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# DIVISION OF PHYSICAL SCIENCES AND MATHEMATICS

## College of Arts and Sciences University of the Philippines Visayas

Group #: 8
Members:

Date Performed:
Date Submitted: April 16, 2016

## Bryle Kristiann Camarote

Dion Paul Caspe
Emmauel Plaza
Emman Lliam Prisco
Alec Rojer Vista`
Experiment # 1
Ohm's Law

I. OBJECTIVE:
1. To be able to determine the relationship between the voltage across a resistor and the
current through it.
2. To be able to identify an unknown value of resistor using its voltage and current
relationships.
3. To be able to identify ohmic and non-ohmic resistive properties of circuit loads.
4. To be able
to establish
the
relationship
between
voltage
resistance when the current flowing in a resistor is made constant.

and

II. THEORY
The Ohms Law is absolutely the most common and most powerful single relationship in the study of
electricity or electronics today. This law explains the interrelationship of voltage, current, and resistance. In its most
basic form this law states that the amount of current through the material varies directly with the applied voltage,
and varies inversely with the resistance of the material.
Current varies directly with applied voltage. This means that a change in the voltage applied to a circuit will
likewise cause the current flowing in the circuit to change. If the resistance is held constant, the current change will
follow the pattern of the voltage change. Doubling the voltage will double the current; halving the voltage will
halve the current (Cardenas, 1989).
Current varies inversely with resistance. Changing the resistance in a circuit will also cause a change in current
flow. If the voltage applied to a circuit is held constant, and the resistance in the circuit is increased, with more
opposition to current flow in the circuit, the circuit current will decrease. On the other hand, if the resistance is
decreased, the amount of current flow in the circuit will be increased (Cardenas, 1989).
If the voltage across the resistor is measured with a voltmeter and the current through the resistor is
measured with an ammeter in series shown with a fixed or constant resistance, a change in voltage will cause the
current to change in what is called a linear or straight line manner.

Miagao,Iloilo5023Philippines
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## Figure1. Circuit with Ammeter and Voltmeter

(Source: Basic Circuit Components, 2015)
This linear relationship is often expressed in equation form.
Eqn. 1
Where,
V Potential difference in Volt
I- Current in Ampere
R Resistance in Ohms

III. APPARATUS

resistors
variable resistor
variable DC power supply
analog multimeter
bread board
set of connecting wires

IV. METHOD
Each resistors will be connected in series with the power supply. Voltage across and current flowing
through each resistors will be recorded. Resistors will be replaced by an unknown resistor value and the
same data will be obtained.
Relationship between voltage and resistance will be experimentally obtained using a constant
current source for the circuit. Current will be controlled by a variable resistor in series with the power
supply.

Miagao,Iloilo5023Philippines
Tel.Nos. (33)3159625or5084164-65 local 239
TeleFax(33)5138785
email address: psm@upv.edu.ph

## DIVISION OF PHYSICAL SCIENCES AND MATHEMATICS

V. PROCEDURE
5. Turn on the DC power supply and set it to 12 volts. Using the multimeter, measure the terminal
voltage of the power supply. It is a good practice to take measurements initially with the meters
connected to the largest scales. This prevents the instruments from being damaged. Also take care
to ensure the proper polarity (+ and -) of the connections. Please ask your instructor to check your
connections before turning on your circuit or power supply. Set up the circuit as shown below.
Different values of resistors given to the group will be used for R s. Rh will be your variable resistor
and must be set initially to its maximum resistance.
6.

## VARIATION OF CURRENT WITH VOLTAGE

After the instructor has checked the circuit, turn on the DC power supply and read the voltage and
current on the meters. Turn off the power supply after reading and recording the data in Table 1.
Repeat this procedure for other values of Rh.

7.

Turn the knob of the variable resistor to bring back its value to its maximum. Repeat step 3 for
another value of Rs. Repeat this until all values of Rs given by the instructor has been finished.

8.

Repeat step 3 for the unknown resistance and record data in Table 2.

9.

Plot the results for different resistances on a single V s-versus-Is graph and perform a best fit line for
the data. Determine the slopes of the lines and compare them with the constant values of R s.
Compute for the percent errors.

