. represented in the same is malrble of the earliest ages. feel certain that Good Shepherd to the we where the painting cuhiciiliiui in the identi- both cases by her name written over her head secondly. it recorded . • this about her ministrations in the temple. inadmis- upon the tombstones by some person or story from the therefore. because she upon a sepulchral San Giovannino. Hist. Maria Virgo minester de TEMPULO Gerosale. "^^""^^^1^^. t Macarii. Ee Blant. expresses the " the Virgin Mother. we more For these to remain. Inscription. when idea. ii. has sometimes been supposed that this female orante It denoted some martyr or person of distinction buried principal And tomb of the possibly this conjecture in the majority of instances. in it individual would have been allowed reasons. vol. in the Maximin. for as. Christ. * Eus. and where. occupies a part of a ceiling in which every other is But manifestly intended as a is find this figure engraved instead of the found.— Pamthigs of famous same martyrs.^' . then.— which seems to refer to some legend on at St in Provence. willingly believe that either the and of these .-. &c. 36 Gaule. i. apocryphal Gospels. . be found represented first.

unsupported. to a perfection of candour. and the Christian monogram on The presence of this either side. in which the Divine Infant is placed in front of his virgin mother.^Whatever may be thought of the cogency of these arguments. with her hands outstretched in prayer." 62. De fix work . frequently also Adoration of the Magi. most ancient position in the by no means depends upon them. boldly says that he only saw a single certain specimen of a painting of the Blessed the Catacombs. and Madonna to it is He in the (so-called) be seen much importance idle to attach an exception. 1. Alex. art — the field of If these paintings do not represent her. Prcdag. t This picture. down Sottervanea.. where her identity cannot modern Protestant writer. and simply to show who she is. Dr Newman says on Apoe. c. xii. on Dr Piisey p. forms the f)riginal of a favourite Russian type of the Madonna which they call Znd: mcnskata. turned towards her. indeed. \\\\o was Letter to exalted on high. — ^^^^^ believe that they cannot easily be ^^'^ question of Christian Our Lady's refuted. but Our Blessed the earlier half Rossi considers that * See S. too. A scenes. 6. it is of that century rather than the either of necessary to later. and mcst expressive in this ancient is art generally.f monogram naturally directs our thoughts to the fourth century as the probable date of the as there is no niuibus round the head Lord or His Holy Mother. and works of Greek in Our Blessed Lady to tins very day. to so to the where she arcosolium. Sec Palmer. often represented Even attitude of prayer. and that was of a comparatively Virgin in all late date. . and the object of veneration to all the faithful. it would be quite in keeping with the practice of early Christian writers to represent the Church under the symbol of the Virgin Mother of God. 66. his Eirenicon. Clem. yet she certainly appears in more than a score of other be questioned.— Roma 256 that on Byzantine coins. if the figure were intended principally to represent the Church. p. laying claim. i. the Divine Infant in front of her. singular is that evidently is Catacomb of an in the Iiniette of referring St Agnes. i " The Holy Apostle would not liave spoken of the Church under this particular image luiless there had existed a Blessed Virgin Mary.

pars.257 the style of execution indicates as nearly as possible the time This. latest be saw no other. Patrizi dc Evangel. so far from being the of Constantine himself. however. Origan. designing another arrangement of the scene with three figures * It is are the generally said that St first Leo the Great. if at in the (so-called) Cei7ietery of There all. or It is clear. with the Holy Child on her lap. the traditional and Marcel- however.— — Paintings of Christ. and . as in that of Saints Peter linus. . but in three or four instances she is in the middle . or St witnesses to this tradition. or at least Generally she the principal figure. R ^ ^^^^^ are . 2r1a. is to sits at the end of the scene. in order to keep a proper balance between the two sides of the the picture. Maximus of Turin. in which she is their offerings to always the central. had the same idea. oldest or most interesting painting of the Blessed Virgin seen in the Catacombs. and here. or only two. diss. still '"'' for even in known as one of the instances we trace the original sketch of the artist. seems to have iii. diminished . quite a is — De Rossi speaks of upwards of — representations of the Magi making the Infant Jesus. Fig. he can have seen and Child St Agnes. 31. we have the author probably one of the referred to Fresco of the Blessed Virgin but very numerous Catacombs of the little class of paintings. as in the cemetery of St Domitilla. twenty. number of the Magi is increased there are either four. and the three Magi are before The Magi her. however.. xxvii. &c. that three was already number have quoted we can .

ings of this subject belong to different ages. 7. in He unhesitatingly says that It is the ceme- and represents the Blessed Virgin seated. obvious historical excuse for with the Magi it. Luke i. 78. standing in a similar attitude before Our Blessed Lord. whose prophecies concerning the Messias abound with imagery 'borrowed from This prophet light. is an is represented or by the side but with a single There has unusual. and with the other pointing to a star which appears above and between the two This figures. where his identity since he appears in another can hardly be disputed. sacrificed historic truth to the exigencies of his art. as in the present instance. 343. Christ. among archaeolo- ought to be given of conjecture would be that one of the Magi. for St Joseph. volume the pallium. 79. J and Our Blessed * The ox and the ass are found in a representation of the Nativity on a torn!) t bearing the date a. 19 . be seen on the vaulted roof of a to De higher antiquity for the painting of Our Blessed Lady represented he believes Paint- her arms veil.— Roma 258 only and . c. Sotterranea. how- reasons for preferring the prophet Isaias. Ix. 2 . of the manger with the ox and the ass figure. mistrusting the result. this to Holy Child Rossi third century respectively. in Plate tery of St Priscilla. ^ady. St Inscr. meant The most obvious many 2). much X. ix. gists as to the interpretation that figure. gives is . and with the opposite to her stands a man. i. 54. or for ever. He i. "' therefore. . X In Isaiani xv. it where there De it this was Rossi. e. but assigns the two that have been specially and second half of the first claims a Our Blessed Lady with Isaias. both almost always accompanies Our Blessed star in paintings and in sculptures. been some difference of opinion. 3. then.d. he abandoned the attempt. holding a in one hand.^ when she offering their gifts (Plate X. compartment of the same glass in the act of being sawn asunder by the Jews (in accordance with the tradition mentioned by St Jerome). locidiis in her head partially covered by a short light in mentioned to the belong almost to the apostolic age. t found on one of the is glasses in the Catacombs. clothed . Isa. 2.g.

concerned. he shows appears was one of the oldest. 255. p. Next. battlements.t receives its name. Bosio '" has pre- served to us another fresco from the cemetery of St Callixtus. Our . and a cotemporary of the Apostles still further. occupies the intervening compartment between these two figures of the prophet. appear behind the Child. first He first bids us with which we are now not in apostolic times. or with the to the paintings of the cubicida near the Papal crypt in San Callisto. 66. still more upon which we closely resembling that ing from St Priscilla only there . Everything. from to in a it still which whom it it belong to the very to justly argues that the now under examination earlier date. and. were in the in which this immediate neighbourhood of the chapel Madonna is found . to have been executed. described in our next chapter. that the for believing . if hundred and years of the Chris- fifty carefully to study the art displayed in and execution of the painting. fore. finally. and then the design pare Woman were. St Pudens himself. no is are but in star. this painting. as its commonly done mosaics. under the very eyes of the Apostles themselves. that the inscriptions which are found there form a class by themselves. and other works of later that comment- com- to with the decorations of the famous Pagan tombs dis- covered on the Via Latina mously referred 1858. as was so De Rossi considers it it and town to denote the We have already said art. stead the in the sculptures. as of some town. and beginning of the third century more known and he . and which are unani- in times of the Antonines. &c. that there is and others have good reason said. as an orante. yet certainly within the tian era. 259 Lady. him Sott. and what Bosio tombs of Saints Pudentiana and Praxedes. having been the mother of Pudens.Paintings of Christ. combines * to satisfy Rom. and therefore probably of their father. by which was probably intended it of Bethlehem. there- that this beautiful painting of t See p. classical style of the painting obliges us to assign that the Catacomb St Priscilla. bearing manifest tokens of the highest antiquity.

both for the number. and the Finding of Our Blessed Lord the in Temple . + Hagioglypta. other in parts to of this locuhis. as a young and beardless man." De Rossi open supposed to In state of preservation. She does not enter here into it. Rom. have been repeated herself.Roma 2 6o Blessed Lady it is Sotterranea. 549. and from five times. and in the to most ancient of them. composition of an historical or allegorical scene as a secondary personage. p. Some Our Blessed Lady. the Adoration by the Magi. all these archaeologists are agreed that this cemetery surpasses every other. of our readers will be taken somewhat by surprise by our mention of any groups representing " and especially of any representation of St Joseph. both by and with her Holy Spouse and Child — a group which Bosio and Garrucci also have recognised in other parts of the Catacombs. fifth In the mosaics of St Mary Major's. of the whole painting. but herself supplies the motive. 245. acknowledges that some The Holy this class of monuments question. Probably the later artists followed the legend of St Joseph's age and widowhood which occurs in the apocryphal Gospels. 242. representing the Annuncia- by the Archangel. Sott. the paintings into which he enter being generally in a very bad the sarcophagi he certainly appears is is still Family. Macar. needless to observe that she and her Divine Son are is clearly the principal figures in the and the oldest which has yet been discovered. De Rossi still further tells us — and again he is able to quote Bosio and Garrucci * as having been quite of the — that same opinion with himself this same cemetery of tion t there are other frescoes in St Priscilla. Hagiogl. if not old . . as far as we can make out from the imperfect remains of the painting. so to She seems speak. tliat he is time forward became the more common mode of representing him. in a word. and the antiquity of the pictorial representations of St Joseph. and shown of mature this in which he appears four or age. which are of the century. . the variety. 174. * Bosio. also. generally clad in a tunic.

or occur in the centuries. and greater licence was given both to poets and Fig. of an ancieftt chamber in San Callisto. monuments of the fifth and succeeding Before that time Christian artists seem strictly to have been kept within the Holy of Scripture. . 2. These legends had been quoted by St Epiphanius. Afterwards limits of the it canonical books of was probably considered that there was no longer any danger to the integrity of the faith.'2-—Sarcophagus found avtong the ruins artists. allusions to them. St Gregory and other Nazianzen. especially that which bears the and those on the birth of name Mary and of St 261 James the Less. artistic writers the fourth century \ and even whole scenes taken from them. the infancy of the Saviour. &c.Paintings of CIuHst.

be examined be found in New in the that series of immediate neighbourhood of the Papal crypt. rnost minute detail. doubtless. such impossible. historical scenes taken in to us. whilst eminently Bap- liturgical in character (representing the administration of tism and the consecration of the Holy enough and of the highest and value uninitiated stranger ligible. means of the hieroglyphic early in the third century. . LITURGICAL PAINTINGS. before the invasion of the subterranean cemeteries by the heathen had taught the necessity of caution. Liturgical ingb veiy pam TT might have been thought that the impenetrable secrecy j^ which ancient times shrouded the sacred in mysteries from the gaze or knowledge of the profane would have rendered any sensible representation of them by Catacombs of the quite The to describe are merely exceptional at the . is sign of the fish. must always have been absolutely the consecration of the Vahuiblc specimen the allegorical. Eucharist). yet to allegories of various kinds under various cuhicula and plain administration of Baptism. representations were very rare. over. up with The interest biblical histories and Holy Eucharist These paintings deserve the They are to to an unintel- mixed is .CHAPTER VI. for example. or quite in the beginning of the third. and both complicated by and also veiled from the Old and Testament. simple and things natural More- has contrived to produce a work which. art paintings we are about and they were executed end of the second century. artist and a mixture of and supernatural. by a careful use of Christian symbolism. on the walls And.

On the wall at the . is fishing in the stream.! already described. concerning which made about all has been already shown it the 263 same time ^' that they were the oldest. or that which faces the doorway.f principal wall. and eight baskets of loaves arranged along the floor Isaac men intelligence the idea resting on his right shoulder. which we propose to describe.§ all table with bread to offer up his soir scene easily identified by the ram and the faggot of at their side. of seven and fish wood side.. Plate XI. in the we the see a three- wdth a in the attitude of prayer woman . 3. IT painting on the third side of this chamber has perished. towards the table in such a way as to force upon every Christian This of the act of consecration. the latest. clad only in the pallium^ extending his hands. at no very advanced period in destroyed to enable us to recognise we may judge from as far much In three of them. and they are flanked full-length figure oi d^fossor.. see a man first. and of the same general character with those of the two oldest chambers. and been reduced But the plaster of the small recess on the right-hand * See § Plate XIIl.. having on it standing on one side of it man on bread and fish. they were of the same subjects. and especially his right hand... and then another man baptizing a youth who stands same water. a 01 Next.. the plaster having fallen to the ground to dust.|| on the interval These three scenes are painted. the second century. side by between two graves by a . 3. before the end of . the fragments which remain. —a . and a the other. General description of them. t Plate XII.. . whence the striking the rock. II PJate XL X Plate i. with his arm extended and a pickaxe The sitting at and then Abraham about at either extremity left followed by the scene is before them. the paintings are too the third. p.Liturgical Paintings. legged table. The bed on paralytic carrying his his shoulder On concludes the series on that side of the chamber. ^ the old familiar figure water gushes left . t XIV. 126. of the door as man we we enter the .. forth. their details all but as .

^^^'^ that a work of any difticulty to ascertain what that it biblical histories. which he holds in his hands be drawing water from a well which to we find the feast of seven. their hands. is ^ there. same On as before. and guidance that typified of in and scenes from A single author. as ' who Christ. might be supposed to of these men be teaching from a long of parchment. the fisherman. standing. rock. chamber was the dead . through this all if apparent confusion is a former chapter Tertullian. which in the former in ruins. Isa. who was in Rome these paintings were executed. X. appear to less probably roll. distinguish the raising of Lazarus from of variation. some hidden which. may very probably for their describing Christians as . 3 . fish Nor. 6. and is . Te'itunfan show have been reproduced naturally suggests the presence of Their meaning the have already said that the same subjects. Roma 264 side of the doorway Sotterranea. not standing side by side. can be made The waters the in Already our readers have had the clue placed is. There is nothing . xxxv. but one placed on a higher level than the other (probably in consequence of the One narrowness of the space).^ aright about the time we heard him of Baptism siiKmgolthe them common life. is • nowmg we know from the rock. born in the waters of Baptism i^^^. will guide have often seen them. seated. the baptism. sense. "" I Cor. and such frequent repetition . themselves. the on one side of the doorway once been represented a preacher is indeed. carefully used. and shows us the perfect. and in his treatise 1 speaks of those waters as The was r 1 to supply all the fresh complete interpretation. and the In the second chamber. a refreshes with In little upon r ^ forth Scriptures ^ the spiritual waters of His grace and of the faith the weary and thirsty wanderers in the wilderness of this world.. with more or other chambers of this series sense much sitting teacher. still is figures of two men. needed rock by the that Sacrament he ^^ rock. the fragments of plaster found on the other 2ifossor\\2. whilst We we the other seems already overflowing.'"' sacramental rites.di and the right-hand wall.

f The rock. the paralytic carrying his bed. J ancient call is followed by a then. the Fathers. at "Be Capharof good cheer. the sacra- the impugners of the validity of Baptism administered by heretics. 332. supposing naum. and the prerogative of Peter as its head. had no stronger argument against their enemies than this undoubted unity of Baptism and of the Church.. Prudentius says the true . the sacrament of Baptism. ii. And Hence its in the writings of derivation from the one and unity of the faith. a very striking instance of that characteristic of " typical parallelisms. man all the sacraments. And the same mystery was again set before them in the and the next painting on the same wall. of the gate of in the fisher- which we have heard Lord Lindsay art yet revealed. Christian The under the Old Law or of truths parallel common to the Christians of those days (the ' life. of the Gospel are and typical events.* and say briefly that here a figure of Saint Peter. thy sins are forgiven thee . with him of living waters sacramental grace which flow from the Rock. and to communicate them to the whole in Church. indeed." veiled. and are given is first Baptism. The pictures spoke second and third centuries). cariTui^^his ^^*-'- . to it to refer to the whom Our Lord man that was healed addressed those words. a very plain and intelligible way. that miracle is expressly quoted in the apostolical constitutions as symbolical * Chapter VII. % Plate XII." and. Ep." as draw forth and became to him. baptizing. torn. and the Church. the beginning of Christianity. ad Jub. Catacombs of (so-called) will remember that he used always to identify this painting with the sacrament of Penance. t St Cyprian. Liturgical Paintings. p. Those who have ever St visited the Agnes with Father Marchi. the font of the one Baptism and Rock was a favourite type of the origin ments. in the picture to show who that it is but we must anticipate for a is 265 here striking the rock moment what be brought will Moses before us in a future chapter. either of the and another and fishing. " the leader of the new was the authority to who succeeded Israel..

. and as he stretches \\\q over the table. just as to more probable. and It is thought and combination of ideas which we have found before the ancient epitaphs of St in Abercius and of Autun. and one De Baptismo. fact. in both of which there is a natural and easy transition from the waters of Baptism to the heavenly Fish Moreover. according to the ecclesiastical discipline of those days. were intended to have those on the next speak the Altar and . harmony with among Sotter^^anea.... the prevailing tone of thought and prac- days of persecution that of the Christians the would have been obviously it have represented grievous sin and repentance they should as a probable interlude between the sacraments of Baptism and the Holy Eucharist. out of tice Nevertheless. these two sacraments followed one another much more closely than they do now they were. It is far therefore. Don. better to it is this picture of the paralytic. sequence. quite as intimately connected with one secration and participation of the Holy another as those we have been just uc arist. to the next three pictures. that. his breast and arm. which form a pictures de- group by themselves. we must not forget of the Holy Eucharist. priest clothed ^^^ j-^-g ]-. in the Holy Eucharist senting the symbols of the ings which require a Some in of repre- these paint- few words of additional explanation. followmg from them exactly the same strict train of now theological considering.Roma 266 of this sacrament. . have interpreted as typical of the healing waters of Baptism. m . De Schism. The We next pass on. that all the paintings on this reference all Holy Sacrament of clearly of the understand wall Baptism. often administered simul- taneously. . 4 .^and in u\€: pallnini o»ly- mode * is clad only in man we have supposed to be pallium. then. as representing that other miracle wrought at the pool of Bethsaida. which Tertul- and tian. for instance. ii. • I'here are certain details.'^ others. persons. c. in consequence of the insufficient clothing of the He ConsecratiiKr the priest. however.. in .. 6. might take exception to that which we have called a picture of the consecration. Optatus.

Ep. But this beginning of Oehler's edition of Also St Hieron. at pictures to at which these The clergy. a priest of Alexandria.. There can be no doubt. exertiis^'' is the very avorI used by Tertullian. intonsa genas. II. also Greeks and Romans always looked on the philosopher's cioak as a guarantee of mentions of Justin Martyr. but holding Eccl. bare arms with and shoulders. Ixxxiii. did the same. § and spoke by way of of contrast. seminudi pectoris invetecunda j}U'7Hhrisqice retcctis. Magnum. must have had before his mind's eye some such painting as he described. indeed. God of in the dress of a philosopher quite certain that he was a priest. iv. coming down in He very way. torn 111. | who lived about fifty years later than Tertullian. Gregory Thaumaturgus. c. denounced the vainglorious immodesty of the bare of breast the Christian teachers. and other limbs un- St Cyprian. was —and especially the time belong. cingi. and others. "Agresti turbida cultu. Heracles. Horn. " F^xerti ac — Vv. Hnmertnu Leipsic. . Catal. t See note 1853. which was a characteristic of the better class of heathen philosophers." only See also the opening of Justin's dialogue with meminit nee tegmine Pectore sed fidens valido. beginning of his Pyschoinachia^ Faith the do to we battle with idolatry. i. and applauds Tertullian expressly defends De his treatise in PaUio. '^ at 913.\ Prudentius. that this simple austerity of dress.. 267 whole side of his body become much exposed.. their dress. Trypho. § 2. however. cxx." . not making any outward show of wisdom by * Hist. that he " preached the distinctly Word Eusebius * more than ordinary knowledge. X Ntida huifieros. in truth. mode of dress who (as we know) this frequented the Catacombs. nee telis De Bono actantia. exserta /acertos. . and after him Tertullian. are now when explaining. " but it not is Before him. as being philosophers not in words but in deeds. and descending into the arena but imperfectly clad.L iturgical Paintings. ad this treatise. 3. 3. — adopted by the Christian one time. 21-25. Aristides of Athens. § it Patientia?. covered. attired almost in this represents her as carried away by the eager- ness of her zeal. heathen philosophers.

and a woman becomes a very natural said also of the artistic symbol . so that may be many things which are said of the one other. almost them this date.. or very young man. is yet a fruitful mother. but rather because. buried in this intended to represent does not rather stand as a symbol of the Church. as we have already noticed. at the table of the tre- mendous mysteries. not because it any particular lady whose tomb might be near. painted in the all subsequent to and. subject 01 a woman. . woman oi the stands opposite to the priest. detail in these paintings some . infantes ox piieri . however.. so. without spot or wrinkle. whilst still a virgin.2 Roma 68 indicates a change of taste Sotterranea. who which has been made the . of whatever age they might be. point of in Catacombs the pictures of men. the Church She partakes of Christ. to be provided with a very sure criterion as to the date of these paintings in San Callisto . of the marvellous privilege of Our Blessed Lady. Just as the person represented here as receiving baptism mere boy. writings of the of.Q as clothed with the Thus we seem pallium. at the whole character of cannot doubt that the Looking. with outstretched arms in the attitude of prayer. whether she is some deceased chamber. and is in the the Bride also. is - . more latter interpretation is the correct. most ancient Fathers. and it is how important to observe we had been agrees with the result to which precisely led before it by a multitude of concurrent indications of a totally different kind. not because the to denote artist some one determinate person who was age. this series is a intended really of that and it was even neophytes. discussion. The Church Another ~ represented by . a was desired to woman was do honour to represented. and.. in like manner. or whether she lady. represent tunic underneath \h. and feeling upon the subject which had come over the Christian mind between the end of the second century and the middle of the third fact. we of paintings. it Both was most usual to speak of them in the Epistles of St Paul. . but because youth customary to call is the age of baptism. when the whole body of the faithful was spoken under this figure. meaning the true .

with e.^ of Celestine in the earlier century. 9. e. that these mosaics con- or less of modification. and partaking of bread Answers already spoken German critic . Sabina ex Circumcisione.. where the two scenes by side with the representation of Baptism. xxiii. so * Lect. it among occurs in liturgical illuminations of a Paschal candle in a MS. and in all these paintings of the guests. but in both of men. the and Ecdesia Church from the Gentiles and from the more probable certainly more as Ecclesia ex Gentibus. as the fishing is is it stands In another. where a type or as Moreover. Trans.g. some one or for paratively unimportant. belonging to However. the position are compressed into a single wall of the chamber. in fain transfer the refer- ence from the Blessed Sacrament to the eternal banquet heaven. her position and is com- occupation which command our attention. to . in Rome. for the whole Church. we will who would only add here. of the Barberini Library. reminding us of the words of St most prevailing which are made Cyril. put up by Pope in half of the Thus. be really meant for the Church. this feast in these sense. Oxf. 275. well as them women appear chambers seem absolutely literal to In one instance.e.Lihi7^gical Paintings.g. side in figure of each sacrament representation. of the first. either of the agapce Specimens are not wanting of either of these subjects. It is Christian soul. Indeed. joined with its next to the baptism. that the mere uniformity number and sex distinguish them from the representations and adjuncts of determine its in various numbers. whether the eleventh or twelfth century. figure.. 269 them i. and the old mosaics. the legends under two female figures fifth expressly designate Jews. it is tinued. tradition of this symbolical language was continued Christian artists.* "that those prayers are with the consecrated Of and men the seven fish." seated together. for this Our Blessed Lady. the ancient types of than that they invented new ones. answer we have to a gifts lying open to view. the Christian art. Sta. female standing here in prayer.. would alone sufiice to or of the joys of paradise.

§ Hel). that of this wall. The sacrifice cal of the holy sacrifice of the Mass. sacrifice unbloody a the same German on the cross as a sacrifice on the suitable figure also of the altar. must be connected with the Holy Eucharist. "t him from the dead for Isaac by his father is it were nce of the New Law. We have seen that after the paintings of the same the baptizing. he was only " as slain." § offering. fifth the priesthood * Both are represented as praying.'^ which. sacrifice although. the paralytic. then. of frequently sculptured on the Christian sarcophagi of the fourth and other biblical stories Abraham "received cum named in the Church's hymn Isaac immolatur. since. " off"ered up his only-begotten son. 6. therefore referred to the upon fishing finds to. prefiguring Here it is together with centuries. especially universally the history was so interpreted by ancient Christian teachers. then. V. in like manner.t his scruples will scarcely considered conclusive. claim to be considered a more lively type of the sacrifice of the Mass than of the on Mount Calvary. and although referred bloody Here Abraham and a third scene. Rom. expressly figuris prsesignatur. and can best be accounted for by the rejection of the ancient doctrine which the symbol expresses." yet the blood of Isaac was not really shed. Sioii. seems a wilful closing of our eyes against the truth. The a parable. same sacrament. there followed. doubt. alone enable us to identify them. of is next to this enter- appHcation to the Sacrament its when we remember how of the Altar. wherein seen by Bosio. Sotterranea. xi. is and wall. 503. —a and the pendant (so to speak) to that other picture already described. \ Yet it is it is named with X Apoc. sacri- faggot and the Another fresco of the the priest ram behind them same subject was Sott. For surely some his father might." and in the Laiida Canon of the the sacrifices of Abel and of Melchisedec. on the ^j^id-^ also ^e Isaac. as St Paul twice Abraham repeats.— Roma 270 Holy Eucharist the consecration of the To tainment. 1719. even by his co-religionists. the sacrifice of Isaac by already accepting a figure of the in difficulty critic. '* In Mass . in be respects.

a very striking resemblance to parts of His discourse upon the Blessed Sacrament. X Apotheosis. that the Fathers eating of His flesh always speak of the one as a kind of pledge and earnest of the We may other. supply it Nevertheless. " imitating what Christ did. liv. St John xi. abruptly addresses himself to Lazarus. pamtmgs of resurrection we have already intimated. than an historical personage. complement Holy to representa- Not only did the language which Eucharist. It was. Our Blessed Lord made use on occasion of that miracle. pamted on the remaining Baptism. multiplication bearing upon their relation to the Holy Eucharist. 73. tions of the and almost necessary. v. rather not necessary that * Ep. the resurrection of Laza- which to the Christians of that age would have seemed the most natural. offering a true sacrifice in the Not a Church God to and perfect the Father.L ihcj^gica I Pain ting is 271 s. as rus. to ° we may venture with confidence from the corresponding picture in the next chamber. bear of.t but He had surrection to everlasting life in also seemed so special a to connect a re- manner with the and drinking His blood. and. 58. cludeswith the . having the windingsheet loosely hanging about his person. as though he feared that he was in danger of revealing secrets forbidden to profane ears. &c. we should draw out f mark him Cf." which was The serlescon- vestige remains of the principal subject . j_ . consecrating. and allegorical. and swathed like a mummy just emerging from the tomb. as reflections how see from the language of Prudentius \ naturally the Christian mind passed from one of when he suddenly upon the these subjects stops in the midst of his of the loaves and fishes. as the next subject of him to speak. to the other. at length the 25 with vi." as St Cyprian* speaks. ad Corn. It is to which it be observed that Lazarus in the ordinary way third century. but as a youth. "filling the place of Christ. as though to as an ideal It is ^'^zarus. as in an would naturally become is not here represented which he was represented during the adult. opposite to the wall.

their and the hope of a life being sufficiently obvious. beginning with the stream of grace. XII. drawn from the rock of by him who was himself a rock. parchment in same or. everlasting. figures is . wears the same ascetic dress who was of Pagan philosophers as the priest Our impulse at sight of the well with first waters is to refer them to give water to become woman at the well. be + and that the 37. series of paintings of the history of Jonas. the There remain. figure appears twice. of this present trials is make some to seated. how- on which we ought ^^ them ^^^ ofDoctorsand ^^^^^^^^'^^^^^ fossors explained. such promised as should them a fountain of water springing up unto in And. vii. He (the fossores) were also represented takes the drawing of the water at the well to be only an expression when he speaks of drawn in art of " the what Origen had said Well whence John iv. 38. however. f Horn. p. wherein He Him. in words. Num. hands his from a well which ber. series. and material same is workmen walls. loner n roll once standing. and seemingly engaged work of in the He instruction.Roma 272 hidden sense of that Sotte7'ranea. has led He Rossi to adopt another interpretation. doubtless. 14 in . " ii. just as the mere Callixtus himself. careful consideration of the subject. supposes this figure to represent a Christian doctor of the faith. . with which the upper part of these walls bearing on the future one Supplement- Qf unrolling ° a volume. two other ever.^ holding n a the other stands. possibly St who perhaps devised this whole symbolical then commemorated in them. and now ending Christ with the Well of Living Water and the promise of eternal A more De life. apparently in the act at least. but on both occasions holding a book." and appropriate termination this life would be a very beautiful to a series of symbolical paintings. once sitting. is decorated. of drawing water In the next cham- already overflowing. spiritual waters are to for the refreshment of the believers * St on the 311-314.* that believe in its overflowing Our Blessed Lord to the conversation of it with the Samaritan *' consecrating. torn. .

some consecrated for ordination. or. many of the emblems and decorations combs have a distinct liturgical when they seem at first sight to Enghsh Christianity few other represent where. ac- one of the most valuable monuments of ancient Christian art that have Catacomb of suffi- On many theological knowledge to design them." trying to enlist them on the side of Protestantism. they had writer. a recent A St Priscilla other paintings of a liturgical charac. does not refuse to any one could so cast away bias and prepossession as to form for himself the ideal of a Christian church exclusively from the records of the past that meet us * Sec pp. adorned seems inspired by ^^'' ^^^^^' with the same symbols and in the same style. as we have ourselves also before observed. to effect a separation of them from the cause of Catholic acknowledge that " if truth. freely changed composition and arrangement. 83 -86. They virgin. the laying also. for public pen- And.scenfrelse- but not so on of hands bear the stamp of authority. ance. at least. group. even historical. has published a work on " Ancient in Italy. counts.'"' Doubtless. 273 reason for making use of these unusual memorials of individuals was the fact that this cemetery was the belonged to the Church which had ever first in her aggregate capacity. neither would every artist have and are certainly seem to to us. Indeed. It there may whereas . is in in their the all no trace of the well be doubted whether any private individuals would have ventured on such bold representations of the sacred mysteries for the adornment of their family vaults cient . who and Sacred Art in various parts of the sense and be simply Cata- reference. and perhaps.L iht rgica I Pa inlmgs. therefore. come down De Bosio and others before ter. yet constant in their hidden meaning and theological sense other cubicida of the same area same system of decoration. Rossi have discovered in the full and complicated a the taking of the veil by series. -/ . this same reason explains also the exceptional This whole series character of the whole system of decoration that was adopted in these They form one uniform chambers.

