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numerical modeling

G. De la Maza (1); N. Williams (2); E. Sez (1); K. Rollins (2); C. Ledezma (1)

(1) Departamento de Ingeniera Estructural y Geotcnica, Pontificia Universidad Catlica de Chile

(2) Civil & Environmental Engineering Department, Brigham Young University

gadelama@uc.cl, Avda. Vicua Mackenna 4860, Macul, Santiago, Chile

Resumen

El presente artculo describe un estudio de campo detallado que se efectu en caleta Lo Rojas,

comuna de Coronel, donde se observ una importante extensin lateral gatillada por licuacin

durante el pasado terremoto del Maule, 2010. El estudio de terreno incluy sondajes SPT y CPT,

as como la aplicacin de algunas tcnicas geofsicas basadas en ondas de superficie. Sobre la base

de esta informacin, se evaluaron algunas expresiones empricas de prediccin de extensin

lateral y se elabor un modelo detallado de elementos finitos hidro-mecnico. Los resultados de

ambos mtodos se ajustan razonablemente bien a las observaciones post-ssmicas en el lugar.

Palabras-Clave: extensin lateral, SPT, CPT, tcnicas basadas en ondas de superficie, expresiones

empricas de prediccin, modelacin mediante elementos finitos

Abstract

The paper describes a detailed field survey conducted at Lo Rojas fishermen port in Coronel,

where extensive liquefaction induced lateral-spreading was reported for the 2010, Maule

earthquake. The survey includes SPT and CPT soundings, as well as the use of some surface-based

geophysical techniques. The data was used to evaluate empirical prediction lateral-spread

expressions and to develop a detailed hydro-mechanical finite element model. Results of both

empirical expressions and numerical models agree reasonably well with post-event field

observations.

Keywords: lateral-spreading, SPT, CPT, surface-wave based methods, empirical prediction

equations, finite element modeling

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1 Introduction

The 27th of February 2010 earthquake caused important damage to ports and bridges,

considerably affecting the countrys economic activities. In many cases, this damage was

associated with liquefaction-induced lateral spreading phenomena, in which large masses of soil

slide over a liquefied layer, imposing large displacement demands on existing structures.

Caleta Lo Rojas, located 25 km south from Concepcin, is a fishermens wharf that showed clear

evidence of liquefaction-induced lateral spreading. The most damaged structure was a pier, which

had to be replaced after the earthquake (Fig. 1a). The huge horizontal displacements that affected

the area produced the catastrophic failure of the old pier (Fig. 1b). During a post earthquake

reconnaissance (Bray et al, 2012), cumulative horizontal displacements were measured by

summing the crack widths along the line indicated in Fig.1a. A lateral maximum movement of

about 2.6 m was observed across a distance of approximately 85 m (Fig.1c).

In the present study, an extensive survey was performed to characterize the site, and then

simplified and sophisticated modeling methods were applied to reproduce the observed postseismic displacements. The survey included seismic geophysical methods, SPT and CPT soundings.

(b)

New

pier

Damaged

pier

(a)

(c)

Fig. 1 Lo Rojas case: (a) Lateral spread measurement line; (b) Cumulative horizontal ground

displacement; (c) Damaged pier.

2 Exploration boreholes

Boreholes SM-1 and SM-2 were drilled for the new wharfs construction project in 2010, next to

the old pier that was severely damaged during the earthquake (Fig. 1c). Each borehole was about

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25 meters deep from mean sea-level. During this investigation, borehole ST-1 was drilled to a

depth of 20 meters from a relative elevation of 2.87 meters above sea-level. Additionally, two

Cone Penetration Tests (CPT5 and CPT6) were performed. Locations of boreholes are shown in

Figure 2.

Figure 3a displays the corrected blow count (N1)60 values. Results from SM-1 and SM-2 were

corrected assuming an energy efficiency of 60%, while effective energy was recorded during ST-1

drilling. Using the available bathymetry, absolute vertical elevation to sea-level was computed for

each borehole. The results show a big contrast between the first 20 meters and deeper soils. From

ST-1, a transition between soft and denser material appears at about 14 m below sea-level, while

marine soundings indicate that this transition takes place at 20 m below sea-level.

(a)

(b)

Fig. 3 (a) Stratigraphy and comparison from 3 boreholes (SM-1, SM-2 and ST-1); (b) SBT Index from

CPT and Safety Factor to Liquefaction in ST-1 sounding.

