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Working Report 2011-17

Thermal Properties of Rocks in Olkiluoto:


Results of Laboratory Measurements
19942010
Ilmo Kukkonen
Liisa Kiveks
Satu Vuoriainen
Markku Kri

February 2011

POSIVA

OY

Olkiluoto
FI-27160 EURAJOKI, FINLAND
Tel

+358-2-8372 31

Fax +358-2-8372 3709

Working Report 2011-17

Thermal Properties of Rocks in Olkiluoto:


Results of Laboratory Measurements
19942010
Ilmo Kukkonen
Liisa Kiveks
Satu Vuoriainen
Markku Kri
Geological Survey of Finland

February 2011

Working Reports contain information on work in progress


or pending completion.

The conclusions and viewpoints presented in the report


are those of author(s) and do not necessarily
coincide with those of Posiva.

THERMAL PROPERTIES OF ROCKS IN OLKILUOTO: RESULTS OF


LABORATORY MEASUREMENTS 1994-2010
ABSTRACT
The present study summarizes laboratory measurements of Olkiluoto rocks carried out
at Geological Survey of Finland during 1994-2010. The complete data set comprises
392 drill core samples from 12 drill holes representing the planned repository volume at
depths of about 400-500 m. The majority of the samples represent veined gneiss,
pegmatitic granite, tonalitic-trondhjemitic gneiss (56 - 216 samples/rock type), whereas
diatexitic gneiss, mica gneiss, K-feldspar porphyry and quartzitic gneiss are in minority
(1 - 20 samples/rock type).
Average thermal conductivity (at 25 C) of all samples is 2.91 Wm-1K-1, and the
averages of main rock types (veined gneiss, tonalitic-granodioritic-granitic gneiss,
diatexitic gneiss, mica gneiss and pegmatitic granite) fall within 2.66 - 3.20 Wm-1K-1.
The standard deviations of conductivity are 0.4 - 0.6 Wm-1K-1, and the histograms of
main rock types overlap. The overlapping, as well as the values of standard deviations
reflects geological variability in the migmatitic formation. Highest average
conductivities are related to pegmatitic granite and lowest to mica gneiss.
Average specific heat capacity (at 25 C) of all samples is 712 J kg-1 K-1. Highest
specific heat capacity averages were observed for veined gneiss and mica gneiss, and
lowest for pegmatitic granite, respectively. The standard deviations are relatively small
in the range of 19-41 J kg-1 K-1.
Diffusivity was calculated from measured values of conductivity, specific heat capacity
and density. Average diffusivity is 1.47 10-6 m2s-1, and the averages of rock types are
within 1.34 - 1.75 10-6 m2s-1. Highest values are related to pegmatitic granite, and
lowest values to mica gneiss. The standard deviations are in the range of 0.1 0.3 10-6
m2s-1. The histograms of diffusivity overlap, and the differences between rock types are
relatively small.
Thermal properties show weak positive correlation with density for pegmatitic granite,
and weak negative correlations for tonalitic-granodioritic-granitic gneiss, veined gneiss
and mica gneiss. Other rock types do not show correlation with density in the present
data set, but it may be related to low numbers of samples.
Thermal conductivity is anisotropic and dependent on the core angle between direction
of conductivity measurement and rock foliation (or gneissic banding) of tonaliticgranodioritic-granitic gneiss and veined gneiss. No correlation was observed for the
other rock types. Lowest conductivities are measured perpendicular to foliation (average
about 2.4 Wm-1K-1) and highest values along foliation (average about 3.4 Wm-1K-1).
The average thermal properties of the repository rocks at 100C are predicted as
follows: conductivity 2.72 Wm-1K-1, specific heat capacity 824 J kg-1 K-1 and diffusivity
1.20 10-6 m2s-1.
Keywords: Thermal conductivity, specific heat capacity, thermal diffusivity, density,
nuclear waste disposal, Olkiluoto, migmatitic rocks, laboratory measurement

OLKILUODON KIVILAJIEN TERMISET OMINAISUUDET:


LABORATORIOMITTAUSTEN 1994-2010 TULOKSET
TIIVISTELM
Tss tyss esitetn tulokset Olkiluodon kairasydnnytteist tehdyist kivilajien
termisten ominaisuuksien laboratoriomittauksista 1994-2010. Nyteaineisto koostuu 12
eri kairareist otetuista 392 kairasydnnytteest. Nytteet ovat 400-500 m:n syvyydelt ja ne edustavat suunnitellun loppusijoitustilan kalliotilavuutta. Posa nytteist
edustaa suonigneissi, pegmatiittista graniittia ja tonaliitti-granodioriitti-graniittigneissi
(56 216 nytett/kivilaji). Diateksiittist gneissi, kiillegneissi, kalimaaslpporfyyri ja kvartsiittista gneissi on nyteaineistossa 120 nytett/ kivilaji.
Nytteiden keskimrinen lmmnjohtavuus on 2,91 Wm-1K-1, ja eri pkivilajien
(suonigneissi, tonaliitti-granodioriitti-graniittigneissi, diateksiittinen gneissi, kiillegneissi ja pegmatiittinen graniitti) keskiarvot osuvat vlille 2,66 3,20 Wm-1K-1. Lmmnjohtavuuden kivilajikohtaiset standardipoikkeamat ovat 0,4 0,6 Wm-1K-1, ja kivilajien
jakaumahistogrammit peittvt toisiaan. Yhdess standardipoikkeamien arvojen kanssa
se heijastaa migmatiittisen kivilajiseurueen geologista vaihtelua. Korkeimmat keskimriset lmmnjohtavuudet liittyvt porfyriittiseen graniittiin ja alhaisimmat kiillegneissiin. Nytteiden ominaislmpkapasiteetin keskiarvo (25 C) on 712 J kg-1 K-1.
Korkeimmat keskiarvot liittyvt suonigneissiin ja kiillegneissiin kun taas alhaisimmat
pegmatiittiseen graniittiin. Kivilajikohtaiset standardipoikkeamat ovat suhteellisen
pieni (vlill 19 -41 J kg-1 K-1). Diffusiviteetti laskettiin mitatuista johtavuuden,
ominaislmpkapasiteetin ja tiheyden arvoista. Keskimrinen diffusiviteetti on 1,47
10-6 m2s-1 ja kivilajikohtaiset keskiarvot ovat vlill 1,34 1,75 10-6 m2s-1. Korkeimmat arvot liittyvt pegmatiittiseen graniittiin ja matalimmat kiillegneissiin. Erot kivilajien vlill ovat suhteellisen pieni, mink vuoksi jakaumahistogrammit peittvt
toisiaan.
Pegmatiittisen graniitin lmmnjohtavuudella on heikko positiivinen korrelaatio tiheyden suhteen, kun taas pegmatiittisella graniitilla ja tonaliitti-granodioriitti-graniittigneissill korrelaatio on heikosti negatiivinen. Muilla kivilajeilla ei havaita johtavuuden
ja tiheyden korrelaatiota, mutta siihen voivat vaikuttaa pienet nytemrt.
Lmmnjohtavuus on anisotrooppinen ja se riippuu liuskeisuustason (tai gneissiraitojen
mrittmn tason) ja lmmnjohtavuuden mittaussuunnan vlisest kulmasta suonigneissill ja tonaliitti-granodioriitti-graniittigneissill. Muilla kivilajeilla ei havaita
selv korrelaatiota. Johtavuus on pienimmilln (keskimrin noin 2,4 Wm-1K-1)
liuskeisuutta vastaan kohtisuorassa suunnassa ja korkeimmillaan liuskeisuuden suunnassa (noin 3,4 Wm-1K-1). Tulosten perusteella arvioitiin mys termisten ominaisuuksien keskiarvoja 100 C:een saakka, miss johtavuus olisi 2,72 Wm-1K-1,
ominaislmpkapasiteetti 824 J kg-1 K-1 ja diffusiviteetti 1,20 10-6 m2s-1.
Avainsanat: Lmmnjohtavuus, ominaislmpkapasiteetti, terminen diffusiviteetti,
ydinjtteiden loppusijoitus, migmatiittiset kivilajit, Olkiluoto

TABLE OF CONTENTS
ABSTRACT
TIIVISTELM
PREFACE ....................................................................................................................... 3
1

INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................... 5

SAMPLING ............................................................................................................... 7

LABORATORY MEASUREMENTS .......................................................................... 9


3.1 Thermal conductivity ........................................................................................ 9
3.2 Specific heat capacity ...................................................................................... 9
3.3 Bulk density.................................................................................................... 10
3.4 Determination of thermal diffusivity ................................................................ 10
3.5 Core angle ..................................................................................................... 11

RESULTS ............................................................................................................... 13
4.1 Thermal conductivity ...................................................................................... 13
4.2 Specific heat capacity .................................................................................... 17
4.3 Volumetric heat capacity ................................................................................ 20
4.4 Density ........................................................................................................... 24
4.5 Diffusivity ....................................................................................................... 26
4.6 Anisotropy of thermal conductivity ................................................................. 30
4.7 Relationships between properties .................................................................. 31

DISCUSSION ......................................................................................................... 35
5.1 Temperature corrections of thermal properties .............................................. 35
5.2 Implications for estimating thermal properties of the repository volume ........ 36

CONCLUSIONS...................................................................................................... 41

REFERENCES ............................................................................................................. 43
APPENDICES............................................................................................................... 45

PREFACE
The study has been carried out at the Geological Survey of Finland (GTK) on contract
for Posiva Oy. On behalf of the Client, the supervising of the work was done by Kimmo
Kemppainen, Aimo Hautojrvi (Posiva Oy) and Erik Johansson (Saanio & Riekkola
Oy). The measurements, interpretation and reporting were done by Ilmo Kukkonen,
Liisa Kiveks, Satu Vuoriainen and Markku Kri (GTK).

INTRODUCTION

Thermal parameters of rocks are necessary data in planning final repository for spent
nuclear fuel in deep bedrock. The thermal properties of rocks can be determined with
laboratory measurements of core samples, theoretical calculations from mineral
composition and data on properties of the constituent minerals, and with in situ
measurements in drill holes. Laboratory measurements and theoretical calculations on
thermal properties of rocks at Olkiluoto and other disposal candidate sites in Finland
have been presented previously by Kjrholt (1992), Kukkonen and Lindberg (1995,
1998) and Kukkonen (2000). A comparison between different laboratory measurements
applied in site studies in Finland and Sweden has been given by Sundberg et al. (2003).
In situ measurements in general and in Olkiluoto have been presented by Kukkonen and
Suppala (1999), Kukkonen et al. (2000, 2001, 2005 and 2006a,b) and Suppala et al.
(2004).
The present study focuses on laboratory measurements of rock thermal properties in
Olkiluoto with an aim to expand the existing data base of measurements and to provide
representative results on the volume of the planned repository.
The earlier studies comprised results on laboratory measurements of thermal
conductivity, specific heat capacity and density of the Olkiluoto mica gneiss (presently
reclassified into veined gneiss and tonalitic-granodioritic-granitic gneiss), and only a
few samples of other rock types were measured (9 samples from Olkiluoto were
reported by Kukkonen and Lindberg (1995). The results obtained for the mica gneiss
(old rock type name) up to 2000 were summarized in Kukkonen (2000). The database
included 39 samples of the mica gneiss. In association with development of the TERO
tools for determining rock thermal properties in situ, considerable number of laboratory
measurements (128 samples) were carried out for control and comparison (Kukkonen et
al. 2005).
In the present study, the database was further extended by adding 217 samples to the
data set. Thus, we are able to analyse and discuss here the results of a total of 392
samples of the Olkiluoto rock types.

