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displacement manifold method for the dynamics of parallel manipulator using lie algebra

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LI Qinchuan1, HUANG Zhen2 & Jacques Marie Herv3

1. Center of Integration Engineering, Zhejiang University of Sciences, Hangzhou 310033, China;

2. Robotics Research Center, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004, China;

3. Ecole Centrale Paris, France

Correspondence should be addressed to Li Qinchuan (email: lqchuanrick@yahoo.com.cn)

Received June 29, 2004

Abstract

topic in international academic and industrial field. Based on the Lie group theory, a

displacement manifold synthesis method is proposed. For all the nine kinds of

lower-mobility parallel mechanisms, the mechanism displacement manifold, limb

displacement manifold and the geometrical conditions which guarantee that the

intersection of the limb displacement manifold is the desired mechanism displacement

manifold are enumerated. Various limb kinematic chains can be obtained using the

product closure of displacement subgroup. Parallel mechanisms can be constructed with

these limbs while obeying the geometrical conditions. Hence, all the nine kinds of

lower-mobility parallel mechanisms can be synthesized using this method. Since

displacement manifold deals with finite motion, the result mechanism of synthesis have

full-cycle mobility. Novel architectures of lower-mobility parallel mechanisms can be

obtained using this method.

Keywords: lower-mobility parallel mechanisms, Lie group, displacement manifold, type synthesis.

DOI: 10.1360/ 03ye0352

lower-mobility PMs have advantages of simple structure, low cost in design, manufacturing and control. Inventions of new architectures not only mean breakthrough in theory

but also help protect independent intellectual properties. Consequently, the potential

business value and application can be obtianed. The success of the DELTA robot is such

a typical example 1) . Particularly the symmetrical lower-mobility PM, which characterizes identical limbs, symmetrical arrangement and isotropy, has been a hot and frontier

subject in international academic and industrial field.

The history of type synthesis of lower-mobility PMs dates back to 1983, when

1) Bonev, I., Delta parallel robotthe story of success, http://www.parallemic.org/Reviews/Review002.html.

642

Science in China Ser. E Engineering & Materials Science 2004 Vol.47 No.6 641650

Hunt[1] proposed some architectures, including some planar PMs, 3-DOF PMs, 6-DOF

PMs and some asymmetrical 4- and 5-DOF PMs. Other pioneering work includes

3-DOF translational DELTA robot proposed by Clavel[2] in 1988, the 3-DOF translational PMs with 4-DOF limbs proposed by Herv[3] in 1991, the 3-UPU translational PM

proposed by Tsai[4] in 1996, the 4-DOF H4 robot proposed by Pierrot and Company[5] in

1999, the 4-DOF 4-URU PM proposed by Zhao and Huang[6] in 2000 and the 4-DOF

PM proposed by Zlatov and Gosselin[7] in 2001. However, for over 20 years, a universal

and effective type synthesis theory has not been well established. The consequence is

that there has been a lack of symmetrical 4- and 5-DOF PMs, particularly those without

closed-loops in limb.

There are two traditional methods for type synthesis of PMs. One is the enumeration method based on the general Grbler-Kutzbach mobility criterion. Tsai[8] applied

this method to the type synthesis of a kind of 3-DOF PM. The other is the displacement

subgroup synthesis method proposed by Herv[3,9]. Herv[3,10] and his colleagues studied

the type synthesis of 3-DOF translational and rotational PMs. However, these two

methods cannot be applied to all lower-mobility PMs. Merlet 1) pointed out that the first

method fails to describe the geometrical arrangement of kinematic pairs, so invalid results were often obtained; the effective range of the second method was limited because

of the difficulty in retaining the algebraic structures of group. In addition, Yang[11] et al.

proposed a type synthesis method based on single-unit open chains and synthesized

some mechanisms.

