Está en la página 1de 34

ANALYSIS PRODUCTION OF PURE-WATER

(A CASE OF STB TABLE WATER INDUSTRY, LOKOJA KOGI STATE)

CHAPTER ONE
1.0

INTRODUCTION
Water is one of the essence part of life, as we know that without
water, there will be no existence of human being, it is classified as one
of the six classes of food (others are carbohydrate protein fat, and oil,
mineral salts and vitamins),.
It is scientifically proved to constituent hydrogen and oxygen as
its constitute element while as chemical formula H20.
According to I.A Odesina (Author of a textbook title Essential
chemistry for senior secondary school stated that life Depends on
water. Water in by far the most abundant substance in plant and
animal tissue as well as the world around us . it account. For about
70% of the human body and in higher in many growing plants.
Over 80% of the earners surface in covered by water.

Water is not only used all over the world in large quantities for
drinking purposes, but is even greater quantities for washing,
bleaching dyeing, cooking, raising steam to drive earlier in tubiner to
generate electricity and as a solvent for industrial purpose
Pure water does not exist in nature state, but supplies of water
are obtainable all over the world, varying in degrees of purity from
rain water, from clean districts to sea water in which the impurities
reach the comparatively high proportion of about 3.5%
1.1

PROPERTIES OF PURE WATER


Physical properties of pure water
a. Nature: pure water is a colourless, tasteless and odourless liquid.
Distilled water is pure.
Drinking water has a pleasant taste because dissolved minerals
and air in water make its taste better.
b. State.: pure water exists in all the three states as solid (ice), liquid
(water) and gaseous (steam or water vapour).
c. Heat capacity of water: Heat capacity of substance is the heat
required to raise its temperature by one degree. Heat capacity of
water I highest among all liquids.
Chemical properties of pure water

a.

Reaction with metals: Water reacts with metals to a degree varying


wit h their position in the electrochemical series. E.g 2k(s) + 2H20(l)

b.

2kOH(aq) + H2 (g)
Reaction with organic and inorganic compounds: Water reacts
with organic and inorganic compounds. Such reaction are
generally described as hydrolysis. E.g. CaC2 + 2H20(l)
Ca(OH)2(aq) + C2H2 (g).
In conclusion, water is divided into two types named, natural

water and treated water.


Natural water includes rain water, spring water, well water,
river water and sea water.
Well water contains a lot of clay and other mineral salts. Water
from deep well tends to be less polluted than that of surface wells.
River water, lake water and sea-water contain a lot a of
dissolved air, mineral salts bacteria and organic remains.
These waters have to e specially purified before they can be used for
drinking.
Treated water is usually prepared for specially purposes.
Examples of treated water are distilled water, pipe-borne water and
chlorinated water

Distilled water is chemically pure water it is prepared by condensing


steam or passing water through an ion exchange resin column . It is
used in the laboratory for preparing reagents and doing analytical
work. It is also used in the preparation of drugs car batteries and for
certain industrial processes.
1.2

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY


The name of the enterprise is STB table water enterprises. The
organization came into existence at the year 2004 by Mr. and Mrs. S.T
Olowo, the organization started with manual machine and about five
staff members including the operator and two baggers. The
organization could only produce 100 bags daily, the sales was 100
only few people interest in the consumption of pure water.
In the year 2006/2007, the organization purchased some factory
equipment which include: an automatic sealing machine that could
produce 100 bags per hour and the strength of the workers now
increased to over 30 staff of the worker now some material.
Purchased.
i.
ii.
iii.

PVC water tanks 4 (30001z1, 15001x1, and 20001x1)


Pumping machine x2 (IHP each)
Automatic filling and sealing machine x1 (C.K Kingdom 2000lx)

iv.

1hrs)_
Industrial Uv water sterilization ( Yankee)
5

v.