SAMPLING

For the present study, sampling was extended to all relevant drill holes in the volume of
the planned repository in Olkiluoto. The sampled holes are listed in Table 1 and their
location is shown in Figure 1. A complete list of all samples measured and reported in
Kukkonen and Lindberg (1995, 1998), Kukkonen (2000), Kukkonen et al. (2005) and
the present study are given in Appendix 1. Respectively, sample photographs of all
samples measured are given in Appendix 2.
The depth ranges of sampling in each drillhole were provided by Posiva, and the sample
picking was done by the first author from the drill core boxes. In the last sampling
campaign in 2009, no rock type was preferred in sampling, and the samples were taken
at regular 5 m intervals only avoiding fractures or otherwise fragile rock. The same
principles have been applied also in earlier studies, excluding the first works (Kukkonen
and Lindberg 1995 and 1998) when representative rock type samples were selected of
the planned repository volume. The sampling was aimed for controlling the in situ
measurements (Kukkonen et al. 2005), and was naturally guided by the depths of in situ
measurements. These, however, were selected only avoiding hydraulically active
fractures. As most of the samples used were taken for the present study, the sampling
can be considered to be representative and to a great extent systematic. Any bias if
present may be attributed to over-representation of some drillholes (e.g. OL-KR2, Table
1). Relative amounts of different rock types in the present study and Olkiluoto drill
holes in general (Aaltonen et al. 2010) is given in Table 2.
Table 1. Drillhole depth intervals sampled for measurements of rock thermal properties
in Olkiluoto.
Drillhole

Depth range
(m)

OL-KR1
OL-KR2
OL-KR4
OL-KR9
OL-KR11
OL-KR12
OL-KR13
OL-KR19
OL-KR25
OL-KR29
OL-KR40
OL-KR46

379.95-521.70
325.70-550.88
453.35-547.03
461.21-550.00
390.00-539.28
380.10-480.15
430.35-499.95
369.90-470.10
375.00-480.00
385.00-485.00
390.00-495.00
380.00-485.05

Number of samples

34
158
8
8
31
21
15
21
23
22
23
28
Total 392

Figure 1. Locations of the sampled drillholes in Olkiluoto. Blue lines indicate the
horizontal projections of the drillholes used in thermal laboratory measurements. Red
indicates the sampled sections of drillholes. Figure by K. Kemppainen, Posiva.
Table 2. Relative amounts of rocks types in the present study and Olkiluoto drill holes
in general.
Rock type1

Thermal laboratory samples2

Drilling data3

(%)

(%)

VGN
TGG
DGN
MGN
PGR
KFP
QGN
MFGN

55.8
13.9
5.1
1.5
22.9
0.3
0.5
0.0

43
8
21
7
20
n.a
<1
<1

Total

100

99

1) Rock types: VGN, veined gneiss; TGG, tonalitic-granodioritic-granitic gneiss; DGN, diatexitic gneiss;
MGN, mica gneiss; PGR, pegmatitic granite; KFP, potassium-feldspar porphyry; QGN, quartzitic gneiss;
MFGN, mafic gneiss.
2) This study.
3) Olkiluoto drill hole data (Aaltonen et al. 2010).

LABORATORY MEASUREMENTS

All measurements have been carried out at the petrophysical laboratory of GTK
between 1994 and 2009. The description of methods presented here is based on
Kukkonen (2000).

3.1

Thermal conductivity

Thermal conductivity was measured with the steady-state divided bar method using an
apparatus built at the GTK (Figure 2). Disks with 7 mm thickness were prepared of the
42 mm diameter core samples. Thermal conductivity was measured at room temperature
after keeping the samples at least two days in a water bath (at room temperature and
pressure). Inaccuracies of thermal conductivity values are considered to be smaller than
5 %. Corrections of measured data for different temperatures are discussed in chapter 5.

Figure 2. Schematic representation of the divided bar method.

3.2

Specific heat capacity

Specific heat capacity was measured using a calorimetric method. The sample is heated
to a known temperature, then placed into a calorimeter containing a weighed amount of
water, and the final equilibrium temperature of the calorimeter-water-sample system is
measured (Figure 3). Specific heat is calculated from the initial and final temperatures
of the sample and calorimeter, the heat capacity of the calorimeter, and the masses of
water and sample. The sample is heated in boiling water, the temperature of which is
measured with a Hg-thermometer. The temperature of a sample in the hot bath is about

10

98.5 C. Temperatures in the calorimeter are measured electronically with a semiconductive temperature sensor (AD 590) having a nominal resolution of 0.002 K. The
specific heat capacity is determined with an inaccuracy of less than ca. 5 % or smaller,
and a repeatability of ca. 3-5 %.

Figure 3. Schematic representation of the calorimetric method used for determining


specific heat capacity.

3.3

Bulk density

Bulk density of the samples was determined by the Archimedean principle by weighing
them in water and air. The accuracy and resolution of the weighing is 0.001 g, and the
obtained accuracy of calculated density is better than 5 kg m-3 or about 0.2 % for
samples with masses of ca. 25 g and density of 2750 kg m-3 used in this study.

3.4

Determination of thermal diffusivity

Thermal diffusivity (m2 s-1) was calculated from the measured data as follows:
s

O
Uc

(1),

where s is thermal diffusivity (m2s-1),  is thermal conductivity (Wm-1K-1), c is specific


heat capacity (J kg-1 K-1) and  is density (kg m-3). As a calculated parameter, the
determination error of diffusivity can be obtained by differentiating eq. (1). Assuming
normal rock properties as in this study and the given values of determination error of
each parameter, gives a determination error of diffusivity of ca. 0.12 10-6 m2s-1, or
about 10 %. This is less than the typical geological variation in the scale of rock
samples.

11

The applied calorimetric measurement of specific heat capacity refers to temperature


which is the mean of the initial hot bath temperature and the final calorimeter
temperature (about 60 C). To make the results comparable with the other results
measured in room temperature (22 C), a correction of -7.5 % was applied. The
correction is based on literature data and laboratory comparison (Sundberg et al. 2003).

3.5

Core angle

For the investigation of anisotropy of thermal conductivity and diffusivity, core angle of
foliation (or gneissic banding) was measured of the original core samples or the final
disks. The core angle is defined as the angle between the plane of foliation and the drill
hole (core) axis (Figure 4). Thus, a value of 90 indicates foliation perpendicular to the
measured thermal conductivity which represents the conductivity in the direction of the
borehole axis. Alternatively, the core axis may represent the subsample axis of the
minidrill samples drilled in different orientations with respect to the hole axis. In a
migmatitic rock, the foliation and banding vary considerably already at distances of the
order of centimetres. Therefore, the core angle measurements are always subject to
personal bias of the observer, and they probably include an uncertainty of 5 degrees at
least.

Figure 4. Illustration of measurement of core angle of foliation (schistosity and/or


gneissic banding). The angle  between the plane of foliation and drill core axis is
measured.

12

13

RESULTS

Results of all measurements since 1994 are given in Appendix 1. Sample photographs
are given in Appendix 2. A summary table is given in Table 3 and in Figures 5-36.
Unless otherwise noted, the following discussion in this chapter refers to room
temperature values of thermal properties. Data corrected for 60C and 100 C are given
in chapter 5.1 (Table 4, p. 38).
Table 3. Summary of rock thermal rock properties in Olkiluoto.

Rock type Conductivity


-1

Wm K

Std

-1

Specific heat
capacity
-1 -1
J kg K

Std

Diffusivity
-6

Std

2 -1

Density

Std

-3

10 m s

kg m

VGN
TGG
DGN
MGN
PGR
KFP
QGN

2.83
2.78
2.95
2.66
3.20
2.78
2.49

0.53
0.39
0.64
0.49
0.41
n.a.
n.a.

216
56
20
6
89
1
2

725
696
708
724
689
687
714

33
19
28
41
17
n.a.
n.a.

149
22
17
6
61
1
1

1.37
1.35
1.53
1.34
1.75
1.48
1.01

0.25
0.12
0.34
0.28
0.18
n.a.
n.a.

147
21
17
6
61
1
1

2741
2700
2742
2742
2635
2729
2766

43
29
51
33
38
n.a.
n.a.

217
54
20
6
89
1
2

All samples

2.91

0.51

390

712

32

257

1.47

0.29

254

2711

59

389

Values are given at room temperature; Std = standard deviation; N = number of samples; Rock types:
VGN, veined gneiss; TGG, tonalitic-granodioritic-granitic gneiss; DGN, diatexitic gneiss; MGN, mica
gneiss; PGR, pegmatitic granite; KFP, potassium-feldspar porphyry; QGN, quartzitic gneiss.

4.1

Thermal conductivity

Thermal conductivity of all samples varies from about 1 to 5 Wm-1K-1 (Figs. 5-9). The
highest average conductivities are related to pegmatitic granite (3.20 Wm-1K-1) and the
lowest average values to mica gneiss (2.66 Wm-1K-1). Veined gneiss, diatexitic gneiss
and tonalitic-granodioritic-granitic gneiss show intermediate values. All conductivity
histograms of individual rock types overlap. The standard deviations of conductivity are
in the range of 0.4 - 0.6 Wm-1K-1 which is due to natural geological variation and the
small sample size. The average for all samples is 2.91 (Wm-1K-1) which is slightly
higher than the average (2.70 Wm-1K-1) determined in the report by Kukkonen (2000)
for the old rock type name mica gneiss (presently called veined gneiss or tonaliticgranodioritic-granitic gneiss).
Thermal conductivity of the migmatitic gneisses is distinctly anisotropic with an
anisotropy factor of about 1.4 (see chapter 4.6).

14

All samples: Thermal conductivity


70

Frequency (n)

60
50
2.91 0.51 (390)

40
30
20
10
0
1

Conductivity (W/(m*K))

Figure 5. Thermal conductivity of all rock samples.

VGN: Thermal conductivity


50

Frequency (n)

40
30
2.83 0.53 (216)

20
10
0
1

3
Conductivity (W/(m*K))

Figure 6. Thermal conductivity of veined gneiss.

15

TGG: Thermal conductivity

Frequency (n)

20

15

10
2.78 0.39 (56)

0
1

Conductivity (W/(m*K))

Figure 7. Thermal conductivity of tonalitic-granodioritic-granitic gneiss.

DGN: Thermal conductivity


5

Frequency (n)

4
2.95 0.64 (20)
3
2
1
0
1

Conductivity (W/(m*K))

Figure 8. Thermal conductivity of diatexitic gneiss.

16

MGN: Thermal conductivity


5

Frequency (n)

4
3
2.66 0.49 (6)

2
1
0
1

Conductivity (W/(m*K))

Figure 9. Thermal conductivity of mica gneiss.

PGR: Thermal conductivity


30

Frequency (n)

25
20
3.20 0.41 (89)

15
10
5
0
1

Conductivity (W/(m*K))

Figure 10. Thermal conductivity of pegmatitic granite.

17

4.2

Specific heat capacity

Specific heat capacity of the Olkiluoto rocks varies from about 650 to 830 J kg-1 K-1
(Figure 11). The highest average values were received for veined gneiss samples (725 J
kg-1 K-1) and the lowest averages for pegmatitic granite (689 J kg-1 K-1) (Table 3). This
reflects the differences in mafic and felsic mineral contents of the rocks. However, the
histograms of rock types overlap. There seems to be a hint of bimodality in the
histogram of veined gneiss (Figure 12). Some of the measurements of the high value
population were repeated and the results were within normal errors of determination.
We pay attention here to the specific heat capacity histograms of mica gneiss and
diatexitic gneiss (Figures 14 and 15) which also show high values in the range of 780820 J kg-1 K-1. The range is about the same as the high mode of the veined gneiss (760800 J kg-1 K-1, Figure 12). It may indicate that samples named veined gneisses could
include samples which are actually mica gneisses or diatexitic gneisses (or vice versa).
This is possible as the naming of samples is always somewhat fuzzy problem in a
migmatitic rock type environment.

All samples: Specific heat capacity


50
45

Frequency (n)

40
35
30
25

712 32 (257)

20
15
10
5
0
630

650

670

690

710

730

750

770

790

Specific heat capacity (J/(kg*K))

Figure 11. Specific heat capacity of all samples.

810

830

18

VGN: Specific heat capacity


50
45

Frequency (n)

40
35
30
25
20

725 33 (149)

15
10
5
0
630

650

670

690

710

730

750

770

790

810

830

Specific heat capacity (J/(kg*K))

Figure 12. Specific heat capacity of veined gneiss.

TGG: Specific heat capacity


10
9

Frequency (n)

8
7
6
5
4

696 19 (22)

3
2
1
0
630

650

670

690

710

730

750

770

790

810

Specific heat capacity (J/(kg*K))

Figure 13. Specific heat capacity of tonalitic-granodioritic-granitic gneiss.

830

19

DGN: Specific heat capacity


10
9

Frequency (n)

8
7
6
5
4

708 28 (17)

3
2
1
0
630

650

670

690

710

730

750

770

790

810

830

Specific heat capacity (J/(kg*K))

Figure 14. Specific heat capacity of diatexitic gneiss.

MGN: Specific heat capacity


5

Frequency (n)

4
3
724 41 (6)
2
1
0
630

650

670

690

710

730

750

770

790

Specific heat capacity (J/(kg*K))

Figure 15. Specific heat capacity of mica gneiss.

810

830

20

PGR: Specific heat capacity


30

Frequency (n)

25
20
15
689 17 (61)
10
5
0
630

650

670

690

710

730

750

770

790

810

830

Specific heat capacity (J/(kg*K))

Figure 16. Specific heat capacity of pegmatitic granite.