This indicates that the problem of type synthesis of lower-mobility parallel mechanism has not been well solved over the last 20 years. The lower-mobility PMs can be

sorted into nine categories according to their kinds of mobility. However, the

above-mentioned method cannot be applied to all the nine categories. The direct result of

such a lack is that few symmetrical 4- and 5-DOF PMs without closed-loop have been

proposed. Particularly, most of the kinematic experts were thinking that no symmetrical

5-DOF parallel mechanisms can be discovered. Hunt[1] believed that the symmetrical

5-DOF parallel mechanism does not exist but is instantaneous. Merlet1)[12, 13] believed

that there were no 4- and 5-DOF parallel robot with identical chains.

Recently, Huangs group filled this gap and proposed the constraint-synthesis

method2)[14 16] based on screw theory. The constraint-synthesis method is effective universally and has been applied to the type synthesis of all nine kinds of lower-mobility

PMs[16]. Numerous novel PMs have been invented using this method, including the

symmetrical 5-DOF PMs[17]. The constraint-synthesis method belongs to the instantaneous motion field, because screw is instantaneous. Hence, the last indispensable step of

1) Merlet, J. P., Still a long way to go on the road for parallel mechanisms, ASME Design Engineering Technical Conferences, Keynote speech, Montreal, 2002, http://www-sop.inria.fr/coprin/equipe/merlet/ASME/

asme2002.html.

2) Zhao, T. S., Research on analysis and synthesis of lower-mobility parallel mechanisms, PhD Dissertation,

Yanshan University, 2000.

643

the constraint-synthesis method is to identify if the synthesized mechanism is only instantaneous or not, which sometimes is rather difficult for some complicated architectures.

This paper aims to propose a universally effective type synthesis method in the finite motion field. Based on the Lie group theory, a displacement manifold synthesis

method is proposed. Limb displacement manifold (LDM) is used to describe the motion

of the limb end while mechanism displacement manifold (MDM) is used to describe the

motion of the moving platform. The geometrical conditions which guarantee that the

intersection of the limb displacement manifold is the desired MDM are enumerated.

Various limb kinematic chains can be obtained using the product closure of displacement

subgroup. Parallel mechanisms can be constructed with these limbs while obeying the

geometrical conditions. Hence, all kinds of lower-mobility parallel mechanisms can be

synthesized using this method.

1

1.1

Displacement subgroup

The set of 6-dimensional rigid motion is endowed with group algebraic structures

and forms a Lie group, {D}. Further the motion of a rigid body can be described by a

subset of {D}, which can be a group, called displacement subgroup, or a displacement

manifold. In 1978, Herv[9] enumerated all 12 kinds of displacement subgroups, as

shown in table 1. It also can be readily proven that the set of relative motion allowed by

a lower pair constitutes a displacement Lie subgroup. Herv[9] also enumerated the intersection and composition of different displacement subgroups. The intersection of

subgroups follows the rules of intersection of sets.

From table 1, it can be seen that the 12 displacement subgroups cannot explain all

the rigid motion in space. Under most conditions, the rigid motion is a displacement

manifold included in {D}, as shown in table 2.

1.2

the allowed displacements of body i relative to body 1 is a subset of the group of

rigid-body motions or displacements. This subset is the composition by implementation

of the group product, of all the subgroups associated with the lower kinematic pairs in

the kinematic chain. This subset may be a subgroup or only a manifold included in {D}

in most cases. For example, a 3P kinematic chain generates the 3-dimensional translational subgroup, namely {T (u)}.{T (v )}.{T ( w )} {T }. A RPS kinematic chain only

generates a 5-dimensional displacement manifold, namely {R( N1 , u)}.{T (v )}.{S ( N 2 )} .

