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Cement Evaluation Guidelines

Cement Evaluation Guidelines


Acknowledgments, Copyright, Forward, and Contents detail
Chapter 1 - Traditional Logging Methods for Cement Evaluation
Chapter 2 - Analysis of Different Cement Conditions
Chapter 3 - Peripheral and Longitudinal Evaluation of Cement
Bond
Chapter 4 - Practical Work Session Problems
Chapter 5 - Appendices
Chapter 6 - Suggested Solutions to Practical Work Session
Problems
Index

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

A number of individuals deserve special recognition for


assisting me in producing this text.
I am greatly indebted to Paul Pilkington for his critical
examination of the final draft and his numerous suggestions, which proved to enhance the end product. Special
thanks are also extended to Gil Feather and Ray Wydrinski for critiquing the text while in its draft form.
Several of my Western Atlas Logging Services colleagues made significant contributions to this book. I
would like to express my gratitude specifically to E. J.
Domangue for his continual support in gathering field examples and critically reviewing the material as the text
was being generated, and R. A. Lester, M. G. Schmidt and
E. Frost for their constructive criticisms. R. F. Hotz and
the entire Corporate Communications staff did an outstanding job with the difficult task of manuscript editing,
art production, and page formatting work so necessary to
properly depicting a subject of this type. My thanks are
also extended to the Western Atlas operating bases
throughout the world who contributed the field examples
that appear in this book.
E. L. Bigelow

Copyright 1990 Western Atlas International, Inc.


Houston, Texas. All rights reserved. This book, or parts
thereof, may not be reproduced in any form without permission of the copyright holder. Reprint 8-2006 2M CP

FOREWORD

The purpose of this text is to provide the industry with a


comprehensive reference guide for Western Atlas Logging Services (WALS) acoustic cement evaluation services and analysis capabilities. Attention is also given to
older cement bond logging methods since it is recognized
that users are frequently required to analyze older cement
bond logs and other services in evaluating cement quality.
Traditional cement bond logs are derived from a well
logging device that transmits controlled acoustic pulses
through the materials surrounding the instrument. Receivers located at specified intervals on the logging device measure the times and amplitudes of acoustic waves,
which have traveled through those media. The primary
purpose for these measurements includes:
Determining presence or absence of annular cement
within particular depth intervals of a wellbore, and
Determining whether the cement is bonded to the
pipe, the formations, or both.
Effective zone isolation between permeable horizons
in a wellbore requires that an effective cement sheath extend over an appreciable vertical depth interval. It is necessary for the annular cement to provide an effective hydraulic seal to withstand subsequent completion and
production operations. Although acoustic cement bond
logs do not directly measure hydraulic seal, the measured
bonding qualities do provide inferences of sealing adequacy.
It is occasionally beneficial to run a cement bond log
with openhole acoustic logging instruments; e.g., a surface or intermediate casing string is logged with the instrumentation in a bond log recording mode following the
acoustic survey of open hole below the casing. Proper instrument centering in the cased interval must be a consideration.
Determination of cement integrity is accomplished by
an analysis of the full acoustic waveform, the amplitudes
or attenuation rates of the casing arrivals, and a singlereceiver travel-time measurement. Knowledge of well
mechanics and conditions during the cement job are important considerations when evaluating cement bond log
measurements.
The standard Western Atlas cement bond instruments
utilize an uncompensated dual-receiver and singletransmitter configuration, with the receivers located at
fixed distances of 3 and 5 ft from the transmitter. The
slim-hole tool uses one receiver, which is spaced 4 ft from
the single transmitter. Special Dewar-flasked hightemperature tools are available with the one transmitter,
two-receiver configuration.
The Bond Attenuation Log (BAL) system utilizes
two transmitters and three receivers to obtain a boreholecompensated, direct-attenuation measurement, plus the
customary single-receiver travel time, amplitude, and
waveform recordings.

Channeling within the cement sheath, poor bond to


casing, microannulus, and other cementing peculiarities
not easily distinguishable with traditional cement bond
log (CBL) measurements are identified with second-generation, sectored cement evaluation methods.
The Segmented Bond Tool (SBTSM) log is a new service that examines not only the longitudinal cement quality, but also the circumferential effectiveness of the cement sheath radially around the entire periphery of the
casing. This allows the well operator to examine where
channels or void spaces in the cement occur, and decide if
those voids present a problem for production or injection
operations. The tool configuration provides a multiple array, compensated attenuation measurement with excellent azimuthal resolution.
Capabilities for specific interpretative playbacks in the
field are also available; e.g., bond index or bond rating
curves, etc. Explicit graphics; i.e., shading beneath a log
trace, to enhance those intervals where good bonding occurs are available, as is flexibility in the use of cutoff
values for highlighting purposes.
The text is organized into six chapters:
1. Traditional Logging Methods for Cement Evaluation
2. Analysis of Different Cement Conditions
3. Peripheral and Longitudinal Evaluation of Cement
Bond
4. Practical Work Session Problems
5. Appendices
6. Suggested Solutions to Practical Work Session
Problems
In addition, a comprehensive bibliography and a detailed index for quick reference are also provided.