4.3

Volumetric heat capacity

The volumetric heat capacity is the product of density and specific heat capacity (c).
The average of all samples is 1.93 106 J K-1 m-3. Range of values is 1.75 2.35 106 J
K-1 m-3. The highest rock type average was observed for mica gneiss, and the lowest for
pegmatitic granite. Once again, the histograms of different rock types overlap (Figures
17-22).

21

All samples: Volumetric heat capacity (c)


70
Frequency (n)

60
50
40

1.93 0.12 (255)

30
20
10
0
1.6

1.7

1.8

1.9

2.1

2.2

2.3

2.4

c (106 J K-1 m-3)


Figure 17. Volumetric heat capacity of all samples.

VGN: Volumetric heat capacity (c)

Frequency (n)

50
40
30
1.99 0.10 (148)

20
10
0
1.6

1.7

1.8

1.9

2
6

2.1
-1

2.2
-3

c (10 J K m )
Figure 18. Volumetric heat capacity of veined gneiss.

2.3

2.4

22

TGG: Volumetric heat capacity (c)

Frequency (n)

10
8
6
1.88 0.05 (22)

4
2
0
1.6

1.7

1.8

1.9

2.1

2.2

2.3

2.4

c (106 J K-1 m-3)


Figure 19. Volumetric heat capacity of tonalitic-granodioritic-granitic gneiss.

DGN: Volumetric heat capacity (c)

Frequency (n)

10
8
6
1.94 0.09 (20)

4
2
0
1.6

1.7

1.8

1.9

2.1

c (106 J K-1 m-3)


Figure 20. Volumetric heat capacity of diatexitic gneiss.

2.2

2.3

2.4

23

MGN: Volumetric heat capacity (c)

Frequency (n)

5
4
3
1.99 0.12 (6)

2
1
0
1.6

1.7

1.8

1.9

2
6

2.1
-1

2.2

2.3

2.4

-3

c (10 J K m )
Figure 21. Volumetric heat capacity of mica gneiss.

PGR: Volumetric heat capacity (c)


30
Frequency (n)

25
20
15

1.81 0.06 (61)

10
5
0
1.6

1.7

1.8

1.9

2
6

2.1
-1

2.2
-3

c (10 J K m )
Figure 22. Volumetric heat capacity of pegmatitic granite.

2.3

2.4

24

4.4

Density

The densities of the samples are in the range of 2580 2900 kg m-3 (Figure 23). High
average densities are related to mica gneiss (average 2742 kg m-3), diatexitic gneiss
(2742 kg m-3) and veined gneiss (2741 kg m-3), whereas lower densities are typical for
pegmatitic granite (2635 kg m-3) and tonalitic-granodioritic-granitic gneiss (2700 kg m3
) (Table 3 and Figures 24-27).

All samples: Density


80

Frequency (n)

70
60
50

2711 59 (389)

40
30
20
10
0
2500

2600

2700

2800

2900

3000

Density (kg/m3)

Figure 23. Density of all samples.

Frequency (n)

VGN: Density
50
45
40
35
30

2741 43 (217)

25
20
15
10
5
0
2500

2600

2700

2800

Density (kg/m3)

Figure 24. Density of veined gneiss.

2900

3000

25

TGG: Density
30

Frequency (n)

25
20
2700 29 (54)

15
10
5
0
2500

2600

2700

2800

2900

3000

Density (kg/m3)

Figure 25. Density of tonalitic-granodioritic-granitic gneiss.

Frequency (n)

DGN: Density
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0

2742 51 (20)

2500

2600

2700

2800

Density (kg/m3)

Figure 26. Density of diatexitic gneiss.

2900

3000

26

MGN: Density

Frequency (n)

5
4
3

2742 33 (6)

2
1
0
2500

2600

2700

2800

2900

3000

2900

3000

Density (kg/m3)

Figure 27. Density of mica gneiss.

PGR: Density
30

Frequency (n)

25
20
2635 38 (89)
15
10
5
0
2500

2600

2700

2800

Density (kg/m3)

Figure 28. Density of pegmatitic granite.

4.5

Diffusivity

Diffusivities of the Olkiluoto samples are in the range of 0.9 2.5 10-6 m2s-1 and the
average is 1.47 10-6 m2s-1. Since diffusivity is a calculated parameter it is not
independent of the other thermal parameters and density. In the results, we see that
thermal conductivity dominates the diffusivity and there is a linear dependence between

27

them (Figure 39). High diffusivity is related to rocks with high conductivity and vice
versa. Averages for diatexitic gneiss (1.5310-6 m2s-1) and pegmatitic granite (1.7510-6
m2s-1) are above the average of all samples (1.4710-6 m2s-1), whereas the other major
rock types veined gneiss and tonalitic-granodioritic-granitic gneiss are below the
common average (Table 3).

All samples: Diffusivity (22C)


40

Frequency (n)

35
30

1.47 0.29 (254)

25
20
15
10
5
0
0.9

1.1

1.3

1.5

1.7

1.9

2.1

2.3

2.5

Diffusivity (10-6 m 2 s -1 )

Figure 29. Diffusivity of all samples.

VGN: Diffusivity (22C)


30

Frequency (n)

25
20
1.37 0.25 (147)
15
10
5
0
0.9

1.1

1.3

1.5

1.7

1.9

2.1

Diffusivity (10-6 m 2 s -1 )

Figure 30. Diffusivity of veined gneiss.

2.3

2.5

28

Frequency (n)

TGG: Diffusivity (22C)


10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0

1.35 0.12 (21)

0.9

1.1

1.3

1.5

1.7

1.9

2.1

2.3

2.5

Diffusivity (10-6 m 2 s -1 )
Figure 31. Diffusivity of tonalitic-granodioritic-granitic gneiss.

DGN: Diffusivity (22C)

Frequency (n)

5
4
1.53 0.34 (17)

3
2
1
0
0.9

1.1

1.3

1.5

1.7

1.9

2.1

Diffusivity (10-6 m2 s-1 )


Figure 32. Diffusivity of diatexitic gneiss.

2.3

2.5

29

MGN: Diffusivity (22C)

Frequency (n)

5
4
3
1.34 0.28 (6)

2
1
0
0.9

1.1

1.3

1.5

1.7

1.9
-6

2.1

2.3

2.5

-1

Diffusivity (10 m s )
Figure 33. Diffusivity of mica gneiss.

PGR: Diffusivity (22C)


30

Frequency (n)

25
20
1.75 0.18 (61)

15
10
5
0
0.9

1.1

1.3

1.5

1.7

1.9
-6

2.1
2

-1

Diffusivity (10 m s )
Figure 34. Diffusivity of pegmatitic granite.

2.3

2.5

30

4.6

Anisotropy of thermal conductivity

The migmatitic rocks in Olkiluoto are thermally anisotropic, which has been detected in
previous studies (Kukkonen 2000; Kukkonen et al. 2005). The present data set of
measurements of conductivity and core angle shows that the thermal conductivity varies
considerable depending whether it is measured along or across the foliation and gneiss
banding (Figure 35). Maximum conductivity is observed along foliation with values of
about 3.4 Wm-1K-1, whereas the minimum is observed perpendicular to foliation with
values of about 2.4 W m-1K-1. The scatter of single data points is large, but a trend is
definitely observed. The result suggests an average anisotropy factor of 1.4 (max/min).
In Figure 36, the rock types of the samples are shown. The data does not support the
existence of distinct rock type-dependent relationships (see also chapter 5.2).

Conductivity vs. core angle

Conductivity (W/(m*K))

5.0
y = -0.0114x + 3.4123
R2 = 0.3042

4.5
4.0
3.5
3.0
2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

Core angle (deg)


Figure 35. Thermal conductivity vs. core angle. For definition of core angle see Figure
4. A regression line fitted to the data is shown as well.

31

All Rock types: Conductivity vs. core angle

Conductivity (W/(m*K))

5.00
4.50
4.00

PGR

3.50

MGN
TGG

3.00

DGN
VGN

2.50

QGN

2.00
1.50
1.00
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

Core angle (deg)


Figure 36. Thermal conductivity vs. core angle of different rock types. See also Figure
43 in chapter 5.2.

4.7

Relationships between properties

Various relationships between thermal properties and density are shown in Figs. 37-41.
Generally, thermal conductivity shows a decreasing trend with increasing density,
which is attributed to simultaneous decrease of quartz content (a high conductivity but
low density mineral) and increase of biotite and hornblende (low conductivity and high
density minerals). The trend, however, is perhaps too diffuse to provide a general
density-based proxy for conductivity estimation.
Pegmatitic granite differs from the general trend (Figure 37) and seems to show a weak
increasing trend of conductivity with increasing density. If real, and not due to
accidental groupings of data points, the trend might be attributed to interplay of quartz
and feldspars in a rock with very low content of mafic minerals. Further, alteration of
feldspars into illite and kaolinite (Aaltonen et al. 20190) could also affect thermal
conductivity and density.
Specific heat capacity shows an increasing trend with density (Figure 38), in line with
simultaneous increase of mafic minerals having higher specific heat capacities. Here
too, the relationship is relatively scattered. Different rock types seem to form clusters.
Particularly, the pegmatitic granite samples seem to be different from the rest of data.

32

Thermal conductivity shows a weak decreasing trend (Figure 39) with increasing
volumetric heat capacity (product of density and specific heat capacity, c). Rocks with
higher contents of mafic minerals (e.g. biotite, hornblende) have higher c and lower
conductivity than quartz. This variation is parallel with the general decrease of quartz
content.
The calculated diffusivity values show a good linear dependence on conductivity
(Figure 40) which is natural as the parameters are related through the volumetric heat
capacity (equation 1). Because the variation of the volumetric heat capacity for various
rock types is quite limited, around +/- 10 %, this relationship could be used as an
estimator for diffusivity, or for conductivity, respectively.
Thermal conductivity correlates only weakly with leucosome content of the rocks
(Figure 41). Leucosome content values are based on visual inspection of estimates of
the samples (K. Kemppainen, Posiva, written comm. 2010) and have an uncertainty of
about 5-10 %.

All rock types: Conductivity vs. density

Conductivity (Wm-1K-1)

5.0
4.5
4.0

PGR
MGN

3.5

TGG
DGN

3.0

VGN

2.5

KFP
QGN

2.0
1.5
1.0
2500

2600

2700

2800

2900

3000

-3

Density (kg m )
Figure 37. Thermal conductivity vs. density of different rock types. See also Figure 40
in chapter 5.2.

33

-1

-1

Spec. heat capacity (J kg K )

All rock types: Specific heat capacity vs. density


850
800

PGR
MGN

750

TGG
DGN
VGN

700

KFP
QGN

650
600

2500

2600

2700

2800

2900

3000

-3

Density (kg m )

Figure 38. Specific heat capacity (22 C) vs. density of different rock types.

All rock types: Conductivity vs. c

Conductivity (Wm-1K-1)

5.0
4.5
4.0

PGR
MGN

3.5

TGG
DGN

3.0

VGN

2.5

KFP
QGN

2.0
1.5
1.0
1.6

1.8

2.0
6

2.2
-1

-3

c (10 Jkg m )

Figure 39. Conductivity vs. c of different rock types.

2.4

34

All rock types: Diffusivity vs. conductivity

ALL

2.50

PGR
MGN

2.00

-6

2 -1

Diffusivity (10 m s )

3.00

TGG
1.50

DGN
VGN

y = 0.5754x - 0.153

1.00

KFP
QGN

R = 0.922

0.50

Linear (ALL)

0.00
1

4
-1

-1

Conductivity (Wm K )

Figure 40. Diffusivity (22 C) vs. conductivity of different rock types.

All rock types: Conductivity vs.


leucosome content

Conductivity (W/(m*K))

5.0
y = 0.0041x + 2.7492
R2 = 0.0806

4.0

3.0

2.0

1.0
0

20

40

60

Leucosome (vol-% )
Figure 41. Thermal conductivity vs. leucosome content.

