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MT 247

POWER ELECTRONICS
Lecture 2a: Power Semi-Conductor Diodes
(Chapter :2 )

Instructor: Mariam Saleem

10/5/2016

Lecture Outline
Semi Conductor Basics
Diodes
Ideal & Reverse Recovery Characteristics
Connecting diodes in a cct.

Semiconductor (SC) Basics

In terms
of Electrical
Copper,
Silver,
Gold,
into Aluminium
three Groups

Properties Materials
Materials

Conductors
Conduct electric
current
Valence electrons are
loosely bounded to
the parents atom

SemiBetween
conductor
Conductors
and insulator

Few Electrons & Holes


Silicon, Germanium,
and Carbon

wood
Silicon,
Germanium,
can be classified
Carbon

Insulators
Does not conduct
electric current
Valence electrons are
bounded tightly to
the parents atom

Intrinsic or Pure
Semiconductor

extrinsic or impure
or Doped
Semiconductor
N-Type SC P-Type SC

SC in this state are of


little value

+ive
-ive
Majority
carriers Majority
carriers
Charged
charged
Electrons
Holes

Do not Conduct well


carriers are both
Holes & Electrons

Diodes
A semiconductor diode is formed with
pieces of N and P-type material are
joined.
The P material is called the anode.
The N material is called the cathode.
The resulting structure is called a PN
junction.
A PN junction (or diode) is a switch or
component through which electrons will
flow easily in one direction but not in
the opposite direction.
To represent the diode in schematic
diagrams, we use the symbol shown on
the right.

The pn Junction
p-type

n-type

anode

cathode

metal
silicon oxide

integrated circuit diode

doped silicon
wafer (chip)

Dopant distribution inside a


pn junction
excess holes diffuse
to the n-type region
p>>n

n>>p
excess electrons diffuse
to the p-type region

Dopant distribution inside a


pn junction
excess holes diffuse
to the n-type region
p>>n

- +
- +
- +

n>>p
excess electrons diffuse
to the p-type region

DEPLETION REGION:
p~0, and acceptor ions
are exposed
-

n~0, and donor ions


are exposed +

Zero Bias
p>>n

voltage,
V(x)

~0.7 volts
(for Si)

- +
- +
- +

n>>p

At zero bias (vD=0), very few electrons or


holes can overcome this built-in voltage
barrier of ~ 0.7 volts (and exactly balanced
by diffusion)
iD = 0

Forward Bias
p>>n

- +
- +
- +

n>>p

vD

As the bias (vD), increases toward 0.7V,


more electrons and holes can overcome the
built-in voltage barrier . iD > 0

Reverse Bias
p>>n

- +
- +
- +

n>>p

As the bias (vD) becomes negative, the


barrier becomes larger. Only electrons
and holes due to broken bonds contribute
to the diode current.
iD = -Is

Breakdown
p>>n

- +
- +
- +

n>>p

Ideal-Diode Model
* We may apply Ideal-Diode Model to simplify the analysis:
(1) in forward direction: short-circuit assumption, zero voltage drop;
(2) in reverse direction: open-circuit assumption.
* The ideal-diode model can be used when the forward voltage drop and reverse currents
are negligible.

12

Properties of Diodes
The Shockley Equation
The trans-conductance curve is characterized by the following equation:

ID = I0(eVD/VT 1)
ID is the current through the diode, Io is the
saturation current and VD is the applied
biasing voltage. VT is the thermal equivalent voltage
and is approximately 26 mV at room temperature.
The equation to find VT at various temperatures is:
VT = kT
q
k = 1.38 x 10-23 J/K
T = temperature in Kelvin
q = 1.6 x 10-19 C
is the emission coefficient for the diode.
It is determined by the way the diode is constructed.