CONTENTS

TRADITIONAL LOGGING METHODS FOR CEMENT EVALUATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1


The Acoustic Measuring System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Acoustic Signal Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Wave Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Gating Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Fixed Gates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Floating Gates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Amplitude . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Peak Amplitude . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Alternate Area Measurement of Amplitude . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Pipe Amplitude Gate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Formation Gates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Pitfalls in Bond Interpretation from Amplitude Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Bond Attenuation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Single-Receiver Travel Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Instrument Centering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Eccentered Casing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Cycle Skipping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Stretch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Fast Formation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Full Acoustic Waveform Presentations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Full Waveform Signature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Variable Density Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Waveform Interpretation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Combined Signature and Variable Density Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Casing Collars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Liners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Recognition of Concentric Pipe Strings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Additional Measurements Combined with Cement Bond Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Openhole Caliper and Lithology Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Quantifying Cement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Effects of Cement Curing Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Effects of Casing Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Cement Compressive Strength Determination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Bond Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Bond Rating (BR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Shop Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Well-site Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Previous Calibration Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

ANALYSIS OF DIFFERENT CEMENT CONDITIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37


Good Bond to Pipe and Formation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Low-to-Medium Velocity Formations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
High-Velocity Formations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Good Bond to Pipe Only . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Free Pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Poor Bond or Partial Bond . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Channeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Microannulus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Foam Cement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Thin Cement Sheath . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Poor Centering of the CBL Instrument . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
CBL Response in Large, Extremely Thick Casing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Borehole Gas Effects on the CBL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Resin Sand-Coated Casing Strings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Small-Diameter Pipe Cemented in a Much Larger Borehole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Cement Top Identification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Recognition of Changes in Borehole Fluid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
External Mechanical Apparatus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

CONTENTS

PERIPHERAL AND LONGITUDINAL EVALUATION OF CEMENT BOND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53


First-Generation Radial Cement Evaluation Instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Second-Generation Radial Cement Evaluation Instrument . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
SBT Presentations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Downhole Digital Electronics and Telemetry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Laboratory and Field Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Purpose of the SBT Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
SBT Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
SBT Attenuation Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
SBT Transducer Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
SBT Field Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Advantages of the Segmented Bond Tool System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72

PRACTICAL WORK SESSION PROBLEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75

APPENDIX A: CEMENTINGAN OVERVIEW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103


Cement API Classifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
Cement Additives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
Accelerators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
Retarders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
Extenders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
Dispersants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
Agents to Control Lost Circulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
Fluid Loss Agents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
Special Additives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
Weighting Agents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
High-Temperature Additives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
Factors Affecting Downhole Cementing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
Recommended Procedures to Minimize Microannulus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
APPENDIX B: SKETCHES OF DIFFERENT INSTRUMENT CONFIGURATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
APPENDIX C: CHARTS AND FIGURES DEPICTING THE MECHANICAL
CONFIGURATION OF THE WELLBORE AND PROPER USE OF THE LOG HEADING . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
Well Sketch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
Information Forms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
APPENDIX D: OTHER WIRELINE SERVICES FOR CEMENT EVALUATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
Temperature Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
Geothermal Gradient . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
Cement Top Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
Channeling in the Cement Sheath . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
Tracerlog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
Radioactive Cement Top Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
Channel Detection with Tracerlog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
Sonan LogA Noise Detection Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
APPENDIX E: CASING SIZES, WEIGHTS, AND THICKNESSES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125

SUGGESTED SOLUTIONS TO PRACTICAL WORK SESSION PROBLEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127

INDEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155

TRADITIONAL LOGGING METHODS FOR CEMENT EVALUATION

logs with different transmitter frequencies, run over the


same interval on the same well.14
Elastic compressional waves are propagated down the
sleeve of the instrument, vertically through the borehole
fluid, and horizontally across the borehole fluid. Of primary interest is the wavefront moving directly toward the
casing. As the wavefront impinges upon the casing, some
energy is reflected, while the balance is transferred into
the steel, the cement sheath, and the formation (see Fig. 12). At each of these interfaces, some energy will be reflected, and some will be transferred into the adjoining
medium.