80

100

35

DISCUSSION

5.1

Temperature corrections of thermal properties

Rock thermal properties are temperature dependent. Thermal conductivity decreases,


whereas specific heat increases with temperature, but density remains practically
constant within the temperature range relevant for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel
(up to about 60 C). This means that thermal diffusivity shows stronger temperature
dependence than conductivity with increasing temperature.
Temperature dependencies of thermal properties of low-porosity crystalline rocks
depend mainly on the mineral composition and texture of the rocks. In rocks typical for
Olkiluoto, the quartz content is one of the major factors controlling conductivity
(Kukkonen and Lindberg 1995, 1998) and also diffusivity values. Quartz has high and
anisotropic conductivity, but feldspars and mica (also anisotropic) have much lower
values. Variation in contents of these minerals is reflected in the general conductivity
values, and also on the temperature dependencies. Quartz has strong temperature
dependence, and its influence on the whole rock properties may be further enhanced by
textural effects when quartz crystals are oriented according to crystallographic axes.
Literature data suggest that thermal conductivity would decrease by 9-15 % between
room temperature and 100 C (e.g. Sibbit et al. 1979; Zoth and Haenel 1988; Seipold
1998, 2001). The decrease in diffusivity over the same temperature interval may range
from 5 to 20 %. For instance, Seipolds (2001) data on gneissic rocks suggests
conductivity decrease of about 6 % and diffusivity decrease of about 15 % between 25
and 100 C.
Sundberg and Gabrielsson (1999) and Sundberg (2002) reported temperature
dependencies of the rocks at the sp underground laboratory site. The studied rock
types represented granite and diorite. Measurements were done only at 25 C and 80 C.
Thermal conductivity showed both slight decrease and increase with temperature
(relative changes calculated per 100 degrees ranged from -7.44 to +1.80 %). It should be
noted here that for conductivity the expected changes over the measured temperature
range are only a few per cent. Such small changes are not easy to detect with two data
points, and moreover, the typical determination errors are already a few per cent.
Volumetric heat capacity, on the other hand, showed a systematic increase with
temperature with average changes of 32-40 % per 100 degrees. The sp data on
volumetric heat capacities was also used in the interlaboratory comparison (Sundberg et
al. 2003) between hot disk, divided bar and calorimetric methods applied at GeoInnova
Ab and GTK. The GTK raw data on specific heat capacity had to be corrected to room
temperature conditions before comparison. The same correction (7.5 %) was applied
here to the raw measured data of specific heat capacity.

36

Table 4. Thermal rock properties corrected for elevated temperatures.


Parameter

Mean at 25C Applied correction


25  60C (%)

Value at 60C Applied correction Value at 100C


25  100C (%)

Conductivity (W m-1K-1)

2.91

-3.1

2.82

-6.4

2.72

Specific heat capacity (J kg-1K-1)

712

7.3

764

15.8

824

Diffusivity (10-6 m2 s-1)

1.47

-8.5

1.34

-18.1

1.20

Density (kg m-3)

2743

2743

2743

The predicted average thermal properties of the Olkiluoto rocks at 60 C and 100 C are
given in Table 4. Conductivity was predicted according to average temperature
dependencies for gneissic rocks (Seipold, 2001) suggesting relative decreases of -3.1
and -6.4 % from 25 C to 60 C, and from 25 C to 100 C, respectively. The correction
for specific heat was assumed to be 0.21 %/K (according to Sundberg et al. 2003), and
the applied corrections were +7.3 and +15.8 %. Finally, diffusivity was recalculated
from the corrected conductivity and specific heat values, and the reductions were -8.5 %
and -18.1 % (Table 4). Lacking measured data on temperature dependencies of
Olkiluoto rocks, the predicted values should be taken only as guiding values. On the
other hand, the temperature effects between 25 C and 60 C are smaller than the typical
standard deviations of the conductivity and diffusivity averages (Table 3).
The present results suggest that the average thermal properties of the repository rocks at
100 C would be as follows: conductivity 2.72 Wm-1K-1, specific heat capacity 824 J kg1
K-1 and diffusivity 1.20 10-6 m2s-1 (Table 4). In comparison to earlier predictions
(Kukkonen 2000), the values are in a good agreement. Only small increases in
conductivity (+0.23 Wm-1K-1) and diffusivity (+0.11 10-6 m2s-1), and a very small
decrease in specific heat capacity (-8 J kg-1 K-1) are observed. We attribute these to the
expanded data base and slightly modified temperature corrections.

5.2

Implications for estimating thermal properties of the repository


volume

In the planning stage of the repository, direct sampling of rock types within the planned
repository volume is restricted to drill cores and the ONKALO research tunnel. The
present results allow a discussion how the drill core sample results may be applied for
estimating the values of thermal properties indirectly, and how the results may be
applied in estimation of the values in the repository volume between drill holes.

37

PGR: Conductivity vs. density

TGG: Conductivity vs. density


5.0

y = 0.0035x - 5.9423
R2 = 0.1036

4.0

3.0

2.0

1.0
2500

2600

2700

2800

2900

Conductivity (Wm-1K-1)

Conductivity (Wm-1K-1)

5.0

y = -0.0083x + 25.274
R2 = 0.3715

4.0

3.0

2.0

1.0
2500

3000

2600

-3

4.0

3.0

2.0

y = -0.0004x + 3.9319
R2 = 0.0008
2700

2800

2900

Conductivity (Wm-1K-1)

Conductivity (Wm-1K-1)

5.0

2600

3000

y = -0.0044x + 14.756
R2 = 0.1255

4.0

3.0

2.0

1.0
2500

3000

2600

-3

2700

2800

2900

3000

-3

Density (kg m )

Density (kg m )

MGN: Conductivity vs. density

KFP and QGN: Conductivity vs. density

5.0

5.0

4.0

y = -0.0132x + 38.863
R2 = 0.7651

3.0

2.0

2600

2700

2800
-3

Density (kg m )

2900

3000

Conductivity (Wm-1K-1)

Conductivity (Wm-1K-1)

2900

VGN: Conductivity vs. density

5.0

1.0
2500

2800

Density (kg m )

DGN: Conductivity vs. density

1.0
2500

2700

-3

Density (kg m )

4.0

3.0

2.0

1.0
2500

2600

2700

2800

2900

3000

-3

Density (kg m )

Figure 42. Thermal conductivity vs. density of the major rock types. Linear regression
results with the squared coefficient of correlation are shown for data sets excluding,
quartz-feldspar porphyry and quartzitic gneiss.

Indirect estimation of thermal properties requires measurement of a rock property which


shows a sufficiently unique and well-defined correlation with thermal properties.
Relationships between different thermal properties, density and core angle (Figures 3540) show that there is rock-type dependent variation and some of the rock types show
clustering in the cross plot diagrams.
One of the best candidates for parameter estimation is density. Density is easy and fast
to measure in laboratory and downhole, which would make it an efficient estimator.
Density has a negative overall correlation with thermal conductivity (Figure 37).
Regression lines were fitted with all main rock type data sets having sufficient numbers
of samples, i.e., pegmatitic granite, veined gneiss, tonalitic-granodioritic-granitic gneiss,
diatexitic gneiss and mica gneiss (Figure 42).

38

Coefficients of correlation are low (< 0.4 in most cases) and the plots are scattered,
which makes the regression fits sensitive for biasing due to outliers. Visually,
relationships with a linear appearance can be observed in the data sets of veined gneiss,
tonalitic-granodioritic-granitic gneiss and mica gneiss (note: only 6 samples), but the
regression lines do not copy the visual expectations. In addition to outlier bias, the result
may reflect the difficulty of naming the migmatitic rock types, which may result in the
applied rock type classes to actually contain samples from more than one rock type.
Diatexitic gneiss shows no correlation between density and conductivity.
Diffusivity, being related to thermal conductivity by definition (equation 1), could
generally be estimated with the measurement of conductivity (Figure 40). Such
estimation would take automatically into account the anisotropy of conductivity and
diffusivity.
The relationship between thermal conductivity and foliation of rocks (Figures 35, 36
and 43) is also one of the potential estimators of thermal conductivity. When the
relationship is studied according to rock types, it can be observed that tonaliticgranodioritic-granitic gneiss and veined gneiss show weak negative correlations
(coefficients of correlation 0.5) whereas all other rock types do not show any
significant correlation (Figure 43). Therefore, conductivity estimation based on foliation
would be restricted to veined gneiss and tonalitic-granodioritic-granitic gneiss.
In estimating thermal properties within the repository volume, one of the tasks is to
handle the scaling effect of parameter variations when the investigation volume changes
from small drill core sample sizes to bigger volumes. It can be expected that the
standard deviations obtained in this study for thermal properties would be smaller if the
sample size would be bigger. In the scale of the final disposal it would be relevant to
know the average values of thermal properties over volumes which would be in the
scale of the disposal canister holes and their mutual distances, i.e. about 10 m x 10 m x
10 m. The scaling effects can be investigated by studying the spatial correlation of
thermal properties. Such a study requires the calculation of variograms
(autocorrelograms) for the measured thermal parameters and application of
geostatistical methods which use the spatial correlation in calculating the parameter
values in space between samples.
In the Olkiluoto case, the estimation problem is challenging due to high number of
relevant phenomena affecting the thermal properties, i.e. rock type variation, foliation
effects, generally fuzzy relationships between parameters and long distances between
boreholes combined with challenges of predicting rock type variations between
boreholes. We can anticipate two different approaches to the estimation problem. On
one hand, it is possible to apply the 3D lithological model (Mattila et al. 2008; Aaltonen
et al. 2010) of the repository bedrock volume and assign the average values of thermal
properties of each rock type measured (Table 3) to the 3D model. Such a model
inherently assumes that there are no spatial variations in the applied rock type averages
inside the repository volume. The model also ignores the effects of conductivity and
diffusivity anisotropy.

39

PGR: Conductivity vs. core angle

TGG: Conductivity vs. core angle


5

Conductivity (W/(m*K))

Conductivity (W/(m*K))

y = -0.0036x + 3.2619
R2 = 0.0677

y = -0.0101x + 3.2678
R2 = 0.5013

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

10

20

30

DGN: Conductivity vs. core angle


5

y = -0.0014x + 3.0913
R2 = 0.0008

60

70

80

90

y = -0.0129x + 3.4927
R2 = 0.3581

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

Core angle (deg)

Core angle (deg)

MGN: Conductivity vs. core angle

QGN: Conductivity vs. core angle


5

Conductivity (W/(m*K))

Conductivity (W/(m*K))

50

VGN: Conductivity vs. core angle

Conductivity (W/(m*K))

Conductivity (W/(m*K))

40

Core angle (deg)

Core angle (deg)

y = 0.0022x + 2.5439
R2 = 0.018

1
0

10

20

30

40

50

Core angle (deg)

60

70

80

90

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

Core angle (deg)

Figure 43. Thermal conductivity vs. core angle of the major rock types.

On the other hand, the estimation could also use the dependence of thermal conductivity
on foliation of rocks. There are plenty of foliation observations in the Olkiluoto
drillholes, and assuming that foliation variations could be interpolated between
drillholes, the foliation data could be used as an additional proxy for thermal
conductivity in the volumes of tonalitic-granodioritic-granitic gneiss and veined gneiss
in addition to rock type information (Figure 43). Other rock types would then be
estimated with their average values, or perhaps with relationships based on density
(Figure 42).
In applying the dependence of thermal conductivity on foliation for conductivity
estimation it should be taken into account as well that the present data set on foliation
effects is based on the assumption that anisotropy is 2-dimensional. It means that
conductivity would be considered to be constant in the plane of foliation, and vary only
across the foliation plane. However, we do not know whether there is a conductivity

40

variation also in the plane of foliation. Such an effect can be expected if there were
linear orientation of thermally anisotropic minerals in the plane of foliation (lineation).
The effect of lineation is, however, probably quite small.