* on the order in which the several classes of paintings succeeded one another in the development of Christian We art. it is fish to before the miraculous multiplication. than a myste- we do not doubt was painted See page 196. little doubt that the paintings were executed time. less secret. but it literal the reduced to an expression Holy Eucharist its . how ing it is worth remark- accurately they illustrate and confirm the remarks which were made in a former chapter. there. more and parables. though.2 Roma 74 in the Catacombs. that. if not in the end of the second and there can be . described in page 237 and in . therefore. conformity to the text of the histories The rock of Baptism. without In a yet later cubiculum merely allegorical or hieroglyphical. they are represented only means of the any admixture of scenes biblical stories. and the various attitudes of the sheep. near the tomb of St Eusebius. paintings. in the latest of the cubicuia. the same substantial idea still there. and the same subjects were painted But in same the at all of them. that it was . in the all should revolve round a mystic centre of sacramental ordinances. would be sion Sotterranea. and by ' is is whence flowed the waters on the next wall side but there. It an accurate representation of an historical rious symbol. rather fact. of course. picture of the in that by is Good Shepherd and His Apostles. his impartial and calmly-adopted conclu- worship of such a church. are sure that these cham- bers were excavated in the very earHest period of the third •> century." Before taking leave of this interesting series of liturgical which we have been examining. * it the symbol of merely in a representation of the two Apostles bringing the bread and with a mystical intent that is Our Blessed Lord is.

and various other ob- with Christian of domestic use or ornament. terra-coita in ^^ °"" ^^ Jf lamps Catacombs. GILDED GLASSES FOUND IN THE CATACOMBS. ii. but very rarely has any account of the locality which they have been discovered been preserved. Rings. of the great more or museums of Europe. in The Vatican Library contains the largest collection of these Christian antiquities in . or ironclaws. and although appellation are no reason why we should doubt the genuineness of some of the ungulce. class of objects. and other ancient records. 164. of martyrdom were many at the lociili^ buried with the martyr articles fictitious. and which cor- respond exactly to the instruments of torture described the Acts of the Martyrs. have been from time to jects time discovered in the Christian cemeteries. and of the plmnbatce^' or scourges loaded with lead which are to be seen in Christian" museums. glass. They have been found stuck into the cement which surrounds the must have been placed there surviving friends tion. and thus they have lost Another much of their interest and historical value. exhibited still under there seems this .CHAPTER VIT. found and who and time of burial. however. THERE collections the many in are. have an interest and value Gilded * R. and by desired thus to express their own affec- to distinguish the grave of their departed relative from those around of the undoubtedly In some few instances the instruments it. coins. Various less extensive of articles Catacombs of Rome. S. emblems upon them. .

which was welded by These cups. first edition. like the designs on the glass bottoms of the ale tankards so popular at Oxford and Cambridge. design having been executed in gold leaf on the the cup. twenty specimens. glasses are. is coeval with that of the xxxix. Wilshere's contains about it . the more important of which are at present in the loan collection of the Description of These South Kensington Museum. W. many tell as to the locality in own their we have instances. every instance perished. and the impression show the The left in the loss sustained cement is all that remains to by Christian archseology. has resisted the action of time. Boldetti informs us that he found two or three cups entire. in . 7 b. and Naples. — Tav. evidently the m the bottoms of drinking cups. discovery of these glasses * Vetri ornati di often fifjure in oro. Catacombs. imbedded . of which the largest collection to is These are letters in be seen in the may be found in the Kircherian Museum at the Roman College. fire so as to form one solid found like the other articles were stuck into the and the double still soft mass with the cup. The British Museum possesses about thirty specimens. Florence. cement of the newly-closed grave glass bottom. while the thinner portion of the cup. the museums of Paris. in such a Their peculiarity consists in manner flat bottom of and as that the figures a letters should be seen from the inside. ornamented with figures gold. The gold leaf was then protected by a plate of glass. to regret the absence of information which they were discovered. in the Catacombs. and the fragments of glass. in this country is collections. Smaller collections Among private not so many.Roma 276 and of their own. Vatican Library. in the piaster. and his representation of one of these Even work. Mr probably one of the best C. Sotterranea. the greater part of them. and in the museum of the Propaganda. nn. 7 a.* is given in Padre Garrucci's the bottoms of these glass cups have frequently perished in the attempt to detach them from the plaster. exposed to accident and decay by standing out from the has in almost plaster. story although here also. .

by the excavations recently made neighbourhood of Rome. 0211 id in the Catacombs. he added an account of a few others Buonarruoti's since. added about Boldetti had been discovered work contains an account of about seventy specimens. though of a different work- manship. except in in that year a very the remarkable fragment of a gilded glass plate was found at Cologne in excavating the foundations of a house near the Church of St Severin . together with some charred bones. twenty of which. Modern and other authors. has. not a single specimen had been discovered to . Aringhi published the drawings and descriptions of these. and two or three have been brought . is now in the Slade Collection in the British and a woodcut of the other These two exceptions scarcely seem is given in page 290. which were time. Bosio found 277 fragments of Their five or six . It is. at Until 1864 at Ostia. . only exist in the pages of Boldetti. the specimens so that in his collection of about 340. exploration has not brought to In the course of twenty-three years of labour in the Catacombs. indeed. and width and depth. light . and when dis- covery by Bosio and f>Qj^^^an" Catacombs. them during all his Ardeatina. has obtained accurate drawings of now extant in the various publication we have a full known in his Padre Garrucci. light many new specimens. last specimen Museum . but Two found Cologne. in a similar excavation near the in well-known Church of St Ursula and her companions. This to the Roman ^no^wn^on^r^in Garrucci Rome adopted. and considers the have been confined ait of Christians. and in 1866 another. in a rough fifteen stone chest about thirty inches in length. however. that all thirty that were more. and tlien found an equal specimens in a single gallery Appia and Via the Via researches on number of whole unbroken on the Via Salaria . sufficient to the general opinion of archaeologists that Rome art to overthrow The was the only place where this kind of glass was manufactured. however. De Rossi has only come upon two fragments. was discovered. a further conclusion. however. all museums of Europe.Gilded Glasses f Catacombs themselves. exceedingly improbable that the Christians should . Olivieri. .

. except those found in the Cata- to be ascribed to their which the peculiar circumstance of in places of burial which That no such were not subterranean. so as to bear a Christian signification. Besides. jectures. &c. i. It is and practised m the third difiicult to determine precisely the period to which be assigned. Qui pallentia sulphurata fractis Perniutat one Epig..t glass. are we to account of the early ages either the figures or accompany them be in any way adapted How. have been acquainted with any ornamental unknown to their Pagan cotemporaries. 82. and fourth cen- glasses are to ^i^^se ° turies. The Jew '^ " dealers in broken plied their trade in Trastevere. f Transtyberinus ambulator. Osservazioni. nor can the inscriptions which asked. '' Olivieri discovered in p. the cemetery of St Callixtus.. that vessels of glass thus orna- mented have been destroyed in great quantities for the sake of the gold which they contained. it may be for the fact of these glasses scarcely ever having been found except in Christian sepulchral crypts? We acknowledge the less a fact that these glasses have never been discovered in fact. the Christians possessed down to us combs. 1864. even in the days may have had some share in producing the scarcity of specimens of this kind of manufacture.D. vitreis. but deny the inference for . 312. is glasses have come from antiquity. and yet we know and more especially that from very early times. after extremely fragile nature^ their having mortar alone preserved from destruction. p. and this conjecture by one or two instances recently found. in is confirmed which some of the gold leaf has been scraped away with an instrument forced in between the plates of glass. in the middle of which was quoted in BuUettino. &c. 42. which was art then." who of Martial. such as no Christian artist would have thought of depicting. 6. * Cavedoni. it is no any Christian building or sepulchre above ground.— Roma 278 Sotterranea. many A. several of and scenes from the figures represent gladiatorial combats Pagan mythology. with much been imbedded Cavedoni con- probability.

t examination of the style of dress. n. of these. possible that this else In one instance. as we have already mentioned. more still some- which is generally presided over by Christ. who is it seems to assisting at the union may be may be intended figure His own person crowning the in a for be an angel but . few are. Holy Tav. and variously em- druggist. The on them are more varied than depicted subjects A those painted on the walls of the Catacombs. xxxiii. instead of Christ. in the possession of from subjects f lb. 5. charioteers. on the top of Caracalla. Tav. the ark containing the Jewisli. and in the centre of the heap. by wife. Padre Garrucci considers them time of Theodosius anterior to the all and De Rossi speaks more . with to their children in front of husband and them or . are ship-builder with a . standing side hands joined over the nuptial side. or married couple.. it is quite Pagan scene. and other Jewish symbols .d. hunting scenes : Subjects de- Social and be met with. fre- ^ . 3. as also from the orthography of the legends indications." the rest. From an Diocletian in a. and the winged Cupid. have one or two figures in the centre. a father and mother. assigning them to a period ranging from the middle of the third to the beginning of the fourth century. each in his Domestic scenes from the nursery and the schoolroom shop. xix. altar. a . was to be distinguished the all Another ^'^ name glass bears the who was martyred under of Marcellinus. a times tailor. n. rolls of the law. grouped ^j^n? Three of around * these. also here one or more of frequently.Gilded Glasses found in the Cataco^nbs 279 represented a heap of money. his and a men wdth Pagan. Mr Most Wilshere. Scripture. ployed a money-coiner. and. 304. scenes from Pagan mythology Hercules. and Pagan gods and goddesses. either represented by His monogram pP^. Five or six specimens exhibit the seven-branched candlestick. head of precisely. Achilles. and of the mode of arranging and other the hair. a which two are number of Ganucci. [j^gj-j-j Others represent boxers contending for the prize. but the great majority are manifestly Christian.

and . the destruction of the dragon by Daniel.t has the Apostles Peter and Paul in the centre. Thus one in we have '' the water into wine Sotterranea. and the history of Jonas. * Garrucci. Good Shepherd. as St Marcellinus. . or changing . praymg between two olive-trees sometimes with the Apostles Peter and Paul on either side of her St . probably the brazen serpent. with a roll of a book taken out of a chest. n. Saints. Hippolytus. fish Christ . and the compartments around them six contain successively figures of the Three Children supposed by Garrucci to be the prophet . Tav. is found on several glasses with similar variations. are &c. symbolical meaning of the the Holy Eucharist was principally in mind. with is i i • i over her head. maternity the prophet saw in vision prophet Isaias. found more 2. and a symbolical figure of the sun then a female figure praying. i. lastly. St Vincent. with the rod of power enabUng the paralytic to carry his bed and with the same rod of power protecting the Three lastly. Christ with the rod of power changing Tobias with the monster . Noe These in the Ark. the the water into wine water-pots or as multiplying the loaves. I. Roma 2 8o Description of some of these. Moses Our Lord tells us was a striking the rock. sometimes accompanied by the virgin martyr St Agnes. Callix- saints. the possession of Mr Another. but in this signify that miracle as a type of the Figures of . which type of Himself and other next a man. t lb. Sixtus. her frequently represented as invariably represented as seven instead of is apparently to the is and i represented sometimes alone. such as the Fall.. then with a rod and a serpent in front of him. Isaias. a man. Agnes Other tus.. probably the . Children in the flaming furnace of Babylon. whose . n. are found sometimes singly. Our Lord sometimes together. man another Moses and being sawn asunder by two executioners . artist's The Blessed Virgin name number of latter miracle the six. c. the sacrifice of Isaac. scriptural subjects. possibly the Virgin. Lawrence. Timotheus. I. also in Wilshere.

xxxi. when they this festal day enobled were festivities run into excess. day of the Apostles' triumph has come again. " for friend. Enarr. of St Peter." J and he * and birthday of the gladness of our souls. § lo. show us with what solemnity the the fourth and still of" cruore purpurata cseteras Excellis orbis The sermons not easily Feast hymn with proud satisfaction to the glorious felix will keep the \^^ Even the vast basilica on the of citizens in gala dress." dishonour done by scenes much as the furious Pagans used specially t where agapce were celebrated Perlsteph. lix." * in flock together. and fro this These my through the because to us by the blood of Peter and of Paul. to St of riot their pursue them mourns over the scandal given by the wine-bibbing in "the basilica :|: all ^'whom drunkards now persecute with with stones. § ad Eustochium." in the portico for the benefit of f Ep. we keep that this who you know a martyr. Those who have passed a summer forget the enthusiasm with festa in Roma ! Es consecrata Horum Leo of St qua? what duorum Principum the Great. Ep. p^^^j glorioso sanguine. at Rome in .. . as as with the feast the pleased Avith the more over-eating to honour God by his fasts. full " Rome which the Romans of their great patrons. and hence St Jerome. xxix. apt to listen una pulchritudines." century. xii. in Ps. very absurd to propose is it is solemn day not so much with the abundance of our food. then. while thanking Eustochium for her childish presents of sweet- adds the caution. ad Alypium." joys. Augustine to the cups. fifth sings the latter. to Tell me. Vatican appears tins. Blessed Peter care . 281 the Catacombs. tion of the evidently the representa- is two great Apostles Saints Peter and Paul. and shout was observed The people They run ? poems of Pruden- festival more than ordinary may be this for joy. as now.. and the " whole of Rome.\ § : Gilded Glasses foimd m But the favourite subject rarely. " meats. laments saints. For It and therefore we must take .

drunken with their prayers. " thought good bishop. hunger. — "there are who cannot the crowds says. histories. . and read by turns these to objects. abandon themselves They joyously stam with cheer. and they despise the chilling frosts . their potations become till in gazing less frequent.Rojua Sotterranea. . Inscriptions are placed above the pictures. how us tells the agapce thus de- " the table of Peter receives what the teachmg how of Peter denounces.'"' — and with description to peasants recently converted and who." he one alteration we may fairly transfer his on the 29th of June. Natal. generated. when good odoriferous wine the tombs the devil insults St Felix. " Among attracted thither by the fame of St Felix." continues the the sight of and by sing in the midst of their cups.) De + The contadini who spend the * i^teps of ." Poema xxvi. 541. seqq. ix. had long been the slaves of profane usages. better and studymg these sacred engendered by such examples spend the day more. lips to to enliven It may be. carm. {aliter xxxv. one another. and And While they virtue are as they their a later hour. and. they The enjoyment of the forget their eating beguiles sight habits are formed in these gazers. . their to festivities fore. these will arrest the attention of the rustics. hymns after singing They of the saints. all arrive here from afar. faith. of Saints Peter and Paul on the Felice. before embracing the read. strikes their astonished minds.t they pass the entire night in joyous watchings they drive away slumber by gaiety. Rome faith of Christ. vigil and under the colonnade of the Piazza frost. But they mingle torches. and had obeyed their senses as gods. I them coloured representations have there- good with holy pictures the whole temple of St Felix. di San Pietro are not in danger . chastity of piety. in order that the letters may point them out pictured explain what the hand has depicted. more and and only a short time remains for their repast. and darkness by . v. from They Glowing with parts of the country. 282 Paulinus of Nola the poor." and at the same time he draws a graphic picture of a festa in the fourth century. God.

that IN followed Africa. ^^^^^• . PIE ZESES Thcsc may be TVIS FELiciTER ZESES.\ and Mayest thou live \long\'' " [long] life to thee. ^t^o-tJs. BiBAS may be understood as it stands. the Doubtless in ^^ Rome many practice which St reli- omnibvs with all tJwie . drink. with the figures of the apostles. Perhaps it would have been more exactly rendered by " Here's to our friendship. + Pie. where dignationejn stands for the honour paid to the saints by St Monica with her cup of wine. toast. of whom A more is. rate certain that the feast of Saints Peter much as Christmas is Figures ot Saints Peter which could only be and Paul on figures the glass observed as a general holiday in very 283 ourselves. in wliich VixiT is usually written Bixrr. with all thine. ZESES. confirm this supposition. and the repre- sentation of the two apostles on eighty glasses out of the three hundred and forty published by Garrucci. " Life gious give a few examples and happiness inscription has FELICITER SEMPER mayest thou live PACE DEI ZESES. of friendship^' drink.'''' The phrase is evidently alluded to by St Augustine in the passage quoted below. happily mayest thou ever in the peace of God. when seen to advantage use of these gilded cups. suggested the shall not pause to inquire.^^ or. A mark of friendship. The latter is more in conformity with tlie spelling on the inscriptions in the Catacombs. drink [or.'' freely. It is and Paul was Rome during the fourth now amongst ^ century. at any we was empty. \long\ translated — " A mark life to thee.— — Gilded Glasses foicnd in the Catacombs. for they are all of a convivial character. Whether Roman the same idea of restrainmg the potations of the by depicting Christians. Dignitas DiGNlTAS AMI- CvM CVM TVIS OMNIBVS BIBE ET PROPINA. with the playful fiand- * Dignitas Amicorvm appears to have been equivalent to the phrase Digni amici. of their having been intended in The rate that day. or as written for Vivas. AMICORVM CORVM PIE ZESES CVM We TVIS OMNIBVS BIBAS. for -n-te. and with all thi?ie. Greek words in popular use in Rome." pilgrim to thee a? id thinei" Hilaris vivas cvm tvis : more Joyfully live for a pious Monica learned in St Augustine records. live\ and propose a ^''Mayest thou live happily with thiiie 07vn. with which a Roman host was accustomed to pledge his guests before drinking their health. is a strong argument some way or other to commemo- inscriptions. where they occur.

t Hist. J This in the about three inches in diameter style of classical art. the somewhat rough and common-place. 18. the beard clipped short features * Conf. and of Christ Himself. 1. how far they may be considered to be real like- nesses. not pleasure. vi. This was found by Boldetti in the cemetery of Domitilla. even The X if there were no legends over oldest representation of medal is is probably Vatican Library. bearing a strong im- One of the heads short curly hair. invented perpetuated merely by Christian We art. she would carry round saints to one same cup which she used everywhere that when own abstemious and . them now extant on a bronze medal preserved that distin- j it is executed in a fine and the heads are finished with great care. The when Grecian portraits are very life-like press of individual character. so that they might often be guished. their heads."* question here naturally arises as to the representations of the Apostles. paintings. smnei^ef). and has every appearance of having been executed in the time of the Flavian emperors. that she used to bring to the festivals " a small cup of wine. f cannot be denied that there is it a certain uniformity of type about the figures of these Apostles on most of the glasses of which we are speaking. had become not only very watery.Roma 284 ness of affection. in according Gentiles. of these Apostles. or whether they were purely conventional. the ancients were accus- kind of honour indiscriminately to those this Moreover. for courtesy she And if would taste many there were (' iinde digiiationem shrines of the departed be honoured in that manner. Rome. Eccl. . vii. and art still flourished in natural. filial Sotterranea. but unpleasantly it lukewarm." and he adds. c. The + See Plate features XVII. diluted according to her which habits. even this. is covered with and also curled. she would distribute to those about her by small sips. 2. "that among a practice to tomed to who were pay the it is preserved still probable that. and have the testimony of Eusebius that he had " seen representations of the Apostles Peter and Paul. as saviours or deliverers to them. for A Ancient portraits she sought there devotion.

m Gilded Glasses found of the other are head the more noble. It is a curious coincidence also that in the apocryphal 329. Symbolical of and patrons. . 4.sometimes the Apostles themselves to be represented personally. very ancient." to if show is . f S. Irenceus. as not divided. and sometimes seated. the first being that of St Peter. their seems certainly In this being placed on either side of who have in prayer. vii. graceful. ad. and the latter that of St Paul we have as and. are made stature. is the Catacombs. sometimes standing. of St Agnes. excepting a few which are of very inferior execution. . as The two Apostles ." which is "that very great. and was mistaken for the in his stead. and the beard bold. the ship- master." p. 3. medal confirms the valuable long. suspended which is circle sur- often supported on a pillar. edited by Tischendorf. ed. i. § See Plate XVIII. . This preserved by Nice- and thick is 285 and strongly marked. heaven. whilst the Apostles are not in and moreover. T side by some . "/cat auros ava(pa\o. Haer. the hands uplifted same attitude.vhb% Apostle and beheaded uTTctpx^J'. . instances Christ victory it are represented Variously . tom. tradition phorus * of the personal appearance of the two Apostles. a single crown between the two. ised Mr Palmer's Roman Church r ^ is ^ the two most 11 t way we can account for their the Blessed Virgin. who had followed St Paul to Rome. It to appear of very can never have been intended to represent St Agnes as superior to the chiefs of the Apostles. ^l^^"cJi- . Migne. or of other saints. from is. in Ep. or * See also St Jerome. side. rather than Roman the persons oi her founders § known conjecture. holding over the head of each a in or. Comment. that " in their death they were This crown becomes sometimes a rounding the labarum or ^P^ In crown of were). 2i. . i8. it is said of Dioscorus. Acts of the Apostles. already said. these characteristics are in the main retained in most of the glasses. p. and universally at Rome by and Paul. i. . -. diminutive some intended to be symbol. is represented in the air (that -r other instances. J that in for of these glasses the represented ^^^ -riass. Galat. . that he was bald." t For there Church founded and organised glorious Apostles Peter to be good ground m . . r . iii. + Early Christian Symbolism. p. thus symbolising "the pillar and ground of the truth.





making intercession



" finished

who had



nearly a century and a half before her.

understand St Agnes, St Peregrina, and the


these Apostles had founded,

and through


for the




special orna-

ment and glory of the Roman Church, and we have
proof of the


even our


Agnes was always accounted a very




Roman Church which

praying for the

herself, as



Christians of the fourth century asking

her prayers in the inscription by Pope Damasus,

seen at the entrance of her Qhwxoh. fuori






She was


also represented

Apostles of
St Peter under
the type of




whom we

alone* upon these glasses almost

any other



have been speaking.

two Apostles, in ancient

"^^^ relative positions of these

works of



have been a subject of frequent discussion ever



since the days of St Peter






any theory upon them.

generally at the right hand, but by no

any one attempts

Christians looked


Agnes, too,


met by the


Jupiter between


as in








of St Paul


Juno and Minerva, observe the same

secondly, that the primacy of St Peter

the type of






distinctly attested in

those in which he appears under

The rock, of course, at
Paul " They drank of that

striking the rock.

once suggests the passage of St
* See riate


by another symbol which can hardly be

We mean




when they placed

ence as to the relative position of the two goddesses, f




and husbands, often placed on the

moreover, that Pagan

some of these


the place of honour, where she appears wdth








found once standing on the

the Blessed Virgin
their wives

prove from

St Peter

means always

upon the two Apostles

equal and co-ordinate, he

Lord Himself

seems impossible,





Bidleif. i86S, 43.

Gilded Glasses found in the Catacombs.


rock that followed them, and that rock was Christ


but we should hardly have ventured to affirm that the figure
striking the rock

was St Peter,

if his

name had


instances at least, been unmistakably given at his side.

of these glasses has been long




not, in

to antiquarian visitors to

Museum,'^ and within the

few months a


second, preserved in the same place, but whose surface had

become corroded and opaque, has been cleaned and rendered
transparent by Professor Tessieri.

respect from the other, yet there

difference to indicate the


does not


hand of another

12,.— Bottom of a Gilded Glass


differ in


just sufficient


found i7i the Catacombs,
restored to the Vatican Mnseum.


lately cleaned,

These invaluable glasses supply us with a key





Catacombs and sculptures on Christian
sarcophagi, where the same scene is so frequently repeated.
the paintings in the

They show

us that St Peter was considered to be the
* See Plate






2 88


of " the

Israel of

explain the reason


God," as Prudentius speaks, and they
the rod, the


Divine power,


never found except in three hands, those of Moses, Christ,




belongs primarily, and by inherent


Christ, the eternal

Son of God.

gated to Moses, of

whom God




drew His own
to use the

By Him

by the Incarnate Word


was of old dele-








and when


visible presence from the earth, " afterwards,"

words of St Macarius of Egypt,t " Moses was suc-

ceeded by Peter, to


committed the



and the new priesthood."



For a few years the rod of power was


visibly wielded

New Church

understand, also, that


not without reason that in the sarcophagi the figure striking

also in sculp-






yqq}^ is

almost invariably found in immediate Jjuxtaposition

with the Prince of the Apostles led captive by the satellites of

Herod Agrippa, and



frequently a studied similarity in

The most

the features of the principal figure in both scenes.

example of





the large sarcophagus which

stands at the end of the principal hall in the Lateran


In one of the four compartments into which the front of that



divided, vve have an epitome of St Peter's

he stands with the rod of power, already given
Divine Master, who


bolised by the cock at his


warning him of
Next, he


the satellites of Agrippa, but he






not bound," and



Lastly, he appears



taken prisoner by

bears the rod, for " the

no worldly violence can

wrench the rod of jurisdiction from him







Christ has

under the symbol of Moses,

Num. xii. 7 compare Heb. iii. 5, 6.
+ Horn. xxvi. c. 23.
X There must have been some special cause for the frequent repetition of
The most reasonable explanation is, that St Peter's imprisonthis scene.


ment and miraculous deliverance, after which " he went into another place
(Acts xii. 17), was the occasion of his coming to Rome, where the same
scene was enacted again and again in the apprehension and martyrdom of



of his successors.


parallel event in the


of St Paul (his

imprisonment and deliverance at Philippi) is nowhere reproduced
Christian art,
See Palmer's " Symbolism," p. 18.

in early


Gilded Glasses foiind
using the rod to bring from


tlie spiritual


of grace, at which the Israel of




the Cataco7nbs.


" the


slake the thirst of their

have already seen that the same idea runs through
All and in frescoes
in Catacombs,
there represented as flowmg from that

the paintings in the earliest cubicula of the Catacombs.

sacramental grace


one stream over which Peter presides.

Pope Innocent
for the






purpose of increasing your great fountain, but we

Peter, " from

same Head of rivers whence comes





in his reply the

the very Episcopate, and

(of the Apostolic See) sprung


the authority


says of St


that thence

other churches might derive what they should order;

they should absolve



pollution, the stream that




bemired with ineffaceable

worthy only of pure bodies should


from their parent source

just as



be decided by you whether our stream, however

your own abundance."*



''We do not pour back our stream-


small, flows forth from that

of this


Augustine expressed the same idea when, writing to

tury, St


Early in the


waters flow, and

through the different regions of the whole world the pure
streams of the fountain well forth uncorrupted." f

a great


the glasses delineated by P. Garrucci

number of very small


may be

noticed Large

These had been

belong to glass cups of small dimensions


careful examination of them,


sup- medallions

but a

especially since the discovery

which we have mentioned of the fragments of a glass plate at
Cologne, has proved that they once formed parts of similar

It will

subject at once.

be observed that they rarely contain a whole

Thus one of them


contain the figure of

Adam, another

that of Eve, while the tree

coiled round



be represented on a

and the serpent


The Three

Children are represented each on a separate glass, and so are
the three Magi.
* S.


Aug. Epist.

Our Lord,
clxxvii. vol.

Inter Epist. S. Aug.

on the Chair, of St






or St Peter, as the case



938, ed.


See Note


C. in Appendix,
connexion with the Baptismal Font on



the Vatican.



^"^" ^'^ glass.