THE ACOUSTIC MEASURING SYSTEM


The transmitter is the heart of any acoustic measuring system. Currently, two types of transmitters are used in
Western Atlas Logging Services subsurface instrumentation. Piezoelectric transducers, which are used in most
acoustic tools deform and oscillate as the electric field intensity is suddenly changed (the field intensity being proportional to the applied voltage). Some tools utilize magnetostrictive transducers, which change shape, oscillate,
and produce a sound pulse when subjected to a short but
intense change in magnetic field. Both types of transducers are cylindrical in shape and, when energized by a short
burst of electrical energy, the resulting sudden physical
change creates a vibration that in turn produces elastic
compressional waves. These vibrational waves are coupled acoustically from the transmitter through a special
fluid and retaining sleeve, which then transmits the energy to the borehole fluid. The resulting waves propagate
spherically from the transmitter.
The operating frequency for all conventional instruments is 20 kHz except for the slim-hole instruments,
which operate at a higher center frequency of 28 kHz. The
slim-hole instrument produces more pessimistic measurements because the high-frequency waves prefer to travel
along the unbounded segments of pipe and result in
weaker formation arrivals.8,14 Effects of different operating frequencies are shown in Fig. 1-1, which displays two

Fig. 1-2
Some acoustic energy is reflected at each interface along the
transmission paths.

All of the materials surrounding the transmitter have


been set into vibration, thus allowing for passage of
sound waves in the form of elastic waves. Each material
exhibits its own characteristic effects on the elastic
waves influencing wave velocity, amplitude, and frequency.
The receiver section of the cement bond log instrumentation operates essentially as a transmitter in reverse;
i.e., pressure variations caused by acoustic energy produce electrical signals. Piezoelectric cylinders are used
for receivers in Western Atlas instruments. (Further discussion of the effects of wavefronts follows under the
Wave Theory section.)

Fig. 1-1
Transmitter frequency effects on Variable Density Log (VDL)
recordings14

Passage of the waves from the transmitter through the


borehole fluid, casing, cement, formation, and back to the
receiver alters the character of the compressional waves.
Of particular interest is the creation of shear-type waves
in solid materials and the reduction in amplitude of the
original compressional waves. Shear-type waves travel
more slowly than compressional waves and require shear
strength in the transmitting medium; therefore, they cannot be propagated in fluids or gases.
The downhole instrumentation is designed to delay
and suppress much of the energy transmitted directly
through the instrument that might otherwise be confused
as the first detectable arrivals at the receiver. Since such
arrivals carry no usable information regarding annular
cement, the instrument sleeve is slotted to inhibit and
slow the direct transmission of sound to the receiver (see
Fig. 1-3).
Laboratory studies have shown that acoustic signal
amplitude through pipe is minimum where a sheath of
hard cement exceeding 3/4-in. (19.1-mm) thickness is
bonded to the entire casing periphery.30 Under these laboratory-controlled conditions, attenuation is on the order
of 13 dB/ft. Previous studies also indicate that a signal
amplitude is related not only to the attenuation rate per
foot, but also to the transmitter-receiver span and to casing size and thickness.
A short-spaced amplitude measurement provides a
maximum signal level and resolution at high attenuation
rates, as well as maximum vertical resolution (Fig. 14).7,14 Too short a spacing will result in interference from
direct mud arrivals in large diameter casings. Acoustic
energy propagates through fluid at about 180220
sec/ft, and about 57 sec/ft through steel. It is essential
that the preferred path be through the casing. For standard
dual-receiver CBL configurations, the 3-ft spacing is

Fig. 1-4
Signal level and resolution as a function of transmitter-receiver
spacing10

Fig. 1-3
Slotted instrument sleeve12

recommended by the API Cement Bond Log Advisory


Board as being acceptable for both the amplitude and
travel-time measurements. The borehole compensated
system utilized on the Bond Attenuation Log (BAL) also
meets required tolerances, and in fact, calculates attenuation rate directly.
The longer 5-ft span is used to record Variable Density
and/or Signature waveforms. Information pertaining to
the formation is provided by this longer spaced measurement and display of the full waveform. Longer spans provide greater separation in casing and formation signal arrival times (Fig. 1-5) along the acoustic time spectrum.
Single-receiver travel time and amplitude or attenuation
is usually measured with a shorter transmitter-receiver
span; however, for reasons stated above, these measurements can also be observed from the 5-ft receiver.
Transmitter-receiver spacings for WALS instruments
are listed with other specifications in Table 1-1. As
shown, the dual-receiver instruments utilize 3-ft and 5-ft
transmitter-receiver spans. The 3-ft span is normally used
for amplitude and travel-time measurements, while the 5ft span is commonly used for recording the full wave-

