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# Mathcad Prime 3.

0 Essentials

Course Objectives
In this course, you will learn how to:

## Open and save Mathcad files

Navigate the Mathcad workspace
Identify and format math and text regions
Develop and edit math expressions
Define, evaluate, and use variables
Assign an expression retroactively
Define and evaluate user-defined and built-in functions
Define, evaluate, and use range variables
Use units in calculations
Plot 2-D and 3-D graphs
Solve for the roots of a function with a single independent variable
Symbolically solve equations
Numerically solve a system of linear and nonlinear equations
Solve unconstrained and constrained optimization problems
Solve ordinary differential equations
Create a program within the Mathcad worksheet using Mathcad's programming features
Import and export data
Smooth, interpolate, and regress data

Training Agenda

## Module 3: Entering and Editing Math

Module 4: Variables

Module 5: Functions

Module 9: Units

Training Agenda

## Module 1: Getting Started

Mathcad Prime 3.0 Essentials

Objectives
After completing this module, you will be able to:

## Open Mathcad files.

This process enables you to open Mathcad, a new worksheet, or an existing file.
To get started:

## Open Mathcad and display a blank worksheet.

Open a new Mathcad worksheet.
Open an existing Mathcad file.

## Figure 2 Opening a New Worksheet or

an Existing Mathcad File

## The Mathcad Workspace

The Mathcad workspace consists of worksheets and user interface items.
The Mathcad workspace contains the following user interface items:

Ribbon
Status Bar

## Figure 1 The Mathcad Workspace

Display and calculate your work in Mathcad worksheets.
Math, text, and other elements are contained in
regions in your worksheet. The following types
of regions are available:

Math
Table
Plot
Solve Block
Image
Text Block or Box

## Saving Mathcad Files

Mathcad enables you to select from three file types when saving files.
To save a Mathcad file, select one of the following
file types to Save As:

MCDX
MCTX
XPS

## Module 2: Documenting and Formatting

Mathcad Prime 3.0 Essentials

Objectives
After completing this module, you will be able to:

## Work with text regions.

Embed math in a text region.
Use various options for formatting Mathcad worksheets.

Text Regions
Mathcad supports calculation documentation through the use of text regions.
Text regions:

## Are text blocks or text boxes.

Contain resize handles.
Have a text style that you can view on the Text
Formatting tab which determines:

## Figure 1 Text Region

Font
Size
Color
Other standard text properties

## Embedding Math in a Text Region

You can insert a math region in a text block or a text box.
You can embed:

Expressions
Definitions
Functions
Matrices
Figure 1 Embedded Live Math

## Options for Formatting Worksheets

Mathcad enables you to create readable, aesthetically pleasing worksheets.
You can format worksheets using one or more of the following options:

## Inserting and deleting blank lines.

Separating overlapping regions.
Displaying grids and adjusting the grid size.
Editing the worksheet header and footer.
Moving selected text regions using the arrow keys.

## Understanding Mathcad Templates

Templates are an important aspect of calculation management within an organization.
Mathcad templates can specify the following:

Math styles
Text styles
Page defaults
Numerical formats
Unit systems
Calculation mode
Plot values

## Module 3: Entering and Editing Math

Mathcad Prime 3.0 Essentials

Objectives
After completing this module, you will be able to:

## Use and modify operators.

Enter and evaluate a mathematical expression.
Format math regions.
Format mathematical results.
Use implied multiplication.

Using Operators
Operators are symbols, such as the plus sign (+) and the minus sign (-), that link variables and numbers together to
form expressions.
When typing or modifying a mathematical
expression in Mathcad you can:

Insert an operator.
Identify the operands.
Modify an existing operator.
Figure 1 Mathcad Expression Using
Multiple Operators

## Entering and Evaluating a Mathematical Expression

A mathematical expression in Mathcad is typed in a Math region using natural math notation.
You can use the following items to insert and
evaluate mathematical expressions:

Placeholders
Operators
Symbols
Constants

## Formatting Math Regions

Formatting can be applied to all math regions in a worksheet or in selected regions.
Formatting math regions can include:

Label styles.