Ro7na Solterranea.


represented about a dozen times standing alone with a rod

in his hand, while

carrying his bed,

on other glasses are to be seen the paralytic
Lazarus as a


at the

door of his

Daniel and one of the two


and Eve.
of Jonas


Christ with Rod



tained Lazaius.


Two of the Three Children.
An Orntiie, probably ihe Viigin






FragDietiis of a Glass I''ate}in-found at Cologne.

sepulchre, and the rock with the stream issuing from

true that



sometimes these small glasses have been taken out

of the series to which they belong.

Thus, one published by

Gilded Glasses foioid in
Garrucci in Tav.







in the Vatican,



was found


the plaster round a child's grave, in the cemetery of St Pris-

surrounded with a


had been hung round the neck

small glasses


as a


and yet the sub-

proved by the fragments discovered



But the general use of these

one of the three Magi.


a ring by which

circle of iron with

plate about ten inches in diameter

of a



which have been inserted, while





of clear glass,

a state of fusion, a num-

ber of small medallions of green glass exactly similar to those

found separately


Rome, and which together form a

series of

These medallions, being of double

scriptural subjects.


have resisted the ravages of time and accident which have destroyed the more thin and fragile glass oi\h^patena.



has seen in the plaster oiloculi in the Catacombs the impression
of large plates of this description, which have probably perished

them from the cement."

in the attempt to detach


have alluded to the probable use of these glasses at the

AgapcE, and the subjects on

been also used on other
days, &c.

It is

sider whether



at the


not possible that some of them

chalices of the second



to con-

may have

in the celebration of the

Pontiff for painting

Good Shepherd,! would



however a more interesting question

The well-known passage


them suggest

festive occasions, as marriages, birth-

been used as patens or chalices


which Tertullian




lead us

his chalice the figure of


third century

suppose that the

must have been


quently of similar material and workmanship to the glasses of

which we are



preserved at Genoa, which
chalice used

by our Saviour

celebrated Graal or Sacro Catino,



have been the

at the Last Supper,




which so many romantic adventures were encountered by


legendary knights,


of glass, and of hexagonal form




* Bullett. 1864, pp. 89-91.

t " Ipsa picturoe calicum vestrorum, si vel in WWs pe7'luc^-l>it interpretatio,"
and again, "pastor queni in calice depingis."
Tert. De Piidicit. 7, 10.






would not be




Pontlficalis says of St

a constitution of the Church,


should carry glass paieiis into the church in

that ministers


The Liber


Zephyrinus, that " he

front of the

deduce any archaeological argument


from so doubtful a



while the bishop celebrated mass with

standing before


and that




masses should be celebrated, care being taken

what be-


longed to the rights of the bishop, that the clergy only should
take away for

by the

to administer




About twenty

the consecrated vessels


set apart twenty-five silver patens."






Pope Zephyrinus

and martyr, ordained

that the



these notices



in glass



but Urban, Pope

Sacrifice should


be offered

passages, how-

do not bear out so absolute a limitation of the period of

glass chalices to the few years
It is



gold or silver chalices and patens.^' +


years after-

such as Honorius of Autun, have affirmed that

Apostles and



that the priest should receive

to the people."



later writers,

own hand, and


wards, St

Holy Loaf {coronam) consecrated

present the


between Zephyrinus and Urban.

not said that the latter Pope forbade the use of chalices

merely stated that he provided

of less precious materials


sacred vessels of

and especially a number of patens




corresponding to the number of the city




of St Sixtus n. and St Laurence shows that the treasures of
the Church were constantly liable to confiscation, and



have been as impossible to ensure the. sacred vessels being
always of the precious metals in Rome, during the ages of
persecution, as

it is


communities which

for those Christian

groan under the bondage of Mohammedanism.
* See Didron, •'Christian Iconography," vol.

+ De Gemma

X The present writer once received a
bej^ged earnestly to have given





Wlien hap-


270, note,





from a Coptic priest, who
one of the ale-glasses

for a chalice

which he saw on the table of the Nile-boat saloon.
universal throughout Egypt in the Coptic churches.

Glass chalices are

Gilded Glasses found in the Catacombs.
and the munificent

pier days came,

chalices displaced the glass vessels,

some of the

latter to

of gold and silver


was not

at all unlikely

be put up as tokens of affection and

on the tombs of the departed, and hence


some of our

possible that



may be

it is


fragments of chalices.

"WiQ patencB 77Vr<?^ which St Zephyrinus required, belong to a Glass

They were not

different category.

bishop or priest


which required


and great

for the use of the celebrant

but in conformity with that ancient practice

festivals to

priests in cathedral

on Sundays



assist at the bishop's mass,' St

ruled that the priests of the several

should be


attended on such occasions by a minister with a glass patena,

which a requisite number of consecrated hosts (made then

in the

form of the



by the


" being




circular biscuit ciambella^

and hence

should be placed at the bishop's mass, and taken

priests to



be administered

to the faithful in the different

thus signified their union with the bishop by

partakers of that one bread

Take heed,"


consecrated by his

says St Ignatius of Antioch,

For there

have but one Eucharist.




flesh of


Our Lord

Jesus Christ, and one chalice in the unity of His blood.







one bishop, with the


two large patence discovered





and the

Cologne, correspond exactly

and the absence of any



allusions to secular feasting,

accord well with so sacred a purpose, and we


the fragments of the

the kind of glass paten here mentioned.





presume that those other smaller glasses of which we

have also spoken may also be remains of the patence used to

convey the Blessed Sacrament from the Pope's
parish churches in


altar to the

Padre Garrucci thinks



improbable, although he does not admit that any of our Cata* S. Ign.

ad Philadelph.


4; compare ad Smyrn.

be deemed a sure Eucharist which
by one to whom he has entrusted




— " Let that

[administered] either by the bishop, or





Setter ran ea.

comb glasses ever formed portions
The patena found near the Church

of Eucharistic


of St Ursula differs from

the other discovered two years before, in having the subjects

depicted in gold and colours on the surface of the glass,
stead of being Avithin medallions of double glass.



The draw-

also in a better style of art.

Fig. y^.--SarcoJ>hagHS still io he seen in Cemetery of San Callisto.

We have seen that the Catacomb of St Domitilla. and. CHRISTIAN SARCOPHAGI. dates from it £=> .CHAPTER Vlll. ^ in which some of the more Catacombs were down from laid The to rest. while the wide recesses. Marchi. and the most ex- tensive collection of Christian sarcophagi great hall of the Lateran Palace. is worth while to inquire into the Christian use of burial. in order that we may gain some general this mode it of idea as to the date of the specimefis before us. in which * Sec page 71. prove the original design of the sepulchre. appears originally to have been intended solely for the reception of those buried in sarcophagi. and additions have been the direction of the It is to be found in the was arranged by Padre made from time Commendatore De Rossi. it prevailed in burning became general. IN the course of the preceding chapters we have frequently Christian use P ^ had occasion to mention the sarcopliagi. are manifestly later additions . buried in the use of sarcophagi comes we have the remotest E^gyptian antiquity. or stone coffins. as already remarked. In fact.* which bears every mark of having been constructed in the time of ^jj^gg/^ the Flavian emperors. loculi^ first The cut through the plaster which covers the walls of the portion of this cemetery. may be phagi illustrious of those Rome before the practice of Examples of Pagan Roman sarco- seen in almost every museum. to time under Before exam- ining this interesting collection of early Christian sculpture. in which the sarcophagi once stood. the body of St Petronilla lay here in a stone sarcophagus.

the immediate successor of by Severano related is by the hand of St Peter himself. appear. was translated by Pope Paul to St Peter's I. however. described by first De Rossi as belonging to the four centuries. household of Linus. mass of the Christian community was composed of ^"^^ ^^^ the poor. the sarcophagus was an expensive article. said to have been engraven is whose daughter. The inscription. . . King this saint. -h- Christian use of sarcophagi. which living rock as of a heavy stone coffin from the of workmen. on sarcophagi. 4. which has been described as " an excavated sarcophagus. the scpola-o a nothing else but a sarcophagus cut out of the and the .. and in consequence the sarcophagus was exposed to view. to the king. to There were. and there Pope Sixtus IV. 5. AURELIAE PETRONILLAE FILIAE DVI. very een'eral "^^- first mode the Christians. St Peter..CISSIMAE. in page 30. until the ages of persecution had passed ^r^r^^^^^ sarcophagi away. and must have attracted Christian the to j_ this at find. in which he describes is a letter of it as having four dolphins at the corners. and four bear dates anterior to the time of f See fig. dated inscriptions.296 Ro??ia Sotterraiiea. we have is cemeteries more attention later form of seen. then. Christian character.. of France restored the altar of In 1474. in the Gospel." Christian subjects not Even when |. during the restoration of the Confession The of St Peter. this saint of Caesar's The sarcophagus was. was generally desirable. than a very early period. several reasons which made among of burial far from general In the They were not.|-jgy ^Q j^Q^ the Christians did bury their dead in sarcophagi. to have ornamented them with sculptures of a distinctive during ages Out of the four hundred and ninety-three of persecution. The conveyance city to the cemetery required the presence of a considerable number Consequently we fnensa. with arched niche above. only eighteen are found of these not * See more than page 65. * have been found to in the time of Urban VIII.^ this kind of sepulchre was. the a?rosolwm. Louis XI. place. appears have been coeval with the introduction of Christianity.

These are ornamented with Constantine. or griffins.. sarco- phagus. have been found Aries and Saragossa as freely as in * In A great hood of number Aries. adorned with Christian sculptures. to a. Ravenna. contrast presented by these tvva tlie is that rule to be found in the consideration of the widely different circumstances under which the painter and the sculptor pursued The of persecution. Constantine.d. upon which represented the Nativity with the ox and is and which bears a consular date corresponding ass. fact.* of Christian sarcophagi. prosecuted his labours without fear of danger while the sculptor would be unable to execute Christian subjects in his workshop without drawing a dangerous attention to his work. in or Milan. if represented at under forms which were not unknown even to all. and sarcophagi of the fourth cen- tury. is it. the if simple explanation of branches of Christian art artist no would liave restriction was even from the apostolic age. or and the earhest dated . Hence upon we the sarcophagi. for applied to painting. discovered in the neighbourstill be seen in the museum of that city. ' Ckristla7i Sarcophagi. art no sooner w^as peace given to the Church than Christian sprang up everywhere. 343. veiled the Pagans while upon those belonging to the period wdiich followed the peace of the Church. may Rome.. and we have seen placed upon the Christian A same such had been the case. prior to the time of find Christianity. concealed in the bowels of the earth. This tardy development of Christian sculpture cannot be explained by the supposition that the Church forbade or dis- couraged the representation of sacred subjects and symbols. with a distinctively Christian subject sculptured upon one from the Catacomb of Saints Peter and Marcellinus. their respective callings during times Christian artist. [' . There ap- pears to have been a very considerable school of Christian sculpture there. pastoral or hunting scenes 297 genii. we notice at once the reproduction in marble of the same series of sacred subjects which we have seen reduced to a regular symbolical system in the subter- ranean fresco-paintings of the second and third centuries.

32. 15. f It is however fruit. Another. close to loculi^ the sculpture has been turned towards the inside of the tomb. life. on by scenes of susceptible testify. omen that of evil rather this sculpture was found with signs of plaster upon it. t P^ig. but they have either been carefully defaced with a or turned against the wall chisel. found and had been buried in the Ulysses and crypt of St Lucina. and when used . and an examination of the fragments which remain of these ages proves. beneath the floor of the chamber. and * As it is probable that the monogram of tyranio was in Fig. difficulties in Soticrrajica. or scenes clearly- rites. . the way of anything hke mation of a Christian school of persecution. fair to an add. who is overturning a basket of than good.'"" or agriculture. while the rough side was exposed to view. Syrens. other subjects appear Christian interpretation. For instance. a bacchanalian scene sculptured on a sarcophagus was found in the cemetery of St Lucina. upon them by or false gods. of a great in request. page 109. the chase. were not unknown on Pagan tombs. turned against the wall. page 261. represents the story of Ulysses and the Syrens. as ideas. figures. that they took considerable pains to select those which did not directly offend against the Christian religion representing idolatrous peculiar to Paganism. Sarcophagi with such scenes sculptured met with are sometimes indeed to be in the Cata- combs. once expressive of thoroughly Christian and were consequently examples of them less comic rarely) Figures with their hands raised in prayer. side this sarcophagi usually found in Christian cemeeither by wave-lines.Rovia 2 9cS Sul)jects selected by P^rom the Christians from the Pagan shops. it sculj^ture during the ages of who wished evident that those is the for- to procure sarcophagi must have had recourse to the shops of the heathen . Cupid and Psyche are represented side by side with a Good Shepherd. numerous the Sometimes. \ was inscribed the name of the deceased. and (more A his shoulders is also to These were at ora?iti^ shepherd with a sheep be found among heathen subjects. The teries are ornamented pastoral Pastoral scenes. and on IRENE.

S. of perils we be thus shall to the Cross. 28. and another sarcophagus in In the Lateran covered with is it Museum subjects wholly biblical. . and in of Turin explained the ship of Ulysses to be a type of the Church. three shepherds. page 232. Maxim. * This 299 not the only instance is of the representation of this fable on Christian tombs the fifth Maximus century. Horn. i. i. his feet is in foreign to Christian art. t c. % Fig. a good specimen of a Pagan may be Shepherd. See also Philosophumena. vii'. the mast being the Cross. adapted to Christian purposes. a disguised form of the Cross. 1. was probably taken from the Pagan shops. at Yet the chamber was J probably not made before the fourth century."! and life fall upon the Both these fragments of sarco- may be seen in the Catacomb of St Callixtus. a fourth lying at his bears the inscription feet. by which the faithful are to senses. 267. vol.— Christia7i Sarcophagi. which still contains the well-preserved body of The dog a man. This sarcophagus : ENGAAE IIATAEINA KEITAI MAKAPfiX ENI XfiPfi HX KHAET2E IIAKATA BHN ePEHTEIPAN TATKEPHN APIAN EN XP12 *' Here Pauline [for lies in the place of the blessed whom Pacata buried she was] her sweet and holy nurse in Christ. page 294. while the third leans on his staff and watches three sheep feeding on the mountain-side. Clark's edition. " for in that Christ be kept from the seductions of the Our Lord was fastened so let us pass through the with as it were closed ears ensnaring . the world neither held back by the pernicious hearing of the world's voice. nor swerve from our course to the better rocks of voluptuousness. one holding a sheep by his seen about represents It tail. De Cruce Domini. the middle of the hall. Good the second with a sheep on his shoulders and another at his feet." * Fig. 35. The Good Shepherd at each end of one of the sarcophagi phagi that Catacomb. St . p. on the right-hand side.

token of His supreme t Plate XIX.d. fix the date at a. f above the tomb of St Paul. That nearest Since sculpture cannot be said to have existed as a Christian art before the we may time of Constantine. as the symbolised by the figure veiled. A is usually the lithograph first given of is it to at This sarcophagus was recently found the end of the volume. Sarcophagi in the Lateran. be buried in show plete condition. with Orpheus and a fisherman sculptured upon of which a lithograph is XX. and which attract the attention of visitors.'"' sar- cophagus. That basilica was by Tlieodosius towards the close of rebuilt the fourth century. has been suggested that It the invasion of the Goths under Alaric was the cause. part of the sar- Sott. given in Plate it. we have three bearded their unity of operation Blessed Trinity. The fountain of Deity. busts the in woman to doubtless centre. we pass on to We examine some of the more remarkable specimens. The unfinished faces of the intended and other heads that the for in the man and same incom- some circumstance prevented the execution of the original design. 300 Bosio says that on the Via it was dug up out of the cemetery of St Salaria. as the episcopal chair was. p. . end of the at the volume. the Three Eternal Rom. 513. . representing by Persons of Father. it. is figures. commence will with the large sarcophagus which stands at the end of the hall in the Lateran. ( to the fourth and fifth centuries . when the excavations were made for the construction of the magnificent Baldacchino which now covers the high altar in his basilica on the Via Ostiensis. the source in Ever- and the chair. and having thus may determined an approximation to their date. and this sarcophagus appears to have been placed there about that time. 410. belongs to the same category. Beginning at the right hand of the upper cophagus. safely attribute all the sarcophagi. in * Bosio. and this would The Holy Tnniiy. with distinctively Christian subjects sculptured upon them.Rojiia SoUerranea. and he infers Priscilla from the inscription that that cemetery was a celebrated resting-phice of The saints.

and the Incarnation is expressed by the signs of youth. because He that it was is in was revealed as the promised seed who should be born of the woman. is co-equal with the Father. or His doctrine which alone can enlic^hten to the blind. of Immediately below we see two TheEpiphany. evidently intended to contrast in some way with Here the Eternal Word those already described. seated figure stands a third. in the act of side of the sleeping Adam. Her chair is not veiled. for " in the sweat of thy brow shalt thou eat bread . while to Eve he gives a lamb. all by which He was born of the and that which was made manifest by was born of His mother versahty of His kingdom is typified The in the world. Fall. that Father before which He is invisible worlds. while He is the set holds in Our Lord frivino" sitrht to roll. And finally. most blessed of creatures from the unap- proachable Creator. to represent the Behind the Holy Ghost. other groups. He gives to Adam a sheaf. which he offers to common our mother. but Holy Ghost it Mary conceived that Blessed Trmity in her virginal to distinguish the the W^ord is The Holy Ghost an infant on His mother's knee. see the serpent with the fatal apple in his mouth. Eternal Him Word. for He was by the operation of the Second Person of the the womb. In of front a is 301 who figure represents the things were made. and to mark the twofold generation of which Christ. a type of domestic labour in was Lamb God whom the second Eve to bring forth to atone for all the evil that the first Eve spinning. the representatives of the whole Gentile Church. application of the universal redemption to the individual forth by Christ giving His hand a show that it uni- sight to the blind. and also of the had brought upon mankind. by whom all creating Eve from the dignity. is again represented. is either to signify His divine mission. who In the next group we The co-operates in the work of creation. by the three Magi. but this time not according to His divine nature by which made is He flesh. represented just as before. while between the guilty pair Our Lord." Christiaji Sarcophagi. here represented without shame of the the depth of the fall a beard. the .

it Eucharistic series. mutilated indeed. but that. have never been able to wrest from him the rod of power with which he rules the Church as Vicar of Christ. according to the promise. patristic gives for the life and foreshadowing of the then. and thus Roman . the upper portion of the other side of the sarcophagus. to the very frequent representation of this life. and distinguish him from his caps mark the Herod Agrippa. Turning: ^ now to . the bearded face and general similarity of expression identify the Apostle. as this Peter. which probably led scene in St Peter's Another reason.Roma 302 Eucharistic types. it is worthy of note that. that his his great prerogatives." that eateth life. and My flesh. from his Master the solemn warning. repeated the scene over and over again in the person of Peter's successors. Sotterranea. which Our Lord held in the former and yet receiving series. and satellites of The Jewish Divine Master. " He blood hath everlasting we have day. we may call it." at St Peter's feet. is that his imprisonment and miracul- ous deliverance was the immediate cause of his coming to Rome and founding the Church there . while the rod in the Apostle's fall would not deprive him of hand of Our Lord. which the wine becomes in He which flesh. uplifted express this with sufficient hand shows clearness. His blood. symbols of the Holy Eucharist. the well-known loaves. being converted." The next group represents the apprehension of St Peter. and the bread His And of the world. having I will and drinketh a third group. as a type power of the Holy Eucharist even upon the mortal body. of the darkened understandings eves ^ ^ of men. we see our Lord with the rod of His power changing the water into and multiplying the wine." and imperial soldiers. yet he God is still retains the rod. " Before the cock crow thou shalt deny and the cock Me The thrice. Beneath him up raise My in the last enough represents the raising of Lazarus. but with remaining to show that St Peter. for " the AVord of who not bound. though they have power to lead the Apostle whither he Avould not. he should " confirm his brethren. we see St had already committed to him the rod of power.

and in the subterranean church of gilded . in the force of His in Then Habacuc calis . take the dinner that God hath sent is met with very frequently both is found in the earliest of the tenth century. In the Protestant version Bel and the Drajjon. represents Daniel in the lions' den.'^'f and set The servant of This group it continuator of the Liber Pcmtifi- of Daniel in the altar frontals with lions' den. and in him the Christian priesthood. through which.'^'' Moses God a mutilated representation of is striking the rock. him cried. and sculpture. angel of the Lord took by the top of his head. . protected by God under the figure of an old man. over the den. i. Christians would see in 303 the apprehension of St Peter the symbol of " the Holy See of Blessed Peter. sometimes like Daniel unharmed exposed in by the savage beast to which he was the arena. of the waters flowing We people of Israel are drinking. writings of the early Fathers inform us that the Christians in It may be seen San Clemente. xiv. and the head of the world." the words of St Leo. thou God. in painting known Catacomb. found in the Catacombs enable us from which the have seen that the glasses symbol to interpret this as a of St Peter. the Babylon. while the figure offering to Daniel a whom basket of food represents the prophet Habacuc. it is xii. " The Story of ^ ^^ '°"^' . all their busts of the persons for the spiritual Israel draw whom group. thee. touching with the rod of power the grace for Rock from which The remaining needs. extending her sway more widely by the religion of than ever she had done by earthly domi- The next group nation.Christian Sarcophagi. 32-3(S. having adorned representations spirit. a Lap. saying ' : O Daniel. '' The saw Daniel the type of the Christian martyr. in which he awaited his martyrdom. See Corn. by the Christian * Serm. beneath the Daniel among the sarcophagus was intended. t Dan. Rome '' was made a priestly and royal in city. Apost. and consoled in the dungeon." in Act. in Nat. among frescoes mentions Gregory IV. called 17. but always victorious over those who could at most only destroy the body.

who strengthened him for the conflict with the heavenly food of the Holy Eucharist. . On the himself be not divinely provided for Daniel command in the den of beasts who were hungry and shut up by the king's in the midst of wild yet spared him. his dear wife. primitivae . kneels at the feet of On disciples stand around. but in early Christian sculpture A always confined to bassi rilkvi. Thus St Cyprian apphes the priest history " : For since things all God's. who follows Maffei in understanding the congeries of letters at the end as the initials of Ave anifua itinoce)is kara conjicx bibas iji Cfuisto. lo. 1 868. Cypr. whither crypt of St Peter's. the Sarcophagus God if man of God was fed/^* either side of this sarcophagus are Good Shepherd. on the Pincio. again stands Martha and the . * S. vitellianvs . De is Our Lord out of the tomb. were set up by Constantine at Con- Rome stantinople. . central group. . this sarcophagus on our first nearly is The inscription." f conivgi lid. f Such at least is the interpretation adopted by De Rossi. who is Oratione. innocent soul Primitiva. be noticed before we leave The one whose lid is FiDELissiMAE most faithful wife mayest thou bility. nothing will be are wanting to him who possesses God. will ornamented with sea-monsters. . Shepherd watching over two sheep probably intended for the Churcli. and bears the marivs inscription remarkable exception museum. immediately beneath . Marius Vitcllianus to Hail. when he was lions and . . — Bidleit. This live in Christ. close to which Mary subject on the sarcophagus rock and the while on the one side mummy her sister Medici had been removed from the represents the smitten apprehension of St Peter calling Lazarus as a it for a fountain in the is the other side in Our Lord. under this form. however. But the most striking the history of Jonas. Eusebius tells two small statues of us that statues of Our Lord. since in Bosio's time this latter was used as the cistern Gardens. AAiKCBBiN /k' . is " . is a Good a temple-like house. 21.— : Roma 304 Sotterra^iea. Thus a meal was wanting to him. the hall. the we pass up as left. proba- in all belongs to another sarcophagus.

of the Holy which a boy also looking out for prey. giving the basket side of the hall holds a circular side.Cludstian Sarcophagi. which (we have already said) was for- merly consecrated in bread made in the shape of a corona. On the same made.. the iid 01 wnicn are two shepherds. subjects. to At the prophet reposes. Close to this scene and snails are seen crawling about. is another sarcophagus. up a to bear olive-branch from the dove. The sarcophagus first God of which is is itself is ornamented with sacred the sacrifice of Cain and Abel. that others. as the eldest. as in altar of patriarchal fruits first. u offering sacrifice. perhaps not with- is edge. convey the warning. little one case hooking a in to land.. bit of available space with figures. the reclining figure of Jonas asleep under is The the grateful shade of the gourd. and a female bust in the sky apparently indi- The same monster cates the calm which succeeded. the large sail of first is filled 305 with the wind from the conch-shell of the winged The sea-monster opens figure above. the The invisible represented by the bearded figure seated on a stone. the Fall Eve has taken the all apple. while Abel In the next group. beardless. upon which crabs. next is represented as vomiting forth the prophet upon the dry ground. . water's and to on either fish is made " fishers of men. which possibly has reference to the rude times. represented. and the same water in which float the sea-monsters made is intended for the Ark. which is sculptor has filled every ^1 Every one of the sheep of bread in his mouth. with Cain and care of three Abel is again and the promised representations of the Incarnation. represented fishermen assisting him — A of fish to the boy." are on are born of the waters. which Noe in come from out meaning. evidently a figure Eucharist. lizards. Cain. offers his follows with his lamb. each roll are in the other. besides those whom the watch for those . Christ has who and receives the the place of refreshment where the water bird and may be intended sits square box. upon Sarcophagus 11takmg sheep rather larger than themselves. represented which as being cast out of a ship. but Saviour. his enormous jaws to receive Jonas.

the from S. who as he sacrifice of the true Isaac is i . but the article of the Creed. The ..„. Mary kissing The upper hand Saviour's Lazarus to restored her brother series of figures represent . holds the sheaf in His hand. is kneels with his hands found among the subjects selected by early Christian set it. . stretched hand checks the about to sacrifice his bound behind \- . Visitor Will hardly fail to notice a very finely sculptured sarco. formerly stood beneath the altar in the tribune of and the Sixtus V." forth here with sufficient clearness * Si Mall. . ^ r^^ • not ^ art. . and of which He said. " Wheresoever Gospel this be preached shall whole world. . Holy Innocents were placed within relics of the removed in Sta. in is the group which . central figure a female with an is the " alabaster box of precious oint- ment " which Mary poured on Our Lord's head. It but the sarco- phagus. Pilate washing his hands. fuorz le nmra. perhaps. .-. Abel's offering. though to imply that the bread obtained by the as sweat of Adam's brow is to to be offered to is God. . his back. lamb does not here to Eve. _ . . that also which she hath done memory of her. Maria Maggiore. Faolo . for having Peter warned of his gratitude in life denial before the cock should crow . Sarcophagus Proceeding still further along this side of the Museum. give the st towards the seated it in her hand. open box His blessing if He be expected upon the labour of man. and Moses receiving the law from a hand stretched out from heaven. phagus. Another out- arm of Abraham uplifted son Isaac. and shall in the be told for a subjects are the paralytic sight to the blind. . " crucified under Pontius Pilate. is who impossible to say men were these two . 13. sufficiently con- The Mary Mag.J 06 Ro77ia Sotterranea. which probably once contained their remains. whose refined and intellectual expression of face contrasts strongly with the rude grotesquesness of most of these sculptures. raising Lazarus changing from the tomb. but extends figure. xxvi." carrying his bed.. in the centre of which are the busts of two men.veying the lesson. with the relics to a chapel built by him it Our Paolo fiiori lemura^ 6". The remaining -'' Our Lord giving the water into wine..

a sarcophagus.o7 as the figure of St Peter interpre- confirmed by is on the lower portion of which we see that Apostle in the hands of Herod's satellites. under the appre- while. has somewhat puzzled the learned. or possibly St John. or else to teach that and the prophet Habacuc. man and the head which appears between the branches of the tree to be Zaccheus climbing up that of On same the nearest side resemblance Saviour's in order to see of the hall to the is later Our Lord. his veiled judgment-seat. oii the opposite gives sight to the blind. and supported on a ]^//^/^^J^^ . Sarcophagus in Latcraii MuseH)tt of art. is a group which Bosio makes the old be Moses giving the law to the people. with the Sarcophagus representations Passion to be found in early Christian Fig. own Again. however.— Christian Sarcophagi. still pointing to the stream which flows from the rock above his head Christ. we see Daniel in the the persecution of His Church. 36. is He hension in the Garden. this ^^ Peter. the pediments above which are decorated with scenes from the vintage. Moses tation of basm standing ready irresolute governor. Our It is of/onrtk or fiftJi ceninry. either in allusion to His lions' den. turns repugnance . seated on away his head in token of his Our condemning the innocent blood. divided into five compartments by twisted Corinthian pillars. while . who. represented as also engaging the attention of the satellites. Our Lord tree to suffers still in and multiplies the In the centre. represents the servant with the ewer and to wash the hands of the in sarcophagus. loaves and fishes. side. In the central compartment is the labaniuh surrounded with a crown of immortality.