10. Plot Vs versus Is for the unknown resistance. What is its value?
11. VARIATION OF CURRENT AND RESISTANCE (CONSTANT Vs)
Please use the same circuit above. In this case, V s is maintained constant by adjusting the knob of
the variable resistor Rh when the Rs is varied. Initially, set the variable resistor's value to its
maximum and Rs to its maximum value too. Record the value of R s in Table 3. Turn on the power
supply and record the value of Vs which will be used as the constant value voltage. Turn off the
power supply after data has been recorded.
12. Repeat step 8 for the remaining values for Rs. Each time adjusting values of Rh to make the voltage
Vs constant. Record the data in Table 3.
13. Plot the results on an Is-versus-1/Rs graph and perform a best fit line on the data. Determine the
slope of the line and compare it with the constant value of V s. Compute for the percent error.

## VI. DATA AND COMPUTATIONS

Miagao,Iloilo5023Philippines
Tel.Nos. (33)3159625or5084164-65 local 239
TeleFax(33)5138785
email address: psm@upv.edu.ph

## DIVISION OF PHYSICAL SCIENCES AND MATHEMATICS

Table 1. Experimental Values of Voltage and Current
Terminal voltage Vs= 12 V
Rh Value ()

Rh Value ()

Constant Rs = 991
Voltage
Current Is
Constant Rs = 495
Vs (V )
(mA)

Rh Value ()

Constant Rs = 225.6

## Terminal voltage Vs =12 V

Voltage
Current Is (mA)
Rh Value
Constant Rs = 4.64 k
Vs (V )
()
913
2.556
10.538
Voltage
Current Is (mA)
803
2.607
11.665
Vs (V )
698
2.904
12.993
912
9.76
2.1246

809

6.18
Voltage
6.54Vs (V )

705
912

6.94
4.18

6.302
Current Is
6.663
(mA)
7.073
8.519

596
798

7.41
4.55

7.554
9.27

603
810

3.325
9.93

14.462
2.1636

702
503

4.91
7.87

10.012
8.022

701
497

10.14
3.71

2.2064
16.583

601
396

5.36
8.48

10.93
8.643

605
395

10.32
4.31

2.2471
19.293

501
299.1
400
202.8
303.2
101.6
202.6
49.8
105.1

5.90
9.12

12.031
9.301

506
302.2

10.51
5.07

2.2877
22.722

6.56
9.85
7.36
10.77
8.42
11.31
9.78

13.383
10.048
15.018
10.984
17.190
11.536
19.980

406
204.8
306.5
101.4
199.6
52.5
106.8

10.72
6.21
10.93
8.17
11.17
9.63
11.38

2.3330
27.828
2.3803
36.601
2.4322
43.155
2.4784

21.976

49.3

11.51

2.5079

913

50.1

10.75

Miagao,Iloilo5023Philippines
Tel.Nos. (33)3159625or5084164-65 local 239
TeleFax(33)5138785
email address: psm@upv.edu.ph

## DIVISION OF PHYSICAL SCIENCES AND MATHEMATICS

Figure 2. Graph 1: Voltage vs Current for Rs= 991

## Figure 3.Graph 2: Voltage vs Current for Rs= 225.6

Miagao,Iloilo5023Philippines
Tel.Nos. (33)3159625or5084164-65 local 239
TeleFax(33)5138785
email address: psm@upv.edu.ph

## DIVISION OF PHYSICAL SCIENCES AND MATHEMATICS

Figure 4. Graph 3: Voltage vs Current for Rs= 495

Graph

Rtheo ()

## Percentage Error (%)

991

0.9793

3.04

225.6

4.555

2.70

495

2.0978

3.70

4640

0.2148

0.33

Miagao,Iloilo5023Philippines
Tel.Nos. (33)3159625or5084164-65 local 239
TeleFax(33)5138785
email address: psm@upv.edu.ph