## Formatting Mathematical Results

You can apply results formatting globally or to one or more regions in your worksheet.
The following formatting options are available:

Result Format
Display Precision
Show Trailing Zeros
Complex Values
Figure 1 Results Group: Math Formatting Tab

Implied Multiplication
Mathcad supports implied multiplication.
Implied multiplication:

## Useful when typing expressions.

Insert by typing a numerical constant followed
by a variable.
Use is not supported with the following
variables:

i, j.

## Figure 2 Explicit Multiplication

Module 4: Variables
Mathcad Prime 3.0 Essentials

Objectives
After completing this module, you will be able to:

Define a variable.
Evaluate a variable.
Define a global variable.
Assign an expression retroactively.
Use literal subscripts.

Defining a Variable
A variable may equal a scalar, array, string, or range of scalar values.

## Are defined by the Definition operator.

Variable names may include the following:

## Upper and lowercase letters.

Digits (0-9).
Underscore (_) character.
Symbols.
Literal subscripts.
Constants.

## The following restrictions apply to variable names:

Variable names cannot start with a digit.
All characters must have the same font.
Mathcad does not distinguish between variable and function names.

## Numerically Evaluating a Variable

Mathcad evaluates variables and expressions in a left-right, top-down order.
Variables and expressions in Mathcad:

## Immediately update as you make changes,

provided the default Auto Calculation mode is
enabled.
Are evaluated to the right or below where they
are defined.

## You can define and evaluate a variable in Mathcad

directly in the definition statement.
Figure 1 Define and Evaluate a Variable

## Defining a Global Variable

Mathcad also uses a definition construct called a global definition.
Global definitions can be used to specify:

## The array origin.

Custom units and unit abbreviations.
Material properties.
Other variables and functions that remain the
same.

## Assigning an Expression Retroactively

Mathcad enables you to retroactively assign an expression to a variable or function name.
There are many instances in which it is useful to
retroactively assign an expression.

## Using Literal Subscripts

Mathcad provides literal subscripts for use in variable names.
You use literal subscripts in Mathcad for:

Variable names.
Representing derivatives in partial differential
equations.

## Figure 1 Literal Subscript

Module 5: Functions
Mathcad Prime 3.0 Essentials

Objectives
After completing this module, you will be able to:

## Define a user-defined function.

Insert a built-in function.

## Defining a User-Defined Function

A user-defined function is a mathematical expression that provides a unique output for one or more input values.
User-defined functions in Mathcad are defined using the Definition operator.

## Upper and lowercase letters.

Digits (0-9).
Underscore (_) character.
Symbols.
Literal subscripts.
Constants.

## Function names have the following restrictions:

Function names cannot start with a digit.
All characters must have the same font.
Mathcad does not distinguish between variable and function names.

## Inserting a Built-In Function

Mathcad provides a library of built-in functions.
Mathcad provides a library of built-in functions in the following areas:

## Core Mathematical functions.

Discrete Transform functions.
Statistics, Probability, and Data Analysis functions.
Design of Experiments functions.
Differential Equation Solvers.
File Access functions.
Finance functions.
Image and Signal Processing functions.
Probability Distribution.
Solving and Optimization functions.
Vector and Matrix functions.
Miscellaneous functions.

## Design of Experiments Functions

Design of Experiments (DOE) functions and plots enable you to analyze the resulting data from experiments
performed in a DOE or Robust Design process.
You can use these functions for:

## Constructing experimental design matrices.

Analyzing and screening factors, and plotting results.
Developing statistical models.
Performing Monte Carlo simulations.

## Using Deprecated Functions

Deprecated functions are functions that are not available in Mathcad Prime.
Deprecated functions:

## Are not documented in Mathcad Prime.

Work if typed in a worksheet, or imported in a legacy worksheet.
Are supported by Mathcad Prime for several releases.

## Module 6: Range Variables

Mathcad Prime 3.0 Essentials

Objectives
After completing this module, you will be able to:

## Define a range variable.

Use a range variable.