while others of the same into the is let company is read- are partaking of the agape. ing his hands.Roma . die. were found in the crypt of St The Peter's. thus symbohcally representing the hope of an immortal crown with its Christ.o8 cross. is soul. how the for this. of the figures are who the is wash- Apostles . which feeds the only resting-place although here below The guards appointed by His Cross. figures in high ornamented Abraham's front of the relief. as well as the one last described. places a crown on the head of Our resembles rather the crown of glory which of the crown of thorns endured for the other side a it the recompense is Him on Saviour. who. on each of the arms of which is a dove pecking at the crown. following the sacred narrative. the reward of On confess Christ before men. but The earth. divided is sculptured with into groups by eight richly The groups pillars. which represents a sons. Sarcophagus under canopy. sacrifice. and placed in this position to show is sarcophagi were arranged in the ancient basilicas . but there are the traces of suffering with which later artists. of the side compart- ments represent Our Lord witnessing a good confession before whom Pontius Pilate. last compartment contains a representation of Our Lord carrying His Cross under the guard of a none of soldier. sarcophagus at the and Our Lord before The rest two extremities a^e Pilate. this sarcophagus wall a fragment of another. have familiarised our imagination. above those who soldier hangs a crown. re- and we may see here a type of the Christian army. find rest Two beneath the Cross. and the to the reward for bearing the Cross after crown above points Above our suffering Master. some number of per- one who listening with devout attention to ing to them. whether they sleep or wake. Sotterranea. Perhaps the finest specimen of Christian sculpture among ^ ^^ sarcophagi in the Lateran Museum that which stands is under a canopy supported by two beautiful columns of Pavonazzetto marble. Constantine to keep watch over the sacred standard are presented below by two soldiers . live or Representations of the Passion.

and. hands reverently ^x^ on one The two the Apostles are manifestly intended guished by his baldness from the its Peter and St Paul. date. with the Mediator of Testament. refinement of the faces of incline us to ascribe this feet being expressed rounded by which a female veil to the age of Septimius Severus. distin- receives. to Our Lord Often. dominvs In dat LEGEM. did not the principal figures figure veiled. just as heathen magistrates were wont to receive from the emperors the by they were book of the constitutions where- govern the province committed to their charge. the vault of (as in Pagan monuments) by the De holds above her head. who 309 seated in the centre as in Our Lord is in glory sur- heaven beneath His glory. On in front is * Sickler. and sometimes the other. or PACEM. the of each Saints Peter the gilded glasses. 174. the other side is is latter of which (no surmounted with the a similar kind of background." Moses of the Here again we new dispensation. on similar representations. actually assigns to it that . the roll bears the inscription. the doubt by an intentional anachronism) y^ . 173.Christian Sai^cophagi. which P°^ Our Lord and the Apostles would work among ^^ Rossi remarks that the grace and rather than to that of Constantine.* of the sides indicate the latter as for St easily to New actual date. somctimcs one. grouped around Our Lord. are is on the St Peter. the chief Apostle was really meant to be understood. but saying nothing. the ^''Noli Almanach aus Rom. is represented as giving the volume to the Apostle. creases the probability that in see Peter represented as the and every such discovery all in- other representations also of Moses. characteristics we have noticed on St Paul be discerned here. who new law from right. others. Metan- pp. but the smitten rock. and a baptistery in the background. and the Apostle. with a basilica Denial of St Peter. whence the Bishop Eribert was led to engrave on the Book of the Gospels provided for the cathedral of Milan the words " LEX ET PAX. is represented the denial of St Peter. apparently. again. The two On one sides of this sarcophagus are covered with sculpture.

intended to represent for the resurrection of her brother. the sacraments of her Redeemer. X Horn. they were divided. end a spirited sculptured representation will notice The of the ascent of Elias into heaven in the fiery chariot. v. It in and IV." may This history forms the J still It is be seen in the Catacomb carved also at the end of a sarcophagus near the door of the sacristy of St Peter's. containing the bodies of or three Bottari. life. cleansed. and with veiled hands.'' although Mary On Sculpture of ino-^o^heTven and leaving paUijiin to Eliseus. the ascending prophet the cloak or pallium^ the symbol of the double portion of the Spirit which rested upon him. receives from reverently. 29.Si\\. the The it God Bede.— Roma 3IO ge?'e. and with them and consecrated spiritually enlightened." " Eliseus. gave to the Apostles both His office and His Spirit. Abb. § See Note Y in Appendix. have Christians of the pallium^ the symbol of jurisdiction worn by the Bishops of Rome. the Father. 251. he laid his pallium on Eliseus Our God and Lord. as he ascends the staircase at the ^^^^ he \'). . Nereus and Achilles. St Ambrose and other Fathers saw a Rupertus explains further " : When Elias. 15. * See Fig. because Christ to pass out of this world unto the Father. f Rupert. p. and on two . in Ascen.* \Vi^ sons of the prophets are gazing with eager astonishment at who Eliseus. and despising the hindrance of it. Roman other and Popes Leo II. c. the works would certainly of Bosio. in St Peter. and learned how to conquer the torrent of death. De Trin. Dom. when he invoked passed over. and was on the point of being translated. and given by them politans as from the very Petriy\ reminded It is body of worthy of notice. to pass over to eternal subject of a painting which of SS. took the '' struck the waters of Jordan. sarcophagi. the visitor's right. ^^ may be group this latter the gratitude of Sotterranea. and he Apostles took up. the Church founded by them took up. and of Elias. copied others. III. is name also invoked the of God and she . '''de to metro- corpore Sancti connexion with this subject. when about Our Lord figure of Elias In . ." says the Venerable t mantle of and with Elias.

. cophagus representing the Nativity. : — IN IPSA KAL SEPT EVSEBIO ET "Junius Bassus. 558.. But our readers interpret for themselves the raising of loculi. around which De Rossi has the Catacombs. ex quo tempore^' &c. 307. " : '"' Christ suffered on the 25th March.. i. where stands on the right hand of the passage leading to it the subterranean chapel. and below is a rude intaglio of Lazarus. 359. ii.The is Nativity. will easily with an be able to most of the other sculptures in this museum. . arranged the inscriptions from number of a we have that casts of a sar- described. possessing certain remarkable features peculiar to itself. ei post Ascenstmi ejus beatissimus Petriis episcopatiim suscepit. a neophyte on the 23d of August." &c." very year in which he was Prefect of the The noble as having the family of the Bassi been among the Christian religion .. Sott.t * Rom. Sarcophagus . and after His Ascension the most blessed Peter undertook the episcopacy. - . after which time. and bears the inscription IVN BASSVS VC QVI VIXIT ANNIS XLII PRAEFECTVRA VRBIS • • NEOFITVS IIT AD DEVM YPATIO COSS • VIII MEN . of Junius Bassus.. he went to God.d._.— Christian Sarcophagi. As we pass out of the great hall into the upper corridor._. on a marble covering of one of the inscription to datvs. and yet Many of our readers will have seen the original in St Peter's crypt. and the roll given to St Peter by the ascended also with Saviour in the ^^ last sarcophagus. ^ we may observe cophagus similar to some . Above the translation of Elias a fragment of a small sar.. . who lived forty-two years and two months. a. In the city. II . the two Gemini being consuls. first is mentioned by Pmdentius of patrician rank to embrace and the death of this very Junius t Contra Symmachum. with the ox and ass and the Magi .. that the most ancient part catalogue of Filocalus' Dominus Passiis est considibiis viii 311 KaL Popes commenced thus of the Chrishis duobiis noster Jesus Our Lord Jesus Geminis Apriles.

portion. Roma 12 Sotterranea. which. at one extremity. on the upper which is sion of lions. scene The lower portion also contains in the Our Lord's centre salem . entry into Jeru- and. his guards. tions of Adam and of Isaac. ." t extremity contains tion complaint the The other representa- person bound and led away. 7. and the sword in the hand of one of * Ammiamis Mavcellinus. the sacrifice among the glory delivering in the law to His Apostles. with her nose. on the other Peter appears ^ ^ of St side. Job comforted by his friends. Daniel and Our Lord Eve. sarco- of white marble. the Apostle being distinguished from his Lord by the beard. hand- somely carved style having as after Praefect of phagus by a cotem- recorded the in Corinthian and besides the representa- . from the baldness of the head.. we have. we may consider t Job xix. thus con- firming our explanation of a similar on other sarcophagi. Bassus is porary writer soon place as "^' is taken appointment his The Rome. abhorred my of a of "My wife hath breath. a group in represented the apprehen- Our Saviour in the garden by and again His condemnation The apprehension Pilate. handkerchief to her illustrates the the afflicted patriarch. while his wife.

Again. whether in the Lamb. 155 excavations were being le Christ. and lastly. 45. the law latter. in this sarcopha. He counted fifty-five sarco- .^"» a lamb it is who occupies the place of the A lamb with in the furnace of Nabuchadonosor. a. or i. and teach us that. a lamb approaches reverently to receive Order. a rod touches the rock from which another lamb drinks. 1 Paul being conducted to the place of his execution on the Ostian Way. is Church sculptures in the Lateran Statue of St be the which stands at the upper end of the pronounced by Winckelmann and other finest known specimen of early Christian This statue was discovered. • portion are ornamented with figures i^amb work- which form perhaps the most interesting feature gus. his upon the head of another lamb. t. the divine rod of Peter. signifying . Letter xx. or of the by whom are still will Christian the and which to sculpture. in the subterranean in a basilica close by. Sott. The fol- lowing list is taken from Burgon's Letters from Rome. with one or two corrections in the description.3 Christian Sarcophagi.7. p.. fiwri power of worked. not be complete without some notice of the statue of St Hippolytus. or miira. be intended to for St 11 up the lower The spandrils of the five arches Symbolical • 1 The Three Children miracles. a lamb with the rod brings These six subjects forth Lazarus prove incontestably the symbolical character of the subjects represented on these sarcophagi.'" Museum critics the the miracles of grace in the sacraments of the Our account of hall. but here . made near when some the basilica of San Lorenzo and must have stood either cemetery of St Hippolytus. 1-11 which make 3 Holy Ghost the seven-fold gift of sacrament of Confirmation or of Holy in the Further on. It bears * These six subjects. to It is interesting to observe the comparative frequency of the different scriptural subjects introduced into the sculptured sarcophagi. while a dove pours down a foot stream of light upon the the figures of the /- 1 subjects indeed have been explained before in other sculptures. a lamb with the rod multiplies the loaves lamb imposes a . are more clearly be distinguished in Eosio. than on the sarcophagus itself. three of which are shown in Fig. Rom. is hand of Moses.. which has probably suffered some damage during the last two hundred years. from his tomb.d.

name minds of and . no intention of taxing our an account readers' patience with of the long disputes concerning the proper time for the observ- ance of Easter. since. in his contemptuous remarks about the symbolical meaning of of these sculptures. Denial of St Peter. Bosio. II 8 Adoration of Magi. . Bosio. . II 2 Nativity. have . 16 14 . . Paralytic Healed. that the Roman Church It is well known. from their keeping Easter on the 14th day of the lunar month. during the first and second centuries mode the Church had. Noah in Ark. which the sides of the chair in saint seated. Raising of Lazarus. as was natural. Creation of Eve. seems to show himself entirely ignorant of the method interpreting Holy Scripture universal among the Fathers of the fourth aud Mr fifth centuries. every mark of having been executed during the third century. 14 10 8 9 6 8 6 9 5 6 5 6 4 6 4 3 2 2 2 3 I 4 1 I Burgon. with Sacrifice of Isaac. and we have placed side by side with his numbers those which result from an examination of the forty-eight sarcophagi illustrated by Bosio. . Change of Water into Wine. Still. II 9 Crowning with Thorns. . yet the for. is would hardly have been considered worthy of commemoration Paschal many Canon of St Hippolytus. Ox and . to which these sarcophagi belong. Elias taken up to Heaven. and Eve. martyrdom of We St Hippolytus. the in no way to inferior of but the blind fury of that determining the Paschal . years after the . classical dignity of the figure the age of Constantine on one of the greatly superior to statues of is while the Canon Faschalis. 23 II Fall of 21 16 Woman 20 14 20 14 Giving Sight to Blind. . Apprehension of St Peter Miracle of Loaves. 19 II i6 8 . Christ's Entry into Jerusalem. always strenuously opposed those who followed the Jewish reckoning. thirty of which were found in the crypts of the Vatican : Lateran. adopted the Jewish moon full unhappy people against Christianity prejudiced the coming from them Christians against anything the beginning of the third century. Lateran. though the head and arm are modern restorations. Giving of the Law. received the of Quartodecimans. Daniel in Lion's Den. Adam History of Jonas. Ass. Christ before Pilate. 12 7 Moses taking off his Shoes. engraved . 14 8 14 7 . Three Children in Fire. with Issue of Blond. The Smitten Rock. however. which occupied so much serious attention during the early ages of the Church. and who. The Good Shepherd. at Church possessed men the Jewish rabbis in scientific know- phagi.— Roma 314 Sotterranea.

the time of Joshue. while the errors of Hippolytus' canon and the renown of fitting tribute to his its still author caused remained unknown. of the be considered a more remarkable Paschal He show Easter therefore gives solemnities. engraved on the opposite side of the chair to upon which the canon that fatal defect years method laboured under Unfortunately. work and which bears the date of A. to it memory. 243. if Daniel's computation Paschal solemnities in the desert. on which the moon was created ! We may therefore conclude that this statue belongs to the early part of the third century. in true accordance with this Easter mode of calculation. doubling the Greek periods of eight years. or April 5th. and fresh calculations became necessary. in the year He all when suffered.Christian Sarcophagi. he endeavoured. in some such as the Exodus. and whose author. by in table. curiously enough. and especially should some sanction determining the great Christian for Hippolytus was the 315 first to form a authoritative festival. is in to be followed. Josias. it was fitting that the Bishop of Rome. with the help of seven such periods. Ezekias. which he makes out to have taken place on April 2d. Christ was born. and Esdras are also determined. of an error of three days in every sixteen and hence the upon the praise lavished first attempt to form an independent Christian calendar died away.D. is. of sixteen years each. ascribes St Hippolytus' error of three days to his having calculated from the creation of the world instead of from the 4th day. St Hippolytus' years. which. marked and The The Pasch also in that wherein as being of the greatest interest to . are Christians. which has been ascribed We learn this from a to St Cyprian. There determined for ever. a table for 112 itself is . the found. to obtain a formula by which the difference between the lunar and solar and the vears should be corrected. ledge. St Hippolytus professes that his table will the past as well as in the future. the method Christian bishops.

Representing Christ between Glass in the Vatican Library. Sts. but no certainty can be arrived in sup- at. united in the faithful as Mystical Jordan. are given with explanations in Migne's edition of the works of St Hippolytus. 38. and other matters inscribed on this statue. to which we must refer those of our readers desire to investigate further this interesting Christian monument who of early art. commences with the of two works. Critics have exercised their ingenuity plying the remainder. . The Paschal Canon.— Roma i6 The titles Sollerranea. Fig. Lambs — Jews and Peter and Paul . and the Gentiles coming from Jerusalem and Bethlehem [Recle] to Moiuit Sion. also Christ as the Lamb. whence flow the four Evangelical Streams. of which only the last four letters can now list of the works of St Hippolytiis be deciphered.

but the results are too important to be passed over in silence.Scope of .BOOK V. and of which an account has been to us We given in the second part of the Introduction. however. pally down drawn from the 1 historical records 1 • 1 1 which have come work. N I the preceding chapters our information has been princi. still what we may An important branch of remains comparatively untouched. and confirmed our historical conclusions by the inscriptions and other monuments still remaining there. not the evi- dence to be drawn from the dates and names inscribed on the stones and walls. THE TESTIMONY OF THE CATACOMBS. This appears the at first sight a dry and uninviting subject. from antiquity."' have also taken our readers into the subterranean cemeteries. * and the Sec page 17. CHAPTER I. and this is themselves. striking this portion of the and incontro- . our subject. call the — understanding by Testimony of the Catacombs this expression. but the conclusions to be deduced from a careful examination method of their of the subterranean galleries. and construction. THE TESTIMONY OF THE CATACOMBS TO THEIR CHRISTIAN ORIGIN.

8 o Roma 1 which they give vertible confirmation him will cost The first ^^ bi r?T-^T^ • i subterranean streets of tombs assertions of Burnett is.'"' have been appropriated by for own their purposes. . enough foolish were the forgeries of a monks i^^^ 11 . it these long dark -i and Misson do not deserve a The former was tation. and used written. We are able also to prove have been originally excavated by the Christians that purpose. inscriptions in these Christian cemeteries. and it was the generally excavations in order to extract that the Christians. however.." Catacombs by the Chris- exclusive use of the now. however. and the tians has only serious argument that was ever adduced against the presence of a few Pagan Pagan ed HOW .nd this for by the testimony of the Catacombs themselves. It is not enough. to establish the exclusively Christian use of . been universally admitted. .. . but like the stone on which the copy of the inscription Pope Eusebius was to Christians. has been found to tions account- it. in the fourth Catacombs and fifth cen- while the latter put forth the no less untenable theory that they were used " as marks of distinction to prevent the graves of the faithful from being confounded with those of the The infidels.. . inscrip. . finding had mate- them con- venient as places of concealment where their martyred brethren * See page 171. i own us any clue as to their ^^ afford of our histori- for the pains we would ask of question which r Silent many to master the details. viz. some marks which prove originally intended for the position in that they were not which they have been found. will The Cata- Sotterranea. whether they are able ignorant serious refu- to publish his opinion that all the tokens of Christianity found in the turies. Padre Marchi ^^"" dlcate^the Christian ongin of the Catacombs Until within received a very recent theory that these period subterranean been made by the Pagan Romans rials for building .for it is tell in the opposite direction. ascertained that in every instance these Pagan inscriptions have for. ^. combs used by none but to amply repay the reader cal conclusions.. The origin.the Catacombs them to as burial-places.

of the Catacombs.^ knowledge acquired by personal observations. Bosio himself Catacombs. to Rome. wards see. greatest part of the surface of the in the of igneous origin. maintained the heathen origin Padre Marchi was the first to enunciate the proposition. but his proposition by proofs taken not so much from the works of learned authors. Murray's perhaps be more satisfactory to our readers than any attempt of our By have thrown which the Catacombs have been excavated. will upon the continued labours their patient additional light origin of the it and been Roman formed of materials Rome They may be classed under two heads. the in to condense the Rossi. farther.9 Christian Origin of the Catacombs. he defended known by this of authority was strong against him. might 3 1 had taken possession of them. as we destitute of shall after- some apparent support from ancient against a widely-reis silent ceived opinion documents. Catacombs may be regarded Handbook as now firmly estab- this conclusion. as from the cemeteries themselves. His investigations have brothers De much so Rossi. and other upon the upon the writers origin of the subject.. all but Bottari. This theory was not. D'Agin- . Severano. to Padre Lupi went somewhat made by tions and showed that the addi- the Christian fossors exceeded in extent the works of the Pagan excavators original and Raoul-Rochette." will Summary own more De account given by Michele diffuse far Campagna. court. is very different in their mineralogical characters. and a por- tion of the carefully compiled Geological " the be necessary to give a brief notice of the geological strata in " by subject. and rest undisturbed. and was accepted by Baronius. . as they are in the mode in Volcanic strata which they have been deposited. environs of the capital. only ventures claim a Christian origin for a few particular cemeteries. Aringhi. their age. that the Christian In order to understand the proofs of lished. that the Christians themselves had originated those subterranean cemeteries which are all The weight name. and Boldetti. with all his ^j. &c. adapted them by additional excavations to the purposes of burial and worship.

. so extensively used for making mortar. and within the city of a red volcanic tufa. which appears to have immediately suc- ancient. in the vicinity of 1 868. or even have been to co-temporaneous with them. it Portese. consists. can this older tufa " A ."* Such being the nature of the * Murray's soil Handbook of Rome.. belong Tufa graiih- to this period of subaerial volcanoes.Roma 320 The more Sotterranea. in the more immediate vicinity of Rome. It is to this ashes. liioide much used by the local for building pur- forms the lower part of most of the Seven Hills on It left and was. which are stratified. the : still is. and Aventine Esquiline. the foot of Monte Verde. Campagna.. Quirinal. and probably the more compact varieties of tufa known under the name of feperino. for discovered. formed by an agglomeration of ashes and fragments of pumice Tufa litoidc. No now be the outside which produced certain interval appears to have occurred several marshes. the deposits oi pozzola7ia or volcanic rocks. leaves of land plants. and certain impressions often very regularly . it name has been designated by the geologists poses. ceeded the Tertiary marine deposits. and here and there a bed of calcareous gravel and marls. &c. p. during which the land seems and Porta trace of the craters deposit and the more latter quarried at It is extensively which form the more immediate and surface. and to be the result of submarine volcanic action. the lower portion of the Palatine. 321. covered with fresh-water lakes or period that belong the strata of cinders. and some- But the greater part of these more bones recent volcanic rocks have been deposited on dry land Pozzjiana. of parts between the modern volcanic rocks of the to have been raised. .. and of tufa : bank of the Tiber. hire in which the Catacombs or early Christian cemeteries are hollowed out. itself. the x^^ tufa gi^anulare. quarried at Albano and Marino. the beds are in general horizontal. building stone. Rome. with land and times of fossil fresh water shells. constituting the Tarpeian rock beneath the Capitol.

but not one instance of a Cata- comb while the pozzotana. tufa granulare. esteemed so highly by Vetruvius . for as. would never be used for true pozzolaiia was procurable. . from the quantity of earth which enters into cement when the its composition. . in this Yet which we call The the Catacombs. therefore. of the Pagan Romans argument favour in tufa granulare^ useless of their Christian origin for other was purposes. instance." item si still in X . . while far too soft to be of any use as stone for building. a mere marine or fluvial deposit. 321 the confidence of Padre Marchi in the old theory of the Pagan Catacombs Catacombs was of the origin first shaken by observing his ^^^^ irraiuilare that they were excavated in the tiifa graiiulare rather than in The any other kind of rock. and where the stratum * Vetruvius. have been carefully avoided by those who originated the to The Catacombs. adapted for the reception of the dead. mixtam . tufa by the called /itoide.* and extensively quarried appears for that purpose. com7? manu " i-^t ea sit idonea neque habeat terram com- confricata fecerit stridorem erit optima vestimentum candidum ea conjecta fuerit. . postea excussa vel lion inquinaverit neque ibi terra subsiderit. as fulfilling making the conditions of the best sand for all cement. It is ex- having constructed these galleries for no conceivable purpose first it is have been excavated those vast very stratum that s)^stems of galleries is it the is for the . an important con- when we sideration think of the vast number of dead bodies which once lined the walls of the subterranean cemeteries. ancients lapis ruber and saxiim quadratuDi^ affords numerous examples of ancient quarries. Arch. icta a proof of ^^^\. and its porous nature causes the water quickly to drain off from it. Some of the Catacombs have been constructed more unserviceable lare . treme improbability. the Monte Verde. thus leaving the galleries dry and wholesome. of sufficient consistency to admit of being hollowed out into and chambers without galleries at once falling in. for building et quae that of is iii. erit idonea.Christian Origin of the Catacombs. in a rock purposes than the tufa graiiu- Catacomb of San Ponziano on San Valentino on the Via Flaminia. admirably easily worked.y\^^ .

we conclude in originating that them. fossils. which the Catacombs are constructed affords proof of their exclusively Christian origin. in which arena7'i(^ . is . latter consideration.* will be more convincing than any description of the great difference between the two kinds of excavation. 2 at page 29. they and they cross each other often Only the narrowest kind of hand-carts can be used by those who are now occupied in clearing them out.Roma 332 posed of animal earth. and since the them for that purpose. have been made fall for the Christians alone used in. none but the Christians had any part Their general The manner in and vegetable &c. wanting instances * See Fig. masonry to Such excavations could only purpose of sepulture. the arch of the roof springing from the floor. who had an almost unlimited supply of labour . the passages the Catacombs. There are not. and the roof the passages are nar- row. The slave- but the comparison of a Catacomb with an undoubted ancient arenifodina. run in curved . and hence the slowness and expense of the work. which have been excavated both for the and modern times in ancient purpose of obtaining pozzolana^ or with the as the ancient stone-quarries were called. to carry away the sand or thus affording space for carts to be introduced stone. In The same reason causes and to make the passages Entirely different them the is the construction of walls are vertical very slightly arched and often quite flat . especially ed^withTha^Vf ^^^^^^^ the sand-pits when we contrast them either with the arenifodince or sand-pits. lines. such as may easily be made at Santa Agnese. shells. made are as wide as possible. another proof. lapidicincB^ In both these cases the object has been to extract the largest possible quantity of Hence material with the least possible difficulty. so as rarely to admit of two persons walking abreast run generally in straight sharp angles. indeed. might not have weighed with the Pagan Romans.. requiring solid substructions of tendency to resist its Sotterranea. sand. at very lines. and pebbles. however. the excavators to avoid sharp angles. of a portion of which a plan has already been given.

instead of in the rock. above (Fig. which prove the rule. 40. in the section The and often sustained by brick-work of the locu/i are regularly formed in the general type masonry. . range. 39. Section of Gallery in St Hermes. 323 have actually been converted into Christian cemeteries. and which these exceptions. such as the Cemetery of not St Hermes. afford us the convincing proof of the Christian origin of combs. with the exception of the uppermost the usual manner. are constructed of ^ ^j^^ in a portion of form and proportions of the galleries and of the locuH do Fig. We the floor of first the cemetery of St the other Cata- all have one remarkable instance most in appearance Pa7-t of Hermes.—— Christian Origin of the Catacombs. the niches the two walls. but roof in but a being cut is of tufa. which the Herj/ics their walls. and closed mouth of which are laid obliquely. is only strengthened by apparent is away of the usual its breadth is . differ closer examination Wall of Gallery of St greatly from shows that in slightly arched. as Fig. the brick-work The is gallery cleared ^'^^j^ . when . 40). the slabs at the height.