41

CONCLUSIONS

The present study summarizes laboratory measurements of Olkiluoto rocks carried out
at GTK during 1994-2010. The complete data set comprises 392 drill core samples from
12 drill holes representing the planned repository volume at depths of about 400-500 m.
For the most part of the sample set, sampling was done systematically at regular depth
intervals. Thus, the results can be considered to be volumetrically representative without
biasing towards any rock type. In rock types, the majority of the samples represent
veined gneiss, pegmatitic granite, tonalitic-granodioritic-granitic gneiss (56-216
samples/rock type), whereas diatexitic gneiss, mica gneiss, K-feldspar porphyry and
quartzitic gneiss are in minority (1-20 samples/rock type).
Average thermal conductivity (at 25 C) of all samples is 2.91 Wm-1K-1, and the
averages of main rock types (veined gneiss, tonalitic-granodioritic gneiss, diatexitic
gneiss, mica gneiss and pegmatitic granite) fall within 2.66 - 3.20 Wm-1K-1. The
standard deviations of conductivity are 0.4 - 0.6 Wm-1K-1, and the histograms of main
rock types overlap. The overlapping, as well as the values of standard deviations reflects
geological variability in the migmatitic formation. Highest average conductivities are
related to pegmatitic granite and lowest to mica gneiss.
Average specific heat capacity (at 25 C) of all samples is 712 J kg-1 K-1. Highest
specific heat capacity averages were observed for veined gneiss and mica gneiss, and
lowest for pegmatitic granite, respectively. The standard deviations are relatively small
in the range of 19-41 J kg-1 K-1.
Diffusivity was calculated from measured values of conductivity, specific heat capacity
and density. Average diffusivity is 1.47 10-6 m2s-1, and the averages of rock types are
within 1.34 - 1.75 10-6 m2s-1. Highest values are related to pegmatitic granite, and
lowest values to mica gneiss. However, diffusivity averages for veined gneiss, tonaliticgranodioritic-granitic gneiss and mica gneiss are practically identical (1.34 - 1.37 10-6
m2s-1). The standard deviations are in the range of 0.1 0.3 10-6 m2s-1. The histograms
of diffusivity overlap, and the differences between rock types are relatively small.
Thermal properties show weak positive correlation with density for pegmatitic granite,
and weak negative correlations for tonalitic-granodioritic-granitic gneiss, veined gneiss
and mica gneiss. Other rock types do not show correlation with density in the present
data set, but it may be related to low numbers of samples.
Thermal conductivity is anisotropic and dependent on the core angle between direction
of conductivity measurement and rock foliation (or gneissic banding) of tonaliticgranodioritic-granitic gneiss and veined gneiss. No correlation was observed for the
other rock types. The present data set covers all angles between 0-90 and suggests
lowest conductivities perpendicular to foliation (average about 2.4 Wm-1K-1) and
highest values along foliation (average about 3.4 Wm-1K-1). Due to normal geological
variability the values of single specimens may deviate by about 1 Wm-1K-1 from these
values. The dependence on core angle suggests an anisotropy factor
(maximum/minimum conductivity) of 1.4.

42

The results were applied to predicting the values of thermal properties up to 100 C.
Temperature corrections from literature were applied, and results suggest thermal
conductivity to decrease by 6.4 %, specific heat capacity to increase by 15.8 % and
diffusivity to decrease by 18.1 % from room temperature to 100 C. The average
thermal properties of the repository rocks at 100C are predicted as follows:
conductivity 2.72 Wm-1K-1, specific heat capacity 824 J kg-1 K-1 and diffusivity 1.20
10-6 m2s-1.

43

REFERENCES

Aaltonen, I., Lahti, M., Engstrm, J., Mattila, J., Paananen, M., Paulamki, S., Gehr,
S., Krki, A., Ahokas, T., Torvela, T. & Front, K. 2010. Geological model of the
Olkiluoto site, version 2.0. Posiva Oy, Working Report 2010-70, 590 p.
Kjrholt, H. 1992. Thermal properties of rocks. Teollisuuden Voima Oy, TVO/Site
investigations, work report 92-56, 13 p.
Kukkonen, I. 2000. Thermal properties of the Olkiluoto mica gneiss: Results of
laboratory measurements. Posiva Oy, Working Report 2000-40, 28 p.
Kukkonen I. & Lindberg A. 1995. Thermal conductivity of rocks at the TVO
investigation sites Olkiluoto, Romuvaara and Kivetty. Nuclear Waste Commission of
Finnish Power Companies, Report YJT-98-08, 29 p.
Kukkonen, I. & Lindberg, A. 1998. Thermal properties of rocks at the investigation
sites: measured and calculated thermal conductivity, specific heat capacity and thermal
diffusivity. Posiva Oy, Working Report 98-09e, 29 p.
Kukkonen, I. & Suppala, I. 1999. Measurement of thermal conductivity and diffusivity
in situ: Literature survey and theoretical modelling of measurements. Posiva Oy,
Report 99-1, 69 p.
Kukkonen, I., Suppala, I. & Koskinen, T. 2001. Measurement of rock thermal properties
in situ: numerical models of borehole measurements and development of calibration
techniques. Posiva Oy, Working Report 2001-23, 47 p.
Kukkonen, I., Suppala I., Sulkanen K. & Koskinen T. 2000. Measurement of thermal
conductivity and diffusivity in situ: measurements and results obtained with a test
instrument. Posiva Oy, Working Report 2000-25, 28 p.
Kukkonen, I., Suppala, I. Korpisalo, A., & Koskinen, T., 2005. TERO borehole logging
device and test measurements of rock thermal properties in Olkiluoto. Posiva Oy,
Working Report 2005-09, 96 p.
Kukkonen, I, Suppala, I., Korpisalo, A. & Koskinen, T. 2006a. TERO borehole logging
device and test measurements of rock thermal properties in Olkiluoto. Posiva Report,
2005-09, 96 p.
Kukkonen, I., Suppala, I., Korpisalo, A. & Lehtimki, J. 2006b. TERO thermal property
measurements in boreholes KAV01 and KLX06 in Oskarshamn. Posiva Oy, Working
Report 2006-82, 26 p.
Mattila, J., Aaltonen, I., Kemppainen, K., Wikstrm, L., Paananen, M., Paulamki, S.,
Front, K., Gehr, S., Krki A. & Ahokas, T., 2008. Geological model of the Olkiluoto
site, version 1.0. Posiva Oy, Working Report 2007-91, 510 p.

44

Seipold, U., 1998. Temperature dependence of thermal transport properties of


crystalline rocks - a general law. Tectonophysics 291, 161-171.
Seipold, U., 2001. Der Wrmetransport in kristallinen Gesteinen unter den Bedingungen
der Kontinetalen Kruste. GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam, Scientific Technical Report
STR01/13, 142 p.
Seipold, U. and Huenges, E., 1998.Thermal properties of gneisses and amphibolites
high pressure and high temperature investigations of KTB-rock samples.
Tectonophysics 291, 173-178.
Sibbit, W.L., Dodson, J.G. and Tester, J.W. 1979. Thermal conductivity of crystalline
rocks associated with energy extraction from hot dry rock geothermal systems. J.
Geophys. Res, 71, p.12.
Sundberg, J. 2002. Determination of rock thermal properties at sp HRL, Comparison
and evaluation of methods and methodologies for borehole KA 2599 G01. Report SKB
R-02-27, Svensk Krnbrnslehantering AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
Sundberg, J. and Gabrielsson, A. 1999. Laboratory and field measurements of thermal
properties of the rocks in the prototype repository at sp HRL. Report SKB IPR-9917, Svensk Krnbrnslehantering AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
Sundberg, J., Kukkonen I. & Hlldahl L. 2003. Comparison of thermal properties
measured by different methods. Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co,
Report SKB R-03-18, 37 p.
Suppala, I., Kukkonen I. & Koskinen T. 2004. Kallion termisten ominaisuuksien
reikluotauslaitteisto TERO (Drill hole tool TERO for measuring thermal
conductivity and diffusivity in situ). Posiva Oy, Working Report 2004-20, 43 p. (in
Finnish)
Zoth, G. and Haenel, R. 1988. Thermal conductivity. In R. Haenel, L. Rybach & L.
Stegena (eds.), Handbook of terrestrial heat flow density determination. Kluwer
Publishing, Dordrecht, pp. 449-468.

45

APPENDICES

46

379.95
385.10
390.15
395.15
399.95
402.79
405.15
409.95
414.85
418.4
420.10
420.71
423.86
426.00
429.90
435.05
440.00
445.20
450.05
450.52
455.10
457.02
459.85
464.95
468.68
470.05
474.90
480.00
521.2
521.28
521.4
521.5
521.6
521.7

PGR
PGR
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
PGR
PGR
VGN
PGR
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
PGR
PGR
VGN
VGN
VGN
DGN
VGN
PGR
PGR
PGR
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN

From geol. logs1

PGR
PGR
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
PGR
PGR
VGN
PGR
VGN
VGN
VGN
PGR
PGR
PGR
VGN
VGN
VGN
PGR
VGN
PGR
PGR
PGR
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN

Present study2

MGN
MGN
MGN
MGN
MGN
MGN

MGN

MGN

GR

GR
MGN

55
57
73
62
87
48

63
68
5
51
4

83
88
90

56

MGN

deg

74
68
59
74
56
52
44
67

MGN

Old name3

Rock type name Sample rock type Rock type Core angle

3.28
2.96
2.71
2.45
2.73
3.21
3.06
2.81
2.77
3.06
3.52
4.68
2.38
3.32
2.84
1.25
3.07
3.67
3.41
3.77
2.38
2.48
3.48
2.99
3.20
3.65
2.83
3.07
3.06
2.92
2.90
3.30
1.82
2.87

W m-1K-1

677
687
695
706
725
748
712
681
732
738
697
726
781
702
677
747
700
697
738
736
771
678
710
777
731
658
675
784
783
772
763
811
794

754
798
796
833
733
768
840
790
711
730
848
846
835
825
877
858

J kg-1 K-1

732
743
751
763
784
809
770
736
791
798
754
785
844
759
732
808
757

J kg-1 K-1

c (60C, meas.) c (22C)

1.73
1.79
1.09
1.08
1.75
1.48
1.35
1.74
1.54
1.63
1.32
1.25
1.28
1.47
0.74
1.24

1.73
1.52
1.32
1.18
1.28
1.48
1.45
1.38
1.23
1.42
1.77
2.19
1.04
1.66
1.44
0.54
1.49

10-6m2s-1

s (uncorr.)

s (22C)

1.87
1.94
1.18
1.17
1.89
1.60
1.45
1.88
1.66
1.76
1.42
1.36
1.38
1.59
0.80
1.34

1.87
1.65
1.43
1.28
1.39
1.58
1.57
1.49
1.33
1.52
1.91
2.37
1.11
1.80
1.56
0.58
1.61

10-6m2s-1

2590
2612
2741
2720
2719
2725
2735
2762
2846
2733
2639
2726
2748
2632
2698
2868
2714
2714
2622
2639
2745
2746
2714
2630
2848
2656
2594
2588
2739
2751
2713
2715
2821
2695

kg m-3

Rock type names: 1) K. Kemppainen, Posiva, written comm. 2010a; 2) K. Kemppainen, Posiva, written comm. 2010b; 3) Rock type name used in orginal references 2-5
References: 1) Present study; 2) Kukkonen and Lindberg 1995; 3) Kukkonen and Lindberg 1998; 4) Kukkonen 2000; 5) Kukkonen et al. 2005

OL-KR1
OL-KR1
OL-KR1
OL-KR1
OL-KR1
OL-KR1
OL-KR1
OL-KR1
OL-KR1
OL-KR1
OL-KR1
OL-KR1
OL-KR1
OL-KR1
OL-KR1
OL-KR1
OL-KR1
OL-KR1
OL-KR1
OL-KR1
OL-KR1
OL-KR1
OL-KR1
OL-KR1
OL-KR1
OL-KR1
OL-KR1
OL-KR1
OL-KR1
OL-KR1
OL-KR1
OL-KR1
OL-KR1
OL-KR1

Drill hole Depth

Appendix 1. Table of thermal properties measured 1994 2010

1
1
1
1
1
2, 3
1
1
1
2, 3
1
2, 3
2, 3
1
1
1
1
1
1
2, 3
1
4
1
1
4
1
1
1
4
4
4
4
4
4

Reference

47

325.7
326.7
327.4
335.15
335.7
336
336.3
340.25
340.76
341.31
342.76
345.65
346.1
347.1
350.17
350.71
351.25
354.58
354.88
355.18
355.61
365.1
366.01
375.05
377.25
377.65
378.29
380.00
380.14
380.57
381.09
386.15
386.75
387.17

TGG
TGG
TGG
TGG
TGG
TGG
TGG
TGG
TGG
TGG
TGG
TGG
TGG
TGG
TGG
TGG
TGG
TGG
TGG
TGG
TGG
TGG
TGG
TGG
TGG
TGG
TGG
TGG
TGG
TGG
TGG
TGG
TGG
TGG

From geol. logs1

TGG
TGG
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
PGR
TGG
PGR
TGG
TGG
TGG
TGG
TGG
TGG
TGG
TGG
TGG
PGR
TGG
TGG
TGG
TGG
TGG
TGG
TGG
TGG
VGN
VGN
TGG
VGN

Present study2

MGN
MGN
MGN
MGN
MGN
MGN

MGN
MGN
MGN

MGN
MGN
MGN
MGN
MGN
MGN
MGN
MGN
MGN
MGN
TON
MGN
MGN
MGN
MGN
MGN
MGN
TON
MGN
MGN
MGN
MGN
MGN

Old name3

76
72
63
56
32
75
75
67
80
68
67
78
81
70
85
79

35
72
79
35
37
74

46
35
77
81
80
73
80
71
85

deg

Rock type name Sample rock type Rock type Core angle

2.77
2.74
2.65
2.83
2.62
2.80
2.76
3.02
2.45
3.45
2.55
2.76
2.28
2.31
2.55
2.80
2.52
2.76
2.64
2.61
2.85
3.11
3.13
2.30
2.33
2.63
2.51
2.76
2.86
2.90
2.63
2.60
2.68
2.44