The 1-dimensional displacement subgroup can be generated by 1-DOF pair. Because the multi-DOF pair or joint is equal to the composition of revolute pairs and prismatic pairs kinematically, the 3-dimensional rotation displacement subgroup {S(N)} is

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644

Displacement

subgroup

Dim

Mechanical

generator

Note

Displacement

subgroup

{R(N, u)}

Revolute pair

determined by the unit

vector u and point N

{E}

Rigid connection,

relative motion

{T(v)} or

{T1(v)}

Prismatic

pair

unit vector v

{T(Pvw)} or

{T2(P)}

Pvw determined by two

unit vectors v and w

{H(N, u, p)}

Helical pair

and pitch p

{T}

3-dimensional translation

in space

{C(N, v)}

Cylindrical

pair

Cylindrical motion

determined by the axis

(N, v)

{Y(w, p)}

{G(u)} or

{G(Pvw)}

Planar pair

{X(w)}

{S(N)}

Spherical

joint

point N

{D}

Dim

Note

no

translation determined by

the normal w and the

helical motion with pitch

p parallel to w

3-dimensional translation

and one rotation about

the unit vector w

6-dimensional

rigid

motion

Rigid motion

3-dimensional rotation and

translation (3R2T)

2-dimensional rotation and

translation (2R3T)

1-dimensional rotation and

translation (1R3T)

3-dimensional rotation and

translation (3R1T)

2-dimensional rotation and

translation (2R2T)

Subgroups

2-dimensional

3-dimensional

3-dimensional

1-dimensional

2-dimensional

Rigid motion

Subgroups

No

{S(N)}

No

{T}

{X(w)}

2-dimensional

rotation

and

1-dimensional translation (2R1T)

No

1-dimensional

rotation

and

2-dimensional translation (1R2T)

{G(u)}

No

No

equal to the composition product of three 1-dimensional rotation subgroups, whose axes

intersect at a common point, namely {R( N , i )}.{R( N , j )}.{R( N , k )}. In other words,

the subgroup is generated by a 3R spherical subchain formed by three revolute pairs

whose axes intersect at a common point. Such a 3R spherical subchain is denoted by

(iRjRkR)N, where the superscript i, j, k denote the three revolute axes and N the intersection point.

The 3-dimensional subgroup {G(u)} represents 2-dimensional translation in a plane

and 1-dimensional rotation about the normal to the plane. The subgroup {G(u)} can be

generated by the kinematic chains listed in table 3, where the superscript denotes the

axis of kinamatic pair, v and w are two linearly independent unit vectors in the plane.

{G2(u)} is a 2-dimensional displacement manifold and can be generated by the kinematic chain in table 3. The subgroup {S(N)} also includes a 2-dimensional displacement

manifold {R(N, i)}.{R(N, j)}, denoted by {S2(N)}. The manifold {S2(N)} can be generated by a 2R spherical subchain (iRjR)N.

1.3

Synthesis procedure

When analyzing a parallel mechanism, the set of the allowed displacements of the

645

Kinematic bond of {G(u)}

{T (v )}.{T ( w )}.{R( N , u)}

Generators of {G(u)}

v

Pw PuR

{T (v )}.{R( N , u)}.{T ( w )}

R P R

PuR uR

RuR uR

R P P

P R P

R R P

{T (v )}.{T ( w )}

Generators of {G2(u)}

v

PwP

{R( A, u)}.{T ( w )}

RwP

{T ( w )}.{R( A, u)}

PuR

RuR

moving platform is the intersection of the displacement subgroups or manifolds that are

generated by the limbs. The intersection of manifolds is actually the process of finding

the intersection of two adjacent subgroups repeatedly, which follows the rules given by

Herv[9]. The motion of the moving platform can be described by MDM and the motion

of the ith limb can be described by limb displacement manifold. Hence, the type synthesis of PMs can be described as follows:

Given desired {M}, find {Li} and geometrical conditions which make

{M }

{Li }.

i 1

Step 1. Use MDM {M} to describe the motion of the moving platform with desired mobility.

The desired manifold {M} can be expressed by the composition product of subgroup {R(N, u)} and {T(v)}.

Step 2.