Micro fitter 4 (5 micro x 15 micro carbon fitter x1, 1 micro x1

and 0.2 macro x1)


vi. Stand-by generator (8 kva)
vii. Stainless steal graded sand filtration modules
viii. Uv germicide lamp x1
ix.
Stainless steal activated carbon filtration modules
x.
Delivery van x1 (Toyota)
All the above materials purchased by the enterprise/industry is to
aid work effectively and efficiently in order to be able to reach the
peoples/ population demand both within and outside the state
capital territory of kogi state.
1.3

ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE OF THE STUDY (STB TABLE


WATER INDUSTRY, LOKOJA)
The illustration below shows the organizational chart of the
establishment. It is headed by the managing Director in a person of
Mr. S.T Olowo who is charged with the responsibility of directing the
affairs of the establishment also to remind his staff concerning the
aims and objectives of the company.
The general manger in a person of Mr. Olu Olowo who is responsible
for the day-today operation of the establishment. The company is
further divided into deferent sections.

i.

Accounts section/department:- This department/section is


handled by an accountant who is responsible for keeping the

ii.

financial records of the company.


Public analyst: - it is handled by a person of Professor C. Ariahu
of collected of food technology, federal university of
Agriculture markurdi, Benue state, Nigeria Analyst).
Responsible for the quality control of STB table water industry

iii.
iv.

which is done regularly.


Production manager: The production manager is a person of
ADesoro Opeyemi, who ensure that sample of each batch are
thoroughly checked for colour, teste, odor and particle before it
is disseminated.

Others include production supervisor a person of Femi Mathew, sales


manager he a person of A. Ade OlowolaiYemoh, production staffs
and sales men.

ORGANIZATION CHART OF STB TABLE WATER INDUSTRY


LOKOJA, KOGI STATE.

MANAGING DIRECTOR (MR. S.T. OLOWO)

GENERAL/OPERATION MANGER (MRS. OLU OLOWO)

PRODUCTION MANAGER

PUBLIC ANALYST

(ADESORO OPEYEMI)

(PROF.C.C ARIAHU)

PRODUCTION SUPERVISOR

ACCOUNTANT

SALES MANGERS

(FEMI MATHEW)

A.ADE OLOWOLAI YEMOH)

PRODUCTION STAFFS

SALES MEN

1.4

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM/HYPOTHESIS


The study is carried out to detect whether a positive change in
the volume of production of pure water has taken place overtime
(between 2008-2010). also to know the trend.

1.5

PURPOSE OF THE STUDY


The purpose of this study is:
a. To know the volume of production of pure water from January
2008 to December 2010).
b. To examine the functional relationship between the variable, (i.e.
production (y) and X).
c. To predict/forecast for the production of pure water for the next
ten years or mine year to come.
d. To study the prospect and problem of the establishment and also
presumably, provide necessary suggestion when necessary.

1.6

LIMITATIONS/SCOPE OF THE STUDY


The effort of putting this research work into existence in very
tedious, therefore, it is not an easy task to accomplish. In the sense of
the financial constraint involved, as it is usually being the collection
of data from the company management was another Herculean task.
The study cover a period of five years (i.e from 2008-201).
9

1.7

DEFINITION OF TERMS
a.

Time Series:- It is an arrangement of statistical data collected

with respect of the time of exclusive. Examples of time series data


include weekly or annual production, precipitation, temperature e.tc.
Time series can simply be classified into four basic
components/groups.
i.

Secular or long term movement or fluctuation

ii.

Seasonal movement or fluctuations

iii.

Cyclical movement or fluctuations

iv.

Irregular movement or random fluctuations

i.

Secular or long term movement refers to the smooth or regular

movement of the series over a long period of time.


Sometime, series is play upwards, trend downwards trends, or
remain constant over a period of time.
Whether we are a logarithmic or authentic scales, time is scaled
along the X axis, and the values along the Y-axis.
ii.

Seasonal movement refers to the effects of the season is

determining the variation in the quantity or magnitude of a variable.

10

Seasonal variations need to be investigated for three main reasons.


1.

To determine the effects (positive or negative) of season on the


variable of interest:

2.

To filter out these seasonal effect so as to determine the time


quantity not influenced by seasons

3.

To project existing patterns into the future for the purpose of


forecasting

iii.