How the theory of their Pagan origin came to be accepted. we ought if to find in of subterranean excavations destitute of tombs. which show sufficient is to show the alterations necessary in order to convert an arenaria into converting an arenaria into the theory of Raoul-Rochette were true. by a thick the middle in a Christian cemetery Roman Campagna numbers whereas . the areitarice proves that they had a different although a Catacomb might easily be so amplified as to resemble an arenaria^ nothing could convert an arenaida into a Catacomb except a process which whould tell its own story as plainly as in the instance just described. and we there- conclude that the marked contrast between the Cata- combs and origin for. 41. the difficulty of a Catacomb. and the walls more inclined. of the section walls and roof forms a tolerably At the crossing of the regular semi-ellipse. Fig. but contain no tombs. if the Cata- combs themselves bear so conclusive a testimony to their Christian origin. fore discovered. not unreasonably be asked.— Roma 324 Sotterranea. the This instance Section of Gallery supported by Brickwoj'k. straight galleries of the None such have been Catacombs. supported while the walls are strengthened at the base by brick-work. how came the theory of their having been originally excavated learned men ? by Pagans to be so generally received by This question must be satisfactorily answered before our readers can feel confidence in the arguments by . however. span galleries the of the arch becomes greater. and sometimes the roof wall containing is loculi. It may. with the narrow. . on an average two or three times that of an ordinary Cata- comb the .

et Darice via Salaria ijt arenario . and buried them on the Via Appia. . ! ^^1^1 ^ \ to ^^ bunal-places " St of Christian martyrs ' Stephen. 219. on the Via Ardeatina. . ** lb. Sott. This tradition rested on the words in ancient documents which describe the burial-places of certain martyrs and others as arenario.e there were arenas. p. Rom. Marcellus. August. p. p. at the first mile from the city of Rome. p. which we have proved our The case. . learned fact is. 193.Christian Origin of the Catacombs. martyr. or juxta arenarium.\ringhi. p. was buried in arenario: crypta jnxta S. juxta corpora SS. and Bolland. i- Eusebius. as their theory of the origin of the Catacombs rather from a supposed historical tradition than from the examination of the cemeteries themselves." J the Acts of St Susanna represent her as buried i?i coemeferio Alexandri. Rom. . companions ^ i- relate that . 1 lb. the bishop. their Passages ancient records ."'^ how " Auspicius in the property of Domitilla in ajpta are?taria. St Crescentianus. 300. 319. ii."+ the Acts of Saints Marcus and Marcellianus likewise mention those martyrs having been buried " two miles from the city which in the place is called Ad becaus. t Sott. about three miles from \\ Rome the bodies of the Quatuor Coronati were buried with other saints in arenario martyrdom . or in cryptis arenariis. the sand-pits {cryptce arenarnm). body at the same place. 11d. ii. to assemble. collected their remains. 625. it Lucina Pontificalis that . buried Pope Cornelius in her coemeterium Callistiin arenario : own Thus. 192. 186. and St Stephen buried his § lastly St 481 . from which the walls of the city were built.^ and to the * See Bosio. 325 we have that. in arenario in Other copies have Alexandrum. in property in crypta jiixta which seem the Acts of Saints Hippolytus. men formed already hinted. torn.\ on the same Via Salaria Nova. Chrysanti : in coemetei'io Ff^iscit/a on the Via Labicana. p. is some copies of the Liber stated in . p. in the very arenarium in which they were wont the Acts of Saints Nereus and Achilles tell and buried them carried off their bodies. in crypta aj-en- These passages from ancient documents aria^'^'"' II TertuUinus " was led out to second milestone on the Via Latina. Acta SS. p. and m . Bosio. certainly + Ih.

of the ancient of which Proves that the eight passages quoted above are the only there are at instances to be found in which Christian burials are said to most nine nunaber. viz. there were un- usual facilities for examining the rock in the neighbourhood * Fro Cluenho. . however. saymg of Nero. 48. in have. Constantine a built basilica. have taken place in ai-enarice. arenarice or cryptce -^'^ -' arenario:. Aurelia. between the arenarke and and when we sofue at least the passage where recall m arenarias Cicero describes the murder of the young Asinius. indeed. . m . of St Lawrence. in Neron. 14. companions in The term martyrdom with ayp j^'^g cB aien- does not imply pozzo- Thus we sepulchres of martyrs ^ different artce St Lawrence. confining ourselves within collected. Portuensis. During the recent restoration of the basilica of Sa?i Lorenzo fuori le mura. in Agro and Bosio sees reason is Prse- said Verano super arenariam to think that the saints buried there were Saints Narcissus and Crescentius. and he refused {iiegavit se viviim be surprised to sub ten-am at the theory of the more famous he was urged to subterranean these in still . The latter expression occurs three times. be buried before he itiiruni) . nestina. the accounts of martyrs buried at other places beyond the a few examples of the circle may be But. _ . Sotterranea. .'^" . which appear to be so identified with the ancient sand-pits. his last extremity conceal himself for a time {in or the gate. + Sueton.t Pagan caverns we cease origin of the Cata- combs. a range of five or six miles from is more no mention of arenarke in Rome. Cornelia. when . . A Examination documents careful examination. Triumphahs. at the most. Flaminia. On Nomentana. on the Via Ardeatina Tertullinus.Roma 326 establish a connexion of the Catacombs . . with Pagan qiiasdam^ outside the Esquiline sand-pits. and of on the Via Latina. . as lana-pits.. to have crypta7n. It is true that if we include sae:es m Nomentum and Roman Catacombs. Salaria Vetus. on the Via Tibartina. the locality of the sepulchre of Nereus and Achilles. _. we find there that connection with any of the cemeteries on the Via Ostiensis. or the Via Tiburtina. speaim was dead to egestce are?ice).

for there precisely at the De same is in each of them excellent pozzolana level with the galleries of the Catacomb. Catacomb of the whole lies 327 which said of the rock in is it pozzolana. and yet in this rock The same must be St Cyriaca. formed the Cemetery of Domitilla. the more distinctly to identify the spot.'" dicitiir bourhood of " the pits /// and. The sepulchre of TertuUinus fore cannot be examined. Quattro . and in a does not necessarily imply the existence of an areuaritim or As sand-pit proper. as they probably thought. three describe localities which can be identified. Of the four remaining passages. Padre Marchi justly observes that it is not said those martyrs were buried in cryptis arenarum^ but tliat loco Marcus and qui Ad arenas. accompanying this volume. the relating to MSS. Rossi has not yet succeeded in finding any good pozzo- lana in the cemetery of Marcellinus and Peter. Catacomb is arenario. Christian Origiji of the Catacombs. of j'p'g ' Cornelius the Liber a stratum of pozzolana in lower level than the stratum in which his at a crypt was made. and there- is two examples are the other sufficient to prove that the expression c?ypta arenaria merely denotes an excavation made sandy kind of rock. but not yet identified. in order.t copyists to not found in is but as there really Po7itificalis. Yh. merely in the neigh- from which the walls of the city were built. and which correspond exactly with the description.. is what in fact. E/?. which is supposed by Bosio to be the locality indicated by the fourth * Compare + See Map Ad Caiacuinbas." There remain then five passages in ancient documents which Fiveremaining mention martyrs being buried The denoting a pozzolana-pit. to the sepulchre of Saints Marcellinus. Pope Cornelius. that in some excavations there may have add the expression led later in arenario. first all a term certainly of these. therefore. quite different from vulgarly called in is Rome And utterly useless for building purposes. capellaccio. 2. Every one might convince himself that of that basilica. and similar appellations of places. is composed of a material It is.

.Roma o 28 Sotterranea. but the employed artists for Bosio's work seem to draw the plan of Catacomb that have penetrated into a portion of the to some passages ancient arenarium. like a stone quarry. D. done these but the Emperor arejiario. and the and of good pozzolana." examine prove apparently gave 3. the having access to immediate I'josio. diminished in number. in three we may thoroughly truth in be more satisfactory to our readers It will carefully the order that do '*" sepulture . and there are prevent * we walls. to convert the latter into a traces of the passages in order to for ." still Now ordered them to be led out on the Via Salaria. which describes the burial of the Qiiatiior Coronati. together with the cemetery of SS. Chrysanthus and Daria. for their drawing represents resembling those of pozzolana rather than the galleries of Catacombs. blocked a region vicinity up the unfitted of one of . Chry- ^"^ iTria^^ there First. one above the other. is the basilica of may we whether they to Liber Pontificalis states that Pope Adrian saints if passages mentioned above. while Christians in which are sloping we pass from find the Cata- even these attempts cemetery disappear. S.. vSS. so that there are only two in order to avoid evident be both of them widen out into the form of an arenarium.. blocked up alive with earth and stones. passage./ galleries loculi are i7i arenario. on the Via Salaria. martyrs The satisfy ourselves disprove or theory the the arenarium which were buried the in Chrysanthus and Daria. in This arenarium was and it one part of the Catacomb. tiers which they rise. " a and grotto without tombs. and put down identified " restored I. as into the arenarium proper. Saturninus. 591. on the Via Salaria Nova. the This has evidently been weakening the In fact. and speak of " a large in their description they again." wide place where the tombs have been destroyed to get out the pozzolana. p." were not only buried Numerian '' /.. comb to and described by Bosio and Marangoni of them. and there be observed that.

20 Fig.Christian Origin of the Catacombs. Plan ofpart of Caiacoinb of St Prisciiia. 329 . >30 ^-z. SCALE OF FEET.

on Via Appia. 5. " on the Via Appia. it is B was galleries are originally a pit for extracting pozzolana from the arenarmm. in the very arcnariwn in . graves these peculiarities . but the utilise to where we find a Christian Catacomb of the level. has visited the central and more ancient part of that Cata- comb has remarked Numerous sometimes cealing the pillars. here another instance of the Christians having more convenient new entirely made an arenarium. but was afterwards modified so Here. for the masonry is represented by light shading. Hippolytus. even attempt... how greatly of various sizes straight. which Eusebius'&c. tomb having of its plan is its is actually a Cata- origin in an arenarium. therefore. a flight of steps leads a lower We have.. while the Catacomb The C. to down to abandon galleries. S. The second passage to be examined is . The plan on the preceding page will render this more unmistakably evident. risci a . differs from the usual type. ^^^ which • relates t^ -77 • ccemeterio FrisaUce. appears that they found it and that attempt. Saints Lastly. Every one who arenario on the same Via Salaria Nova. as to form a large luMuiare. at relates their burial by Pope St Stephen the first mile from the city of Rome. we must examine the passage of the Acts of Saints and their companions. Crescen- tianus in cemetery of S.Roma 330 Sotterrauea. the galleries thus blocked up. 4. as at St Hermes. so that the original excavation once distinguished from the form into which converted. Marcellus. The wide passages in the portions marked shaft at was afterwards of the arenarium are to be traced marked A. ordinary type. it to construct the cost of descending to a at greater depth into the bowels of the earth. all was required present form. but the examination sufficient to prove the impossibility of many of the Christian cemeteries having been so constructed. both con- and sustaining the often it and the tombs tufa interrupted by pillars of brickwork show the immense labour to convert the original excavation into its in the galleries that . Eusebius. how the martyr Crescentianus was buried in that . the tufa rock being shaded darkly. long walls of solid masonry. sometimes broken into angles.. — . then.

Neo. Catacomb. buried her body in the arenarium where they used frequently to meet together. When St Paulina suffered martyrdom. its our next chapter. and the deacon Marcellus. Hippolytus and the rest being martyred. and fastings. a monk.Christian Origin of the Catacombs. and every day and night they used to persevere in prayer. since the difference P^'ove the rule. illustrate that chapter. so far from leading us to These appa- suppose that an arenarium was the ordinary matrix of a Cata- [fons^tluis*" comb. which they were wont De to assemble. Later excavations have also revealed the existence of a very narrow secret passage leading themselves from the surface of the directly to the sand-pits This staircase stops suddenly short at the roof of the ground. It is marked . section of this staircase in the plans which is given in our next chapter. —Bosio. 193. and afterwards. and how afterwards these holy women took up their abode with the priest Eusebius. by command of St Stephen. and. or some other assistance supplied by those below."* Rossi 331 will not un- dertake to say that he has identified this arenarium with the same certainty as the tAvo just described but . suggests the very opposite conclusion. Hippolytus. "V X* A p.t These facts prove a connexion between the Catacomb and the arenarium^ which will be more Rossi is right examined fully in supposing which Christians were wont time of persecution. and Maria. between the one and the other * The is so marked as to strike the by Bosio relate the baptism of Adria. in De arenarium to be the one this to if in assemble for worship during a connexion with the Catacomb is suffi- cient to account for St Stephen being said to have buried the martyrs in arcjiario^ when in fact he buried them in the ceme- tery adjoining. arenaiHtPfi. is it a signifi- cant fact that one of the largest staircases in the cemetery of St Callixtus leads directly from the surface of the soil to the third piano of the pozzolana pits. which and close is on the same level with the spot where passages con- to nect them with the cemetery. The examination of these instances. so that a person descending by it would require a movable ladder. and the voice of psalmody. ancient Acts quoted Paulina. in the same crypt where Pope Stephen was concealed. and ethers. to enable him to reach the floor. their bodies were also buried in the same arenarium.

— Roma 332 Sotterranea. but. and of these. an arenarium more or less closely is connected with the cemetery. Fig. most ordinary observer. . time to the present day. on the contrary. ancient documents in four or five passages seem to speak as though the martyrs had been buried in sand-pits. what Bosio calls the ^''singularity " of the portion of the cemeand of that near St Saturninus described above. from Bosio's * In fact. tery of St Priscilla. Gilded Glass in the Louvre Collection representing Si Callixius. three are discovered to be identical with three of those tioned in the ancient records. could not have been the normal condition of things. what is found We men- consequently conclude that mentioned so seldom by ancient writers. and found so seldom by modern explorers. In five cemeteries out of twenty-five or thirty. * We argue. therefore. has been commented upon by nearly every writer on the subject. 43. and yet these and two others are all the examples of their connexion which have been noticed by the explorers of the last three :— The thus hundred years. that these instances were deemed worthy of special mention as being exceptions to the general rule. and thus these examples form one of the most convincing proofs of the Christian origin of the Catacombs generally.

and if we find those observations We our historical in borne out by the testimony of the Catacombs themselves. the traces to be found in them of the relations in which these Christian cemeteries stood at various periods to the Roman Church in Roman laws. for we shall have exam- ined an independent and perfectly unexceptionable witness to the truth. an account of the if construction. and conven- ience required that they should not be too far city. The "" cemeteries. and to of their and modifications which they received from time to time. and furnish a reply to the difficulties that have been urged against remains for us to examine them extract from them. and it is precisely ^ ^^ ^^^^' . we shall be repaid for having mastered the somewhat dry and uninviting portion of our subject which now lies before us. and of the condition of the times of persecution and of peace. Locality of The away from the ancient documents give us a radius of from one to Distance from three miles from the wall of Servius Tullius as the zone within which most of the cemeteries were situated. WE have seen how the Catacombs bear witness to their Scope of this Christian origin. mode possible. We have already noticed some of the circumstances which determined the locality of the early Christian cemeteries. have already traced these various relations chapters. the successive additions It fact. * See page 56. laws obliged them to be outside the walls.CHAPTER II. now estabhshed this still more carefully. MODE OF THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT.

to all day the entrances third and fifth mile from the walls. magnum superare laborem. and cut away He diligently dived into the the ridge of an immense bank of the hill. tomb of usual St Peter manner first Damasus pains taken by St spite of of Castulo. no Christian sepulchre has been found at the sixth only one. — So should be disturbed in their rest. Siccavit totum quidquid madefecerat humor. from the water the clay with which the galleries are of having been from the air.— Roma 334 within this zone that we Sotterranea. valleys. and it bears signs an exceptional excavation. that those buried after the law common to did not suffer this [to go on]. but Campagna itself. in filled. while beyond the . that of St seventh mile from the Alexander tombs city. to prevent the water and The damaging the on the Vatican are commemorated in his : " Cingebant latices Montem. it is is lociili. all . Aggeris immensi dejecit culmina Montis. see. and with their gentle flowing Damasus used to drench the bodies. further cause which determined the situation of the Chris- tian cemeteries was the geological condition of the Had the limits stated above. teneroque meatu Corpora multorum cineres atque ossa rigabant. Hrec curavit Mercurius Levita Fidelis. pra^bet qui dona saUitis. Intima sollicite scrutatus viscera terra. the careful closing of the the Via Labicana. with.. in the present Between the the principal Catacombs." "The waters used to surround the hill. and again suffer sad punishment. communi lege sepuhos Post requiem tristes Protinus aggressus iterum persolvere poenas. ashes. at once he set himself to conquer the formidable difficulty. or at any rate by the filtration of water. which. soil within they been excavated in deep they would have been constantly exposed to the danger of being flooded by the neighbouring streams. and bones of many [saints]. besides impeding access to the cemeteries. Invenit Fontem. low situation. on Being in a somewhat quite inaccessible. The cemetery an instance of now this. would have greatly accelerated the and corrupted the putrefaction of the bodies. met are again these belong rather to the towns and villages of the than to On '^ A high ' Rome . Non tulit hoc Damasus.

to a cer- that the different Hardly ever does a gallery lead from each other.• stance alone was sufficient to prevent any line of communication having existed. 335 very bowels of the earth. or distinct characteristic. or even of a whole gallery. a higher to a lower level The a flight of steps. down from gradually made by than in any other piani of excavation in the same cemetery. . to have avoided running one gallery into another. and resemble those little second rooms which stories of large are to houses be seen between the in Rome. tain extent have Christian cemeteries were almost in the tiifa granulare^ rather Another We city. Mercurius. and this circum. either between the various Catacombs^ or between them and the churches within the already remarked always excavated stratum of rock. and there in fact we find them. have been almost impossible tific for Xh&fossors^ would it unaided by scien- instruments. and drained the whole of that which the damp He discovered the spring. preservation of the horizontal plane throughout each piano was a wise precaution against danger to the roof or to the floor of the galleries and chambers." Christian cemeteries were thus restricted to the high Cemeteries in tufa gramiground. excavated. if the horizontal plane had been departed from. it. the descent the galleries is horizontal. the principal levels are separated by a very wide inter- and if between them small galleries are sometimes found. how the depending is. The section on the next page will convey a general idea of Different //V7.-^ The . either close above or close below Hence val.z/ O"^ below • the depth below the surface at which the dmerent piajii are another. upon the geological formation. charge of these works. and which first and are called mezzanirii./^^. which [now in the baptismal had moistened. An cause but little accident of this kind on the same plane would damage. his faithful deacon. are quite levels. these are a later work of very limited extent. It is a section of the crypt of St Lucina.Mode of Constructio7i a7id Development. for. but the safety of a whole chamber. imme- . would have been imperilled by the excavation of another. had font] conveys the gifts of salvation.

— Roma 33^ Sotterranea. . only which this gallery surface. . of a gray colour. ruins of ancient * I. open the piano is air. a kind of garnet. Geological hill. and here and there black augite. diately beneath the vast ruined The floor of the gallery the surface of the had into 'Y\\\^ it soil. it ten in it is in fact the is marked earth and II.Cnllixtns. of a friable tufa granulare. ft and is in monument not more than twenty feet below some places not above been continued on the same plane. above it is made This uj) of monuments. and other mate- See page 123. 44. is composed full of amphi- was formed gene. consequence of the slope of the in consequently very small. so that must have run out specimen of a gallery being excavated so near the The stratum . and Fig. and strata. Section of the Cemetery of St. already described."' and the stratum stones.

which would terminate here in were simply a vertical section of the galleries beneath De ruined monument. but whose may be found on De Rossi's map by the reference L I.* By this means we have a comparative view and I position ^.. III. composed of a is less solid 337 kind of tufa without those crystals. is pozzolana proper. although between them there is sometimes a thin stratum of stones and cinders in fine volcanic sand. less put to the excavation by the water which almost always inundates the gallery at this been examined. and a limit The rock and and of a little stream the north to be included in the Y map . in which most important piano of P. Stratum V. By this means the ceiling. in composed oi tufa gj-aniilare again. beneath this The is far to level. of another \o\\itx piano in stratum VI. same level witli U and X is very nearly of the the principal piano here. most ancient and how section shows were excavated. with crystals and bits This occasionally has become solidified by the of mica.Mode of Construction and Development. impervious to water. * These are situated too accompanying this voku-ne. frequently arrests the loci/ii visit when compared this About Catacomb. with the roof of those galleries coinciding with the junction of this with the stratum above. marked r r r .. which a still is lower gallery. the pozzolana. this 44) copied. and here a low and narrow gallery has been excavated. 1. added below the line which crosses stratum V. X.swi' secured a more solid kind of rock for and the difference of colour. and the sparkling of the crystals in the rock which forms the roof. the y^v. however. if it marked ^^- the section. with that in which the attention of those a. we have easy to breathe. has. this who are cut. and has not levels of the Tiber. n n n. Stratum rials. U and find the The galleries. /». a section of another portion of the Catacomb of St the principal piano of which Callixtus. from whose work this (Fig. action of water into tufa litoide. so is deep that the air becomes VII.2. and this was the favourite stratum of we the Christian fossors. is Rossi. the point stratum insensibly merges into the pozzolana proper.

and almost of every tomb... We which includes the tombs of the Popes which have been already described.. us. Roman feet. for his conclusion shall therefore content ourselves with the results of . De Rossi's examination of a single area^ for the minute analysis of which we must shall refer our readers to a separate chapter. But the fact is put beyond all reason- able doubt by a minute examination of the galleries themselves. Having obtained a general idea of Formation of the Catacomb ofStCallixtus. The singu- can hardly be an acci- dent that they should form such round numbers as loo. arious /^^. scienti- will confine first map accompanying confusion and full accurate plan has yet been published. fically and chambers impression this volume. select the area and of St Cecilia. as . Ue Rossi's assurance that each of these portions originally formed a separate cemetery. 180. 125. the a7'ea of which was defined and protected by the measurements of these larly confirm arece^ reduced to this observation. called the Ahiione./2 or galleries were constructed. and which history teaches us to regard as the most important of . in a work of ful analysis this size. we have already remarked.Roma 33^ Sotterranea. \ mode in which the we may proceed to the . enables us to recognise a certain order in the disposition of the gal- each of these divisions.. so that we are prepared to leries within acquiesce in Michele Distinct arese.. to follow It would be impossible De Rossi through his care- of each gallery and chamber. aided by the various colours which distinguish different parts of the map. which crosses the Via Appia. 150. since it Roman law. Catacomb galleries and as the necropolis of St of which a The our observations to this great cemetery. . inquire into the manner in which the on the same piano were formed Callixtus the only is .. are given from Father Secchi's measurements of the trigonometrical base on the Via Appia. and 250 feet. a more careful examination. by which he demonstrates the truth of and we Area of St Cecilia and the Popes. conveyed by a glance is at the that of an inextricable we but. . and of the points at which those of one area now com- municate with those of another.

It conclude that the architectural characteristics of which was universally followed cemeteries. in the map). doubtless varied in the ent type a the construction of other in The circumstances proprietor. will enable us to trace the leading features of the changes and successive developments of other Catacombs. be unfair to this arca^ and successive developments. and extending back 100 feet in agro. 45. It will be seen by the map will that call Via Appio- most of the stair- cases which led into the hypogsea were either parallel or at right angles to one or other of these roads. Confining our attention to the area of St Cecilia (marked III. and the necessities for increased accommodation or for concealment came at the same periods upon the whole Christian population. The comb great necropolis. measuring 250 Roman feet along the small cross-road. which is was then carried out in drawn on a scale First period of . determined. formed its or the architectural of the the w^ealth of the soil. staircase. which forms what of St Callixtus. the account which we about to give of are this great and important cemetery. who notions of the persons superintended the excavation. cameieritim the fact in 339 Nevertheless. was secured by its Christian proprietor as a burial-place with the usual legal formalities. was in Fig. would. Catacombs. being administered by the Pope's archdeacon. the of and. each with is its have a clearly-defined frontage along them. we ment from A plot will its first proceed to trace construction to its its architectural develop- latest transformation. and the tract of ground between these two public ways was anciently traversed by two small cross roads which connected them.Public and is bounded by the Via Appia and the is Via Ardeatina. of course. a jid Development. of ground.Mode of Constriictio7i the all ancient cemeteries. as manner indicated ^ J-^. and that the ent area. 1 u o o The plan of the excavation occasion required. called the Cata. into which the necropolis own differ- divided. and which we Ardeatina. since differ- affected the la\ys all Christian cemeteries alike.

L. gallery pickaxe in C full length of the area. its With period in which the different galleries were * Chapter VI.— Roma 340 The two parallel galleries. and the original design appears like- wise to have provided for the passages F. chamber L-."^ Our readers will here fairly ask. Other galleries -I FRONTE IN I . mer How it can be distingLiished. ^ or that period i ^ t . and extended the The its and B. walls have been commenced from the corner to A The ambulacra. H. which. belong to with the papal crypt this period. each with surface. Fig. as also L^. gallery completed to this first period. were not. AC. were also united by the two PEDES CCL- 20 10 i 1-^-!— j- Scale of D and u ! English Feet. their full and the do the cubicula whose painted walls have been described in a for- chapter. staircase appear to have been excavated about the same time. A^. communicating with the Sotterranea. 1 i . upon what grounds do we n thus positively assert that such and such a gallery belongs to • this • . 45. G. A^. and pretend to give the exact dimensions of the area as gravely as though we were in possession of the original legal documents which defined them. A^. Fifst Pet-iod o/Excaiiatioii. connecting them appears from the marks of the its. of Book IV. A and B. 1 of excavation. during The extent. however. To the latter question marked floor off we reply. from the adjacent being about respect to the five feet that this area^ of the area is at once Catacomb by lower in level than theirs.

as it exists at the present day. however.1 Mode of Construction and Development. extended so in the out from them F and same manner.were not contemplated of the gallery C. This observation. and L. and did not form part of the entrances to C. formed. lociili may it 34 be taken as an axiom. as H . that when the certainly the walls of an ambulacrum are broken through in in order to afford an entrance into a gallery. and were constructed at a much later date. this portion of the gallery at least which it is enters. and enables us to exclude from the original plan those passages which now branch not account for our representing B. F. which gives the elevation of the whole of the inner or left-hand wall of the ambulacrum A. I. H. and shows the relative sizes and positions of the entrances into the cross galleries D. Now it is obvious that the entrance D could . outside wall of the Thus. 46. E. It its into original plan. in Fig. G. only affects the outside walls of B and C. and G. through three or four afterwards galleries loculi. but all does it as stopping short of not having originally Our grounds for so repre- senting these galleries will appear from an examination of the woodcut on the next page. which represents the gallery ambulacrum of a later date than the C^ and C^ have been broken which have been strengthened is that the in the original plan evident therefore C^ and C. far as to fall into A. by masonry.

i^^2 never have been constructed of the height of 15 now reaches.Roiua Sotterraiiea. the floor of and tlie it can be proved that tlie feet. which it original level of ajubulaciuin must have been that indicated by .

the change of level was by no means uniform. that to 7 sufficient for practical still 343 similar examination of F and H did not had been lowered that our plan has not we must further details been fall . A'^. led them to They appear to adopt to this method of enlarging have commenced with the af/ibulacrum B. and was never These the cemetery. templated when the chambers Fig. The lowering may call the of the floor of the galleries marks what second period of excavation. . The we necessity of providing more space for graves. them by descending some steps.— Mode of Constrttction and Development. much now cubic ula C until they reached A. and have continued the work along this latter gallery. B would prove into that amhulacrutn but we have said enough arbitrarily drawn. Second Period of Excavation. purposes ambulacrum A had been done. and the confidence in the consistency of the rock which })ractice had given the fossors. being yet lower. 48. were constructed. and for refer our readers to the descriptive analysis. the dotted line but This level would give the entrance to c d. and the could not possibly have been constructed until after that until after its floor to was D a somewhat lower elevation. we whereas wc have Second period fl^or^of tS galleries. until the floor of the gallery that E manner show while the entrance . were evidently excavated in anticipation of a greater depression of the floor of the ambulacrum^ for enter In however. not excavated in all probability A had been lowered. A^. carried out to the extent conA"*. in like Y feet. a height of about to G.

and finding themselves obliged to sup- now forms port the wall by the mass of brickwork which corner 27 C. G. in this staircase. and the construction of a new one E. they abandoned the here formed are remarked how design. they pushed a narrow passage in a horizontal direction. * Sec Fig. not meeting with any kind of rock adapted for their pur- pose. and. Tliird period. and consisting of thirty-four They had steps. find a . when the plan of the cemetery must have been such as it is repre- sented in Fig. the fossors were compelled to attempt the construction of another system of galleries at a lower level. was neces- it ^ staircase i • leading from the cross gallery H. and H. finding it impossible to get out of this stratum. We now come cemetery.brickwork. marks the termination of the second period of excavation. . which is represented in Fig. however. at length. reach A^ and in order to A original level. its that the fossors is. former the level. In order not to endanger the existing Attempt make piano to a lower hypogeum and we sary to go to a considerable depth. A'^ from the gallery which reasonable explanation of this had presumed too much upon the strength of the rock.''' deemed they more prudent it the abandon the to design of reducing the whole gallery to the same level with B and This Avork. together with the completion of the C. when they found tufa gramilare. hardly. . galleries F. The penetrated that they and were in below the had passed through stratum of very friable a very walls of the staircase had to be pro- tected with brickwork . 49 as H-^' but. and the galleries The tiles used immediately adjacent. all bear the stamp of the imperial brick-kilns of Marcus Aurelius. and other /(9r//// We constructed have already similarly fruitless attempts to excavate sepulchral galleries in the pozzolana go to prove the exclusively Christian origin of the Catacombs. pozzolana. 47. 48.. The to a third period in the construction of this further enlargement of the ambulacra having proved dangerous. entirely this and the few of . Roma 344 to ascend is there at variation Sotterraiiea.

r made at the Construction '^^ CrVDt of St order to form a passage D. 345 and must. IC Fig. d. have been made between a. but that all the bricks of a building should bear the building the itself had been removed from the time of admitted. 197.Mode of Coitstructioii and Development. It IS true that we cannot from circumstance alone this determine positively the date of the work . if If this be a proof of this cemetery having been in use — riiird Pc^'iod. by Pope Zephyrinus It date.d. 49. it to his deacon l|F li'itlt A}'cnn?iii/n. therefore. 161 and about a. m ' 1 . 180. . period that an alteration was 1 ^ T end of the papal crypt Li. the crypt where St Cecilia was buried near to the c'ecilia. we have constructed was during 1 ^ farther into r this ^ Connexion time before a. when it was committed Callixtus. for a considerable unlikely period far a at is same their manufacture.d. 170.

of the staircase. the Christians began to be disturbed the hitherto peaceful possession of their cemeteries. Our readers ^ . and ancient staircase stop short about six feet from the the Cemetery con.'^ they are always loculi a moisa and not arcosolia. in floor. public view. became necessary to provide for the preservation of the tombs of the saints by concealing their entrance from they blocked up and partially Accordingly. fineness the especially in absence oi more ancient The arcosolia. which was We situated in see from the plan that there were entrances from the arenariuni. 7. some of which have been closed with masonry. r^^ ^ • it ^ i 1 of the third century. several while The entrance B was more completely destroyed. towards the middle . at the point numbered 11. . are distinguished by and whiteness of the the. demolition 9. convenient proximity. 47. means of escape even when * B-^.the artnariiim.Roma 34^ tombs of the Popes. and a passage. destroyed the staircases A and B. Fig. entrance to which was originally through the crypt of the chambers and All the St Cecilia. Sotterranea. only have been excavated after could and supported by masonry see the See Figs. This crypt bears much having been originally of in smaller dimensions than at and was probably of the form represented present. or when. 54-88. and Q2. page 30. t no longer possible and hence it for them It m • was to claim the protection of the law. cruiii. 4 and 5. These various passages provided their enemies had tracked the See pp. where. . architec- tural history v/e have hitherto been tracing. marks of evident in the plan. on the plan by a small oblong. • will not have forgotten that. still order to enable the Christians to enter their cemetery through an arenariuni. on plaster portions. and their walls. whose galleries. of this tombs. was opened in the outside wall of the avibula- Xi X2 X3. and two aihicula Qi. graves are simple loculi as in the instances distinguished by the also . The evidences may be recognised in the section of A. which we also see a gallery Q. 10. we remain in both cases. Necessity for concealment. they are table-tombs.

to was clearly never intended Fk. by some Dcvelopjuent. is and must have been useless either or egress. 331. 49. from them by a few feet of rock. which allusion has already been made. p.— Mode of Christians into Construction tlie Catacomb of the tyrant.. led perhaps into the and 347 and. which leads directly from the areuariinn This staircase.'"' and of which a section 50. Secret case. or some other means of con- necting the lowest step with the ground. cemetery by one passage. stair- . traitor. might be silently passing out at another. to those who had for ingress below friends to assist movable ladder. the were penetrating only separated faithful. of the arcfiariuni. except air. Even when the Pagans had guards at set entrances into the arcuarium^ the Christians had still a all the way of escape through an exceedingly narrow and steep staircase. to reach forther than the roof Secret Staircase into Arejiarimii. galleries uniting the with artoso/ia. 50. the open to tlie In none of the cemetery with the araiariuin do we meet introduction of which noticed as a sign of a later period than * S/^/nr. lari^^c map. them with a given in Fig. marked X4 in Fig.on the as yet readied. It is we have already we have markel Ac. while the satellites itself.

m . ^^ there was no longer any reason for observing the legal limits and. p. we may safely Rossi's opinion that these cubicula were not origin- intended for sepulchral crypts at all. earliest and. on the large map. which had been <?.. remain. and a"... since the adjacent arae on either side of the road appear to have been work. drawn on a sent condition. in order to put the cemetery nal cemetery. tliey now this hypogeum . represents this area in gallery a"^. We A second area have seen how the original Hmits of the area were transincorporated communication with with the oxVA. which and lighted by wide * Sec the luminaria. When still remain. The form one necropolis. since the contain are coated with a plaster of kind to that which covers their walls. areiiarhim. but for wine-stores. a-\ situated opposite to each other on either side of the ambulacrum.Roma 348 Sotterranea. S. with the which arece. a^. once connected with wliich represents a siniiLir arrangement. Q into the latter second area. the Christian proprietor of the vineyard above put them at the disposal of the Church for places of assembly. as . . this is inferior adopt De first it was con- but when the steps. the most important of all in other parts of this first opposite. marked Characteristics size as to it Roman that belonged to the Church. which was. is V scale of S^ 150 by 125 viz. was enlarged by the addition of other were so connected with cross- little possession of Christians. this in the we have seen cemetery. These evidently formed the and most important part of which pre- <^^. .'' ilKist ration. arcosolia its by subsequent works. the legal protection being removed. . Fig. the original entrance being turned into a luminare. a new entrance was effected through the chamber A^ into ally being double the ^J-y. 6. area thus added was that on the opposite side of the Via Appio-Ardeatina. which area. of which traces still Roman At feet. The most striking the group of large chambers. 31. leading from gallery were destroyed plan dimensions determined partly by the its nected with our cemetery by the gallery an The of those previously given. Indeed. main amhulaci'wn of peculiarity of the latter a^.gi^essecl. and they were then fitted with marble benches. In times of danger.