For symmetrical 5-DOF PMs, the MDM is also the LDM namely {M} = {Li}.

For symmetrical 4-DOF PMs, the dimension of the MDM is four while the dimension of the limb displacement manifold can be four or five. When the dimension of LDM

is four, we have {M} = {Li}. Further, using the product closure and associativity of displacement subgroup, the LDM {Li} can be expanded to a 5-dimensional displacement

manifold.

For symmetrical 3-DOF PMs, the dimension of the MDM is three while the dimension of the limb displacement manifold can be three, four or five. When the dimension

of LDM is three, we have {M} = {Li}. Further, using the product closure and associativity of displacement subgroup, the LDM {Li} can be expanded to a 4- or 5-dimensional

displacement manifold.

After {Li} is determined, using the product closure and associativity of displacement subgroup, we can obtain numerous kinematic equivalences of {Li}, which can

be generated by different limb kinematic chains.

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646

Step 3.

{Li }.

These

i 1

geometrical conditions are also the inherent structural characteristics of the PMs, which

will not change. Based on the characteristics[17] of lower-mobility PMs, the geometrical

conditions can be obtained.

The MDM, LDM and corresponding geometrical conditions of symmetrical 5-DOF

PMs are enumerated in table 4.

Table 4 MDM, LDM and geometrical conditions of symmetrical 5-DOF PMs

5-DOF PM

{M}

Conditions for {M }

{Li}

{Li }

i 1

{T ( Pvw )}.{S ( N )}

3R2T

{T ( Pvw )}.{S ( N )}

Pivw // Pvw , N i

2R3T

{T}.{R( N i1 , ui )}.{R( N i 2 , vi )}

ui // u , v i // v

{X (ui )}.{R( N i1 , vi )}

ui // u , v i // v

Pi1 // P j1 , u A Pi1 , Pi 2 // P j 2 , v A P j 2

PMs are enumerated in table 5.

Table 5 MDM, LDM and geometrical conditions of symmetrical 4-DOF PMs

4-DOF PM

{M}

{Li}

{T (ui )}.{S ( Ni )}

3R1T

{T (u)}.{S ( N )}

{Li }

i 1

ui // u , N i

{T2 ( Pi )}.{S ( Ni )}

{G( Pi )}.{S2 ( Ni )}

Pli // u , N i

{G2 ( Pi )}.{S ( Ni )}

{T}.{R( N , ui )}

{X ( ui )}

1R3T

{T}.{R( N , u)}

{G( Pi1 )}.{G2 ( Pi 2 )}

{T (ui ))}.{G( Pli 2 )}

2R2T

{G2 ( Pi )}.{S ( Ni )}

P A u , v // P

{G( Pi )}.{S2 ( Ni )}

ui // u

Pi1 // u , Pi 2 A u

ui // u , Pi 2 A u

Pi A u , N1

N 2 , N3

N4

PMs are enumerated in table 6, where Pi1 z P j1 means the two planes are not parallel

and the situation when the limb generates subgroups is not included.

Step 4. Use the limb kinematic chain obtained in Step 2 to construct PMs while

obeying the geomerical conditions obtained in Step 3. Since displacement subgroup and

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647

manifold deals with finite motion, it is not necessary to identify whether the synthesized

PM is instantaneous.

Table 6 MDM, LDM and geometrical conditions of symmetrical 3-DOF PMs

3-DOF PM

3T

{M}

{T}

{Li}

Pi1 z Pj1 , Pi 2 z P j 2

{S ( Ni1 )}.{S2 ( Ni 2 )}

{S ( N )}

3R

{G( Pi )}.{S2 ( Ni )}

{G2 ( Pi )}.{S ( Ni )}

2.1

2R1T

2T1R

{Li }

i 1

N i1 z N , N i 2

N i 2 z N , N i1

Pi z P j , N i

{G( Pi )}.{S2 ( Ni )}

Pi // w , Pi z P j , N i z N

{G2 ( Pi )}.{S ( Ni )}

Pi // w , Pi z P j , N i z N

{G2 ( Pi )}.{S ( Ni )}

Pi // P j , N i z N

The target of type synthesis is 5-DOF parallel mechanisms with three rotational

DOF and two translational DOF in XY plane. From table 4, it is easy to know that the

