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HOW THE DIESEL ENGINE WORKS, ‘The diesel engine is an internal combustion engine Because the diesel engine isan internal combustion engine it burns a blend of diesel oil and arin a sealed chamber. This sealed chamber is known asa combustion chamber and itis found above the piston which moves inside the cylinder. The combustion chamber soften shaped like a dome above the piston, “The fuel-sr mixture is ignited and this produces immense pressure inside the combustion chamber. This pressure pushes the piston down, with considerable force. “However, the piston moves up and down only, ‘while the engines shat is designed to rotate in circle, ‘The movement of the piston is converted into a rotating movement withthe help of ‘connecting rod and erankshaft, ‘The foree exerted on the piston through the ‘combustion process is thus transferred to the crankshaft. And itis this force which is used to propel the eat, boat or machine, ‘The path of the power from the crankshaft 1 the engine powers a generator, the erank- shafts connected directly tothe generator. 1 In marine engine installations, the crankshaft is connected tothe propeller shaft via.a reverse ear 1 For cas, the crankshafts power is routed through the transmission components to the driven wheels ‘The engine and transmission components are often referred to as a single unit known a8 the “driveline” Combustion produces igh presi. sick pats down the ston vith conde fore Comecting a HOW THE DIESEL ENGINE WORKS Diesel engine - petrol engine ‘You are probably familiar with the differences between a diesel engine and a petrol engine. But we'll go through them again, = Potrol engine. A ead-mied Blend of. petrol and air is supplied to the engine. ‘This mixture is compressed and ignited by an lectrically generated spark 1 Diesel engine — another approach ‘The diesel engine i supplied with unblended air ‘which s compressed. Under compression, the air becomes so hot that it can ignite the diesel fuel, Finely-atomised fuel is sprayed into the hot air and thus ignited. ‘This system is known a8 compression ignition. ‘There are several differences between the two engine types. One difference les in the combus- tion pressure created in the combustion process Ina diesel engine, this pressure is anything between 7 and 13 MPs (roughly 70-130 times areater than atmosphere pressure) In Volvos latest engine D12 the preeure is even higher, 170 ba. A petrol engine works under lower pressure, about 310 5 MPa. ‘The pressure drops when the piston moves downwards. The highest pressure created in the ‘combustion procoss is known as peak pressure, ‘Sturdy engine components in the diesel engine ‘The higher working pressure ofthe diesel process applies considerable mechanical stress to the engine components. The components therefore have to be sturdier and they must be made of materials with very high strength and {atigue-resistant properties. Every part ‘more expensive to produce, There's a lot happening Inside the engine ‘There’ a lot happening inside the engine's cylinders. All this activity i known as the ‘operating cycle. 0 Ny; Perot engine 1. The fata ocr fad into he ind. 2 The mires compressed The flied yo ‘dori pork Disc onine 1. Clan ised toe ‘tinier 2 Thea compresed, 5. The fei spraed tthe rand igi bythe hat ‘oud By compression Fora diesel engine the operating eyele includes the following points 1 Clean air enters the cylinder 1 The airis compressed 1 Finely atomised fuel is sprayed into the hot aie 1 The fuel is ignited by the ot air 1 Combustion produces high pressure which presses the piston downwards 1 The combustion process residues (Uae exhaust gases) are evacuated from the ‘ylinder so that the operating cycle can start HOW THE DIESEL ENGINE WORKS Four strokes for a complete cycle ‘You saw inthe video programme thatthe operating cycle is completed in four strokes. We say that the engine works according tothe four-stroke principle. “ere we see the four strokes again, with the temperature and pressure figures 2 Inlet stroke (Clean air flows in through the inlet duct past the open inlet Compression stoke “The piston compresses the air. At the end of the compression stroke, the air {i compressed to about one~ twentieth of the volume it, had at the stat of the com- pression stroke, The pressure rises to 2-3 MPa (20-30 ba), and the ar temperature rises to 700-900°C, Ijectr Fuel infection occurs atthe end ofthe com> pression stroke, An injector sprays in fuel under Dhgh pressure, and the ful is ignited by the hot ait The temperature rises to 2000-2500°C and the pressure inthe combustion chamber rises to 13 MPa (130 bar), in some engines up to 17 MPa (170 ba), 3 4 Operating stroke Bhat Exhaust stroke ‘The high pressure pushes ‘Combustion gases are expelled through the open ‘exhaust duct. ‘A new operating sequence now begins witha new inet stroke. ——ryppetie tom face against the bearing, thin-walled to keep potoned oe Conshat weight toa minimum, Side ofthe cam’ 1 In Volvo diesel engines, the tappet is found totheside of the cam’ centre line, As. result, the tappet rotates slighty very time itis lifted by the cam, Wear is therefore uniformly distributed across the eatire contact surface and tappet service life increases = On Volvo 16-itre engines with 4 valves per cxlinder, roller tappets are used sine they are leven better able to withstand material tess. pateapper | Valves, valve guides and valve seats ae 12 The job ofthe valve is to keep th inlet and ‘exhaust duets open for precisely calculated Vale se eto and to hep them ml st Sng the remaining tine OO] ne 1 Te vai jornalodin the vale guide and the vale sealing surface i avflly round o mutch he vate at aval atthe rot ial inengin power Vee seat = One or two valve springs asst in closing the valve. Seatsfice 38 The valve issubjected to considerable stress. Lack grave — 1 The valves in dxect contact withthe com: bustion process and is subjected to high tempe- atures, The exhaust valve, which in addition is positioned inthe direct path of the extremely hot exhaust gases, rises to a temperature of up t0 00°C in adiesel engine, “The inlet valve does not get quite so hot, since it 7 ~ Sealing swtice 5 coed by the air which flows past 1 The force of the valve