Strong dependence of Vt (forward threshold) on temp (T)


For Silicon the voltage drop decreases by 2.5mV/0C as
temperature increases
iD
Red

= Room T (250C) Vt = 0.7V

Vt = 0.7 V at 250C
Green=Elevated T(250C+T ) Vt=0.7-V
Forward bias
Vt = 0.7-V at (250C+T)
-V

Io
Reversed bias

-i

0.7-V 0.7

VD

THIS VOLTAGE CHANGE ( 0.7-V )


FORMS THE BASIS OF SOME SCJUNCTION TEMPERATURE SENSORS

Example 1
Assume the diode is a low-power diode with a forward resistance
value of 5 ohms. The barrier potential voltage is still: V = 0.3 volts
(typical for a germanium diode) Determine the value of ID if VA = 5
volts.
RS = 50
ID
VA

+
_

RS = 50
ID
VA

+
_

RF

Once again, write a KVL equation


for the circuit:
0 = VA IDRS - V - IDRF
ID = VA - V = 5 0.3 = 85.5 mA
RS + R F
50 + 5

Example 2
For the circuit shown below evaluate the unknown quantities

Example 3
Analyze the circuit using ideal diode model

Assignment 1
Plot the V-I characteristic of germanium diode. Represent
graphically the effect of temperature in forward & reverse biased
region.

submissiOn date :
6th OctOber ,2016

Example 2.1

Diode Reverse Recovery Time

trr=Reverse recovery
time
IRR=Max(Peak) reverse
current

ta= charge

due to depletion region of junction OR is the time to


remove the charge stored in the depletion region of the junction

tb

is the time to remove the charge stored in the bulk


semiconductor material

Short
circuit

trr=Reverse recovery time;

IRR=Max(Peak) reverse current

General purpose diodes trr= 25 sec; Rectifiers - (1 kHz)


Fast Recover diodes trr=5 sec; ( Dc-Dc, Dc to ac converters)

Two Series-Connected Diodes


Use 2 diodes in series to withstand
higher reverse breakdown voltage.
Both diodes conduct the same
reverse saturation current, Io.

Increase
reverse
capabilities (HVDC-T)

blocking

Diodes characteristics differ (same


manufacturer) due to tolerance in their
production

Forward biased current same;


reverse biased leakage current may
differ

v-i Diodes characteristics

Due to differences between


devices, each diode has a
different voltage across it.
Would like to Equalize the
voltages, due to tolerance
in their production.

Series-Connected Diodes with


Voltage -Sharing Resistors Characteristics

v-i Diodes characteristics

Is = Is1+IR1 = Is2+IR2
IR1 = VD1/R1
IR2 = VD2/R2 = VD1/R2

Is1+VD1/R1 = IS2+VD1/R2
Let R = R1 = R2
Is1 + VD1/R = Is2 +VD2/R
VD1 + VD2 = Vs

Example 4
Is1 = 30mA, Is2 = 35mA
VD = 5kV
(a) R1=R2=R=100k,
find VD1 and VD2
(b) Find R1 and R2 for
VD1=VD2=VD/2

Is1 = 30mA
Is2 = 35mA
R 1 = R 2 = R = 100k
-VD = -VD1 - VD2
VD2 = VD - VD1
VD1
VD2
Is1 +
= Is2 +
R
R
VD R
VD1 =
+ (IS2 - IS1 )
2
2
5kV 100k
VD1 =
+
(3510 -3 - 3010 -3 ) = 2750Volts
2
2
VD2 = VD - VD1 = 5kV - 2750 = 2250Volts

Is 1 = 3 0 m A
Is 2 = 3 5 m A
VD
VD 1 = VD 2 =
= 2 .5 k V
2
V
V
Is 1 + D 1 = Is 2 + D 2
R1
R2

R2 =

VD 1

VD 2R 1
- R 1 (I s 2 - I s 1 )

R1 = 100k
R2
R2

2 .5 k V 1 0 0 k
=
2 .5 k V - 1 0 0 k (3 5 1 0 -3 - 3 0 1 0 -3 )
= 125k

Example 5
V S 5 kV

I S 1 30 mA

I S 2 35 mA

Find the diode voltages if R1 = R2 =R = 100 k


Find the voltage sharing resistancesR1 and R2 for
equal diode voltages

Parallel-Connected Diodes

Increase current carrying capabilities (HVDC transmission)

Same type and Diodes With

equal Forward voltage drops

As connected in parallel the VRB each diode would be same

End Problems

End Problems
2.1,2.2,2.3,2.4,2.5,2.6