TABLE 1-1
WALS Transmitter Diameter Max. Temp. Max. Press.
Series Frequency
in.
F
102 psi
No.
(kHz)
(mm)
(C)
(MPe)

TR Spacing
ft
(m)

1412

28

1.7
(43.2)

400
(204)

17
(117.2)

4
(1.22)

1415

20

3.5
(88.9)

400
(204)

20
(137.9)

35
(0.911.52)

1417

20

3.38
(85.8)

450
(232)

25
(172.4)

35
(0.911.52)

1423

20

2.75
(69.8)

350
(176)

20
(137.9)

2.53.55
(0.761.071.52)

1456

20

3.38
(85.8)

350*
(176)

20
(137.9)

35
(0.911.52)

* 500F (230C) with Dewer Pesks

form; i.e., Signature and/or Variable Density. In the case


of the slim-hole instrument, a 4-ft span is used for all the
recorded measurements.
The Bond Attenuation Log utilizes dual transmitters
and three receivers, which are arranged to provide a fully
compensated direct measurement of attenuation (Fig. 16). The BAL instrument is 2-3/4-in. (69.9-mm) diameter
and can be used in smaller diameter casings than the standard instruments. The span from each transmitter to its respective near and far receiver is 2.5 ft (0.76 m) and 3.5 ft
(1.07 m). The VDL/Signature recording is taken from the
5-ft (1.52-m) span, which separates the upper transmitter
and lower receiver.

Fig. 1-5
Greater distinction between casing and formation arrival times is
achieved with longer TR span.12

Fig. 1-6
Bond Attenuation Log instrument28

the shear waves be recognized as being different from the


compressional waves. Cement, when well bonded to the
casing, will attenuate acoustic signals traveling through
the casing because cements with high shear strengths also
have high compressional strengths. When shear waves
are detected on the Signature or Variable Density, they
are representative of cement integrity in the overwhelming majority of cases.

Acoustic Signal Processing


At the surface, the received signal is processed so that
the amplitude of the compressional wave can be measured and displayed. A single-receiver travel time,
which represents the time necessary to detect the first
positive or negative arrival of sufficient amplitude, is
also recorded. Modern processing methods also permit
presentation of the composite wave train Signature, or a
continuous display of the Z-axis modulated Variable
Density.
An idealized illustration of an acoustic wave train is
shown in the lower portion of Fig. 1-7. This wave train is
representative of the type of trace that might be observed
for a single transmitter firing. Signal amplitude is plotted
on the ordinate; time (measured from the instant of transmitter firing) is plotted on the abscissa. This basic waveform consists of four different types of wave arrivals (left
to right): (1) compressional wave (P-wave) in casing, (2)
compressional wave in the cement sheath, (3) compressional, shear (S-wave), pseudo-Rayleigh, and Stoneley
(St-wave) waves in the formation, and (4) mud or fluid
waves (M-wave).
Since both the pseudo-Rayleigh wave and shear wave
travel with similar velocities, they are often combined in
the nomenclature and usually referred to as shear waves.
For interpretation of cement quality, it is important that

Wave Theory
For practical applications of the CBL waveforms, only
two types of wave motion are of primary interest. These
waveforms are shown in Fig. 1-8.
A compressional wave is transmitted through particle
motion forward and backwards in reference to the direction in which the wave travels. Compressional waves (Pwaves) may be transmitted through the mud column,
pipe, cement, and formation.
When acoustic energy is introduced into a formation,
the rock molecules are initially displaced in a compressive manner, producing shear vibration. In solid materials, the shear wave contains a very high percentage of
acoustic energy, but this wave travels at a much slower
rate than the compressive wave. Since fluid in the borehole cannot support a shear wave, energy from the transmitter travels to the side of the hole as a compressional
wave (P-wave). Each material possesses an acoustic
impedance (Z), which is the product of its density () and
propagation velocity (v); i.e., Zv. Whenever acoustic
energy reaches an interface between materials of different
acoustic impedances, some of the energy is reflected and
some may be transferred, depending on the direction of
the acoustic energy relative to this interface. At the cement/formation interface, both compressional and shear
waves are propagated into the solid; however, some energy is reflected because of the mismatch in acoustic
impedance. It should be mentioned that greater differences in acoustic impedance cause larger amounts of reflected energy.
The shear wave is transmitted through particle motion
perpendicular to the wave path and travel time is approximately 1.6 to 1.9 times longer than compressional travel
time (a different ratio is used in seismic work). Furthermore, the shear wave usually has a higher amplitude than
the compressional wave. Since gases and liquids have no
shear strength, they will not support a shear wave. Lowvelocity, uncompacted sands typically do not support a
shear wave.
The particle motion of the pseudo-Rayleigh wave follows an elliptical path; i.e., each particle moves forward
and backwards and from side to side in an approximately
circular path. The Rayleigh wave amplitude is strongest
near the borehole, and then rapidly diminishes outward
into the formation.
The mud wave is a compressional wave traveling
through the mud column from the transmitter to the receiver. Fortunately, transit time through the fluid column