Cyclical movement: Cycle in time series analysis are fluctuation

which remain after other components trend, seasonal variation and


irregular movements have been removed. Cycles differ from seasoned
variations because the extend over a longer period of time.
iv.
Irregular fluctuation refers to those variations that are highly
unpredictable such as floods, goods or bad news, earth quakes and so
on. Like cyclical variation, irregular movements are also measured by
eliminating the three other components from a time series. i.e. CXI=
TXSXCX1
TXS
Where: CXI =Cyclical irregular- obtained by eliminating seasonal and
irregular fluctuation.
TXSXCXI= original components of the time series

11

TXS- normal values values that would be obtained if T and S were


the only cares.
b.

Semi-average Method: This method involves dividing the data

into two parts to obtain two points in the time series graph.
A trend line is that drawn between there two points, and trend values
determined,
Two methods will be considered:
i.
ii.

The mean
An alternative method

i. The mean: it is important that we divide our data two equal parts. If
the series an odd numbers of years, me make the two parts equal by
eliminating the middle year as done in chapter
ii.

An alternative method: The data is divided into two equal part semi-

total are obtained, after which they are divided by the number of
observation to derive semi- averages for the two data sets.

12

CHAPTER TWO
2.0

LITERATURE REVIEW
The research is based on the production of pure-water.
According to C.E ANDE (Author of Essential Economics for
senior secondary school) defined production as the various economic
activities aimed at the creation of goods and services and the
distribution of there to the final customers for the satisfaction of
human wants.
It can also be defined as the creation of utility. All goods and
services produced must possess utility, which mean that they must be
capable of satisfying certain human wants. It includes the creation of
tangible goods such as cars, table et.c as well as service rendered by
some professionals such as lawyers, soldiers, teachers/lectures etc.
Production is said to be complete when the goods and service
produced get to the final Users or consumer.
It involves three major groups of people i.e.
producers/manufacturers, Distribution and the final consumers.

2.1

TYPES OF PRODUCTION

13

Production is grouped into tow major categories. There are


Direct and Indirect product.
(a)

Direct production is the type of production in which an


individual production goods and services for his own family
used/consumption.
It is not for commercial purpose, (sales), rather than are to be

(b)

used by the family.


Indirect production in the type of production in which goods
and services are produced in a land scales mainly for sales or
exchange of other needs.
It is practically impossible, for a single producer to satisfy all
his wants without depending in others for exchange of goods
and services.
Indirect production is sub-directed into three major groups.

i.

There are primary, secondary and tertiary productions.


Primary production refers to the extraction of raw material for
own industry or provided by nature. Example, are mining,

ii.

fishing, agriculture e.t.c


Tertiary production refers to the provision of commercial and
professional service to the people. The goods so produced at
the primary and secondary production levels are distributed to
the people for consumption.

14

2.2

TECHNIQUES/AIMS AND OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY


ENTERPRISE
The aim of this standard operating procedure in to clearly slow
how STB Table water Industry carried-out its procedure complete
compliance with the standard set by the national agency for food,
drug and administration control (NAFDAC) and the standard
organization of Nigeria (SON) the regulation body of their
product.

15

CHAPTER THREE
THIS CHAPTER COMPRISES OF THE RESEARCH
METHODOLOGY, DATA COLLECTION AND DATA
PRESENTATION
3.0

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
This method used in the collection of the data in secondary
data since the data was gotten from already existing records from the
management.

3.1

DATA COLLECTION AND PRESENTATION


First and foremost we have to know what is referred to as data.
Data can simply be defined as a piece of information or raw material
collected for a certain purpose.
According to you textbook (fundaments of statistical) The
result of information obtained either in numerical form or otherwise
for the purpose of the invocation in referred to an statistical data.
The states of collecting data is in control pat of an research
activities since efficient and sufficient of a complete research depends
on valid data being gathered by the researcher.
16

In the process of their activities, planning and executions are


required
So, well planned and analyzed data is always helpful to understand
the publican which may enable in to take necessary decision.
The two solutes of data collection are primary and secondary
data. The two source of data collection started have being discussed
earlier in chapter one of this study under definition of ten
3.2

DATA PRESENTATION
Data presentation simply means the procedure or ways of
representing the information collected their contained a study in such
a way that some of its features can be seen clearly, it can be pictorial a
tabular form of appearance of data. There are methods of data
presentation the intended to use in this study as concerned, and the
methods are tabulation and graphical method (it has also been
discussed in chapter two under literature review).
Below are monthly productions of pure water by STB Table
water industry, lokoja (2008-2010)

MONTHLY PRODUCTION OF PURE WATER BY STB TABLE WATER


INDUSTRY, LOKOJA (2008-2012).