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Figure 3b displays SBT (Soil Behavior Type) from CPT borings according to Robertson (2010). The

data indicates two dominant materials in the first 20 meters: sand and silt. There is a transition

between these types of soil as can be noted from SBT values with depth. In Figure 3b, the first 8

meters from the surface are mainly clean sands that progressively change to silty sand for the

following 4 meters, and then turn into clayey silt to silty clay at 20m below the surface. (N1)60

values for the first 20 meters are practically uniform and lower than 10 blows. Also, USCS

classification from ST-1 samples (Figure 3a) agrees with the SBT index, showing very similar

transitions and designations. With such low values of (N1)60, usual liquefaction assessment

methods predict liquefaction down to 20m below sea-level. Factor of Safety against Liquefaction

(FSL) was calculated for SPT and CPT measurements (Fig. 3b), considering fines content corrections

(Youd et al, 2001). Safety factors from CPT-5 and CPT-6 predicts that superficial strata are nonliquefiable, as well as soils below z=-15m, which coincides with the most complete stratum found

in ST-1 sounding.

Bray and Sancio (2006) proposed limits to define non-liquefiable soil in terms of Plasticity Index

(PI). According to these authors, if the PI is higher than 20 or the moisture content is lower than

0.8 times the Liquid Limit value, the material will not liquefy. Clay layers CH and CL (from z=-11 to 19) meet at least one of these criteria, possibly defining the depth limit for the liquefiable

behavior. Hence, this layer likely defines the surface driving lateral-spreading.

Granulometric curves from the ST-1 sounding exhibits a clear progression from granular soil to

fines, as shown in Figure 4. The fines content varies progressively from 1% in the first 6 meters, to

70% at 15 meters below sea-level. This transition between strata likely guides the movement of

lateral spreading triggered by liquefaction of the superficial stratum.

GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY

The geophysical survey in Caleta Lo Rojas explored two areas, labeled SW-1 and SW-2.

Additionally, the Horizontal to Vertical Spectral Ratio (Nakamura, 1989) was calculated for six

points, which are displayed along with SW-1 and SW-2 in Figure 5. The markers colors indicate the

fundamental frequency calculated for each point according to the color scale on the left (in Hertz).

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Seismic surface-wave based geophysics methods characterize dispersive properties of a site using

both passive sources (ambient vibrations) and active sources (sledgehammer). For this

investigation, we used a seismograph of 24 channels with two kinds of geophones, with a natural

frequency of 4.5 Hz and 1 Hz. Lower frequency implies longer wavelengths which permit deeper

exploration. In this case, due to very low shear wave velocity of the soil, the use of 1 Hz was

essential to reach at least 30 m of depth. The analysis performed assumed only Rayleigh waves.

For source controlled experiments (active tests), we used the Multichannel Analysis of Surface

Waves (Park et al. 1999) MASW method. For ambient noise measurements (passive sources), we

used SPAC (Aki, 1957) and f-k methods (Lacoss et al, 1969) in the case of bi-dimensional arrays.

Additionally, for the analysis of passive linear measurements, we used the Extended SPAC (ESPAC)

under the assumption of isotropic incident fields (Hayashi, 2008).

(a)

(b)

(c)

Fig. 6 (a) SW-2 geophysical survey geometry; (b) Example of ellipticity curve; (c) shear wave profiles

(two sites and comparison with CPT).

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Figure 6a displays the Dispersive properties of the area SW-2 explored, combining the results of

SPAC, f-k, ESPAC and MASW methods along a linear and a circular array. Agreement between the

different techniques is very satisfactory and allows characterization of the dispersion curve

between 2.5 and 30 Hz approximately. It is important to note that geophysical survey does not

characterize any specific point, but represents an average across the area covered by the arrays.

Once a dispersion curve is obtained, the inversion must generate a model of horizontal soil layers

with elastic properties compatible with field observations in terms of the dispersive characteristics

(dispersion or autocorrelation curves). In this work, we use the extension of the Neighborhood

Algorithm (NA; Sambridge, 2001) proposed by Wathelet (2008) to solve the inverse problem. The

results of the application of this method to areas SW-1 and SW-2 are displayed in Fig.6c. The

results are compared against direct measurement performed by seismic cone on borings CPT-5

and CPT-6. The shear wave velocity profiles obtained from the geophysical survey have an

excellent agreement with the profiles obtained from CPT measurements. It is interesting to note

that geophysical survey was performed several months before CPT and SPT soundings, in order to

define their location.