spring and combustion pressure gives rise to spring movements in the valve dite, The load on the valve dtc in a diesel Seite engine can exceed 30 kilo Newton for each oti ‘combustion sequence, This as much asthe Toad on the entice piston in some petrol engines '= The valves are made of nickel chromium steel i ‘The exhast valve sealing surface ncoted ‘with stellite on some engines. Stelte isa heat-resistant alloy f carbon, cobalt, / \ ‘wolfram and molybdenum. Some exhaust valves are made in two parts which are fition-welded into one cohesive unit. The die is usually ‘made of Nimonic 80, which is an extremely heat- resistant alloy. The valve stem is made of a somewhat less advanced material |= Both the inlet and exhaust valves in Volvo engines feature chrome-plated vale stems t0 ensure along service life. ‘The stem ends are hardened and are in addition equipped with replaceable wear surfaces The valve stem is journalled in the vaive guide. 1 The valve guide is made ofa special type of cast-iron, The guides in all Volvo engines are replaceable. ‘The valve disc seals against the valve seat. "The valve seats feature replaceable valve scat rings. They are made of a heat-resistant and durable material ‘The valve seats are shrunk into place by cooling down to about -70°Cin special freezer chambers. Vue searing 29 THE LAYOUT OF THE DIESEL ENGINE Test 4, THE LAYOUT OF THE DIESEL ENGINE ‘The valve springs positioned between the cinder head and the valve spring washer. The washer is kept in place on the valve stem by two valve locks 1 The valve locks are conical ings which are divided into two halves, Internal protrusions fit into the valve stem grooves, 1 Some engines feature single valve springs. (Others have double springs as inthe figure here, 1 Excesive lubrication ofthe valve stom is a sisadvantage I can result in exceptionally high cil consumption since oil penetrates into the inlet duct and enters the combustion chamber. ‘To prevent the oil from doing this, there are rubber seals onthe valve spring washer or the ve guide-The outer and inner spring are coi led in opposite directions. This counteracts ‘xillation of the spring, which might otherwise aisrupt the engine’ function. Double springs also provide an extra margin of safety should one spring snap. Pushrod and rocker arm 1A pushrod shouldbe strong but sl ight- ‘weight. That is why it is tubular in shape with pressedin end-piece. The upper end-pece is shaped like a bow which fits around the adjust- ‘ment screw’ ball shaped end. The lower end- piece is ball-shaped and fits into the correspond {ng surface inthe tappet. '= The rocker arms are journaled onthe rocker arm shaft with bronze bushings. The bearing is pressure-lubricated. On the large engines shown, inthese figures, the rocker arm shaft and its two rocker arms are located ina bearing yoke which {is bolted to te eylinder head. The smaller en- ‘ines with one cylinder head per three cylinders Teature two rocker arm shafts with sx rocker arms on each shaft 1 The adjustment screw is used to regulate valve clearance. This is measured with the help offecler gauges inserted between the rocker arm and valve stem end, Valve clearance is essential since the valve inereases in lenght when itis heated during operation asa result of thermal expansion 40 there was no valve clearance the valve would be slightly open when it reached normal opers ting temperature, 1 The components found onthe eylinder head are protected by valve covers, Notes at THE LAYOUT OF THE DIESEL ENGINE THE LAYOUT OF THE DIESEL ENGINE Lubrication system Ifyou were to ask anyone why there must be oil inan engine, the answer would almost certainly be something ike “Surely you must understand that the engine has to be lubricated!”. And of ‘course itis tue that engine components which rub ‘against each other must be separated by a thin film of ol. In other words, these components must be lubricated, and lubricated with clean oil and the right sort of oil ‘The job of the oils as follows: ‘A. Tolubricate all moving engine parts. Wear and fiction should be as litle as possible. B. To conduct heat away from the engine's ‘moving parts and dampen engine noise CC. To function asa sealing agent between pis {ons and liners. The plateau honing design keeps oil onthe eyinder wall. Refer to page 19 you have forgotten what is meant by plateau honing. D. To keep the engine clean by carrying offal soot particles and dit. Tis prevents the build-up of sludge and corrosion inside the engine. Inorder to carr outall these tasks, modern engine oils require a very complex compound. Some are made of a base oil (refined mineral cil) with a variety of chemical additives. These additives alter the characteristics ofthe base oil 2 so that the final engine oil can handle the tough jl with which iis faced 1 Some engine ois are synthetic. They are made of hydrocarbons selected before the il ite is compounded. Allengine manufacturers always specify which oil their engines should use. Volvo specifies viscosity anda quality rating. ‘You can soc this information inthe maintenance and service schedules ofall Volvo engines. DS gre (Vaio Pain Speciation) ll change Oilcan bo changed after a certain number of houts in operation ‘The ol change frequency depends on the following factors '= The quality of the engine ol. VDS quality can handle longer change tervals than a simpler oil 1= The sulphur content ofthe dies! fuel itself. With slow sulphur content, the oil does not get contaminated as quickly. Ithe sulphur content is ess than 0.5% possible to use VD oil for 400 hours or 24 ‘months (600 hours forthe 16titre engine) Howover, ifthe sulphur conten s more than 110%, the VDS oil must be replaced afer just 100 hours oF 12 months, (150 hours forthe ‘6lite engine) [The serve schedule shows you which oll trade is necessary for your engine, how often the oi shouldbe replaced, when the oi iter should be replaced, and much else. Examples ‘of service schedules can be found on pages 68 and 6. “That was a litle bt of information about the job which the oil has to do. Now, lets see what ismecessary to get the ol tothe required points in the engine Engines used to have splash-lubrication in their wo, 12+ litre seri hemp. 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