MDM is {M} {T ( Pxy )}.{S ( N )} . There are three corresponding LDMs. For simplicity,

we only discuss the situation when {Li } {G ( Pixy )}.{S 2 ( Ni )}.

The kinematic chain generating {G(Pixy)} {G( Pixy )} can be obtained from table 3 by

setting v = x, w = y and u = z. The generator of {S2(Ni)} is a 2R spherical subchain

( j R k R) Ni . Linking the kinematic chain generating {G(Pixy)} in table 3 to the 2R

spherical subchain ( j R k R ) Ni , seven lime kinematic chains can be obtained, for example,

R z R z R( i R j R) Ni .

The limb kinematic chain obtained above only consists of 1-DOF kinematic pairs.

With appropriate arrangement of kinematic pairs in a limb, cylindrical pair and universal

joint can be obtained. Obviously, {G(Pixy)} and {S2(Ni)} {S2 ( Ni )} contain no displacement subgroup {C(Ni, vi)} generated by a cylindrical pair. When the last factor in the

products that generate {G(Pixy)} is a 1-dimensional translational subgroup {T(yi)}, the

{C(N, w)} can be obtained by setting the axis of the first 1-dimensional rotational subgroup {R(Ni, ii)} in {S2(Ni)} parallel to yi, while yi, ji and ki are linearly independent. For

example,

{G( Pixy )}.{S2 ( Ni )} {R( Ai , z)}.{R(Bi , zi )}.{T ( yi )}.{R( Ni , yi )}.{R( Ni , ki )}

{R( Ai , z)}.{R(Bi , z)}.{C ( Ni , yi )}.{R( Ni , ki )}.

(1)

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648

R z R y C Ni k R Ni .

pairs in the chain that generates {C ( N i , yi )} can be changed, namely,

{C( Ni , y i )} {T(y i )}.{R ( N i , y i )} {R ( N i , y i )}.{T(y i )},

(2)

y

P y R Ni or

R Ni y P . Replacing

to

z

a

z

new

y

limb

C Ni in

R R C Ni R Ni leads

kinematic

chain

R R R N i P R Ni .

be constructed using the limb kinematic

chain obtained above while obeying the

structural conditions in table 4. Fig. 1 shows

Fig. 1.

3-z R z R y C N k R N .

3-z R z R y C N k R N

parallel

mechanism,

platform.

2.2

The target of type synthesis is 4-DOF parallel mechanisms with three rotational

DOF and one translational DOF in Z direction. From table 5, it is easy to know that the

MDM is {M } {T ( z )}.{S ( N )}. There are three corresponding LDMs. For simplicity,

we only discuss the situation when {Li } {G ( Pi )}.{S2 ( Ni )}.

From the structural condition Pi // z in table 5, it is evident that Pi is perpendicular

to the XY plane or the base. Hence, the normal of Pi, namely, u, must be parallel to the

XY plane or the base. The mechanical generator of {G(Pi)} can be obtained from table 3

by setting v = x, w = z, u = x. Note that at least one 1-dimensional translational subgroup

in the product that generates {G(Pi)} must not be parallel to the XY plane. For example,

one product that generates {G(Pi)} is {R( Ai , xi )}.{T ( pi )}.{R( Bi , xi )} , where pi is not

parallel to the XY plane. The corresponding limb kinematic chain is x R p P x R , where

the superscript p denotes the direction of the prismatic pair. Then, we can set the revolute axis of the first rotational subgroup {R( Ni , ii )} perpendicular to xi , namely,

ii A xi , and let the axis of {R( Ni , ii )} intersect the axis of {R(Bi , xi )} . Consequently,

{R( Bi , xi )}.{R( Ni , ii )} is a 2-dimensional displacement manifold in {D} and can be

generated by a universal joint. Thus we obtain a limb kinematic chain x R p Px UiN k R N .