W m-1K-1

759

779

806

J kg-1 K-1

702

721

745

J kg-1 K-1

c (60C, meas.) c (22C)

1.36

1.09

10-6m2s-1

s (uncorr.)

s (22C)

1.47

1.17

10-6m2s-1

2694
2703
2677
2657
2637
2723
2723
2686
2704
2673
2681
2679
2694
2714
2687
2703

2628
2740
2710
2699
2681
2696

2689
2693
2704
2682
2701
2676
2707
2675
2711
2656

kg m-3

Rock type names: 1) K. Kemppainen, Posiva, written comm. 2010a; 2) K. Kemppainen, Posiva, written comm. 2010b; 3) Rock type name used in orginal references 2-5
References: 1) Present study; 2) Kukkonen and Lindberg 1995; 3) Kukkonen and Lindberg 1998; 4) Kukkonen 2000; 5) Kukkonen et al. 2005

OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2

Drill hole Depth

Appendix 1 (cont.). Table of thermal properties measured 1994 2010

5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
2, 3
5
5
5
5
5
5
2, 3
5
5
5
5
5
1
5
5
5
1
5
5
5
5
5
5

Reference

48

389.16
389.53
390.15
394.85
399.95
405.05
410.05
415.10
420.15
425.00
430.10
435.00
440.00
445.10
446.65
447.2
447.66
449.90
454.90
460.15
465.00
467.2
467.63
468.17
470
470.05
471.5
472.03
476.35
476.75
476.83
477.3
479.95
481.15

TGG
TGG
PGR
TGG
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
PGR
PGR
PGR
VGN
PGR
PGR
PGR
PGR
DGN
PGR
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
PGR
PGR

From geol. logs1

PGR
TGG
TGG
TGG
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
PGR
PGR
PGR
PGR
PGR
PGR
PGR
PGR
PGR
PGR
VGN
VGN
VGN
PGR
DGN
QGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
PGR

Present study2

GRA

MGN
MGN
MGN
MGN
MGN
MGN

MGN
MGN
MGN
MGN

GRA
GRA
GRA

MGN
MGN
MGN

Old name3

50
60
60
55
71
61
13
58
58
37

52
51

81

80
83
81
80
77
78
69
71

deg

Rock type name Sample rock type Rock type Core angle

2.48
2.59
2.45
2.91
2.64
2.49
2.98
2.75
3.01
2.90
3.25
2.60
3.23
3.02
3.47
3.61
3.18
3.23
2.58
2.98
3.27
2.52
3.08
3.63
2.95
3.18
3.00
3.05
3.86
3.57
3.11
3.18
3.23
3.55

W m-1K-1

738

683

673
672
722
718

700
672
677
693

757
726
732
749

728
727
781
776

684
687
725
679
723
721

J kg-1 K-1

739
743
784
734
782
779

J kg-1 K-1

c (60C, meas.) c (22C)

1.59

1.67
1.37
1.40
1.55

1.65
1.38
1.70
1.53

1.47
1.31
1.16
1.48
1.28
1.41

10-6m2s-1

s (uncorr.)

s (22C)

1.72

1.80
1.49
1.51
1.67

1.78
1.50
1.84
1.65

1.59
1.42
1.26
1.60
1.39
1.53

10-6m2s-1

2667
2687
2705
2671
2715
2737
2733
2739
2737
2634
2607
2585
2598
2640
2610
2649
2616
2665
2580
2733
2721
2782
2685
2719
2726
2725
2720
2767
2706
2722
2781
2735
2753
2633

kg m-3

Rock type names: 1) K. Kemppainen, Posiva, written comm. 2010a; 2) K. Kemppainen, Posiva, written comm. 2010b; 3) Rock type name used in orginal references 2-5
References: 1) Present study; 2) Kukkonen and Lindberg 1995; 3) Kukkonen and Lindberg 1998; 4) Kukkonen 2000; 5) Kukkonen et al. 2005

OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2

Drill hole Depth

Appendix 1 (cont.). Table of thermal properties measured 1994 2010

5
5
5
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
5
5
5
1
1
1
1
5
5
5
5
1
5
5
5
5
5
5
1
5

Reference

49

481.8
482.2
486
486.41
486.52
487.8
487.8
487.8
491.26
491.68
492.3
502.35
502.81
503.17
506.2
506.5
507.52
510.81
511.3
511.75
512.05
526.2
526.7
527.03
527.4
527.95
456.56
485.64
486.41
496.58
502.81
526.82
550.88
326.7

A
B
C

PGR
PGR
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
DGN
DGN
VGN
VGN
PGR
PGR
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
PGR
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
TGG

From geol. logs1

PGR
PGR
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
PGR
VGN
PGR
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
DGN
VGN
VGN
PGR
PGR
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
PGR
MGN
MGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN

Present study2

GRA
GRA
MGN
MGN
MGN
MGN
MGN
MGN
MGN
MGN
MGN
MGN
MGN
MGN
MGN
MGN
MGN
MGN +PEG
MGN +PEG
MGN +PEG
MGN +PEG
MGN
MGN
MGN
MGN
MGN
MGN
MGN
MGN
MGN
MGN
MGN
MGN
MGN

Old name3

2.28
3.05
3.29
3.32
2.99
3.08
3.33
3.61
2.37
2.04
2.45
2.20
3.12
2.99
2.53
2.50
2.34
2.74
2.88
2.79
3.41

64
62
84
62
59
38

15
63
73
55
75
75
67
4

85
77
71
84

73
26
50
67

1.75
2.58
2.76
2.90
2.61
3.21
3.14
2.96

3.34
3.14
3.11

W m-1K-1

79
80
85

62

deg

Rock type name Sample rock type Rock type Core angle

844
834
823
811
819
809
846

831

837

J kg-1 K-1

781
771
761
750
758
748
783

769

774

J kg-1 K-1

c (60C, meas.) c (22C)

1.29
1.1
1.09
1.04
1.22
1.3
1.19

0.00

10-6m2s-1

s (uncorr.)

s (22C)

1.40
1.19
1.18
1.12
1.33
1.40
1.29

10-6m2s-1

2809
2769
2700
2651
2762
2644
2774
2762
2727
2777
2679
2768
2814
2778
2739
2617
2612
2761
2801
2760
2805
2596
2739
2746
2774
2781
2727
2743
2769
2704

2667
2619
2741

kg m-3

Rock type names: 1) K. Kemppainen, Posiva, written comm. 2010a; 2) K. Kemppainen, Posiva, written comm. 2010b; 3) Rock type name used in orginal references 2-5
References: 1) Present study; 2) Kukkonen and Lindberg 1995; 3) Kukkonen and Lindberg 1998; 4) Kukkonen 2000; 5) Kukkonen et al. 2005

OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2

Drill hole Depth

Appendix 1 (cont.). Table of thermal properties measured 1994 2010

5
5
5
2, 3
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
2, 3
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
5

Reference

50

326.7
326.7
335.7
335.7
335.7
340.76
340.76
340.76
346.1
346.1
346.1
350.71
350.71
350.71
355.18
355.18
355.18
365.1
365.1
365.1
366.01
366.01
366.01
377.65
377.65
377.65
380.57
380.57
380.57
386.75
386.75
386.75
389.53
389.53

B
C
A
B
C
A
B
C
A
B
C
A
B
C
A
B
C
A
B
C
A
B
C
A
B
C
A
B
C
A
B
C
A
B

TGG
TGG
TGG
TGG
TGG
TGG
TGG
TGG
TGG
TGG
TGG
TGG
TGG
TGG
TGG
TGG
TGG
TGG
TGG
TGG
TGG
TGG
TGG
TGG
TGG
TGG
TGG
TGG
TGG
TGG
TGG
TGG
TGG
TGG

From geol. logs1


VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
PGR
PGR
PGR
VGN
VGN
VGN
TGG
TGG
TGG
TGG
TGG
TGG
TGG
TGG
TGG
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
TGG
TGG
TGG
TGG
TGG

Present study2
MGN
MGN
MGN
MGN
MGN
MGN
MGN
MGN
MGN
MGN
MGN
MGN
MGN
MGN
MGN
MGN
MGN
MGN
MGN
MGN
MGN
MGN
MGN
MGN
MGN
MGN
MGN
MGN
MGN
MGN
MGN
MGN
MGN
MGN

Old name3
11
2
14
8
15
7
14
17
18
25
13
5
13
14
1
8
14
14
15
13
14
18
17
16
15
17
3
10
7
0
15
5
2
0

deg

Rock type name Sample rock type Rock type Core angle

3.00
3.43
3.21
3.30
3.24
2.96
3.10
3.05
2.69
2.89
3.35
3.12
2.94
2.91
3.22
3.25
3.26
3.46
3.43
3.31
3.71
3.63
3.66
2.79
2.73
2.80
3.12
3.17
3.11
3.24
3.26
3.24
3.11
3.09

W m-1K-1

J kg-1 K-1

J kg-1 K-1

c (60C, meas.) c (22C)


10-6m2s-1

s (uncorr.)

s (22C)
10-6m2s-1

2698
2692
2726
2699
2703
2731
2681
2673
2674
2668
2654
2736
2726
2731
2697
2690
2678
2683
2690
2681
2686
2680
2679
2712
2718
2717
2697
2714
2709
2692
2695
2691
2662
2675

kg m-3

Rock type names: 1) K. Kemppainen, Posiva, written comm. 2010a; 2) K. Kemppainen, Posiva, written comm. 2010b; 3) Rock type name used in orginal references 2-5
References: 1) Present study; 2) Kukkonen and Lindberg 1995; 3) Kukkonen and Lindberg 1998; 4) Kukkonen 2000; 5) Kukkonen et al. 2005

OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2

Drill hole Depth

Appendix 1 (cont.). Table of thermal properties measured 1994 2010

5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5

Reference

51

453.35
462.56
471.86
485.15
492.8
499.6
541.68
547.03

OL-KR4
OL-KR4
OL-KR4
OL-KR4
OL-KR4
OL-KR4
OL-KR4
OL-KR4

A
B
A
B
C
A
B
A
B
A
B
C

A
B
C
A
B
C
A
B
C

VGN
VGN
DGN
VGN
VGN
DGN
VGN
VGN

PGR
PGR
PGR
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
PGR
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN

From geol. logs1

VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN

PGR
PGR
PGR
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
PGR
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
PGR
PGR
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN

Present study2

MGN
MGN
MGN
MGN
MGN
MGN
MGN
MGN

GRA
GRA
GRA
MGN
MGN
MGN
MGN
MGN
MGN
GRA
MGN
MGN
MGN
MGN
MGN
MGN
MGN
MGN+PEG
MGN+PEG
MGN
MGN
MGN

Old name3

60
60
55
68
57
65
50
65

4
1
13
10
12

22
19
16
5
14

17
10
11
6
10
2

deg

Rock type name Sample rock type Rock type Core angle

2.56
3.33
3.55
2.68
2.71
2.64
2.41
2.74

4.16
4.37
4.45
4.40
4.20
4.28
4.20
4.20
4.13
2.77
3.44
3.56
3.26
3.68
3.48
2.99
3.09
4.31
4.06
3.59
3.37
3.59

W m-1K-1

835
818
827
826
846
817
807
825

J kg-1 K-1

772
757
765
764
783
756
746
763

J kg-1 K-1

c (60C, meas.) c (22C)

1.11
1.49
1.58
1.19
1.17
1.2
1.09
1.2

10-6m2s-1

s (uncorr.)

s (22C)

1.20
1.61
1.71
1.29
1.27
1.30
1.18
1.30

10-6m2s-1

2766
2735
2719
2719
2728
2693
2746
2770

2636
2638
2643
2792
2824
2792
2721
2717
2712
2577
2721
2663
2752
2777
2777
2768
2768
2617
2617
2801
2801
2801

kg m-3

Rock type names: 1) K. Kemppainen, Posiva, written comm. 2010a; 2) K. Kemppainen, Posiva, written comm. 2010b; 3) Rock type name used in orginal references 2-5
References: 1) Present study; 2) Kukkonen and Lindberg 1995; 3) Kukkonen and Lindberg 1998; 4) Kukkonen 2000; 5) Kukkonen et al. 2005