## Defining a Range Variable

Range variables are variables that are equal to a sequence or range of values.
You can use a range variable to:

## Iterate a function over a range of values.

Define a vector or array, element-by-element.
Control the domain of a 2-D plot.

## Every range variable must have:

A starting value.
An ending value.
A second value specified, if not using a unit
step.

## Using a Range Variable

You can use range variables to iterate a function over a range.
To use range variables to iterate a function:

## Define the function.

Define the range variable.
Evaluate the function using the range variable.

## Module 7: Controlling Calculations

Mathcad Prime 3.0 Essentials

Objectives
After completing this module, you will be able to:

Control calculations.
Use calculation options.
Use areas.

Controlling Calculations
By default, Mathcad opens in Auto Calculation mode. In this mode, all results are automatically updated.
You can control calculations in Mathcad by:

## Disabling and enabling Auto Calculation mode.

Disabling and re-enabling a specific region or
group of regions.
Figure 1 Disabled Regions

## Using Calculation Options

Mathcad provides calculation options that can be used when evaluating mathematical expressions.
The following calculation options are available:

Approximate Equality
ORIGIN in Strings
Strict Singularity Check
Units/Constants in Symbolics

## Figure 1 Calculation Options

Using Areas
Calculations in Mathcad can be enclosed in an area and collapsed and/or disabled.
To enclose calculations in an area:

Insert an area.
Type calculations in the area.

## Module 8: Vectors and Matrices

Mathcad Prime 3.0 Essentials

Objectives
After completing this module, you will be able to:

## Define vectors and matrices.

Extract elements from an array.
Nest arrays.
Use array operators and functions.

## Vectors and Matrices

A variable can be comprised of a group of data in the form of a vector or matrix.
You can insert an array in Mathcad by:

Manual entry.
Defining each element using a range variable.
Importing data from a file.

Elements in an array:

## By default, have a starting index of 0, referred

to as the array ORIGIN.

## Defining Vectors and Matrices

You can define a vector or matrix in Mathcad using various methods.
You can define a vector or matrix in Mathcad by:

Manual entry.
Populating an array element-by-element.
Using range variables.

## Extracting Elements from an Array

You can extract elements in arrays and use them in functions and definition statements.
You can extract three types of data from a matrix
or array:

A single element.
An entire column or row.
A subset, or submatrix of data.
Figure 1 Original Matrix

## Figure 3 Extracted Submatrix

Nested Arrays
An array may contain an element that is another array.
An array embedded within another array is called
a nested array.

## Using Array Operators and Functions

You can use vectors and arrays when working with operators and functions in Mathcad.
You can find operators and functions used with
vectors and arrays:

on the Math tab.

## You can also find Vector and Matrix functions

on the Functions tab.

Functions group.

## Figure 3 Correct Evaluation Using the

Vectorization Operator

Module 9: Units
Mathcad Prime 3.0 Essentials

Objectives
After completing this module, you will be able to:

## Select a unit system.

Use units in calculations.
Add units to arrays and range variables.
Use angular and temperature units.

## Selecting a Unit System

Mathcad currently supports three systems of units.
The SI system is the default unit system for
Mathcad. You can modify this by selecting the
Math tab and selecting the commands in the Units
group.
Mathcad also supports the following systems:

CGS
USCS

## Figure 1 Units Group

Using Units
Mathcad enables you to multiply values by built-in units or custom defined units.
Using Mathcad you can:

## Add units to variable definitions.

Change units.
Define a custom unit.

## Adding Units to Arrays and Range Variables

Mathcad enables you to add units to arrays and range variables.
In Mathcad you can add units to:

Arrays.
Range variables.

## Using Angular Units

Mathcad assumes that values provided for functions requiring an angular argument are in radians.
You must specify degrees when using them in

## Using Temperature Units

Temperature units do not follow a typical multiplicative relationship with other temperature units.
Mathcad supports the following temperature units:

Kelvin.
Rankine.
Degrees Fahrenheit.

Degrees Celsius.

## Module 10: 2-D Plotting

Mathcad Prime 3.0 Essentials

Objectives
After completing this module, you will be able to:

## Plot data in 2-D.

Plot functions in 2-D.
Format a 2-D plot and axes.
Use units with 2-D plots.