Additionally, Figure 6b shows a typical result of HV Spectral Ratio. The large amplitude peak

implies the existence of a clear stiffness contrast between the two soils. Mean fundamental

frequency for this site is f0 = 1.66 Hz, with a representative shear wave velocity of Vs = 160 m/s. A

quick estimation of the stiff material depth (Vs=4 H f0) is 24 m from soil surface, which is in good

agreement with the depth of the stiff material reported in Fig.6c. Even if this stiffer material

detected by Nakamuras method is not the bedrock, this stiffness contrast defines the

predominant vibration period for this site.

Geotechnical model

To estimate lateral spreading using both empirical and detailed numerical methods, a geotechnical

model of the area was built. This model was constructed based on the available bathymetry

provided by the Ports Department of the Minister of Public Works along the cross section

displayed in Figure 7a.

(a)

(b)

Fig. 7 Geotechnical model (a) section for modeling selected to use the available bathymetry; (b)

developed geotechnical model

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Even if the available measurements do not follow exactly the same line, we chose this section to

fully take advantage of the available bathymetry data. We believe that results across the selected

direction would not be too different from actual field conditions. The adopted geotechnical model

based on boreholes, geophysics and available bathymetry is shown in Figure 7b. In this figure,

each square has 10x10 m side. The bathymetry indicates a steep slope with a level change of

around 10 m along 90 m, a necessary condition to develop lateral spreading.

The profile is characterized mainly by three materials: H1 (clean sand to silty sand), H2 (silty sand

to sandy silt) and H3 (clayey silt to silty clay). Additionally, a lens of cemented sand and gravel was

assumed from SM-1 borehole information. Material H1 is liquefiable, while material H2 is

liquefiable probably only in their upper part (somewhere in between z=-11m to -15m) due to the

increase of fine contents with depth. H3 is considered non-liquefiable. For sand and silty sand

stratum (H1), marine borings SM-1 and SM-2 produce oscillating values of FSL value below z=-20m

(Figure 3b). Hence, the material at this depth is probably too dense to liquefy. For the lateral

spreading assessment presented in the next two sections, it was assumed that H1 material located

over z=-20m could liquefy.

Based on the information presented in previous sections, revised multilinear regression (MLR)

equations predicting lateral spread displacement as published by Youd et al. (2002) are assessed.

This revision suggests improvements to the Bartlett and Youd (1992, 1995) MLR equations, such as

an added constant to the distance term to prevent unrealistically large displacements and

additions to the case history database. The general form of the revised MLR equation for free-face

conditions is:

= 16.713 + 1.532 M 1.406 log 0.012 R + 0.592 log + 0.540 log 15 +

3.413 log(100 15 ) 0.795 log(5015 + 0.1 )

(1)

meters; M is the moment magnitude of the earthquake; R is the nearest horizontal or map

distance from the site to the seismic energy source (in kilometers), R0 is a distance constant that is

a function of M; R* is the modified source distance; T15 is the cumulative thickness of saturated

layers with corrected blow counts, (N1)60, less than 15, in meters; F15 is the average fines content

(fraction of sediment sample passing a No. 200 sieve) for materials included within T15, in percent;

D5015 is the average mean grain size for materials within T15, in millimeters; W is the free-face

ratio defined as the height (H) of the free face divided by the distance (L) from the base of the

free-face to the site, in percent.

As discussed in section 4, the liquefiable layer was determined to extend from the surface to a

minimum elevation of -11 m. According to ST-1, the closest sounding to the wall where

displacement was measured, about 4.5m of the 11m below sea-level is clayey sand with a high PI

of 11.4 and over 30% fines, indicating it is unlikely to liquefy. This leaves a continuous 6.5 m of

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sand with (N1)60 less than 15 used for T15, which is consistent with CPT data showing a high SBT

below an elevation of 6.5m as shown in Figure 3b. Due to the scarcity of sample data from SM-1

and SM-2, fines content and grain size data were only considered from ST-1. Using the same layers

considered for T15, F15=3.32% and D5015=0.44. The location of the free-face was estimated at

about the location of SM-1, as the ground appears to level off at this location according to Figure

7b, such that W=11.6%. R was considered the distance from the site to the zone of maximum

uplifts observed for the Maule Earthquake. According to Vargas et al. (2011), the zone of

maximum coastal uplifts was located at Piures, about 47 km from the Lo Rojas pier.

Entering these values into equation (1), the horizontal displacement is DH=10.6 m. Despite the

addition of the constant R0=155.6 km, it appears that the exaggerated estimate of displacement

may be due to the relatively small distance term. Additionally, since the zone of maximum uplift

would be difficult to estimate before the occurrence of the earthquake in question, a method to

estimate distance to the maximum zone of uplift is necessary. For this study, using half the

distance from the surface trace of the fault rupture to the site is proposed, such that R = 80km.