447.2
447.2
447.2
467.63
467.63
467.63
476.75
476.75
476.75
481.8
486.52
486.52
503.17
503.17
503.17
506.5
506.5
511.3
511.3
526.7
526.7
526.7

OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2
OL-KR2

Drill hole Depth

Appendix 1 (cont.). Table of thermal properties measured 1994 2010

4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4

5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5

Reference

52

390.00
395.00
400.20
405.00
410.00
415.20
420.15
425.10
430.00
435.00
440.05
445.00
450.05
455.00
459.95
461.23
465.00
470.00
471.22
475.00
480.00
481.72
484.95
490.20
494.52

OL-KR11
OL-KR11
OL-KR11
OL-KR11
OL-KR11
OL-KR11
OL-KR11
OL-KR11
OL-KR11
OL-KR11
OL-KR11
OL-KR11
OL-KR11
OL-KR11
OL-KR11
OL-KR11
OL-KR11
OL-KR11
OL-KR11
OL-KR11
OL-KR11
OL-KR11
OL-KR11
OL-KR11
OL-KR11

VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
DGN
TGG
TGG
VGN
TGG
TGG
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
PGR
VGN

VGN
MGN
MGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN

From geol. logs1

VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
TGG
VGN
VGN
MGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
PGR
VGN

VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN

Present study2

80

80

MGN

MGN

MGN
MGN

65
66
82
74
85

75
80
64
75
46
81
73
62
66
70
59
87
68
52

57
51
70
65
68
67
70
72

deg

MGN

MGN
MGN
MGN
MGN
MGN
MGN
MGN
MGN

Old name3

Rock type name Sample rock type Rock type Core angle

2.28
1.90
1.87
2.00
2.10
2.07
2.07
2.08
1.98
2.47
3.85
2.00
2.31
2.23
2.32
1.92
2.34
3.33
2.26
1.19
2.90
2.10
2.61
3.46
2.34

3.72
3.13
2.83
2.50
2.61
2.18
2.47
2.77

W m-1K-1

752
796
744
771
760
780
778
767
794
763
746
775
766
751
733
808
772
741
839
849
763
821
743
733
823

818
858
832
843
831
849
839
864

J kg-1 K-1

696
736
688
713
703
722
720
709
734
706
690
717
709
695
678
747
714
685
776
785
706
759
687
678
761

757
794
770
780
769
785
776
799

J kg-1 K-1

c (60C, meas.) c (22C)

1.10
0.86
0.90
0.95
0.99
0.95
0.96
0.97
0.90
1.19
1.86
0.94
1.11
1.09
1.16
0.86
1.08
1.66
0.98
0.49
1.41
0.94
1.30
1.78
1.03

1.66
1.33
1.25
1.07
1.14
0.93
1.06
1.15

10-6m2s-1

s (uncorr.)

s (22C)

1.19
0.93
0.97
1.03
1.07
1.03
1.04
1.05
0.97
1.28
2.02
1.02
1.20
1.17
1.25
0.93
1.17
1.80
1.06
0.53
1.52
1.01
1.40
1.93
1.12

1.80
1.44
1.36
1.16
1.24
1.00
1.14
1.25

10-6m2s-1

2756
2779
2810
2734
2785
2783
2773
2786
2773
2736
2767
2741
2708
2734
2725
2758
2794
2704
2751
2853
2694
2736
2713
2643
2749

2736
2739
2712
2768
2749
2777
2787
2780

kg m-3

Rock type names: 1) K. Kemppainen, Posiva, written comm. 2010a; 2) K. Kemppainen, Posiva, written comm. 2010b; 3) Rock type name used in orginal references 2-5
References: 1) Present study; 2) Kukkonen and Lindberg 1995; 3) Kukkonen and Lindberg 1998; 4) Kukkonen 2000; 5) Kukkonen et al. 2005

461.21
473.67
475.08
480.46
533.02
539.93
546.13
550

OL-KR9
OL-KR9
OL-KR9
OL-KR9
OL-KR9
OL-KR9
OL-KR9
OL-KR9

Drill hole Depth

Appendix 1 (cont.). Table of thermal properties measured 1994 2010

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
4
1
1
4
1
1
4
1
1
4

4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4

Reference

53

380.10
385.05
390.05
394.95
399.95
404.75
410.00
414.85
420.15
424.90
429.95
435.15
439.95
444.95
450.00
455.05
459.90
465.15
470.10
475.00
480.15

430.35
435.13
440.00
444.95
450.05

OL-KR12
OL-KR12
OL-KR12
OL-KR12
OL-KR12
OL-KR12
OL-KR12
OL-KR12
OL-KR12
OL-KR12
OL-KR12
OL-KR12
OL-KR12
OL-KR12
OL-KR12
OL-KR12
OL-KR12
OL-KR12
OL-KR12
OL-KR12
OL-KR12

OL-KR13
OL-KR13
OL-KR13
OL-KR13
OL-KR13

VGN
DGN
PGR
VGN
DGN

TGG
DGN
DGN
DGN
DGN
DGN
TGG
TGG
TGG
TGG
TGG
TGG
TGG
TGG
TGG
TGG
TGG
TGG
TGG
TGG
TGG

TGG
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
DGN

From geol. logs1

VGN
DGN
PGR
VGN
DGN

TGG
VGN
VGN
VGN
DGN
DGN
TGG
TGG
TGG
TGG
TGG
TGG
TGG
TGG
TGG
TGG
TGG
TGG
TGG
TGG
TGG

TGG
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
DGN

Present study2

MGN
MGN
MGN
MGN

Old name3

54
70

51
54

47
58
61
42

49
50
51

66
39
38
35
30
28

38

46
44

81
65
70
70
71
70

deg

Rock type name Sample rock type Rock type Core angle

2.37
3.02
2.79
3.06
2.75

2.47
2.21
2.93
3.07
2.87
3.37
2.54
2.72
2.59
2.52
2.28
2.56
2.41
2.26
2.52
2.56
2.48
2.89
2.54
2.51
2.71

2.56
2.61
2.69
2.18
2.99
2.11

W m-1K-1

788
767
757
771
753

742
761
787
778
763
767
712
747
725
762
773
733
756
758
736
734
770
758
763
757
757

747
753
837
841
827
867

J kg-1 K-1

729
709
700
713
697

686
704
728
720
706
709
659
691
671
705
715
678
699
701
681
679
712
701
706
700
700

691
697
774
778
765
802

J kg-1 K-1

c (60C, meas.) c (22C)

1.09
1.46
1.43
1.47
1.33

1.22
0.97
1.38
1.46
1.40
1.60
1.31
1.36
1.31
1.22
1.04
1.28
1.17
1.09
1.26
1.29
1.19
1.43
1.22
1.22
1.32

1.27
1.26
1.17
0.94
1.33
0.87

10-6m2s-1

s (uncorr.)

s (22C)

1.17
1.57
1.54
1.58
1.44

1.32
1.05
1.49
1.57
1.52
1.73
1.41
1.47
1.42
1.31
1.12
1.39
1.27
1.17
1.36
1.39
1.28
1.55
1.32
1.32
1.42

1.38
1.36
1.26
1.01
1.44
0.94

10-6m2s-1

2762
2705
2583
2707
2749

2733
2989
2700
2709
2681
2754
2728
2672
2716
2722
2834
2724
2719
2745
2720
2702
2720
2669
2727
2715
2716

2696
2750
2753
2772
2717
2785

kg m-3

Rock type names: 1) K. Kemppainen, Posiva, written comm. 2010a; 2) K. Kemppainen, Posiva, written comm. 2010b; 3) Rock type name used in orginal references 2-5
References: 1) Present study; 2) Kukkonen and Lindberg 1995; 3) Kukkonen and Lindberg 1998; 4) Kukkonen 2000; 5) Kukkonen et al. 2005

499.85
505.00
510.68
518.02
532.27
539.28

OL-KR11
OL-KR11
OL-KR11
OL-KR11
OL-KR11
OL-KR11

Drill hole Depth

Appendix 1 (cont.). Table of thermal properties measured 1994 2010

1
1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

1
1
4
4
4
4

Reference

54

369.90
375.00
380.00
385.00
390.00
395.15
399.90
405.05
410.00
415.00
419.70
425.00
430.00
434.85
440.05
444.95
450.20

OL-KR19
OL-KR19
OL-KR19
OL-KR19
OL-KR19
OL-KR19
OL-KR19
OL-KR19
OL-KR19
OL-KR19
OL-KR19
OL-KR19
OL-KR19
OL-KR19
OL-KR19
OL-KR19
OL-KR19

PGR
VGN
PGR
PRG
VGN
DGN
PGR
VGN
DGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
DGN
DGN
VGN
VGN
VGN

PGR
QGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
DGN
PGR
VGN
PGR

From geol. logs1

PGR
VGN
PGR
PGR
VGN
PGR
PGR
VGN
PGR
VGN
VGN
VGN
DGN
DGN
VGN
VGN
VGN

PGR
QGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
PGR
PGR
VGN
PGR

Present study2

Old name3

15
68
71
60
38
43
66
67
71

65
1

65

38

52
57
61
72
47

deg

Rock type name Sample rock type Rock type Core angle

2.39
2.91
3.43
3.29
3.22
3.90
3.41
2.48
3.15
3.20
2.23
2.40
3.30
3.06
2.28
2.56
1.91

3.12
2.03
3.41
2.86
2.98
2.93
3.20
3.29
2.38
2.65

W m-1K-1

721
773
792
797
724
744
782
783
772

732
751
712
747
773
741
723

772
753
763
747
749
737
720
765
717

J kg-1 K-1

667
715
733
737
670
688
723
724
714

677
695
659
691
715
685
669

714
697
706
691
693
682
666
708
663

J kg-1 K-1

c (60C, meas.) c (22C)

1.65
1.48
1.02
1.08
1.69
1.51
1.08
1.18
0.89

1.25
1.40
1.86
1.67
1.53
1.97
1.78

0.94
1.66
1.36
1.48
1.44
1.67
1.75
1.15
1.44

10-6m2s-1

s (uncorr.)

s (22C)

1.79
1.60
1.11
1.17
1.83
1.64
1.17
1.28
0.96

1.35
1.52
2.01
1.81
1.66
2.13
1.93

1.01
1.80
1.47
1.60
1.55
1.81
1.89
1.24
1.56

10-6m2s-1

2611
2760
2593
2633
2717
2668
2644
2759
2641
2790
2759
2789
2690
2719
2697
2764
2768

2645
2806
2723
2761
2704
2717
2597
2611
2712
2566

kg m-3

Rock type names: 1) K. Kemppainen, Posiva, written comm. 2010a; 2) K. Kemppainen, Posiva, written comm. 2010b; 3) Rock type name used in orginal references 2-5
References: 1) Present study; 2) Kukkonen and Lindberg 1995; 3) Kukkonen and Lindberg 1998; 4) Kukkonen 2000; 5) Kukkonen et al. 2005

455.00
460.05
464.95
470.12
474.95
480.05
485.15
490.00
494.45
499.95

OL-KR13
OL-KR13
OL-KR13
OL-KR13
OL-KR13
OL-KR13
OL-KR13
OL-KR13
OL-KR13
OL-KR13

Drill hole Depth

Appendix 1 (cont.). Table of thermal properties measured 1994 2010

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

Reference

55

375.00
379.95
384.95
390.10
395.00
400.00
405.00
409.95
415.00
420.05
425.00
430.20
435.05
440.00 B
440.00
445.00
449.95
455.00
459.90
465.00
470.05
475.00
480.00

385.00
390.00
394.90
400.00
405.00

OL-KR25
OL-KR25
OL-KR25
OL-KR25
OL-KR25
OL-KR25
OL-KR25
OL-KR25
OL-KR25
OL-KR25
OL-KR25
OL-KR25
OL-KR25
OL-KR25
OL-KR25
OL-KR25
OL-KR25
OL-KR25
OL-KR25
OL-KR25
OL-KR25
OL-KR25
OL-KR25

OL-KR29
OL-KR29
OL-KR29
OL-KR29
OL-KR29

DGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
DGN

VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
MGN
MGN
VGN
PGR
PGR
PGR
VGN
PGR
PGR
VGN
VGN
PGR
VGN

VGN
VGN
VGN
DGN

From geol. logs1

PGR
VGN
VGN
VGN
DGN

VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
PGR
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
MGN
VGN
PGR
PGR
PGR
VGN
PGR
PGR
VGN
VGN
PGR
VGN