17

Months
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
January
1300
1500
1800
1700
1800
February
1200
1200
1200
1500
1600
March
1000
1200
1300
1600
1500
April
900
1000
1100
1200
1200
May
800
1000
1000
1100
1000
June
500
900
1000
1000
800
July
600
700
800
600
700
August
500
600
500
500
600
September 500
400
500
600
600
October
1400
1400
1500
1200
November 1600
1500
1700
1500
December 1700
1700
1600
2500
Total
12000
13100
14000
15000
9800
YEARLY PRODUCTION OF PURE WATER BY STB TABLE WATER
INDUSTRY, LOKOJA (2008-2012)

YEAR

NUMBER OF BAGS PRODUCED


18

2008

12000

2009

13100

2010

14000

2011

15000

2012

9800

Total

63900

19

CHAPTER FOUR
4.0

DATA ANALYSIS
The table below shows the monthly production of pure water by STB

table water industry, lokoja (2008-2012).


Months
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December
Total

4.1

2008
1300
1200
1000
900
800
500
600
500
500
1400
1600
1700
12000

2009
1500
1200
1200
1000
1000
900
700
600
400
1400
1500
1700
13100

2010
1800
1200
1300
1100
1000
1000
800
500
500
1500
1700
1600
14000

2011
1700
1500
1600
1200
1100
1000
600
500
600
1200
1500
2500
15000

2012
1800
1600
1500
1200
1000
800
700
600
600
9800

ESTIMATION OF TREND
The trend of a time series can be estimated in a number of ways.
20

i.

By the method of least squares: This is the most widely used


method of trend estimation, and it is based on the method of
regression analysis. It involves finding an equation for the
trend.

The regression equation is given as Y = a+b (x)


Where by a is the intercept of Y and
b is the slope of the least square
ii.

By the method of semi-average: this method involved dividing


the data into two parts to obtain the points on the time series
graph. A trend line is then drawn between the two points, and

trend values are determined.


In semi-average, two methods will be considered:
a. The mean
b. An alternative method
a.

The Mean method: It is important that we divide our data into

two equal parts. If the series is an odd number, we make the two
parts equal by eliminating the middle year.
b.

Alternative Method: The data is divided into two equal parts.

Semi totals are obtained after which they are divided by the number
of observation to derive semi-averages for the two sets of data.
4.2

LEAST SQUARE METHOD


21

X
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31

Y
1300
1200
1000
900
800
500
600
500
500
1400
1600
1700
1500
1200
1200
1000
1000
900
700
600
400
1400
1500
1700
1800
1200
1300
1100
1000
1000
800

XY
1300
2400
3000
3600
4000
3000
4200
4000
4500
14000
17600
20400
19500
16800
18000
16000
17000
16200
13300
12000
8400
30800
34500
40800
45000
31200
35100
30800
29000
30000
24800