Calculations

## 1. Calculation of Experimental Resistance from

Slope

Eqn. 2
Where,
m Slope of the Line
Rexp Experimental Resistance
a. Rtheo1 = 991

b. Rtheo2 = 225.6

c. Rtheo2 = 495

d. Rtheo2 = 4.64 k

## 2. Calculation for Percentage Error

Eqn. 3

Miagao,Iloilo5023Philippines
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a. Rtheo1 = 991

## DIVISION OF PHYSICAL SCIENCES AND MATHEMATICS

3.04%
b. Rtheo2 = 225.6

2.70%
c. Rtheo2 = 495

3.70%
d. Rtheo2 =4.64 k

0.33%

VII. QUESTIONS

1. If the DC power supply is kept on for a very long time, the circuit components will heat up. How
would this affect the measurements?
Answer: Excess current will heat up the components and they will fail thus affecting its
measuring capacity. Thus, it is a must to always check the temperature of the components to avoid
overheating.

2. Compute the values of Rh and the voltage drops across this resistance for the all values of R s in
Table 1. How do the values compare?

Answer: The values obtained for Rh and voltage drops for each constant resistance Rs show
that as the Rh decreases, the voltage drops increases. This suggests that as the resistance is
decreased, more current will flow and hence a larger voltage drop is obtained across each resistor.

3. In Table 1, what happened to the voltage across Rs as the current through it was increased? What is
the relationship between voltage and current when resistance is fixed?
Answer: As shown in the values experimentally obtained, as the current was increased the
voltage across Rs also increased. This shows that when resistance is held constant; the voltage across
is directly proportional to the current flowing through the resistor.

Miagao,Iloilo5023Philippines
Tel.Nos. (33)3159625or5084164-65 local 239
TeleFax(33)5138785
email address: psm@upv.edu.ph

## DIVISION OF PHYSICAL SCIENCES AND MATHEMATICS

VIII. DISCUSSION
In the experiment, four different constant resistances, Rs, were used with the variable
resistance, Rh. The voltage and current across each resistor were measured while varying the
resistances for each trial. Ten trials were performed for each constant resistor and the results
were graphed in the Current vs. Voltage plot. The relationship obtained from the four graphs is
consistent with the theoretical trend: Current is linearly dependent with voltage. This was
supported by the previous graphs by obtaining a sloping upward straight line for each. To
verify that the results obtained were indeed accurate enough, the experimental values of
resistances, Rexp, were computed from the slope m or 1/Rexp of the graph and compared with
the theoretical values of constant resistances. This involved of calculating the percentage errors.
The values of the percentage errors obtained verify the high accuracy of the data obtained from
the experiment with the theoretical data.
Possible sources of errors might result from: non-ideal resistances, maladjustment of the
variable resistor, inconsistent reading of voltage and current across each resistor and improper
handling
of
the
equipment
utilized.

IX. CONCLUSION
Ohms law states that the potential difference (voltage) across an ideal conductor is proportional
to the current through it. The constant of proportionality is called the "resistance", R .Ohm's Law is given
by: V = I R where V is the potential difference between two points which include a resistance R. It was
supported by the data obtained from the experiment that indeed voltage is directly related to current
when resistance is held constant. Also the circuit load used shows an ohmic resistive property since
resistance is stable within a wide range of conditions and thus they follow Ohm's Law. The conduction
through them is called linear conduction (little resistance change mostly by temperature which can be
plotted on graph as a straight line).

Miagao,Iloilo5023Philippines
Tel.Nos. (33)3159625or5084164-65 local 239
TeleFax(33)5138785
email address: psm@upv.edu.ph

## College of Arts and Sciences University of the Philippines

Visayas
X. REFERENCES
Cardenas, E. J. (1989). Ohms Law. In E. J. Cardenas, Fundamental and Elements of Electricity (pp. 39-42).
Mandaluyong: National Book Store.

Miagao,Iloilo5023Philippines
Tel.Nos. (33)3159625or5084164-65 local 239
TeleFax(33)5138785
email address: psm@upv.edu.ph

## College of Arts and Sciences University of the Philippines

Visayas

Miagao,Iloilo5023Philippines
Tel.Nos. (33)3159625or5084164-65 local 239
TeleFax(33)5138785
email address: psm@upv.edu.ph