. Fpicrth Period. see Note G on Atlas. A\B.— Mode of Coiistriictioii and Development. For description. The cnhicithini d^ contains the sarcophagus of St Melchiades. The black parts represent two buildings on the Via Appio-Ardeatina. —The shaded parts represent masonry below ground. 349 Fig. 51. Union ivitli n Second Area. and liuninarin.

which are never found together in earlier constructions. and hunted out when they evaded the tyrannical were confiscated. with earth We now approach an epoch which has almost every portion of formed us that in Roma left Sotterranea. 86. not only this. the last terrible its traces in History has persecution in- which the Church endured under Diocletian. one of the ar-ea. and Q^t. not only were the faithful forbidden to enter the cemeteries. illustiates the fifth period. 90. for they this period. the labour and expense of which proves They filled up with earth all its extreme necessity. 52. which are some- . Q'^. heathen. tery sufficient abound in arcosolia.Roma 350 Sotterranea. thus identified with this with its arcosolia and From what has been gallery S. is H^. are the formation of ^ ^ The chambers. * See p. J edict. and adorned both with paintings and marble.1. the Christians had recourse to an expedient. the area gradually be- b^ with filled and the loculi^ frequent occurrence of arcosolia in both galleries and chambers oblige us to refer the construction of these to a later date than the third period grounds of excavation. Fifth period. deduced. but the cemeteries themselves and handed over the to of possession In order to prevent the profanation of the sacred sepulchres. f See Fig. ArCOSolia. is fourth period in the architectural history of this ceme? r marked by the appearance or areoso/ia. P^. situated for nearly in the middle of the frontage of the by fabricce constructed The Fourth period. and thus rendered the cemeteries inaccessible either to friend or Evidence of The evidence of this extraordinary fact is foe. it it is evident that belong to many many ciibicula are of the and Q up into the already said of the second of the passages and chambers in period. the principal galleries. the cemetery by the galleries S and came by intersected and galleries. times found adorned with slabs of marble. St Fabian. De Rossi sees supposing that the three-apsed building. necessi- tated the demolition of the steps which led from area. In ni in a re. . X See above. which p.''' 1.

^ -These galleries are distinguished by the light shading. .V.Mode of Fig. 35 Fl is Brickwork a well which is denoted by still contains . water. Luminaria by black squares. Galleries made 7vken the ancient ones 7veye filled with earth. i-z.-Fi/th Period. Constniction a nd Developmen t. darker shading.

into and the and Z are excavated B^ Y-^. at a higher level. conceals the of and now that earth.Roma 352 from the condition Catacombs which most of the in found at the present Sotterranea. original line of the roof of the aj?ibulacru7n. direction they sometimes runs the narrow gallery I\ one branch and an irregular curve. H where falls c d. shows may be whose wall was the that a b that A at the point the dotted line noticed above the en- doorway was opened. 53. been the dotted ab^ was stated to have line. of the wall of A. remarks shall confine our to the little gallery 1\ and we must refer the reader back to the elevation. the doorway which trance to was into is This will be more a transverse section Here we can observe it. A H from which crosses a are tracing. The 47. 303. and have no connexion with the more ancient We ambulacra. it made at a was only by Pomponio Leto and to write their tlie and any destitute of only have been up with filled companions were able removal of its roof. gallery. the difference in width between the original ambulacriini and gallery P. along follow. Y. but. time when means of latter A this was gallery could * The great floor artificial work this earth. names on his the ceiling of Coriimission of Sacred Archceology is the which. the floor of which many must have been the surface of the earth with parts which the older galleries had been thus in we them from those whose Thus. 52 filled. in Fig. which opens B*.'"' are more convincingly. or marked by Moreover. level of the floor of the gal- clear from the opposite Fig. plan of part of the cemetery whose history and in similar Y\ ciibic?(/a. Along B A'^. Avhich of at its present level. . and Y^. while the I in other terminates in a shaft immediately above a is these galleries are represented with a light shading to it distinguish runs Fig.d. cut through tiie The floor. from still the discovery of a series of galleries. except in the important crypts cleared by St galleries now as effectually as in the year a. day. and it is evident that the /oculi above that line could never have been constructed while the floor of even at its more ancient level A lery in H. Damasus.

A sixth period commences with the cessation of persecution. assign the date of the Diocletian persecution. which is now entered from upon the depression of the origiH by a sharp incline. * Fig. 53 also illustrates our remarks nal level of A. A little above bridge of brickwork has recently been Fu.. . appears from the floor of A^ being considerably below the present level of A.— Section A and of Gnllcriis thrown across the ambulacrum to earth which has been removed. so much as had been anticipated.'*unless those exca- vations had been filled with earth when I' was This earthing-uj) of the galleries marks a history of our cemetery.* fifth period in tlie which we may. gallery. 303. That it was not lowered. which it could hardly have failed to do. but P from also gives us a longitudinal section of the branches of I\ which crossed that gallery a the roof of feet H. a.d. 353 this narrow the ground. without hesitation. to in use. ^Ty now appear twenty H. Avhere they Fig. nor into the chamber A''. ^T.Mode of Construction and Development.. supply the place it is of the worthy of notice that does not break through the roof of H. froni which it is entered by steps. however. attci o/V.

Works of St Damasus. are represented black. however. 354 Sixth period. terranean cemeteries the indefatigable proved development of the sub- . and thus an entrance was effected into the crypts of the Popes and of St The Cecilia.d. Last period.— RoTua Sotterrafiea. small galleries. other less remarkable portions of the cemetery. a. one of them bears the inscription in shafts (as little in a it . 53) for extracting the earth have been made and other galleries just described. and hence became An possible to excavate the to m date. Fig. Last Period. although at saints. shown by the dotted lines in Fig. Subterranean masonry by daik shading. shading. while the inscriptions characteristics show them to have belonged to a period anterior to the age of St Damasus. 321 in Fig. 54. Church. is . which reaches the surface. of Excavation a somewhat higher level. 47. was not removed from earth. — The hiniinaria and masonry. Galleries of sixth period by lighter N. marked by Pope Damasus. Works of St Damasus. Peace of the when the faithful eagerly sought access to the tombs of the A The staircase was re opened and restored. The last epoch in the architectural . the prove them time of peace. insufficient for the the extensive alterations of The restored staircase A crowd of pilgrims who came from .B.

comprising the four * Marked VI. but the loculo a nwisa never. and have been not of an its architectural characteristics prove earlier. probably belongs to this period. it to The arcosolium appears frequently. to a second area by the continued throughout its entire length. f See Fig. and probably of a later date. and often triple chambers for purposes of sacred assembly. occupies a large portion of brickwork which sustains the fact. Damasus St 355 tombs of therefore constructed the staircase by which we now descend directly to the crypts of the Popes and St Cecilia. A\ and raising of the floor the passage through it and into the ceiling of the chamber second area. . 51. and the luminare. marked P is it plan. from which the gallery it It be seen that will In Q. to Q\ The en- and the which could not be disturbing the ashes of the saints." were under the special direction of St Dama- certainly carried out sus.Other nected with the cemetery of St Soteris. A glance at the large map shows how this last area is con. and Cross. of this area (among which is In fact. largement of the crypt of St Cecilia and adornment and its lighting of the papal crypt. of this third area are exactly the same as that of the second. its and passage R. leading of which the former entrance had been stopped up. and reduced the dimensions The of others. enlarged without '' lujninare. We have confined our attention ments of this to the successive develop- one area. tlie At the same time the disguised figure of the double. the dated inscriptions the celebrated one of the Deacon Severus) range from the latter part of the third century to the tenth year of the fourth. prove it to have been occupied before the age of persecution had ceased. and therefore have not alluded third a?'ea * intimately connected with the a7nbulacrnm o. in the large map. and the vestibule M. arece.\ which The dimensions is A third area. accompanying in the it blocked up some of the cubicu/a. with tj(mina?r.A^ode of Construction and Development. parts of the world to satisfy their devotion at the all the martyrs. and also the chamber P^.

-'' have thus traced the successive development of the most nnportant group of sepulchral comb of St Callixtus. to its its first galleries commencement it had become united. have been from confirmed and illustrated by the testimony of the period Catacombs themselves. and the attentive observer who traverses a portion of * See p. 128. and the peculiarities of which have been noticed in a previous Labyrinth connecting the different arar. and which it is fills the ordinary visi- impossible. and especially that scarcely less important and ancient one which contains the tomb of St Cornelius. We The union was not effected without of the of these into one vast necropolis difficulty. the horizontal plane of each already mentioned. however. which were once.. time. Our account. already deduced documentary sources. 35^ VII. this labyrinth we may safely From two the charac- conclude that both belong to an age posterior to the regu- lar construction of the hypogeiiin within the legal limits separate arece. have already described these different depths picwo of which piani of which are found is pretty generally observed. Cata- in the course of in AVe have also called our readers' manner in which the most remark- able facts of the history of the Catacombs. X. IX. owing to the widely differ- ent levels at which their principal galleries had been exca- vated . attention to the striking as a pri- embellishment by St Damasus as final the centre of the vast necropolis with which. of the architectural history of the Catacombs.Ro77ta Soiterranea. We chapter. further strengthened if by ceme- this particular This testimony would be still our space permitted us to examine with equal minuteness the other arece. VIII. separate cemeteries. would be incomplete if we were to omit all mention of that vast and bewildering labyrinth of galleries which tor with astonishment. from vate cemetery. even on an accurately-drawn map.! teristics galleries. t See p. to reduce to any regular system. and even of this particular cemetery. . a?rcE in all probability. 176. at below the surface. tery each successive at as represented which we have examined.

and to affirm Application to possibly its all doubt each of own architect. followed who had with more or less exactness by those less rreneiallv the the charge of AVe may. must have furnished a important cemeteries. are quite justified in supposing that the cemetery which we have examined. neither did they contemplate the construction of more than one piano nor again did the necessity of economising space lead them to excavate galleries dangerously near to each other. to the pattern. and when wants of the com- munity. and committed by him Archdeacon of Rome. sistency of which legal area^ and It work ^^^ a^adual in a rock the con. they did not think of constructing spacious chambers with ceilings of perilous dimensions. sum up the testimony of the Catacombs as to their successive develop- ment. placed under the at so early a period immediate care of the Pope. the most ancient part of a gallery. other galleries and cubicida were excavated at considerable intervals from each other.(development of a Catacomb within the narrow limits of a from its com- was carried on was unknown. Small cubicida were then constructed as circumstances might render necessary. these had but yet its we own characteristics. We must again repeat that we by no means venture that the successive architectural changes in the Catacomb of which we have traced be found in Callixtus. and Co7is true Hon his v/ill way from not fail and Development." ^ Mode of on this labyrinth of St Cornelius. with entrances from this gallery this single gallery became insufficient for the .Summary of apostolic the excavation of subterranean cemeteries. are to St No subterranean Christian cemeteries of Rome. the was comparatively new. therefore. 357 the tomb of St Cecilia to that to recognise the points of junction. for the use of a m people as yet few number. Consequently. certain further modifications became ' . in the following general remarks. When menced the Roman of the Christians age com. Catacomb is Hence found to consist of a extending as far as the limits of the area permitted. will appreciate the ingenuity with which \}[iQfossors accom- plished their task. x\s time went on.

and narrow at the feet. 7. . pilasters. to practise this of the galleries. entirely ancient ornamentation had been cornices. ing been removed. where the bility of the tufa would not admit of cut. modifications necessary to obtain nicreased ac- SoUei^ranea.''' cut out of the /odiH was in time diversi- A instances from their former rectan- and are found of an hexagonal or octagonal and sometimes with apses l^ersecutors. The most formed of stucco and brickAvork. columns. these portions being were turned to account by being made to receive the bodies of infants. The shape of the solid rock. number. having been increased galleries in length and . brackets. in them smaller. and the experience which had been gained by th^fossors of the consistency of the rock enabled economy by lowering the more find floor.f Roma 358 The through divers necessary. and the chambers fied or to avoid the search of now we but later period at one or more of the figure. so as to receive made more many more space was economised by the galleries being The than before. at length to full-sized loadi fria- Even these expedients faihng supply sufficient space. and even find by the introduction of the arcosolium. the necessity ot great economy of space was forced the attention of those who had the upon ^ chan>:e ° of the ceme- commodation. tery. The fossors also found it practicable to cut galleries with a comparatively thin wall of rock between them. and these latter are either side lofty Thus we various ways. t See examples in constructed during Area X in Atlas. page 32. tiers of period this made narrower made themselves were loculi on ciibicida new excavations made during while. the fosso7's conceived the idea of excavating another piano either above or below the The first. and at the angles of their intersection. themselves varied in gular shape. sides. and space was saved by their being formed wide at the shoulders. air. same The careful observance of the limits of the geometrical area. many chairs. shows signs of the protection of the laws hav. shafts * and the cemeteries no longer manifest the communicating with the open See Fig. in loadi . decorations of this period also show that ihQ fossors had become more accustomed to the material in which they were working.

ThQ. wall. popula- It . to satisfy the requirements of a large Christian tion. but the arcosolia themselves have not been constructed.Mode of Construction and Development. in this period we notice indications of the gradual abandonment of the practice of subterranean inter- Many ment. in outline and even in find the spaces for arcosolia sketched out. generally situated just and were evidently made galleries. . some of portions which of the galleries terminate in or in which the /oculi are marked but have never been excavated the spacious crypts we . ished. constructed at this period very large crypts and wide arcosolia. secret passages last resource. teries. the galleries were filled with earth in order more many of effectually to conceal the tombs of the saints. more Of course. are air into the cublcula. is of also during this studied contrivances for conceal- The regular staircases were demol- and instead of them were constructed As a leading into caves and sandpits. but the going remarks apply to the Catacombs as a whole. and preserve them from the profane insults of the Pagan occupiers of the confiscated cemeFinally. and. at the same time. be discerned. principally for the removal of earth. fore- until its aban- burial-place. no longer confined within certain prescribed limits. all period that we meet with ment from persecution. but are round above the crossing of the pits. contain no on the loculi. in the more celebrated striking characteristics are to historical crypts. 359 not square apertures for conveying light and this period. we loculi^ find a multitude of poor miserable galleries full but destitute of ornament.fosso7's.

there are evidences of two of stairs constructed at different periods. and adorned with narrow bands of a bright red colour. underground. of which nothing but the original position of which lines. — TJie reader should ope]i the and should refer also Staircase A. however. The them to determine with accuracy inclination of the steps enabled the upper portion of the flight. 47. indicated by the dotted remains appear about ten feet below the and extend The to a depth of about thirty-nine sur- feet plan indicates^ a wall of brick-work and on each side of the staircase for a short distance. p. and hence another flight was constructed on foundations composed of masonry resting on such of the original stairs as remained entire. Similar construction on three steps. As we have before remarked. 342. Wall resting on a step of the earlier staircase. 3. but the greater part of the length is excavated out of the living rock. '^ I ^HE X Staircase Plan tills Chapter^ to the elevation in Fig.B. tufa is now remains. N. This flight of steps.CHAPTER III. to which we must refer our readers. as well as to The numbers and letters the plan at the end of this analysis. ANALYTICAL DESCRIPTION OF THE PLAN OF THE MOST IMPORTANT AREA OF THE CEMETERY OF ST CALLIXTUS. The face of the first soil. The flights original flight had steps covered with slabs of marble. 47. and walls coated with very fine stucco. are alike in both. bears signs of having been demolished and interrupted A A 2. in many portions of its length. This flight of stairs is indicated by the dotted line in Fig. . being those used by De Rossi. which originally formed the entrance principal gallery of this area utely wliile study ing to the was thoroughly and min- examined by the brothers De Rossi in May 1865.

lov/er extremity. last few steps of the original flight. Three or four toculi have been cut in the staircase itself. as also are the materials used to stop the /oadi which are on either side of the staircase. almost up to the roof. A evidently between the period of its demolition and that of the And near its A construction of the later staircase upon its ruins. but it had been visited by ^" Boldetti and other explorers.'Analysis of the Cemetery of St About half-way down the stairs. As we pass along between chambers A3 and A3 we notice that the walls are A 16. 9. who have left memorials of their the right. like that of St but the 361 up of the niche above the me?isa is of rough masonry covered with coarse plaster. like small galleries passing In the sides of one of these sepulchres are three tocuti closed in the usual manner. evidently with the design of not leaving even the least remains of them on the side walls. is Cornelius. The second first. while the other is so divided as to contain The mouths A 10. of later construction than the original ambulacrum to which the steps lead. and staircase this difference is in level necessitated the construction of a flight of steps in order to reach the cubiculum A^ on and likewise to enter the gallery L on tlie left. The locuU of this . under this they are in good preservation for the space of two loculi. so as to bear the weight of the staircase afterwards built over them. the ruins of which still remain. The indicated by dotted lines. we find a large Staircase sepolcro a ?nensa divided so as to contain three bodies. on the Ca Hix tits. shaped filling It A 4. A u. These are. and lined with white stucco. and so wide as to five feet in beneath the staircase. line as and that here they do not spring from the same basedo the lower i)ortions of the wall. have been entirely destroyed. about thirty-three inches above the A 13. much ruined. each between four and appear 7. nine bodies each in a separate niche. sepulchres are covered with tiles of these placed roof-wise. two large sepulchres have been constructed. several bodies some five feet in to order to reach the floor of In the vertical wall thus left a sepulchre for was afterwards found. The ambulacrum which we have now entered was cleared Ajubulacnim of earth at the beginning of 1856. therefore. left. so that any one attempting to enter the cemetery would have had make a leap of the ambulacrum. but that immediately Its roof. visits in the galleries leading out of it. depth.

and both and walls are plastered and ornamented with paintings. peculiarity horizontal throughout. ambidacnnn A. now that .Roma 362 Sotterranea. and in anticipation of a more considerable depression than was actually carried into effect. and this earth. was of the ainbtdacriim had been lowered. for about half rises gradually A same even more forcibly. At the entrance to the A. meets the ambidacrmn When. The same section shows the narrow gallery above the anibidacriim A. It also repre- sents a portion of the small gallery !„ the shaft for removing the earth from which falls exactly on a line with the wall of The modern bridge. which is entered by descending two steps. now become worn into an inclined plane. had no counterpart in the ancient remains. gallery H. there are to be seen traces of two steps. floor. we observe that we have to ascend two steps in order to enter the chamber A^. Almost opposite to H is the entrance to the chamber A5. higher portion are smaller than those at a lower level. of which a section is given on ground. and was only constructed by the Commission of Sacred Archaeology to enable the gallery Ij to be traversed. The than which have difl'erence of on page 353. which cannot be distinguished when we stand on the This upper portion. and the traces of the original roof of that and)iilacrum. showing that this chamber was constructed subsequent to the depression of level. Parthe?iius and Gallus^ on the roof of the gallery. find A 19. enabled the companions of Pomponio Leto to write their names. the floor. Ambulacrum A ^^cent indicates a corresponding depression of the level of the On 17. constructed after the floor This mbicidum^ therefore. the level of which is about two feet higher that of A. we the floor of this chamber at the same level with the anihidacnnn. for while the roof of the gallery from the point where it its I length. which proves that H must have been formed before the floor of A was lowered. and at the door of chamber A3 a similar the roof Its floor. Turning our attention from the roof of the gallery to its floor. must therefore have been excavated when the whole of the lower part of the ambulacrtt?n was filled with earth. as may be seen in level is shown in the section the above-mentioned section. which now crosses the the chamber Ag. page 353. we reach the door of chamber A^. which formed the floor of the small gallery above. strikes us is the opposite side of the gallery the 18. however.

as appears entrance to the gallery and then lowered the higher level.has level also there. A 23. Returning again to the foot of the cublculum Aj. of which we was enter the thirty-three CnbiculHui and from the line where the upon it. state of the walls of the anibidacrum Y was first opened at the new level. scriptions have been found in fragments which have fallen from the loculi^ and they are for the most part in the Greek fur a considerable portion of 27. and seems to have been closed like a simple The was very slightly below that of the ambttlacnmi^ of which is design carried into from G the entrance to the cnbiculum Ag. with red lines to staircase. in ground. which the lower shown us had been intended part as is so ruinous in this have required them to be sustained by modern to The masonry. and while the corner itself is entirely filled tufa up with a solid pillar of the same materials. which formed at the lowered level of A. so that here w^e see the eff"ect. now worn next descend five steps. the left wall is A . numerous inpass at a time. along which only one person could Along the whole length of A. bears evident signs of having 23. and reach the entrance to the gallery G.Analysis of the Cemetery of St the earth which formed A galleries We its floor has Ca Hixtits. Nearly the lowest portion. white stucco. a 26. language. its to great height. its original construction. and the wav into which (see is would not have been practicable when the made. while D. therefore. 363 been removed from the and H. w^as first constructed after the level of G opposite to which A had been lowered. of the gallery to meet the As we approach observed to be strengthened its height by constructions of brick-work. lociilus. and also from the tufa not having been entirely cut beside A^ away from is the lower portion of a large sepulchre resembling a sepolcro a 7/ie?isa. but not carried out. evidently have been con- structed after the depression of the floor of lower level after a too near the is it Close the plan. its walls. like been cut away F. tlie inches lower than fine able original it is floor at present. we are determine the corresponding elevation of the roof \ . into an inclined plane Amlmlacrum page 344). marked except that entrance to the gallery E must the corner AC. the floor of is we have reached The floor of the latter This opening. of A. having merely a a narrow passage through it. now ends.

XI. and to through for the entrance it and into the second and was make room third a?'ece the necropolis. had been decorations. but little staircase leading to a higher piaiio of evidently much more modern than the chamber. The succeeding chamber. 2. The roof is so low as but the stucco is of an inferior quality. is order to enlarge the chamber. See also the ainhulacrum. the loculo a i?iensa irregularly cut at a later explorers of the fifteenth century had pene- trated into this chamber. This. same way. CnbiciihimA^. and similarly decoThe floor is about eleven inches above the level of rated. . of the Both the door and ioctdi are quite in ruins. examination of the stucco at the lower part of the walls shows must have been lowered about eight Near the door on the right hand is a square pedestal made of tufa^ and covered with a slab of terra-cotta. 3. . the side walls are also pierced by two locidi^ one above the other. XIV.Roma 364 The wall of the original left removed in Sollerrauea. Parthenius. that the original floor inches. or seat and to the left is a the cemetery. has a loado a mtnsa in the wall directly opposite the door. i . i XII. required elevation of the floor of this chamber. A2 approached by two is and steps. which are painted the frescoes is lined with stucco. this original floor was raised so as to be on a level with the amhulacniin^ thus accounting for the unusual lowness of the ceiling. The chamber A3 is square like the last. which are now barely The ciMculum A. . which being at a higher level. which is of is decorated in the De coloured marbles arranged in a geometrical pattern. Rossi has. in Plate XII. Thomas. and that in consequence of the ambu- not having been lowered to the depth once contem- plated. ascertained that the original floor neath lacrum this A is be- pavement.. resembles the preceding in is its form and and there is reason to suppose that the floor. Cubiculnm A. as well as A3. chamber entirely gone. 3 XIV. two hculi for children have been The period. Cuhiaduiiik^^ is page 263. which visible. Matthias. however. A^. on An 2. now two steps below the ainbulacnun A. Gallus. See Plate VII. Above and left their names. Ciibu-idutiiX . called . This chamber by the guides the Capella del Sacrajnenti from the liturgical paintings on the walls. to be hardly six feet two inches above the floor.

common dibicuhiDi A^. See dotted lines in Fig. one large sepolcro a meiisa divided for The being lined with marble. At a later period sary to strengthen this wall with masonry. Within this chamber was found the epitaph mefisa are still to be seen. but from the carelessness with which the possessors of this property in the last century adapted for the Staircase B. and the point where the ancient steps must have reached and the gallery the surface of the soil is marked in the plan by the dotted lines. entirely occupied with is two bodies. each division iron bars which supported the it became necesand to this period must be assigned the two marble pilasters which now stand on either side of the sepulchre.— Analysis of the Cemetery of St Callixtns. point the upper portion of the staircase was de- B 29. A From wall this closing up the staircase at about half its length. Ag resembles the other chambers in form and decoration. covered with a very inferior kind of is barrel-roof. . instead of the flat or cruciform all the preceding cuhicula. loculus. new one made admit of an additional range oi This 365 at a sufficient elevation loculi all round the chamber. chamber raised like that of the has been removed. the second area. has suffered not only from the changes purposes of a wine-store. recklessly destroyed to make it Both tombs and walls were receptacles for the butts of wine. portion and has a vaulting found in since the original ceiling A_j. and the vertical slab of Grecian marble which once covered the whole space between The marble pavement still remains upon the these pilasters. SERGIVS ALEXANDI CAECILIE FAVSTAE COIVGISVEBENE MERIENTI FECIT. The wide and made and ambulacrum B staircase lofty. and very in ancient times. with the sepulchre lined with marble and forming a bisonwm. was entered from a modern staircase made beneath the three-apsed chapel which we have noticed above This staircase has now been blocked up. but on either side the lower tomb is a loculo a mensa. although in each case they have been closed like a The end of the chamber. 53. and a to later plaster. however. floor. but it is parallel to A.