X2
1
4
9
16
25
36
49
64
81
100
121
144
169
196
225
256
289
324
361
400
441
484
529
576
625
676
729
784
841
900
961

TREND (T)
t = 1034.34+2.99 (x)
1034.34+2.99 (1) = 1,037.33
1034.34+2.99(2) = 1040.32
1034.34+2.99(3) = 1034.31
1034.34+2.99(4) = 1046.3
1034.34+2.99(5) = 1049.29
1034.34+2.99(6) = 1052.28
1034.34+2.99(7) = 1055.27
1034.34+2.99(8) = 1058.26
1034.34+2.99(9) = 1061.25
1034.34+2.99(10) = 1064.24
1034.34+2.99(11) = 1067.23
1034.34+2.99(12) = 1070.22
1034.34+2.99(13) = 10773.21
1034.34+2.99(14) = 1076.20
1034.34+2.99(15) = 1079.19
1034.34+2.99(16) = 1082.18
1034.34+2.99(17) = 1085.17
1034.34+2.99(18) = 1088.16
1034.34+2.99(19) = 1091.15
1034.34+2.99(20) = 1094.14
1034.34+2.99(21) = 1097.13
1034.34+2.99(22) = 1100.12
1034.34+2.99(23) = 1070.22
1034.34+2.99(24) = 1106.1
1034.34+2.99(25) = 1109.09
1034.34+2.99(26) = 1112.08
1034.34+2.99(27) = 1115.07
1034.34+2.99(28) = 1118.06
1034.34+2.99(29) = 1121.05
1034.34+2.99(30) = 1124.04
1034.34+2.99(31) = 1127.03
22

32
500
16000
1024
1034.34+2.99(32) = 1130.02
33
500
16500
1089
1034.34+2.99(33) = 1133.01
34
1500
51000
1156
1034.34+2.99(34) = 1136
35
1700
59500
1225
1034.34+2.99(35) = 1138.99
36
1600
57600
1296
1034.34+2.99(36) = 1141.98
37
1700
62900
1369
1034.34+2.99(37) = 1144.97
38
1500
57000
1444
1034.34+2.99(38) = 1147.96
39
1600
62400
1521
1034.34+2.99(39) = 1150.95
40
1200
48000
1600
1034.34+2.99(40) = 1153.94
41
1100
45100
1681
1034.34+2.99(41) = 1156.93
42
1000
42000
1764
1034.34+2.99(42) = 1159.92
43
600
25800
1849
1034.34+2.99(43) = 1162.91
44
500
22000
1936
1034.34+2.99(44) = 1165.9
45
600
27000
2025
1034.34+2.99(45) = 1168.89
46
1200
55200
2116
1034.34+2.99(46) = 1171.88
47
1500
70500
2209
1034.34+2.99(47) = 1174.87
48
2500
120000
2304
1034.34+2.99(48) = 1177.86
49
1800
88200
2401
1034.34+2.99(49) = 1180.85
50
1600
80000
2500
1034.34+2.99(50) = 1183.84
51
1500
76500
2601
1034.34+2.99(51) = 1186.83
52
1200
62400
2704
1034.34+2.99(52) = 1189.82
53
1000
53000
2809
1034.34+2.99(53) = 1192.87
54
800
43200
2916
1034.34+2.99(54) = 1195.8
55
700
38500
3025
1034.34+2.99(55) = 1198.97
56
600
33600
3136
1034.34+2.99(56) = 1201.78
57
600
34200
3249
1034.34+2.99(57) = 1204.77
From the table above; n= 57, X= 1653, X2 =63365, Y = 63900, XY=
1899300

b=

nX - XY

= 57 (1899300) (1653) (63900)


23

nX2 (X)2

108260100 - 105626700

3611805
=

57 (63365) (1653)2

= 2633400

- 2732409

879396

2.994555354

2.99 (2d.p).
a=

bX

n
=

= 63900

1121.052632

57
-

2.99 (1653)
57

4942.47
57

1121.052632

86.71

= 1034.342632
1034.34 (2 d.p)

The trend is given by


t = a+ b(x) =1034.34 + 2.99 (x).

The time point values (x) =1, 2, 3..57) is then substituted


into the equation to obtained the trend for each time points.