## Plotting Data in 2-D

You can plot data stored in vectors on 2-D plots.
2-D plots of data in Mathcad have the following
properties:

## They are plotted as a line plot by default.

A simple legend is shown along the vertical
y-axis.
Axes limits are automatically selected based on
the properties of the data set.
Both axes are automatically partitioned and
numbered.

## Plotting Functions in 2-D

You can plot functions of a single independent variable on 2-D plots.
In Mathcad you can plot:

User-defined functions.
Built-in functions.
A quickplot.
Figure 1 User-Defined Function

## 2-D Plot Formatting

Mathcad provides several options for formatting a 2-D plot.
Plot formatting features in Mathcad include:

## 2-D Trace Formatting

Mathcad enables you to plot multiple traces on a single plot.
Once plotted, you can individually format each
trace. Formatting options include:

## Symbol style, color, and weight.

Line type, weight, and color.
Trace type.

## 2-D Axes Formatting

Mathcad provides many options to format axes on a 2-D plot.
The formatting options available for the 2-D plot
axes include:

Axes Formatting

Log scale
Cross axes at 0,0
Tick marks
Tick mark values
Axis expressions
Figure 1 Default Plot

## Using Units with 2-D Plots

In Mathcad, you can plot a function or data with units.
To plot a function or data with units:

## Define the data or function.

Plot the data. Include the units in the axis
expression.
Click outside of the plot region.

## Module 11: Project Day 1

Mathcad Prime 3.0 Essentials

Objectives
After completing this module, you will be able to:

Define variables.
Create and evaluate equations.
Use operators.
Define range variables.
Create and use matrices.
Create a 2D plot.

## Structural Engineering Project Day 1

In this project, you analyze a simply supported beam.
Complete the following exercise steps:
1. Calculate reactions, moment, slope, and
deflection at the supports.
2. Input the deflection equation for the
deflection along the length of the beam.
3. Differentiate the deflection equation to derive
the equation for slope, moment, and shear.
4. Plot the deflection, slope, moment, and
shear.
5. Calculate the average shear stress at the
intersection between the flange and the web
at the location of maximum shear.
6. Format the Mathcad document with headers
and footers.

## Mechanical Engineering Project Day 1

In this project, you calculate the critical speed of a shaft bearing with an asymmetrical load, and how the critical
speed varies with load location.
Complete the following exercise steps:
1. Define the variables and calculate the critical
speed of the shaft.
2. Calculate how the critical speed varies with
3. Plot the results.
4. Format the Mathcad document with headers
and footers.

Figure 1 Shaft

## Module 12: 3-D Plotting

Mathcad Prime 3.0 Essentials

Objectives
After completing this module, you will be able to:

## Plot data in 3-D.

Plot functions in 3-D.
Format a 3-D plot and axes.

## Plotting Functions in 3-D

You can create 3-D plots from a function of two variables.
The following data types can be plotted:

## A function of two variables.

A vector-valued function.

## Formatting a 3-D Plot

Mathcad provides many options for formatting a 3-D plot.
3-D plot formatting options include:

Appearance.
Axes.
View control.
Suppressing the plot arguments.

## Plotting Data in 3-D

You can store data in various formats. The format that is passed to the 3-D plot operator affects how the plot
is rendered.
You can plot data as:

An m x n matrix.

## Plotting Multiple Traces

You can plot multiple traces on a single plot.
You can also add traces to an existing plot.

## Module 13: Boolean Conditions

Mathcad Prime 3.0 Essentials

Objectives
After completing this module, you will be able to:

## Use Boolean operators.

Use Piecewise Continuous functions.

## Using Boolean Operators

You can use Boolean operators to evaluate Boolean expressions and specify constraints in solve blocks.
You can locate Boolean operators by selecting
the Math tab and clicking Operators
from the
Operators and Symbols group. You can use them
to:

## Write equations used in solving systems of

equations.
Create conditional statements.
Document equations which do not need to be
evaluated.