near the roof. according to Marini. and bearing the inscription AOITAIANOC KAT nPOH EIAHN AFIPIA. Staircase B 32. As we approach the entrance to the gallery B3. the steps are well preserved and covered with slabs of terra-cotta. however. • • staircase.Roma 366 prived of half narrow flight Sotteri^anea. which lead make a space for the down to the galleries Z and Y. modern passage which passed close to the gallery B^. and must have been on the same level with that gallery. The masonry. although a point that the damage might be wall on the right may be observed The it. an evident proof of its having been tory of made at a later period than the ambulacrum. Near this wall the staircase B retains traces of the same fine stucco. width in order to its of steps B^. and almost destroyed by a B B . Afiibidacriim The ambulacrum itself is paved with large tiles. because at the time . Here was found the remains of a small sarcophagus. apparently on a step of the . from which they differ in size and arrangement. communicating with the arenarium^ we notice the wall on either side of that entrance is sustained by masonry of tufa and brick-work. similar to A. from the imperial manufac- Marcus Aurelius. dicate the existence of a gallery. that is. the left wall above many its lociUi. with its ornament of thin red lines. excavated when B was filled Ij in These in- the ainhulacnini with earth. Almost immediately below this wall the steps have been demolished. cut through so done to the sepulchres in B in was chosen with special care The small as possible. entrance shows the damage formation. which we observed on the walls of A. does not reach the present roof. all of which bear the stamp opus doliare ex pr^diis domini n et figl Novis. and probably com- municating with B4 after the staircase was blocked up. From the entrance of B^ to the bottom of the flight. and that the entrance itself has been cut through some of the loculi . ornamented with dolphins. is a line of all lociili^ as On in ruins. since it has no other outlet apparent. and another inscription in Latin to hasellica. however. and evidently at the same period the traces of them. evidently belonging to a different period to those below them. remain on the side walls. as we observed had been done in the case of the parallel flight. A small opening on the leads into a rectangular cham- left ber coated with coarse plaster.

much broken. but never carried out their wall. a practised eye once perceive that the adjacent entrance into originally is ainbnlacrum to be at a considerably lower level floor of the than now opened by the tomb. cut through three lociili. to is little B H. could not have been made until the left the wall is the deepening of the ainbulacnun. The entrance to F shows the same traces of having been opened B F. probably because the wall was afterwards filled with ioculi. The wall above this entrance is modern. From the arrangement of the loculi^ however. and other signs. it appears that an entrance into H was contemfeet high. which we observed in the entrance to H. . Immediately in the roof the termination of the the holes high up in the left it would seem that \\\^ fossors began at the high level to open a way into the gallery E. excavated so as to suit the reduced level of B. plated in the original design. The small gallery in the roof is very discernible at this point. design. as at the other end. after the level of B had been lowered. show that H was once continued in a direct line into B. and then. on the contrary. The passage B^. although it appears to have been only commenced and not proceeded with until the ainbulacnun was deepened. sepolcro a mensa. more than six at a level I was b I. The entrance into D was made at the high level. after door we perceive above this small upper From gallery. 37. and B B even now of a very moderate height. when will at which at a somewhat high elevation.Analysis of the Cemetery of St that was it built tiie roof had not been Callixt2is. although not carried into effect pavement of B. . as is usually B C. B and C meet is It is The worthy of notice that not a sharp angle. and could not therefore have been made use of when the floor of the amhilacnun was nearly four feet above its present level. but was at a later period until after the depression of the moved about twenty On inches to the left. B G. On the right hand. and belonged to the wine-stores constructed here in the last century. opening into T^ the point where is also modern. The masonry on either side of H. which corresponded to that required The entrance H. B D. raised to 367 present its elevation by the excavation of the small gallery B^. and on the right we see that the gallery G was commenced originally from this end. a Ambulatnnn ^'" important as proving the present is was it And originally constructed.

and and Y and being entered by the steps cut through the upper into the aj-enaria through T. blocked up by a thick a describing. cemetery. have been formed and to of the of St Sotere. and through C this opening must have fallen into X\\^ several fragments of inscriptions belonging to differing entirely in character here. who were making their way from a higher set of galleries in the area of St pAisebius. an additional work of antiquity. and did this area with a belong to the earlier periods of not. l\vo large be seen on locidi are to B„ and These being the right immediately after turning the corner out of C 52. One of these has the ambulacrum tliat ai'ca^ and from the other inscriptions found :?:. The loctdi in this and with numerous niches Some of the large tiles. excavated at a ai'ea we higher level than that which Appears hardly this part entrance did not occasion the demoli- opening which leads into the (iallery K^ neighbouring arenarhiui^ need entirely closed at the into T. even though any tion of its After a few steps loculi. arranged in order. the same change must. filled modern loculi^ was accordingly half It and then with B endangered direct leading into the discovery of the whole cemetery. are is a sepolcro a viensa. the meeting of in This pecuHarity catacomb galleries. 48 as having been con- structed subsequently to the deepening of the gallery. further on near the in the left wall floor. so that Gallery Which connects . remain still in the loadi. marked in Fig. necessarily have been effected in C. 13 not. of which no other instance . Aurelius and Commodus. the sepolcro a mensa is an opening in Above the wall near the roof made by excavators of the last century. and is wide and very with B was The marks lofty. the latter B^. 50. into part of the original flight B. but having and B. the work of Few had not yet settled into a system.Roma 368 the case Sotterranea. and those few at a later period. but a curve. &c. the manufactories of the emperors M. i\'\Qfossors appear to have been cut locidi first in this corner. when it we come upon now are was perceived that its point where Led Gallery B it fell wall. Z.. bearing the stamp of for lamps. B^. for it suggests is the thought that at the period when these galleries were formed. C 49. gallery are large. are not very apparent in the gallery been proved to the very ends of A cleared out in of a change of itself. The Avibitlacntiii ' level A anibulacriim which unites 1863.

and Gallery G. this subsequently to the seen. as may be Well Y ^^ holding water. the been found majority of which are in Greek. B. of its E. was afterwards demolished part. excavated. and therefore of Gallery the gallery . was continued so as commenced from B to fall into A at the after the high level. stiil seen in all man other ancient wells connected with the Catacombs. have gallery. but well is make way The furnished with foot-holes. we have a lofty gallery. The at the high level of A. and fell into 2 A B after h. and bears marks C^. deepened afterwards connects. Ce77ietery 369 occurs in this a?ra . had been level lowered. in the winter we have like the inscriptions. q^ in Fig. The fragments of having been formed about the same time. The passage is in direct communication Eusebius. which it Many E which was explored was excavated. F. either by graves having been made or it after' its appears by in its floor. in order to in for a well of ancient construction. and with the area of St deepened considerably modern excavators See the section of first to have been construction. in order to admit of a descending to clean it. full is C2 see in the section on page 342 another passage which must have crossed C when the latter was full of earth. and ambulacra A.Analysis of the of St Cailixtns. as period of the area. correspond to the depressed level at little passage F^ was evidently excavated after the lowering of the floor. and of another the remainder has been found The entrance later of the area of St Eiisebius. G. as never more than six Many feet high. depression of the level of A^. 48. on the contrary. and which is continued almost until it meets D. during the D. but above the entrance. we of earth. H commenced from A at the high level. seen. F was opened and then cut away to which it enters B. in a gallery to C^ cut through is date than the ambulacrum and unexplored \ loculi. for It it carefully avoids breaking into E. of inscriptions found in these two galleries are of a character ambulacrum similar to those in the D first is itself. and throughout is in of 1862-63. Another doorway leads into the gallery Ci. which apparently belongs to the same system of passages as Q. . whole length ils loculi are closed with tufa constructions.

we may. On commenced. A The gallery and B. on the left S. and especially with for the De first in the double it immediately opposite we have which time in this area. The visitors pass into this gallery quite modern. in some About half-way down seen a doorway in the wall. but a little farther hand. was originally excavated at the high level of we have seen from the openings into both those It was afterwards cut away so as to correspond new I and thus it is found at present. on the left. in tufa then flanked with thick walls of tufa and brickwork. for it was found impossible to use. The stair- with the sinking of the staircase H. remained useless. Ci(hiciilii)u IT The . is an arch turned over it which out. was found a an little The upper infant.. composed of case H2 is at is tiles of the date of excavated first with loculi in the walls. whose entrance to H2. Aurelius. in the barrel ai^cosolia. instead of a skeleton. after all. and speedily abandoned.Roma 370 Sotterranea. not flat. by climbing to the top of a heap . which half blocked is up by the masonry sustaining it. Cecilia is been found in it. Staircase H^. Rossi in assigning to is hitherto described. but walled up. than that of the stair- case H. with its floor sloping downwards from the middle each way towards A and B. the floor of that a?nbulacrum had been lowered. cubiculwn Hj. for sepulchral purposes. level. and the roof of the staircase breaks into the gallery I. the right is seen a half-open loculus^ within which. it is lined. apparently a gallery it. B we junction with in its direction near its was con- have already noticed. The change paved with marble. while the middle portion itself remains still at the with the higher level. as ambulacra. stamped with the mark of the manufactory of M. the rude into a wine cellar in the last century. Gallery I. The tiles are in many cases the gallery into which it leads. with have been scooped loculi the staircase. The staircase. terra-cotta sarcophagus containing the body of portions of the loculi in this place are but somewhat arched. difl"ers from all the chambers in the very inferior plaster with roof. which are here met These circumstances justify a later date. The attempts to convert and scarcely any walls it are much damaged by inscriptions have opening by which the majority of from the crypt of on.. and careful observa- shows that change to have been made tion Its floor at the same time The pavement here is Marcus Aurelius.

feet wide. but the intention appears never to have been carried into effect. We now enter L. of rubbish. in seems of small to loculi^ all traced on the mortar the sign of There are signs of an intention of excavat- the cross thus +. covers it and constructed of brick-work. proving originally entered through the Slight traces also appear of the deepening which passage must have undergone when the original level of was lowered. At the entrance to L. which is the central and most important in the Catacomb. which we have noticed along A similar and B. at the time when it was used as a cellar. Others being cut off in the middle must have been written previous to the widening of the door. Cecilia Papal crypt. this A was similar traces now may gives light to this gallery. the construction of another flight of stairs necessary to into L. Papal Cry])t '^' . We have usually traversed by visitors. above one of which is ing two branches of this to those filled Cecilia. work of the Commission of Sacred Archaeology. It contains a open. The modern constructions along the part of the gallery I. The plaster is five which the majority of which are at a higher level than would naturally have been chosen by those who wished to write on the wall. as having been the burial-place of the Popes of the third century. manner was it 371 gallery along little in a I. we notice. and be observed beneath the Iwninare which that which originally formed the end of that the crypt of S. and which still retains some traces of the fine smooth plaster with which it was originally coated.Analysis of the Cemetery of St Callixtits. and were rendered necessary by the rude staircase which had been made into the crypt at this point. the first gallery which branches off from the ambidac7'U7n A. number up with where it which Small I^. traces of the original wall having been cut away in order'to widen the passage . Gallery »• earth. have terminated. is covered with graffiti. walls traces of the higher than it is we original level at present. make we the steps by which At the bottom of these steps. pavement and on the having been about a foot see in the The door of this crypt. penetrate into the Httle crooked gallery here crossed this gallery its way from A^ when to the crypt of S. so that these graffiti would seem to have been upon the plaster at the time when the pavement was lowered. on the right hand. are the already seen into A how rendered now descend it Gallery L.

nothing but its when was it eight large loadi. for the ruinous was found when cleared of earth in decorated with painting. which had its parapet made in the best style of imperial lateritial work. 130-150. with a vine sculptured on its edge in very low relief. Above loculo and the roof was lined with mosaic. as the form of the parapet more convincingly by the brickwork of the passage being of the same kind as that which This was afterwards covered. which must originally have been a a ?uciisa. . chamber A to fragment of marble in the have been once lined with similar slabs. close to the had space for marble sarcophagi.Roma 3/2 and consequently which is Sotterranea. which has four holes. in front a similar . lastly. the lower of order to receive the pillars that sup- ported the mensa of the altar which here stood out. the construction of the arch above to it covered with three coats of plaster. At the same period with this parapet was formed the little passage Avhich remain in the lowest range of lonili^ leading into the crypt of shows. the large sepulchre. itself proved is still white plaster. in it are two steps. The earliest modification of this been the chamber appears lowering of the level of the slight have to floor. so many successive works have succeeded each other in this important See the description. wall justify . of which the base is still in its position. first \. or what was the nature of its roof. The right-hand wall. and on the edge of another was carved Between the two sets of the inscription OTPBANOCE. this base. crypt. and a wall forming a sarcophagus jutting out into the chamber floor.\no discovered. Among the rubbish was found the mensa of a tomb. first with covers the parapet. entirely reconstructed condition in which it 1854 rendered this absolutely necessary for its safety. and as S. It is impossible to determine whether the original chamber has locidi in its walls. contained of which. the traces of and especially in the large sepulchre at the end of the crypt. two of them The crypt itself is now almost with modern masonry. makes a continuation of arrangement on the left hand of the loculus Remains of . then again with rough mortar. In front of or even of plaster. pp. with the episcopal chair behind corner shows the it. in order to attach to it slabs of marble. Cecilia. we cannot see any traces either of other loeidi. loadi stood a pillar.

All the characteristics of this chamber suffered also.— Analysis of tlte Cemetery of St Callixtus. N S. the restoration of De column. and. loculi found here apparently belong to the period of At the end of of S. while above the door is In the the space for the oblong tablet of a large inscription. a narrow passage runs close behind the crypt That crypt which are arches inscriptions I'ortico in wall of the entrance itself is brickwork. N. of polygonal paving-stones of basalt. and covered tombs made beneath it. The portico to the crypt of Cecilia S. or for is the vessel in which was burned the hallowed A Gregory the Great speaks. is The excavated in the tufa. now blocked a second luniinare^ entrance 373 up. Plate The chamber L. The central figure in the roof is that of Orpheus. the inscription upon one of which is still in its place. left of which St oil crypt had a barrel roof. and Rossi confesses himself unable to account for covered Its walls are lined with plaster Here were found a number all its De Vestibule M. that the roof was vaulted in the cruciform manner. Cecilia. The base and mark in the wall of a small column still remain at the left hand side as we enter. the entrance in the similar niche right in front of is The papal wall of the gallery L. which has considerably reduced the size of the much The ciibicidiim. peculiar form. The M vestibule is constructed entirely of masonry. we entered by tv/o steps. while in the roof above the broken is its original position. AHMHTPIC KAT T^ ir KAL lOTN Demetrius^ buried on the 20th of May. evidently having formed part of the pavement of the cross road which we have called the Via Appio-Ardeatina. before the right mark hand the posi- works of Pope Damasus had ^^' ^^ s. The pavement was of marble. ' . adorned with fresco. has its L three principal walls entirely covered Cuhicidum with a thick wall of brickwork. on the other wall. Plate XI. like the walls. which here in is Rossi. Still. a niche for a lamp. and the loculi of the primitive walls behind them have enough remains to show that they were covered with fine white smooth plaster. are those of the very earliest portions of the area. with traces of an inferior kind of plaster. side. above Crypt of But behind the see these loculi which tion of the gallery Q. over with graffiti. greatly occupied by the large liiniinarc. 2. Rossi's restoration of this crypt. • • See De • XV. arches in these walls have been destroyed. the shaft of is The near the wall formed of masonry. and sustained by brick arches. on the Damasus.

little of S. closed with a slab of marble. and the left only sustained by ciibiciiluin in a P. walls of the chamber are in a very ruinous state. were found two p/umbatce. or leaden balls covered with a shell of bronze. w^hich these constructions afterwards covered. The passage leading to it is sus- tained by masonry. were distinct from constructed. Cecilia. 349. but formerly formed a communication between the gallery S and the crypt of in its floor S. was the which. tomb The chamber itself. gallery Q has now been occupied by the staircase P. near the entrance to Q^. the plaster has nearly this chamber appears to all fallen. and each fastened to a bronze chain. The loculi not easy to determine whether the arcosoluun at was made within a pre-existing recess. It is possible that these might hav3 been weights for . gallery gallery afterwards incorporated into the crypt. Ij lost itself opposite to the This which the pit in and the end of the pit. there was a simple loculus. but is it certain that before these portions were added. The (iallerv O. it when first must have been of the restricted dimensions represented in the plans of the third and fourth periods of excavation The chamber Cith'uitliiin P^^ P^ has its in pages 345. August 26th. circle. and the staircase P. we Sottcrranea. therefore. It is the end of later it additions . this portion of the notice on the Cecilia. Above 290 the doDr was found in 1854 the inscription of the year :— VIBIV Die FIMVS R ET IIII • • • Vibiiis Fiiniis died {rcccssii) • • VII MAX KA SEP • COS. a piece of left. or whether the brickwork and m^arble with which it has been adorned were broken.Roma 374 completely transformed ing the crypt. page 355. From its position have been constructed about the same time with the staircase P. The tombs formerly excavated have been destroyed by the constructions which support the staircase P .^ is ] masonry. with the inscription to Dasiunia Quirica which occupies the lunette. Catacomb. but within one of these tombs. when Diocletian for the fourtli time and Maximinus were Consuls. entrance almost blocked up by the which has been already described. V The most ruinous state the left wall being quite broken away. Enter- brickwork forming the segment of a when complete.

and the remainder with the whole lower end of the chamber is faced vvitli a solid wall of stone and brick- work. giving access to this Passage R. although of a door was traced on this wall. On the left side is an arcosoloss. and was cleared out gallery. the passage R. The taken up by the litminare. The graffiti and the inscriptions confirm this evidence. cut but preserves the traces of rather left wall is in ruins. Nevertheless. tions of On the opposite side of the gallery is another chamber Q. among this masonry. Cnbiculuin Q with a barrel roof. The plaster near the entrance to Q^ most of them Greek. in is The right hand wall of it. The entrance to S was afterwards closed with to S. building of the staircase P. a solid arch. large in The chamber century. may of broad steps in the tufa leading up flight Q 7'^- must have been demolished before the entrance to Q3 could have been made. in the tufa. as the outline had been if it at one time contemplated to reopen that passage. in order to compensate to some extent for this and at the plaster. 375 these weights being used as iinplcirxnts of torture. which together with chamber when the substrucP had blocked up the original doorway. Part of the lociili. but its arch is of the same construction as the masonry . the iii7ninare in which formerly received light from that of Q^ but was blocked up by the. which other half is fills This brick-work forms half the roof of the chamber. walls of this gallery are strengthened by masonry in order to sustain On the staircase P. otherwise it would not have been of sufficient height to have admitted any one into that cliamber. covered with apparently belonging to the third itself. is now graffiti. with four pieces of marble jutting out like brackets about seven and a half feet from the ground. and the burial of these tomb in the Christian's certainly favours the supposition that The they had been the instruments of his martyrdom. same time the chamber was coated with Iiuni. and those near the ground are sunk below the floor. show that this chamber was one of the important shrines of the Catacomb. when a wall steps the staircase P was made. another part filled with ancient masonry.Analysis of the Cemetery of St instances of even but history records scales. The loculi are large. a window was opened over the door. Cubiculuni Q together with the others in this in 1855. ruins. Callixttis. which is consequently not of so fine a kind as that of which some remains are to be seen in Q^. be seen traces of a These the left wall.

with which passage b. as also CubicuhtniO^. with a gallery stretching out of it. in the means of con- S. S3. as to avoid falling into Q_^. evidently from a fear of weakening the rock beneath the stair- case A. The chamber Q_^ has two arcosolia in its right hand wall. and contain arcosolia.Ro7na Sotterranea. This remedied by a 7ne7isa a proof of the floor is we descend inconvenient height of the it a step on entering step covered with a slab of giallo a?itico little A small passage marble which now stands in front of the tomb. lociili its road is MNHCGH ZHCH and made S^. Ciibiculwn S the cross • which proves that the b. if the priest had so high that impossible to have used the vicusa as stood on the present pavement. pierced by a large himinai-e. ATTIKEIANOC. clearly of . so arranged is Q^ which must have been in existence before these appendices to Q3 were made. having been lowered The in fact. this chamber. therefore. Se. massive wall for the support of the up a considerable part of the chamber on the left. leading into the labyrinth. so that its antiquity is not greater staircase than that of the Some remarkable sarcophagi were found in in Q^. one In lined with marble. Some in order to make an THCCTPEEIC of the necting the two ^25 ^3? '^^4 <:?. It A loculi. have been in use when this chamber was made. being Th^ cnbicula the plaster of the loatii have been broken through entrance to gallery S existed previous to Cubiada On (See plan on page 349. is The parapet tomb of this is would have been an altar. Opposite the entrance to S^ is the way mto another gallery. At the end of this chamber seen a large arcosoliuni once covered with marble. eg. although it is at the end somewhat higher than the level of that gallery. in the left it. was connected by the it the are left all constucted Immediately beneath the entrance to the cnbiculum construction. which must. is appears from the marks of the pickaxes of the fossors in the walls that the gallery S was where was united it first commenced to the gallery Q. of the arcosoHiim was hand corner leads into another chamber. with barrel roofs. We have seen that the entrance to Q3 was formed after the demolition of the stairs 78. . and corresponds to that of the adjacent area. and the other with fine white plaster. leading to S. of similar wall of which only one loculus appears.. They are described in page 298. the left wall are staircase fills and the roof Gallery S. S^. in which little an arcosol'mm.) are graffiti in Greek.''^^. 37^ at the door. P.

^^^''^'^''^'"'"- slopes continually Its floor level of the are/iariin?i. U. and will magnitude of De Rossi's labours tion of this vast necropolis. The galleries Tj and T.Analysis of Ihe Cemelejy of Si Callixliis. and the secret passage X^. still Some loculi.g. has already been described. Avith left as nine U. branches X^. are narrow and low. needs Y3. is low and narrow. gallery passage wards damaged by is T is a continuation of B3. . tained several fine inscriptions in Greek and Latin. Z is merely tion of the hypogeum entered through B^. Three cubicula Y^. EICTEPKOPI KAI NATAAEfiC AGATEMERIS SPIRITVM TVVM INTER SANCTOS. ^'j'] much later cii.. are of the rudest description while . The gallery Y. with its evidentlv V it. but contain a few gallery V are also in V^. and at the level of the galleries excavated above the earth which filled up the main ambulacra. and U^ are branches of the arenasinking as T ^q. and others which branch off* from it.Arciiarii(. . • • • • . which contains The loculi in U are large. which more ancient than The intact. X..te than the gallery from which it branches oft". • rium. a continua- and a portion of it breaks into the roof of the chamber Q. tlie is in its place. and cona large loculus a inensa. leading x into it. and a half feet in a very short space. y. the arcnariuDi. X3. with its dependencies. as V.^. e. . The ciibiculuni S^ is similar to the others along this gallery. this gallery is which here opens into vast gallery of the arenariujn. but its roof broken into MOTCIKIA The Still a passage from the labyrinth having In a loculus on the it. in \" to study this analysis will the account of this area be able to estimate the thus analysing every por- Z. of the loculi in the but most of them are destroyed. V^ leads into the arenarium.. no description. page 347. Y^. The easily who has had patience perceive how fully it justifies reader given in the last chapter.m\. as is also the chamber T^. the inscription and much and connects that Gallery roof its is into cut in steps.



2 2S 3 .I PLAN OF FIRST AR£A OF Ia Mdrts. 1 ^— — I 1 1 1 ^=^ S.'L ±ee C.CALLISTO.

" on which were — Idus Septebr Yacinthus. Marchi. o'^g of the to F. — " DP. martyr. St Protus and St Hyacinth. p. as it is sometimes called). in the year However. ii. as March 21. was only one of five chambers. Arringhi* states that they were translated from the church of San Salvatore. all connected together. * Arringhi. he satisfied himself that it was indeed a grave that had never been opened he observed also that the chamber in which it was. College.APPENDIX Note The A (page 15). in the learned Father. morning. and that they had been buried in this Catacomb on the th of September but he imagined that their bodies had been long since removed to other churches. 1 1 in. tomb and body Hyacinth by Father showing how innocently a false tradition may be created about the possession of such or such a relic by any particular church. under Clement VIII. in Trastevere. 1845. and St Pra^textatus. . of z^!^ . just as he had before noticed in the principal churches in the Catacombs of St Agnes. Catacombs. St Helen. and other sources. receiving light from a very large liinimai'e^ and having a double approach by staircases from two opposite sides. 235. to that of San Giovanni dei Fiorentini. j^^^r .. . This excited not a little surprise Basilla. discovery of the Marchi deserves On to the evening" of employed Roman in be told in Good digging in the of St detail. martyrologies. who knew from ancient calendars." which he said he had just copied from a stone that was still inclosing a grave in a chapel of the Catacomb of St Hermes (or Sta. with a slip of paper in his hand. when Father Marchi visited the spot on Monday 1592. In a these words. men Discovery in the^^^^"^. came Friday. had suffered martyrdom together under the Emperor Valerian. that the two brothers. in company with a painter and an architect to draw illustrations of the chapel.

St Sebastian. Marchi judged it advisable to proceed with unusual care and circumspection he therefore left the grave exactly as it was. and spent the next three weeks in a diligent investigation of every record he could discover which could throw light upon the history of the two brothers paying frequent visits to the chapel. in the meantime. wdiose devotion or curiosity led result of his historical researches them was most to the spot. and that the bodies of the martyrs were still there at the end of the habits. since the motives assigned by his predecessors for removing the martyrs bodies from the Catacombs at all was. SepulCHRUM Proti '^\{artyris). for Leo would never have removed the head only.Roma 8o Sotteri'a7tea. that about a century after their martyrdom. once found a temporary and although we do not know who had transresting-place there of St Protus. but before that time called after St Peter and St Paul. as we have seen. with the words. Leo's act can only be ex- . and the claims of the rightly . just as one would expect at the tombs of such famous saints as St Protus and St Hyacinth. yet we are certain that it had been lated the body done at some time prior to this. and that Paschal I. the place had every arrangement necessary for accommodating a large number of the faithful. he found a fragment of marble. however. according to his usual same time of putting up an epitaph of verses in their honour also that Pope Symmachus. and of the tombstone of St Protus. the heads of St Protus. had again restored the chapel. Prassede. others. placed under the high altar of the church of SS. The next trace of them belongs when it is recorded that Leo tury. Quattro Coronati. " ne rejnanerent neglediii^'' that they should not remain exposed to neglect and irreverence in . Sta. whose bodies. accompanied by cardinals. Now. F. taken either from the cemeteries or from other churches. and others. to the middle of the ninth cen- IV. seventh century. in the beginning of the sixth century. Moreover. the chapel in History of relics of St Protus. and this placed it beyond a doubt that here had certainly been the burial-place of those two glorious martyrs. The He found which satisfactory. turning over the heaps of earth which encumbered the pavement. body of Sta. Prassede to that Gregory IV. and that. he took the opportunity at the . together with the bodies of fifty-seven martyrs. and that one of But because them still lay in his original tomb. we know had translated the the church dedicated to her honour. word. . this discovery contradicted the popular belief and Church of San Giovanni dei Fiorentini. prelates. had translated that of St Sebastian to the basilica now known by his name. they had been buried was so blocked up with earth. and left the rest of his body in the Catacombs. that Pope Damasus was obliged to repair it. the midst of such a chaos of ruins. bishops.

j^i^^ Protus. How then could the Florentines assert that they had the bodies St Hyacinth's of both the brothers? They were told so by the church of San ^"^^ics j-////^5tV Salvatore. . in order to enrich his with all own the precious relics he could find. But was not the mistake discovered when the relics were removed to San Giovanni ? Christopher Castelletti. who has left us an account of the translation. says that they dug beneath the that they opened stone until they came to a large marble case this. way so far as even to rob other churches. and that they had been buried in the same chapel. Moreover. and everyand in this Hyacinthus was named body knew that both had suffered together. so also they had that of the other. it is impossible that he should have overlooked it. Why? . therefore. where an inscription in the altar expressly said. in the church of the Quattro Coronati conjectures that the inscription had been diviJed at the same time as the body. one jawbone with teeth. and several loose teeth. " Sub hoc pavement under the high lapide requiescimt sanctorum p07'agloriosissimor2un Proti et Hyacbithi. /-o. arms. plained by supposing that 381 some church was ah^eady in possession and that he did not choose to deprive them of and this church can have been no other than that already spoken of. and is. there was in the same church another inscription. when he w^ent out of his will observe that there is of . Marchi had been able to discover from an examination of the history. not to be heard of anywhere else. There seems no other way of accounting for ha'f of it being in San Salvatore.* half of the epitaph w^-itten as well as Protus. or by Pope Damasus. and between this and the eighth or ninth century there was abundance of time to confound the memory of the original translation of the relics. half in the Quatiro Coronati. Here is no mention of two rather half of it. Marchi * The other half was.^^ But this inscription co?'- was not older than the fourteenth or fifteenth century. and the other . there two bodies could not be found. of either the whole or part of the body of St Hyacinth yet if this had been within his reach. more than a part .Appendix. and found no entire bodies. ribs. is a conjectural explanation w^hy Nor does there appear to have and F. bodies. that they should conclude that as they certainly had the body of the one brother. . This account exactly confirmed all that F. for that other churches had been but he adds enriched at various times with some portions of them There were legs. that there were a great many bones. The reader no mention in this account Pope Leo's proceedings. Florentines at the close of the sixteenth century. On the contrary. for from hence it was undoubtedly transferred to the church of the of the whole body. the church of San Salvatore in Trastevere. and that the body of St Hyacinth was It was but natural.