24

X
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29

Y
1300
1200
1000
900
800
500
600
500
500
1400
1600
1700
1500
1200
1200
1000
1000
900
700
600
400
1400
1500
1700
1800
1200
1300
1100
1000

XY
1300
2400
3000
3600
4000
3000
4200
4000
4500
14000
17600
20400
19500
16800
18000
16000
17000
16200
13300
12000
8400
30800
34500
40800
54000
31200
35100
30800
29000

X2
1
4
9
16
25
36
49
64
81
100
121
144
169
196
225
256
289
324
361
400
441
484
529
576
625
676
729
784
841
25

Y2
1690000
1440000
1000000
810000
640000
250000
360000
250000
250000
1960000
2560000
2890000
2250000
1440000
1440000
1000000
100000
810000
490000
360000
160000
1960000
2250000
2890000
3240000
1440000
1690000
1210000
1000000

TREND
1037.33
1046.32
1043.31
1046.30
1049.29
1052.28
1055.27
1058.26
1061.25
1064.24
1067.23
1070.22
1073.21
1076.20
1079.19
1082.18
1085.17
1088.16
1091.15
1094.14
1097.13
1100.12
1070.22
1106.10
1109.09
1112.08
1115.07
1118.06
1121.05

30
1000
30000
900
31
800
24800
961
32
500
16000
1024
33
500
16500
1089
34
1500
51000
1156
35
1700
59500
1225
36
1600
57600
1296
37
1700
62900
1369
38
1500
57000
1444
39
1600
62400
1521
40
1200
48000
1600
41
1100
45100
1681
42
1000
42000
1764
43
600
25800
1849
44
500
22000
1936
45
600
27000
2025
46
1200
55200
2116
47
1500
70500
2209
48
2500
120000
2304
49
1800
88200
2401
50
1600
80000
2500
51
1500
76500
2601
52
1200
62400
2704
53
1000
53000
2809
54
800
43200
2916
55
700
38500
3025
56
600
33600
3136
57
600
34200
3249
n = 57, X = 1653, X2 = 63365, Y = 63900,
Y2 = 83170000, XY = 1899300

26

1000000
640000
250000
250000
2550000
2890000
2560000
2890000
2250000
2560000
1440000
1210000
1000000
360000
250000
360000
1440000
2250000
6250000
3240000
2560000
2250000
1440000
1000000
640000
490000
360000
360000

1124.04
1127.03
1130.02
1133.01
1136.00
1138.99
1141.98
1144.97
1147.96
1150.95
1153.94
1156.93
1159.92
1162.91
1165.90
1168.89
1171.88
1174.87
1177.86
1180.85
1183.84
1186.83
1189.82
1192.81
1195.80
1198.79
1201.78
1204.77

X= x
N

1653 =
57

29

Y = y = 63900 = 1121.05
N

57

SST = (Yi-Y)2 = Y1-2 (Y)2


n

MSE = ei2
n-2
X
Y
1
1300
2
1200
3
1000
4
900
5
800
6
500
7
600
8
500
9
500
10
1400
11
1600
12
1700
13
1500
14
1200
15
1200
16
1000
17
1000
18
900

= ( Yi Y)2
n-2
Y=t=1034.342.99(x)
1037.33
1040.32
1043.31
1046.30
1049.29
1052.28
1055.27
1058.26
1061.25
1064.24
1067.23
1070.22
1073.21
1076.20
1079.19
1082.18
1085.17
1088.16

y-
262.67
159.68
-43.31
-146.3
-249.29
-552.28
-455.27
-558.26
-561.25
335.76
532.77
629.78
426.79
123.80
120.81
-82.18
-85.17
-188.16
27

(y-)2
68995.5289
25497.7024
1878.7561
21403.69
62145.5041
305013.1984
207270.7729
311654.2276
315001.5625
112734.7776
28384.8729
396622.8484
182149.7041
15326.44
1495.0561
6753.5524
7253.9289
35404.1856

19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50

700
600
400
1400
1500
1700
1800
1200
1300
1100
1000
1000
800
500
5000
1500
1700
1600
1700
1500
1600
1200
1100
1000
600
500
600
1200
1500
2500
1800
1600

1091.15
1094.14
1097.13
1100.12
1070.22
1106.10
1109.09
1112.08
1115.07
1118.06
1121.05
1124.04
1127.03
1130.02
1133.01
11363.00
1138.99
1141.98
1144.97
1147.96
1150.95
1153.94
1156.93
1159.92
1162.91
1165.90
1168.89
1171.88
1174.87
1177.86
1180.85
1183.84