DGN
VGN
VGN
DGN

Present study2

Old name3

76
49
63
57

42

40
34

58

24
61
31

54
62
60
63
45
52
51
49
31

69
69
66

deg

Rock type name Sample rock type Rock type Core angle

2.67
2.60
3.15
2.94
2.38

2.50
3.05
2.84
2.89
2.72
3.29
2.61
2.40
3.10
2.79
3.43
2.81
2.63
3.09
2.69
3.34
2.70
2.84
3.83
3.24
2.94
3.20
3.09

3.86
2.66
3.12
1.84

W m-1K-1

742
770
747
751
744

754
761
774
759
791
772
769
788
765
770
760
757
763
726
754
750
756
752
753
749
767
764
757

779
827
742

J kg-1 K-1

686
712
691
695
688

697
704
716
702
732
714
711
729
708
712
703
700
706
672
697
694
699
696
697
693
709
707
700

721
765
686

J kg-1 K-1

c (60C, meas.) c (22C)

1.39
1.24
1.55
1.45
1.17

1.21
1.47
1.36
1.40
1.27
1.60
1.25
1.12
1.49
1.32
1.67
1.37
1.27
1.63
1.38
1.70
1.32
1.46
1.91
1.59
1.40
1.59
1.48

1.80
1.16
1.58

10-6m2s-1

s (uncorr.)

s (22C)

1.50
1.34
1.68
1.57
1.27

1.31
1.59
1.47
1.51
1.37
1.73
1.35
1.21
1.61
1.43
1.81
1.48
1.37
1.76
1.49
1.84
1.42
1.57
2.07
1.72
1.51
1.72
1.59

1.95
1.25
1.71

10-6m2s-1

2589
2728
2713
2704
2729

2737
2735
2698
2720
2715
2668
2728
2718
2723
2736
2699
2706
2720
2614
2579
2614
2707
2591
2660
2724
2741
2629
2766

2746
2780
2661
2724

kg m-3

Rock type names: 1) K. Kemppainen, Posiva, written comm. 2010a; 2) K. Kemppainen, Posiva, written comm. 2010b; 3) Rock type name used in orginal references 2-5
References: 1) Present study; 2) Kukkonen and Lindberg 1995; 3) Kukkonen and Lindberg 1998; 4) Kukkonen 2000; 5) Kukkonen et al. 2005

455.00
458.95
465.40
470.10

OL-KR19
OL-KR19
OL-KR19
OL-KR19

Drill hole Depth

Appendix 1 (cont.). Table of thermal properties measured 1994 2010

1
1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1

Reference

56

390.00
395.00
400.00
405.10
410.05
415.10
420.05
425.00
429.95
435.00
440.00
445.00
449.95
455.00
460.00 B
460.00

OL-KR40
OL-KR40
OL-KR40
OL-KR40
OL-KR40
OL-KR40
OL-KR40
OL-KR40
OL-KR40
OL-KR40
OL-KR40
OL-KR40
OL-KR40
OL-KR40
OL-KR40
OL-KR40

PGR
DGN
DGN
DGN
DGN
DGN
DGN
PGR
PGR
PGR
DGN
DGN
PGR
PGR
DGN
DGN

VGN
DGN
DGN
VGN
VGN
PGR
VGN
VGN
PGR
PGR
MGN
MGN
VGN
VGN
MGN
MGN
MGN

From geol. logs1

PGR
DGN
DGN
PGR
PGR
DGN
PGR
PGR
PGR
PGR
DGN
PGR
PGR
PGR
PGR
PGR

VGN
DGN
DGN
VGN
VGN
PGR
VGN
VGN
PGR
PGR
VGN
MGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
MGN

Present study2

Old name3

30

54

40
43

16
42
71
12

52
70

19
18

74
43
44
42
73

deg

Rock type name Sample rock type Rock type Core angle

3.54
2.79
4.09
3.11
3.20
4.04
3.15
3.19
2.96
3.56
2.52
3.20
3.05
3.27
2.96
2.86

2.43
2.32
2.16
2.65
2.17
2.95
2.85
2.92
3.19
2.87
2.20
1.97
2.92
2.46
1.91
2.04
2.30

W m-1K-1

768
759
762
765
751
735
746
752
726
755
776
744
734
747
741
759

754
780
775
772
757
739
747
750
737
748
763
763
740
745
761
755
758

J kg-1 K-1

710
702
705
708
695
680
690
696
672
698
718
688
679
691
685
702

697
722
717
714
700
684
691
694
682
692
706
706
685
689
704
698
701

J kg-1 K-1

c (60C, meas.) c (22C)

1.73
1.35
2.01
1.50
1.61
1.92
1.62
1.61
1.57
1.77
1.15
1.64
1.59
1.68
1.51
1.42

1.17
1.07
1.01
1.26
1.05
1.53
1.41
1.44
1.66
1.47
1.03
0.93
1.45
1.20
0.90
0.97
1.09

10-6m2s-1

s (uncorr.)

s (22C)

1.87
1.46
2.18
1.62
1.74
2.07
1.75
1.74
1.70
1.91
1.24
1.77
1.72
1.81
1.63
1.54

1.27
1.15
1.09
1.36
1.13
1.65
1.52
1.56
1.80
1.59
1.11
1.00
1.57
1.29
0.97
1.05
1.18

10-6m2s-1

2666
2718
2667
2710
2648
2866
2609
2635
2595
2671
2825
2626
2608
2610
2652
2655

2750
2788
2755
2729
2740
2611
2717
2695
2605
2611
2792
2778
2720
2757
2799
2791
2777

kg m-3

Rock type names: 1) K. Kemppainen, Posiva, written comm. 2010a; 2) K. Kemppainen, Posiva, written comm. 2010b; 3) Rock type name used in orginal references 2-5
References: 1) Present study; 2) Kukkonen and Lindberg 1995; 3) Kukkonen and Lindberg 1998; 4) Kukkonen 2000; 5) Kukkonen et al. 2005

410.00
415.00 B
415.00
419.95
425.00
430.00
435.00
440.00
445.00
450.00
455.00
459.95
465.00
470.05
475.00
479.95
485.00

OL-KR29
OL-KR29
OL-KR29
OL-KR29
OL-KR29
OL-KR29
OL-KR29
OL-KR29
OL-KR29
OL-KR29
OL-KR29
OL-KR29
OL-KR29
OL-KR29
OL-KR29
OL-KR29
OL-KR29

Drill hole Depth

Appendix 1 (cont.). Table of thermal properties measured 1994 2010

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

Reference

57

380.00
380.00
385.00
390.00
395.10
400.00
405.00
410.00
415.00
415.00
420.05
420.05
425.00
430.00
430.00
434.95
440.10
445.00
450.00
455.05
460.00
460.00
465.00
470.00
470.00
475.00

OL-KR46
OL-KR46
OL-KR46
OL-KR46
OL-KR46
OL-KR46
OL-KR46
OL-KR46
OL-KR46
OL-KR46
OL-KR46
OL-KR46
OL-KR46
OL-KR46
OL-KR46
OL-KR46
OL-KR46
OL-KR46
OL-KR46
OL-KR46
OL-KR46
OL-KR46
OL-KR46
OL-KR46
OL-KR46
OL-KR46

VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
PGR
PGR
VGN
PGR
DGN
VGN
DGN
PGR
PGR
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN

DGN
DGN
KFP
VGN
DGN
VGN
DGN

From geol. logs1

VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN
PGR
PGR
VGN
PGR
DGN
VGN
PGR
PGR
PGR
VGN
VGN
VGN
VGN

PGR
PGR
KFP
VGN
DGN
PGR
PGR

Present study2

Old name3

42
44
10
42

61
48

22
25
35
33
14
23

30
26
46
45
26
65

82
74

deg

Rock type name Sample rock type Rock type Core angle

2.71
2.22
3.05
2.60
2.85
2.93
3.12
3.25
2.92
2.97
3.52
3.43
3.38
2.85
2.80
2.93
2.71
2.76
3.03
3.16
3.20
3.36
3.03
2.64
2.73
3.16

2.76
3.06
2.78
2.64
2.77
3.47
3.48

W m-1K-1

771
768
740
767
758
745
757
783
785
792
750
768
726
752
750
752
733
767
753
746
738
722
772
759
764
739

769
725
743
759
755
747
741

J kg-1 K-1

713
710
685
709
701
689
700
724
726
733
694
710
672
696
694
696
678
709
697
690
683
668
714
702
707
684

711
671
687
702
698
691
685

J kg-1 K-1

c (60C, meas.) c (22C)

1.28
1.03
1.51
1.21
1.35
1.47
1.51
1.48
1.37
1.39
1.67
1.60
1.76
1.44
1.41
1.45
1.43
1.33
1.47
1.61
1.64
1.76
1.45
1.27
1.30
1.57

1.34
1.60
1.37
1.26
1.36
1.75
1.75

10-6m2s-1

s (uncorr.)

s (22C)

1.39
1.12
1.63
1.31
1.46
1.59
1.64
1.60
1.49
1.50
1.80
1.74
1.90
1.55
1.52
1.57
1.55
1.44
1.58
1.74
1.78
1.90
1.57
1.38
1.41
1.69

1.45
1.73
1.48
1.36
1.47
1.89
1.89

10-6m2s-1

2740
2802
2734
2797
2781
2676
2727
2798
2703
2706
2815
2782
2655
2637
2650
2687
2587
2708
2749
2632
2638
2646
2707
2735
2749
2731

2676
2636
2729
2757
2706
2654
2682

kg m-3

Rock type names: 1) K. Kemppainen, Posiva, written comm. 2010a; 2) K. Kemppainen, Posiva, written comm. 2010b; 3) Rock type name used in orginal references 2-5
References: 1) Present study; 2) Kukkonen and Lindberg 1995; 3) Kukkonen and Lindberg 1998; 4) Kukkonen 2000; 5) Kukkonen et al. 2005

465.10
470.00
474.95
480.00
485.00
489.90
495.00

OL-KR40
OL-KR40
OL-KR40
OL-KR40
OL-KR40
OL-KR40
OL-KR40

Drill hole Depth

Appendix 1 (cont.). Table of thermal properties measured 1994 2010

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1
1
1
1

Reference

58

VGN
VGN

From geol. logs1

VGN
VGN

Present study2

Old name3

41
26

deg

Rock type name Sample rock type Rock type Core angle

3.05
2.65

W m-1K-1

738
756

J kg-1 K-1

683
699

J kg-1 K-1

c (60C, meas.) c (22C)

1.52
1.28

10-6m2s-1

s (uncorr.)

s (22C)

1.64
1.38

10-6m2s-1

2724
2743

kg m-3

Rock type names: 1) K.kemppainen, Posiva, written comm. 2010a; 2) K.Kemppainen, Posiva, written comm. 2010b; 3) Rock type name used in orginal references 2-5
References: 1) Present study; 2) Kukkonen and Lindberg 1995; 3) Kukkonen and Lindberg 1998; 4) Kukkonen 2000; 5) Kukkonen et al. 2005

OL-KR46 480.15
OL-KR46 485.05

Drill hole Depth

Appendix 1 (cont.). Table of thermal properties measured 1994 2010

1
1

Reference

59

60

61
Appendix 2: Sample photographs

62
Appendix 2: Sample photographs

63
Appendix 2: Sample photographs

64
Appendix 2: Sample photographs

65
Appendix 2: Sample photographs

66
Appendix 2: Sample photographs

67
Appendix 2: Sample photographs

68
Appendix 2: Sample photographs

69
Appendix 2: Sample photographs

70
Appendix 2: Sample photographs

71
Appendix 2: Sample photopgraphs

72
Appendix 2: Sample photopgraphs

73
Appendix 2: Sample photopgraphs

74
Appendix 2: Sample photopgraphs

75
Appendix 2: Sample photopgraphs

76
Appendix 2: Sample photopgraphs

77
Appendix 2: Sample photopgraphs

78
Appendix 2: Sample photopgraphs

79
Appendix 2: Sample photopgraphs

80
Appendix 2: Sample photopgraphs

81
Appendix 2: Sample photographs

82
Appendix 2: Sample photographs

83
Appendix 2: Sample photographs

84
Appendix 2: Sample photographs

85
Appendix 2: Sample photographs

86
Appendix 2: Sample photographs

87
Appendix 2: Sample photographs

88
Appendix 2: Sample photographs

89
Appendix 2: Sample photographs

90
Appendix 2: Sample photographs

91
Appendix 2: Sample photographs

92
Appendix 2: Sample photographs

93
Appendix 2: Sample photographs

94
Appendix 2: Sample photographs

95
Appendix 2: Sample photographs

96
Appendix 2: Sample photographs