## Writing Equations Using Boolean Operators

All equations used inside a solving construct must use Boolean operators.
The Equal To
operator is the most commonly
used Boolean operator when solving a system of
equations.
Figure 1 Boolean Equal to Operator

## Creating Conditional Statements

Boolean operators, unlike other operators, can only return a zero or one.
Mathcad returns the following results for a
conditional statement:

## If the expression using the Boolean operator is

true, the Boolean operator returns a one.
If the expression using the Boolean operator is
false, the Boolean operator returns a zero.

## Using Piecewise Continuous Functions

A function that is not uniform over its range is known as a Piecewise function.
To create Piecewise Continuous functions using
Boolean operators:

## Define a range of values over which the function

is to be evaluated.
Define the function using Boolean operators.
Graph the function to validate the results.
Figure 1 Piecewise Continuous Function

## Module 14: Symbolics

Mathcad Prime 3.0 Essentials

Objectives
After completing this module, you will be able to:

## Use symbolic calculation features.

Use symbolic algebra.

Symbolics
Mathcad can perform operations on symbolic expressions, expressions that contain variables or mathematical
symbols, and return results in symbolic form.
You can perform symbolic calculations on:

Variables
Functions

of:

## Floating point numbers.

Undefined variables and functions.

## Figure 2 Symbolic Evaluation

Symbolic Calculation
When you evaluate an expression with the Symbolic Evaluation operator, Mathcad simplifies the result by
performing arithmetic and combining like variables.
Symbolic keywords provide an additional level of
control over symbolic evaluation.
Figure 1 Symbolic Evaluation

## Figure 2 Symbolic Evaluation With Keyword

Symbolic Algebra
You can use keywords to algebraically simplify, expand, or factor expressions.
Mathcad contains the following algebraic
keywords:

simplify
expand
factor

## Module 15: Solving

Mathcad Prime 3.0 Essentials

Objectives
After completing this module, you will be able to:

## Numerically and symbolically solve for roots of equations.

Numerically and symbolically solve systems of linear equations.
Numerically and symbolically solve systems of nonlinear equations.

## Solving for Roots of Equations

Mathcad enables you to numerically and symbolically solve for the roots of functions of single independent
variables.
There are two built-in functions to numerically
solve for the roots of functions of a single
independent variable.

## The root function.

The polyroots function.

## You can solve for roots symbolically by using the

solve keyword on the symbolic key word toolbar.

## Numerically Solving Systems of Linear Equations

Mathcad provides functions for solving systems of linear equations with multiple unknowns.
Mathcad can solve a linear system of equations
by:

## Using Isolve, a built-in function.

Using a solve block.

## Numerically Solving Systems of Nonlinear Equations

You can also use a solve block to solve systems of nonlinear equations.
You can solve nonlinear systems using the
following format for the solve block:

Guess values
Constraint listing
Solution statement

## Symbolically Solving Systems of Equations

Mathcad enables you to solve a system of linear or nonlinear equations symbolically.
To solve a system of equations symbolically use
the solve keyword.

## Modifying the Convergence and Constraint Tolerance

Mathcad enables you to customize a solve block.
You can customize a solve block by:

## Modifying the convergence tolerance.

Modifying the constraint tolerance.

Tolerance

## Module 16: Optimization

Mathcad Prime 3.0 Essentials

Objectives
After completing this module, you will be able to:

## Solve a constrained optimization problem.

Solve an unconstrained optimization problem.

Constrained Optimization
Constrained optimization in Mathcad requires a solve block construct because you specify the constraints that the
variables must satisfy.
Constrained optimization requires:

An objective function to optimize and constraints that must be satisfied within the optimization.
Guess values for each independent variable.

## Define the objective function to optimize.

Define guess values for the variables.
Define the constraints.
To close the solve block, assign a vector of the variables to the function maximize or minimize.
Evaluate the results.

Unconstrained Optimization
You can solve unconstrained optimization problems in Mathcad with or without using a solve block.
To solve an unconstrained optimization problem:

## Define the objective function.

Define guess values for each independent variable.
Assign the independent variables to the maximize or minimize function.
Evaluate the function.