-391.15
-494.14
-697.13
299.88
429.79
593.9
690.91
87. 92
184.93
-18.06
-121.05
-124.04
-327.30
-630.02
-633.01
364.00
561.01
458.02
555.03
352.04
449.05
46.06
-56.93
-159.92
-562.91
-665.90
-568.89
28.12
325.13
1322.14
619.15
416.16
28

152998.3225
24411743396
485990.2369
89928.0144
184710.8484
352717.21
477536.6281
7729.9264
34199.1049
326.1636
14653.1025
15385.9216
106948.6209
396925.2004
400701.6601
132496
314732.2201
209782.3204
308058.3009
123932.1616
201645.9025
2121.5236
3241.0249
25574.4064
316867.6681
443422.81
323635.8321
790.7344
105709.5169
1748054.18
383346.7225
173189.1456

51
52
53
54
55
56
57

1500
1200
1000
800
700
600
600

1186.83
1189.82
1192.81
1195.80
1198.79
1201.78
1204.77

313.17
10.18
-192.381
-395.80
-498.79
-601.78
-604.77

98075.4489
103.6324
37175.6961
156657.64
248791.4641
362139.1684
365746.7529
11423577.88

MSE == (Yi- Y)2 = 114423577.88


n-2
57-2
= 114423577.88 = 207701.416
55
MSE =207701.416

4.2
X

SEMI- AVERAGE
Y

SEMI-TOTAL SEMI-

THE GRAPH

AVERAGE
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

1300
1200
1000
900
800
500
600
500
500
1400

1070
1075
1080
1085
1090
1095
1096
1098
1100
1120
29

11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42

1600
1700
1500
1200
1200
1000
1000
900
700
600
400
1400
1500
1700
1800
1200
1300
1100
1000
1000
800
500
500
1500
1700
1600
1700
1500
1600
1200
1100
1000

305000

30500/28
=1089.29

32400

32400/28
=1157.14

30

1100
1105
1105
1105
1105
1145
1146
1146
1148
1150
1150
1150
1150
1150
1150
1155
1156
1154
1156
1195
1197
1198
1200
1200
1250
1205
1208
1209
1210
1200
1245
1246

43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57

600
500
600
1200
1500
2500
1800
1600
1500
1200
1000
800
700
600
600

1247
1248
1249
1250
1250
1250
1250
1249
1250
1280
1289
1290
1291
1292
1295

These two semi-averages are plotted in the middle of the respective


time span

31

CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
5.1

SUMMARY
The chapter one of this research as to deal with the
introduction, background of the study (i.e the history of the company,
organizational structure, section/department and the duties perform
by ach and every department and the host of others).
The chapter two of this research deals with the review of
related literature.
The chapter thereof this research deals with the research
methodology, data collection.
The chapter four of this research deals with the date analysis.
Finally the conclusion and summary are contains in the chapter
five of this research.

5.2

CONCLUSION
In this five (5) years review, the total production of pure-water
by the STB Table water Industry, Lokoja Kogi state is given to be
63,900 from our analysis.
32

In any business organization/enterprise, there is need to


control the production of pure-water in order to avoid wastage and
shortage/lost.
We are hereby advising the company/industry to improve their
sales strategy which may be through advertisement (television
Newspapers, Radio, e.tc.), implementation of promo to their
customers, implementation to reward system to their staffs and the
publications of companys name e.tc.

33

REFERENCES
C.E. ANDE: Essential Economic. Tonad Publisher Ltd. Lagos
EMMANUEL .P. UDOFIA (2013) : Fundamentals of Social Science
Statistics. Immaculate Publications Ltd., Enugu-Nigeria
F. KOLADE LAWAL (2011): fundamentals Statistics. Agunbay Publishers,
Ibadan, Oyo State Nigeria.
F. KOLADE LAWAL: Emperical Statistics For Administrators. Agunbay
Publishers, Ibadan, Oyo State Nigeria.
S.T. OLOWO: analysis on the production of pure-water (2008-2012).
STB Table Water Industry, Lokoja, Kogi State Nigeria.

34