Using the revised measure of R and the same values listed previously for all other parameters,

equation (1) calculates DH = 3.4 m. Additional study of high magnitude case histories would be

necessary to verify this approach.

Although the free-face scenario appears the best fit for the Lo Rojas pier, the gentle slope scenario

is examined for completeness. The parameters are the same as for the free-face scenario, only the

free-face ratio is omitted and a term including S=the ground slope in percent is added.

Additionally, coefficients for the gentle slope scenario are different, such that:

= 16.213 + 1.532 M 1.406 log 0.012 R + 0.338 log + 0.540 log 15 +

3.413 log(100 15 ) 0.795 log(5015 + 0.1 )

(2)

A slope S=5.45% was estimated from Figure 7b. Using R = 40 km, DH=13.9 m, and when R = 80 km,

DH=4.5 m. The modified R better approximates measured lateral spread than the distance to the

nearest bound of seismic energy source from the Youd et al. (2002) equation, despite the slight

overestimate. Table 1 summarizes results from both equations and R values. As the 2002 revised

equation was developed from a case history database which lacks a significant number of large

magnitude earthquakes, further study of the effect of the distance term for large magnitude

earthquakes is suggested for future revisions of the MLR equations.

Table 1 Horizontal Displacement (m) from Youd et al. equations with original and modified values of R

DH (m)

Ground

Conditions

Youd et al. R Modified R

Free-face

10.6

3.4

Gently Sloping

13.9

4.5

6 Numerical Modeling

Based on the geotechnical information summarized in Fig.7, we developed a fully coupled hidromechanic inelastic finite element model to reproduce the field observations shown in Fig.1b. In

this model, the soil-fluid mixture was treated according the u-p formulation (Zienkiewicz and

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Shiomi, 1984). This formulation neglects the fluid acceleration and its convective terms, so that

the unknown variables remain the displacement of the solid u and the water pressure p. Soil grain

compressibility is neglected and the behavior of the solid skeleton is derived assuming the

principle of effective stress as proposed by Terzaghi. Under such assumptions the numerical

problem consists in solving the conservation of momentum of the soil-fluid mixture, the relative

flow equation and the mass conservation simultaneously.

The construction of a finite element mesh requires limiting the extent of the problem, both

horizontally and vertically. Vertically, the model displayed in Fig.7 was extended 5 m below the

bedrock, and paraxial elements were used below this level (Modaressi and Benzenati, 1994). The

function of these elements is twofold: on one hand they are used to introduce the earthquake

loading to the model after de-convolution from the outcropping bedrock, and on the other, they

absorb the waves originating inside the model by the vibration of the tank, as well as the waves

reflected on the surface and those at the interfaces between layers of soil. The horizontal

extension of the model was limited to 260 m. This distance is large enough to capture local effects

in the steepest part of the slope. Since the model is completely inelastic, traditional absorbent

elements cannot be used on the vertical edges. One way to solve this problem is to use

appropriate lateral boundaries to ensure free-field conditions far away from the slope.

free-field 1D

column

free-field 1D

column

Fluid boundary

65m

260m

As the problem is not horizontally periodic, a standard tied approach (Zienkiewicz et al, 1988) is

not appropriated for this case. In order to impose free field condition at vertical edges, three

approaches were investigated: (FEM-DOF) to impose displacements and pressures from a 1D

dimensional propagation simulation; (FEM-Force) to impose equivalent lateral forces from freefield 1D column computation (Bielak et al. 2003); (FEM-Column) includes in the complete 2d

model free-field columns at lateral edges (Mc Gann and Arduino, 2011). Approaches FEMDOF/Force requires two computations: firstly the free-field 1D column must be solved and,

afterwards, the equivalent displacements or forces are imposed to the 2D model on vertical edges.

Approach FEM-Column has the advantage of requiring a single computation.

The finite element mesh used is shown in Fig. 8, where each color corresponds to a group of items,

internally defined in the program, that match the different material properties that were

considered. For the FEM-Column approach, the mesh includes both free-field columns displayed in

Fig.8. In the case of FEM-DOF/Force approaches, free-field column are solved separately and 2D

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model includes only displacements or forces over the vertical boundaries. The mesh including the

columns is composed of about 2800 nodes and 5300 solid triangular elements, for a total of

around 8000 degrees of freedom (mechanical and hydraulic). This finite element mesh is fine

enough for the considered problem, since it satisfies the condition of having at least eight nodes

by wave length up to 10 Hz. All calculations were carried out with the program GEFDyn (Aubry &

Modaressi, 1996), which is capable of modeling thermo-hydro-mechanical coupled problems on

static, quasi-static, as well as dynamic regimes. Once the initial stress state is computed, the

seismic analysis is performed around the initial static situation, which corresponds to a dynamic

disturbance analysis.