## Module 17: Differential Equations

Mathcad Prime 3.0 Essentials

Objectives
After completing this module, you will be able to:

## Ordinary Differential Equations

Mathcad can numerically solve ordinary differential equations using the solve block approach.
Ordinary differential equations (ODEs) depend on
a single independent variable, usually time, t.
Consider the spring-mass system shown.

## Module 18: Programming

Mathcad Prime 3.0 Essentials

Objectives
After completing this module, you will be able to:

Create a program.
Use conditional statements.
Use looping constructs.

Creating a Program
Mathcad's programming operators enable the extension of Mathcad's functionality when writing customized
functions and processes for calculations.
You can access Mathcad's programming operators by selecting the Math tab, and clicking
Programming

## Figure 1 Programming Operators

Conditional Statements
Mathcad provides operators to enable conditional program branching.
The operators that enable conditional branching
are:

if
else
else if
also if

Looping Constructs
Mathcad looping constructs enable you to iterate any combination of expressions in a way that is difficult to
execute with range variables or other constructs.
Two program looping constructs are available:

For loops.
While loops.

## Module 19: Data Exchange

Mathcad Prime 3.0 Essentials

Objectives
After completing this module, you will be able to:

## Import data into Mathcad.

Export data from Mathcad.

Importing Data
Mathcad works with files and functionality from other applications, such as Excel and Matlab.
There are a variety of methods that you can use to
import data into Mathcad:

## Copy and paste into Mathcad from Excel.

Import data.
Import data from Excel.

## Figure 2 Importing Data from Excel

Exporting Data
Mathcad supports writing data stored in a vector or matrix to a data file.
Mathcad provides multiple file output options for
exporting data to a data file:

## Tab delimited text.

Comma separated values.
Microsoft Excel.

## Using the Excel Component

An Excel component is an embedded Excel table inserted within a Mathcad worksheet.
The Excel component enables the exchange of
data with an Excel worksheet.

## Module 20: Data Analysis

Mathcad Prime 3.0 Essentials

Objectives
After completing this module, you will be able to:

Smooth data.
Interpolate data.
Regress data.

Data Analysis
Mathcad supports a variety of data analysis options.
The data analysis options supported in Mathcad
include:

Smoothing
Interpolation
Regression

## Figure 3 Regressed Data

Smoothing Data
A data smoother takes a set of data and returns a new set that contains less noise than the original set; however, it
still retains the basic shape and properties of the original data.
Mathcad provides three smoothing functions.

medsmooth
ksmooth
supsmooth

## Figure 3 Function: supsmooth

Interpolating Data
Interpolation draws lines, or polynomial curves, between data points to predict values that are not in the data set.
Mathcad supports several types of interpolation.
The following two types are discussed here:

Linear Interpolation
Cubic Spline Interpolation

## Figure 2 Cubic Spline Interpolation

Regressing Data
Parametric, or regression, methods approximate the parameters of a function to a set of data.
Mathcad supports several types of regression
methods. The following are discussed here:

Linear Regression
Polynomial Regression

## Module 21: Project Day 2

Mathcad Prime 3.0 Essentials

Objectives
After completing this module, you will be able to:

## Create a spec table.

Create a program.
Create and use matrices and matrix functions
Import data.

## Structural Engineering Project Day 2

In this project, you import a table of beam sections for the beam used in the Structural Engineering Day 1 project
and select the sections that satisfies given design criteria.
Complete the following exercise steps:
1. Import a table of beam sections.
2. Select sections that satisfy given design criteria.
3. For the sections that satisfy the given design criteria calculate the maximum stress.

## Mechanical Engineering Project Day 2

In this project, you set a threshold limit for the critical speed and vary the inner and outer diameter of the shaft
used in the Mechanical Engineering Day 1 project.
Complete the following exercise steps:
1. Set a threshold for the rpm.
2. Create a spec table varying the inner and outer diameter of the shaft.
3. Create a program to determine which combination of inner and outer diameter satisfies the
threshold rpm limit.
4. Plot the thickness of the shaft verses the critical speeds at each thickness.