We dom in their natural condition. and the uninitiated began to fear that after all their care they mass of ruins . not those of a full-grown . At first sight it appeared to be full of mud. Marchi. and expose the interior of the grave. only a single jawbone and some loose teeth. however. so it happened . genuine Acts of the martyr- are lost. St Hyacinth's grave had been ex- extracted those of St Protus. since the to the action of fire. which we have not had a convenient opportunity of mentioning elsewhere. had become as hard as any stone. insecure nature of the soil was such. instead cane. and half below. the upper and more modern pavement. Lastly. separated the head of St Protus from its body. soon explained to them. but now it was half above. to open the grave itself. were only to be rewarded with disappointment. and all they were partly burnt to a had manifestly been subjected cannot account for this. when F. made of tufa and Roman cement. with a piece of only. which might have been accidentally left when Leo IV. too. or by Pope Symmachus. He immediately began to divide the mud. and were being examined by a professor of anatomy in the Pope's . why of St Protus. Why they were not Still the question remained. and soon brought to light the bones of a man filled yet this only destroyed the of infants. Marchi Hyacinth? came on Saturday. not immediately. such as St Hyacinth was. when these bones were removed into broad daylight. We must not omit to mention the interior of this grave.Roma 382 Sotterranea. the crumbling. so that the whole chapel Discovery of relics of St yacui . unformed bones man. therefore. that the excavators were able to remove the marble slab. under the open hii?imare. them with mud. One of the restorations effected by Pope Damasus. with the Pope's Sacristan (an Augustinian bishop) and other dignitaries. did not those who originally the body also the body of St But this. so that it was not until some portion of this had been broken. Still the whole of it had been above the level of the ^r/}cr/V/^/ pavement. in- deed. but within a few days. was soon answered. because it brings to light two or three interesting features in the history of ^j^^ Catacombs. is again a and it was through a fear of this disaster that former generations had left the grave undisturbed. Moreover. now that its last stay And had been removed. been any head at all. which in that damp place. and with two or three of the excavators. that it was manifest the whole wall on that side would inevitably give way. the 19th of April. F. of being cinder. that where the rain-water came pouring down a luminare^ it brought much of the soil of the Campagna along with it but that though it penetrated the lower graves. and . had been an entirely new pavement. extract cavated in the very lowest tier of graves in the wall.

were found amongst them fragments c. F. The walls to which they th. at the joint expense of the court and the archaeological In the . were found on the top of the and these were not arranged in any kind of order. but also from Bosio. in the same place.f Christian This discovery was wholly unepitaphs of the fourth century. This is a valuable confirmation of what we already knew. crossing and re- amid the earth and about the bones and when these had been collected and submitted to a professor of natural philosophy. remained . month of August 1866. 383 Palace. and the fragments of the cloth of gold only covered The relics of St Hyacinth now this one spot of the whole body. More- hill . . although on this occasion we are not indebted to De Rossi for the dentin 1868 discovery. that these fragments were not mixed promiscuously. he declared it certain that the body had been wrapt up in some very precious material whether it was what we call cloth of gold. . Several other fragments. . Boldetti.. there . the learned ments Prussian antiquarian (under whose direction the excavations were being made. and the most interesting commentaries by which he has illustrated had been attached had perished and large portions of the tablets but the fragments which themselves had been carried away for centuries lain precisely had where they had fiillen.7 le iiiiira. . Marchi observed several gold threads. which all the bones of the skeleton were perfect excepting a broken skull.Appendix. Pauiy?/^..-^. on the Via Portuensis the first large discovery of monuments of this heathen sodality had been made in the sixteenth century. they must have originally belonged to some building on the very spot where they were now found. he could not say. -iiiT^T-. another histori. ' .restored basilica of St crossing one another. country). yet we certainly are for its identification. about thirty more considerable fragand it was shrewdly noticed by Henzen. not only from the testimony of Eusebius and others in individual historical cases."°1 ^^ical monu. as only these threads had survived. over. in which they had opened. . Whilst these pages are passing through the press. however. and other collaborators^ who had observed the same phenomena in many graves of martyrs Boldetti especially mentions one.Discovery of nistocal monument of early Church history has been recovered: and ^. or whether it had been stuff or silk embroidered with gold. a tablet of the Acts of the Fi'atres discovered in the vineyard of Signor Ceccarelli. Further examination brought to light. but that a certain chronological order together might be observed in their arrangement thereby showing clearly societies of his . lying . rest under one of the altnrs in the newly. about was Arvales the same place where five miles from Rome.

of our Blessed midst of four saints. . in the first Rossi's confidence in the presented many and which he has only now succeeded in clearing conjecture difficulties. . Catacomb itself. as it is somewhat differently expressed in the KoXs. once adorned with mosaics. made some excavations under and soon brought to light ruined walls of a small Christian oratory. and buried in the cemetery of Generosa super Filippi^ or. certain a Catacomb was detected. afterwards buried near them. St name must have been Beatrice. .juxta locum qui appellatur Sextuni Philippi via Fortueusi. . On monograms. who were drowned in the Tiber in the persecution of Diocletian. of the find and in the first gallery quite of the usual kind. who was of simplicivs. Christ. bases. but the sul^ject of the Bullettiuo for this year. confirmed truth of his unusual up. of these names it is impossible we can only see SCA TRIS SCS SCS + FAVSTINIANVS. a painting of a excepting that on the dress there The presence of a and by and bye the entrance . 27. Ro77ict had been no previous knowledge of the existence of a Catacomb in this neighbourhood. belonging to the age of Damasus. is page 230). . . we page 230 Good Shepherd. Rossi at once conjectured that the obliterated and -that he had before him some memorial of Saints Simplicius and Faustinus. a piece of marble was turned up. + RVFININ first of the second. STI. De number .* On the wall of a small aibi27. and having written at the side.) to decipher De {Ritfiniaims). . and capitals. others are plain. At last. and two or three more fragments of the Damasine inscription. i. just as in the case of St Cornelius and Cyprian now Lord in the . and of their martNred sister. for they are worth attending to. the fragment of an architrave. such as we see on the tunic oi \}i\Q fossor Diogenes. each holding a crown the Itlentihcalion of Ccemeter'uun Generoses ad Philippi. will state how could a Christian cemetery have been excavated under the * Iiiscr. /'. as there vation proceeded. both the difficulties and their solution as briefly as We we can. name The (Plate V. but to light. VIATRICI. a crux gavimata (see Fig. and other monuments of the fourth century. bearing only three letters complete. a culiini is much later painting. points whichhave been often insisted upon in this volume. as illustrating various First.3^4 Sotlerranea. were brought which seemed to indicate the same age and style of we were already familiar with in the ruins of the Hospital of Pammachius at Porto. 594. represented in lastly the to it. of course. and to the staircase by which form d in there is we descend Fig. all of architecture as these of unquestionably Christian Damasine monument was now character. ^^^ ^^^^ sitting in the hand. small columns. This. which gave VSTINO The owners of the vineyard kindly his directions. As the work of exca- looked-for.

at a time when entrance to the usual Christian cemeteries was forbidden by the Emperor Diocletian."^). strange or improbable in the supposition that. 2 B gg^^rice bif-" under deserted grove of j-ied ^ \ . that the farm called Sextuin Philippi (which he tells us was -also called pr(Edium viissale) was seven or eight miles further down the river. in loc. On the other hand. so near tian to Rome. these Fratres the last Pagan Rossi is — observing that the Minucius Felix. it is well known to all who have studied Sts. 238. with his usual sagacity. Pontif. a last writer who mentions cotemporary of Gordian. although it is singularly perfect (never having been disturbed apparently at any time. near the island now called Isola sacra ? As to the first difficulty. 332 . that the college this age. fallen into disrepute and neglect. jiixta Sextiitn Philippi . nor any vestige of the more primitive signs and symbols. belongs to the very same magistrate college — conjectured. and there are several epitaphs with consular dates of the age of Damasus. how can the position of this cemetery. This account of the origin of this cemetery is the more certain.Appe7idix. Marini expressed an earnest hope that tablets of a later date would one day be discovered. it is important to observe that this Catacomb is connected with an arcnariiiin. the use of the monogram is frequent. yet not a single Christian epitaph has been found more ancient than the days of Diocletian. all the fragments of their tablets which had been discovered ranged between the reigns of the first emperors and that of Gordian. He translated them to the Church of St Bibiana. be reconciled with the description of the cemetery of Generosa given above. but that hope has never been De realised. and the recent discovery singularly confirms the statement. and who enumerates the title cf Priest of among his dignities. like those mentioned and this we have pointed out (p. announced in a paper published in the Aniiali deW Istituto di Corrispoiideiiza Archeologica in 1858. since we have the testimony of Ethicus. therefore. because. or.Simphcius. for the latest date which has been found is of the year 225. * Lib.D. must have been either abolished or incorporated with some other. about A. 88) as in this volume at p. the subject of the Fratres Arvales — so important in its bearing upon disputed questions of Roman chronology during the Imperial period— that when Marini published his great work upon them. a Christian writer of the fifth century. excepting for the translation of the relics of the Saints by Pope Leo 11. about that time. Moreover. a new place of burial should have been provided here where the bodies of the martyrs Simplicius and Faustinus had been recovered from the Tiber. There is nothing. 385 very temple and grove of a heathen sodality in the days of Diocle? and secondly. at This he least.

The Acts of Saints Simplicius and Faustinus. one of the characteristics of those parts of the Catacombs which This discovery belong to the times of persecution. which speaks of the cemetery as being super Filippi. and seems to have had one central shrine. as we have seen in the neighbourhood of the tomb of St Eusebius (p. Aualei. to prevent the pilgrims from going astray and losing the object of their pious search. For these saints were was kept on the 29th special lessons and prayers in their honour may be seen of July and in the office-books of Gelasius and St Gregory the Great their names even have a place in the Litanies in the most ancient MSS. no longer any inconsistency between the locality of the cemetery just discovered and the descriptions of it in ancient monuments. But the discovery of another Catacomb. On the contrary. as it were the tombs of the martyrs Over these. place of burial with some place Mary Major's. p. so arranged that through a window in the apse the contrary. viz. wdiich may once held in great veneration . beyond the height on which this cemetery has been excavated. t ii. 65. had already led Bosio to suspect that the name belonged to a considerable tract of country. The numerous openings of conhrms our ^|^-g the the hill would have rendered the arenarium on side of History of the secret construction of a small cemetery here a matter of no great Catacombs. both of England and France. Morlni de Poenit. oratory or which need not further be discussed in this note. A small excavated. there is a special fitness in the word used in one of those descriptions. j). If we accept hills is the on that side this simple explanation of the term. This is a subject. p. or Sexhim Philippi . 168). On it is but a small Catacomb even now. . and which last spur of Monte Verde and the whole range of of the Tiber. which would lead them directly from the worshippers could look in gallery was also the oratory to this aibiciduin^ whilst the adjacent galleries were blocked up. Martene rle Di\. 670. however. A careful examina- the passages in which this place — — deriving its name from Philip is mentioned. Pope Damasus raised a little that have been named. 630. and a geographer of the fifth be seen still in the precincts of St as being several miles farther however. even in the days of Diocletian. and the inscription on the front of the old marble sarcophagus. in . and there is absolutely o lese ai^^ reason to suppose that it was used extensively at any time. and the Acts difficulty. . connect their known as Filippi. upon the sacred graves. their festival . of tion. all the low land which stretches out towards the sea. App..Roma 386 Sotterranea. Off.. all dowm century describes this spot the river.. agreeing so exactly in all its phenomena with there is * Mabillon.* The second or topographical difficulty may be dismissed more summarily.

said. your name asked her. noble.^^^ late MS. What is your name ? She answered. which we have italicised The " Acts of the in 1600. in the possession of her church in Trastevere. said." published by Bosio Two versions and repubhshed by Laderchi in 1722. are very significant. I ask you about your for we k?ioiv that you are noble by birth. to expect two answers to be included in A. mucii more dis- Cecilia. and A. Almachius the Prefect orders Saint Cecilia is swered. as laid down by De Rossi and explained in these pages. great one enquiry. Almachius ordered Cecilia to be brought before him. Saint Cecilia said. were taken from a °^!!^ -^. From a good conscience. Martyrdom of St Cecilia. answered. . She an- ? amo7ig men . and a faith unfeigned. Of what condition are tijio^uished. what power Do I you not know have ? The vagueness of this word marks a later date than the exact specific words used n the other version. From and a a good con- faith unfeigned. C. Note B (page 22). of senatorial descent {clar- ? C.Appendix. version of Metaphrastes was made from an older MS. what power Do I you not know have ? A. Whence have you so great presumption in answering ? Saint C. . distinguished. science. A. Your question- ing then took a very foolish beginning. A. said. of which Latin copies also are extant and it will be worth while to set side by side a passage of the Acts as it stands in each of these two versions. 387 the general theory of their history. Of what condition are you C. [ilhisti'is)* and noble. answered. said. said. to expect two answers to be included in one enquiry. The Prefect A. and he asked her. said.. What to is I am a CJiristian. said. Whence have you presumption in so answer- ing? C. what but^ be brought be- And he fore him. answered. The Greek eompared. am I a Roman citizen. The additions in the later MS. said. A. I ask you about your religion. religion. said. Your questioning took a very foolish exordium. A. Cecilia. was too important a fact to be altogether omitted. issima). you ? I am free. said.

so shall Nevertheless. I will manifest it to you by most true assertions. assertions. man It is is as when a The poWef Saint C. In proportion you are delighted. I will manifest it to you by most true for if . / shall be delighted to hear a discourse from C. me what A. gathered ''The Chair of Feter "sed in ^-q^-^ j j^ go many associations of the supreme authority in the a double sensCi „ t r-i i i i j Catholic Churchy that we are apt to regard it solely its moral and. The power of man is as listen. wrote this detailed account of the examination. Tell A. said. Note C (page 68). power you have for if you question me about your power. wife of Valerian. said. of course. Among the Essavs of the late Cardinal Wiseman is a learned and interest- of the . you knoWi tell me. THE CHAIR OF ST PETER. for in its older and simpler form it has all the preciseness of the legal forms of a criminal process. of bladder.Roma 388 Sotterranea. &c. and i m to forget that within the bronze seat supported by the colossal figures of the four Doctors Church there is an ancient chair which Roman tradition asserts to have been actually used by the Apostle St Peter. Saint C. And do you not know whose spouse I am ? A. not yourself what power you have you question me about your power. said. as clear from the prologue to these Acts that their compiler lived at a time subsequent to the triumph of Christianity . said. You know not what C. &c. Whose? said. said to him. The term Cathedra Petri has. when he difficult to believe that documents of the trial. in the course of ages. know O to be the you Prefect. If you know anything. . . I know you said. said. when a bladder. tJie Prefect said to her. Saint C. your mouth. Of our Lord Jesus Christ. you be judged. The Blessed C. A. i • i most important signification. said to her. yet it is he had not access to the genuine official or at least faithful copies of them.

was obliged to be content with descriptions and drawings of the true chair. Pope Pius IX. composed of two kinds In these legs are fixed the of wood. in 1867. Apostles. had placed it in its present The real Chair ''^' position. The illustration given here is carefully copied from a photograph taken during the exposition of the Chair. Commendatore De Rossi has been more fortunate for. The Cardinal.Appendix. . and so pretending that on the Chair of St Peter was to be found the Mussulman formula. as the relic had never been seen by man since Alexander VII. . united by niaterial. commanded this venerable . I. which were two hundred years old. relic be exposed for the veneration of the faithful. however.— DESCRIPTION OF THE CHAIR. and full opportunities were given for a close and scientific examination of it from to every point of view. and will assist our readers in following the description of it which we proceed to give.89 Lady Morgan's amusing with an ancient chair at Venice. It is The Chair has four solid legs horizontal bars of the same composed of yellow oak. ing paper which exposes the absurdity of blunder in confusing this venerable relic . ^^^ ^" ceiitly cxat the eighteen hundredth anniversary of the martyrdora of the posed.

and their present use which they were originally intended. Thus the oak framework. are also composed of this wood. Those which cover the front panel of the chair are square plates of ivory. and have also had pieces cut from them as relics. disposed in three rows. But the most remarkable circumstance about these two different kinds of material is. and in the middle of the horizontal bar of the tympanum is a figure of a crowned emperor. and which appear to have hardly suffered at all from the same causes which have so altered the appearance of the oak legs. which the Sovereign Pontiff is now carried on state occasions. The Labours of they appear to have been . and have the Labours of Hercules engraved upon them. and never to the parts composed of oak. Sotterranea. The panels of the front and sides. and such as those which the Roman senators began to use in the time of Claudius. These time-worn portions have been and rendered more ornamental by pieces of dark strengthened acacia wood. Hercules are of a think them The tradition first De Rossi does not century. and never to have been used for ornamenting any other article. holding in his right hand a sceptre which is broken. offer him crowns. not engraved. They consist of bands of ivory. which form the whole interior part of the chair. fit is Some of evidently The other exactly the portions of acacia which they cover. which forms the back. and the row of arches with the tympanum above them. These ivory ornaments themselves. centaurs. with thin lamincE of gold them let into the lines of the engraving. presents no archcxoloirical ac^ much more it -^ well to observe. and successors. six in a row. with the architecture of which they correspond. may be more accurate -nrdescription of the Chair of St Peter than Cardmal Wiseman was able to obtain from the works of Torrigio and P>beo prevents our ^ difficulties. one on either side. and men. and made on purpose. but Before passing on to consider the historical notices of this vener- ot Its antiquity ^^^^^ relic. two others bear palms. The style of the carving and of the arabesques corresponds to the age of Charlemagne. with its rings. but sculptured in relief. but no beard. The four oak legs were evidently once square. appears to be of quite a distinct antiquity from that of the acacia portions with their ivory decorations. and in his he has a moustache. are put on upside not that for ivories. old as the ancient date. on the contrary. but they are much eaten away by age. are of two distinct kinds of workmanship. ' kinds. again. that all the ivory ornaments which cover the front and bick of the chair are attached to the acacia portions alone. and represent combats of beasts. and De Rossi left a globe conjectures he may be intended for Charlemagne or one of his Two angels. which make the whole a such as that in sella gestatoria. that althouLdi a • r ^^ ^ .Roma 390 iron rings Ornamented " c 1 . down.

d. and adorned with bands the ancient ivories which cover the front appear to have been put on. and would not have been likely to allow them to remain undefaced on so sacred an object as the Chair of St Peter. king of the West Saxons. c. In order to prove satisfactorily from historical sources that the Cathedra Petri relic now venerated was so regarded from ^ as the Chair of St Peter the earliest ages of the Roman Church. the Christians. for love of God left all. to whom. precisely in the reign of Claudius. as we have seen in our Chapter on Sculpture. " the chair was deli\ered or committed by our Lord Jesus Christ. all that the Cardinal urges as to the introduction of the use of the sella gestatoria by the senators." we might reasonably think for his successor * "Hie [Clemens] ex prsecepto Beati Petri suscepit Ecclesiam." Lib. when we read in the pages of Bede t that Ceadwalla. went to Rome to be baptized. the other hand. converted by St Wilfrid. 391 adopting his hypothesis that this was the ivory curule-chair of the Consul Pudens. the powerful in war. vel commissa. that he might visit and see Peter and Peter's Chair. t H.'-'* 2.—— Appendix. was added. that as "Peter" is put metaphorically so " Peter's Chair" might not im- Pope Sergius. iv. nandum. is most valuable. but also in a literal and physical sense. For instance. v.. as showing what was regarded days as a special honour. and humbly receive from his font the cleansing waters. At that time Paganism was dead in Europe. and died there a. On it is not at all to . it be necessary not will only to trace a chain of testimonies up to apostolic or quasi-apostolic times to the cathedra Petri^ but also to produce good evidence that the expression cathedra or sedes Petri is to be understood not merely in a metaphorical and moral. were extremely cautious in their admission of scenes of Pagan mythology. and that Pope Sergius I. in the words of the Liber Pontijicalis. E. sense . and therefore one antecedently probable to have been conferred by a convert of senatorial rank in those upon the Chief Pastor of the Church. reliquaries. 689. — HISTORICAL NOTICES OF ST PETER'S CHAIR. et Pontificatum guberDomino Jesu Christo cathedra tradita. and its treasures of art were transferred to innocent and often to sacred uses but when the struggle between the infant Church and the dominant power of heathen idolatry was still raging. which are ornamented with ivories representing subjects of Pagan mythology. and other valuable works of the early medieval period. yet the most rigid criticism has nothing to object against the traditional antiquity of the oak frame-work of this chair. sicut ei fuerat a Pont. put up in St Peter's an epitaph which stated " King Ceadwalla. When of the inner part of acacia iv'ory. 8. and uncommon meet with copies of the gospels.

" i. . Inscription in Baptistery. and given him to be the way to heaven for he to whom He committed the portals of the kingdom above. shall be one who leaves us in no doubt upon this point. introduces Rome as become Christian. Et duiJi ine7nbra madejit. passed at once from the font to receive Confirmation from the Bishop seated in the sella gestatoria^ which appears to have been then a conspicuous object at St Peter's the se//a gestatoria of the Apostle's Confession . who flourished at the end of material chair.D. then. conclude that any certain reference was intended to a visible we have given a description. pro Synodo.— Roma 392 Sotterranea. This passage is illustrated by some ^^^^ ^ fragment of the fourth or ' ' fifth from the Codex of Vercentury— lines Istic insontes calesti Jlutnine lotas Pastoris Stnnmi dextera sigiiat oves.^ in the two sacraments of Baptism and Confirmation. O thou who hast been born again in the waters. 500. metis solidaticr aqins." washed to in the The lines preceding these in the same Codex were written at the entrance of the Baptistery " S^cinite perpettiam sajicto de gurgite vitain Ctcrstis hie est Jidei. A. et tiberibus^ dona geininantiirr * gaudio ex" See now the dripping thresholds send forth the white-robed [neophytes] to and amid floods by the kindness of God are doubled. the seat of his and hence we could not from such passages as this jurisdiction ." . i. has added double honour to the Chair of the Apostle. and puts into her mouth the Ecce mine ad gestatoj'iain sellam apostoliccp coti- fessionis iida mittunt limina candidatos actore^fletibus collata Dei benejieio . and while the limbs are moistened. Roborat hie aitiuios divino foiite lavacru7n. when the newly baptized. npiid Sismond. the mind is made strong in the waters. come that one place whither the Holy Ghost calls thee to receive His gifts. such as that of which by Ennodius. Christ souls. p. torn. mors nbi sola perit. * Apolog. of joyous tears the gifts conferred shrine." Hue " In this place the right hand of the Chief Pastor seals the sheep who have been heavenly stream. tindis generate veni quo Sanctus ad luinvi Spiritus ?et capias te sua dona vocat. . has here in the churches another gate of heaven.e. Ennodius of Pavia. Our first authority. 0pp. with joyful emotion. 1647. In this passage Ennodius brings vividly before us the scene presented by the Baptistery of the Vatican. probably be a metaphorical expression for Rome. A nxit apostolicce geviitiattan sedis hojwrem Christus et ad coelos hunc dedit esse viam : Nam cui siderei commisii limina rigtii Hie ha bet in templis altera claustrn poll" " From this sacred font draw everlasting life for this is the stream of faith in which Here the washing of the font of God gives strength to death alone is destroyed. the fifth and beginning rejoicing in having following words : ^'' of the sixth centuries.

we read that Pope " Siricius FONTE SACRO MAGNUS MERUIT SEDER E SACERDOS. "all occupiers. " Chair of Peter" which he is fail to visit the epitaph of Cead- described as leaving was none other than the famous king could not we read and we cannot doubt that the home to see. and. first to them the line of Rome Roman a bishop of their sect. 1163. in the Baptistery. and proceeded—" In " bishop) " be asked where he Chair of Peter?" (/." and that there was in that Baptistery a distinct place where the neophytes were sealed and enriched with the gifts of the Holy Ghost by the hand of the Supreme Pastor. the Pope used to sit when he conferred the Sacrament of .1171. Confirmation. ficate The edition of his Donatists boasted of having in Optatus opposed Damasus. walla in an entirely new light. "of I am . Rome owed the chair to which the Bishop of it is was placed his pre-eminent rank as the Sacerdos Magnus." Now. in the inscription on the tomb of the immediate successor of Damasus. and the second during that of St Siricius. but also in its literal and material sense and that in the fifth century at least there was solemnly preserved in the Baptistery of the Vatican a sella gestatoria^ upon which. in fact. and therefore counted worthy to sit as if "was recorded that Siricius is it High Priest at the Sacred Font." With these authorities to guide us. the magnificent Baptistery of St Damasus is described by Prudentius as "the Apostolic Chair.. which the Saxon when he received the sacrament of resella gestatoria generation in " Peter's Font. and the same Chair atist who published work against the Donatists during the pontiof St Damasus..16. say." clear that " in the Sacred Font. comparing this with the passage of Ennodius. if sits in 10. Now. was " an honour doubled by Christ to Peter. From we gather these lines 393 that the Baptistery of the Vatican in which they were inscribed. we perceive that the sedes apostolica is not mentioned only in its moral. can he cathedra Petri) " which Gruter Inscr." i.— — Appendix." Again. and Macrobius " (the Don- Rome. * the usual place for the Bishop's throne was in the apse of the basilica. In the not aware that he and St Op*^^^"^- . A to remarkable testimony in the inscription it which he had tery " Una same to the fact is the evident allusion which St Damasus put up in this Baptis- By St Dama- ^^^^ ""* f^^^^th built •^ Petri sedes ' unum verumque lavacrum. and to the Chair of the Apostle. or in front of which. pp.." Our the next authority shall be St Optatus of Milevis. from Peter to he pointed out." as .e./ " fact. pontiffs to Siricius.

this ancient author enumerates the Bishops of Rome. were enthroned. and to whose shrine he. and becomes still more certain when we recall the language of St Optatus and Ennodius.. usually appended to the works of Tertullian. ad Parmcn. the same tra- which St Optatus opposed to the Donatists concerning the Chair in which the successors of St Peter presided over the Church. " in and on which his successors. down . Baptistery of the Vatican. and which from inTowards the ternal evidence clearly belongs to the third century. with the light thrown upon the expression Cathedra Petri by the passages of this literal sense many of the works of the early Fathers in which that expression occurs. 59. that in immensely increased if we suppose them to have used it with a full knowledge that the very chair of the Apostle was preserved in Rome as the visible witness to."* The Chair. had been Damasus placed it Before St Tomb. and commences the list with these lines dition : " Hnc cathedra. Petrus qita sederat Maxiiua Roma " In this Chair in ipse. Roman wrote of the Fabian. as a schismatic. 4. in the presence of heretics who did not attempt to deny it. In fact. was in the time of St Optatus regarded not only morally.. in the very crypt of St Peter's of Constantine. when St Cyprian See being vacant by the martyrdom of St locus Fabiani." which Peter himself had Oreat Rome." in is greatly increased view the venerable chair. ad Pet7'i Now. he ordained Linus fiist to sit with him [as bishopj estabHshed in These words certainly suggest the idea of a material chair. * have had sat. the force St Cyprian. or in the Basilica rate. is apostolic foundation of her line of Pontiffs. on which Damasus. and afterwards Siricius. its those authors. " cwn Thus. has ever seen with his eyes. perhaps it At any at the time an in the must have been preserved elsewhere. has not approached. as the Chair of St Peter." sat. and symbol of. before the Diocletian persecution. and was seen by the eyes of those who approached 7?ie?no?'ia?n. sat as pontiffs. id est locus Petri et gradus catliedrce sacerdotalis vacaret^'' t the force of the expression if we understand him to which Peter himself had to St Fabian. therefore.e. Catholics professed. ii. and in the course of the third century. This comes out with striking clearness in the Poem against Marcion.. it is i. t Epist. impossible that this Chair could have been so generally regarded in the fourth century as having belonged to the Apostle St Peter and his successors.— Roma 394 Sotterranea. but materially. unless there ancient tradition to that effect. to his basilica on the Vatican. end of Book iii. locatum Litiicm primuju eonsidere jussit. Si Optal. it is impossible to avoid observing.

cathedra " in which Peter himself had sat. . loses Tertullian. The all its celebrated passage of Tertullian. in ibid. The Church . 32. for these pages abound in his in St Peter. you have Rome.* f and Tertullian's him with the ipsa . having been buried under a mass of doubtful and sometimes fictitious stories. own . examples of valuable historical truths. vii. Summary of from the fifth century to the age when men were living who had evidence to the ° conversed with the contemporaries of the Apostles themselves. significance if this venerable relic. that Linus and Cletus had governed the Roman Church while the Apostles were living." locisprcBsident. and in liturgical books so that instead of this Chair of . celebrated true dogmatic teaching. St Peter havmg been an * Euscb.i^"^ ^ All this time it was regarded by Christians in various parts of the world as the very pledge and symbol of apostolic succession and of It was the object of a festival. We have now traced up the testimonies to this celebrated relic. y^. : Ceadwalla at the close of the During the middle ages the mention of it becomes directly alluded to in the epitaph of seventh century. . X c. . and had been enthroned by him "i"^lfinictl hy . t Vales. by the we regard him He 395 De Pi'czscript.Appendix. H. 36. c. merely incidental. invention of the credulity of the barbarous 19. but it does not therefore follow that the whole story is fabulous." Another passage of the