The Ecole Centrale Pariss (ECP) elasto-plastic multi-mechanism model (Hujeux, 1985) was used to

represent the sand behavior. The ability of this model to reproduce liquefaction has been

highlighted in several studies (e.g. Lopez-Caballero and Modaressi, 2008, 2010; Sez and Ledezma,

2014). Sands and silt models, consistent with the SPT/CPT data from the site, were selected from

the authors materials library.

In order to highlight the influence of the treatment of the vertical edges on the liquefaction

induced lateral-spreading, we selected the NS component from the Maule 2010 Earthquake record

at Rapel station on rock. This station is located approximately 500 km north of Coronel, and the

record has a duration of about 90s and a PGA of 0.2g. Figure 9a displays the excess pore pressure

ratio Ru contour plots at 80s for the three explored approaches. It can be noted that complete

liquefaction takes place approximately in the same areas, independent of the approach adopted.

In the case of the FEM-DOF approach, pore pressure increases seem to be deeper compared to

other computations. Only in the case of the FEM-Force approach does liquefaction seems

discontinuous close to the toe of the slope. Despite these minor differences, results are

qualitatively very similar.

FEM-DOF

FEM-Force

FEM-Column

Fig. 9 Boundary conditions benchmarking: (a) Pore pressure ratio Ru contour maps; (b) cumulated

horizontal displacement

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In order to provide a more quantitative comparison, Fig.9b shows the cumulative horizontal

displacements measured across the projection of the line measured by Bray et al. (2012) over the

section considered for modeling. In terms of maximum values, the FEM-Column approach

provides the closer value when compared to field measurements (57% less cumulated horizontal

displacement). Results from FEM-DOF/Force are identical for practical purposes. It is interesting to

note that cumulative displacement between 20 to 80 m from the wall face considered a reference

during the field survey are very similar to those obtained from the FEM-Column model, but the

large increase taking place in the first 20m is not accurately reproduced. Probably, wide cracks

observed in this area in the field survey cannot be reproduced by a continuous modeling strategy

such as FEM.

Rapel station is located around 500 km from Lo Rojas, while coastal maximum uplifts were located

less than 50 km from Coronel. Hence, the effective motion at bedrock level in this area was likely

significantly stronger than the record in Rapel, which could also explain differences observed in

maximum horizontal displacements. Unfortunately, the closest reliable record on rock for this

event is Rapel station and no similar soil condition records are available.

7 Conclusions

In the present study, an extensive survey including geophysical methods, SPT and CPT soundings

was conducted to characterize the site of Caleta Lo Rojas in Coronel city, where large seismicallyinduced lateral spreading was reported for the Maule 2010 earthquake. The information indicates

that the site is characterized by a steep slope of about 11% along approximately 90m. The

shallowest stratum is characterized by 7m of low-density clean sand, followed by about 5m of

clayed sand. Below this level, the high fines content (large than 50%) defines a boundary driving

lateral-spreading. Based on this information, simplified and sophisticated modeling methods were

applied to reproduce the observed post-seismic displacements.

Empirical prediction equations prove to be extremely sensitive to the distance from the site to the

energy source. In subduction zones such as Chile, the rupture area of big earthquakes could be

several hundreds of kilometers. In this study, we adopt the distance to the maximum observed

coastal uplift. Using this value, empirical predictions largely surpassed the available observations,

but using half the distance from the surface trace of the fault rupture to the site provides results

which satisfactorily match in-situ post-earthquake measurements.

In numerical modeling, despite several sources of uncertainty regarding material distribution and

their properties, results obtained with the FEM-Column approach are quite accurate, even

considering that they reported half of the measured displacement, since the problem is extremely

complex. A laboratory testing program is being conducted using samples from ST-1. Based on

these laboratory results, constitutive models will be recalibrated to improve FEM results. Also, the

simultaneous inclusion of the vertical component of the record will be considered in future stages

of this investigation.

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conditions. In: Advances in Computational Nonlineal Mechanics 1988, 109-138.

[24] Zienkiewicz O, Shiomi,T. Dynamic behaviour of saturated porous media: the generalized Biot

formulation and its numerical solution. International Journal of Numerical and Analytical

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