With four x R p Px UiN k R N limbs, we can construct a 4- x R p Px UiNk R N parallel mechaCopyright by Science in China Press 2004

649

nism by setting all the limb centers coincident with each other and the revolute pair fixed

on the base not parallel to each other, as shown in fig. 2. Various limb kinematic chains

can be obtained by using the product closure of displacement subgroup.

Fig. 2.

2.3

4-x R p P x UiN k R N .

Fig. 3.

3-x R p P x R i R N k R N .

3

i

3

i

The target of type synthesis is 3-DOF parallel mechanisms with two rotational DOF

about X, Y axis respectively and one translational DOF in Z direction. From table 6, it is

easy to know that the MDM is {M} {T ( z)}.{R( N , x)}{R( N , y)} . There are two corresponding LDMs. For simplicity, we only discuss the situation when {Li }

{G(Pi )}.{S2 ( Ni )} .

Comparing the structural conditions of 3R1T 4-DOF parallel mechanisms in table 5

with the structural conditions of 2R1T 3-DOF parallel mechanisms, we can find that the

difference is only whether the limb centers are coincident with each other or not. Thus,

the limb kinematic chains of 3R1T 4-DOF parallel mechanisms can be used to construct

the 2R1T 3-DOF parallel mechanism by setting all the limb centers not coincident.

For example, the x R p P x R i R Ni k R Ni limbs generate {R( Ai , xi )}.{T ( pi )}.

{R( Bi , xi )}.{R( Ni , ii )}.{R( N i , ki )}. We can construct a 3-x R p P x R i R N3 k R N3 parallel

i

i

mechanism, where the subscript N3i denotes that there exist three limb centers. From

ref. [16], we know that the 3-x R p P x R i R N k R N parallel mechanism has two rotational

DOF about X, Y axis respectively and one translational DOF in Z direction, as shown in

fig. 3.

3

Conclusions

Displacement manifold method for type synthesis of lower-mobility PMs is based

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Science in China Ser. E Engineering & Materials Science 2004 Vol.47 No.6 641650

650

on the algebraic structure properties of Lie group. Furthermore, in this method, the displacement manifolds are characterized by geometrical entities that are intrinsically defined (like points, vectors etc.) instead of matrix subsets depending on the reference

frame. Consequently, the architectures of PMs, including limb kinematic chains and

structural conditions, can be obtained in a straightforward manner. It is shown that this

method is applicable to all nine kinds of lower-mobility parallel mechanisms.

Acknowledgements

50075074).

This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No.

References

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Hunt, K. H., Structural kinematic of in-parallel-actuated robot arms, Journal of Mechanisms, Transmissions

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Clavel, R., A fast robot with parallel geometry, in Proceedings of the 18th International Symposium on Industrial Robots, Sydney, 1988, 91100.

Herv, J. M., Sparacino, F., Structural synthesis of parallel robots generating spatial translation, in Proceedings of the 5th IEEE Int. Conference on Advanced Robotics, Pisa, 1991, 808813.

Tsai, L. W., Kinematics of a three-dof platform with extensible limbs, in Recent Advances in Robot Kinematics (eds. Lenari, J., Parenti-Castelli, V.), Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1996, 401410.

Pierrot, F., Company, O., H4: a new family of 4-dof parallel robots, in Proceedings of IEEE/ASME International Conference on Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics, Atlanta, 1999, 508513.

Zhao, T. S., Huang, Z., Theory and application of input selection of insufficient rank spatial parallel manipulators, Chinese Journal of Mechanical Engineering, 2000, 36(10): 8185.

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