Fig. 1-7
Composite of acoustic cement bond log signal paths12

Fig. 1-8
Compressional and shear waves12

Fig. 1-9
Recognizing fluid waves on VDL and signature presentations

is longer than transit time through the pipe or formations


of interest. Mud waves occur late and do not usually
interfere with subsequent interpretation of the log (Fig.
1-9).
The Stoneley wave is a low-frequency interface wave
traveling along the borehole wall and along the instrument axis. These waves arrive even later in time than the
mud waves, and, for the most part, do not enter into the
interpretation of cement bond logs.

to evaluate cement conditions. The travel-time curve is


recorded with a floating gate detection system.
Fixed Gates
A fixed gate system is one in which the transmitter is fired
at fixed intervals, followed by a fixed time for the gate to
open and remain open, and fixed time interval for the gate
to close. The logging engineer sets the timing for fixed
gate detection, which is primarily dependent on casing
size. Fixed gate settings are not, however, dependent on
acoustic signals arriving at a receiver. The illustration
(Fig. 1-10) shows a gate set to open at a designated time,
remain open for a fixed time, and close at a designated
time. The acoustic amplitude within this fixed gate time
frame is then measured.
Gate positioning contributes to the success or failure
of subsequent bond log interpretation efforts.14 Different
gate widths are available with different instrument systems, and gate width should be adjusted to fit circumstances; e.g., 4.5-in. (114-mm) casing and 13-3/8-in.
(340-mm) casing requires different gate widths. If gate
widths are too wide; e.g., in smaller casings, amplitude responses are often subjected to interference from later arrivals. Multiple casing strings and fast formations can

GATING SYSTEMS
Gating systems and threshold bias settings play an important role in understanding cement bond logging measurements and instrumentation. Tool systems are gated to
measure a particular part of the wave train. With the
Western Atlas system, amplitude measurements are made
during the time period the gate is open, which is referred
to as gate width. Acoustic logging instrumentation uses
both fixed and floating gates.14 Fixed gates are currently
being used for primary bond amplitude measurements;
however, prior to development of full-waveform recordings, older generation CBLs used a floating gate amplitude measurement with a floating gate travel-time curve

Fig. 1-10
Fixed gate amplitude detection vs. floating gate travel-time detection

also interfere with the first positive arrival E1 casing response, which is the targeted measurement.

amplitude measurement should always be measured with


a proper fixed gate setting.
The amplitude measurement made by WALS instrumentation is typically representative of the first detected
positive arrival (E1) at the near receiver. Amplitude is the
measurement from which quantitative derivations of cement compressive strength and bond index are obtained
with both single- and dual-receiver Western Atlas cement
bond log instruments. Also, the generally accepted qualitative interpretation of cement bond is estimated from the
amplitude as follows (Fig. 1-11):

Floating Gates
The principle of the floating gate is that it remains open
across the entire acoustic spectrum until an amplitude
pulse having sufficient amplitude to extend beyond the
threshold bias setting is found. This response is then
recorded as the time of the first acoustic arrival pulse.
Correct bias setting is a very important parameter. If the
threshold level is set too low, the measurement could be
triggered by forerunners; setting the threshold level too
high would result in the measurement being triggered extremely late. The floating gate detection method is illustrated in Fig. 1-10. Evolutions in digital recording and
processing have eliminated many of the weaknesses previously stated. The digital CBL and SBL instrumentation
pick travel time from a waveform that is digitized downhole. Advantages of the floating gate are primarily for the
travel-time measurement, which will be discussed in a
later section.

A. A high amplitude indicates that the casing is relatively free to vibrate; hence, it is poorly bonded or
supported.
B. A low amplitude indicates that the casing is more
confined or bonded, causing absorption of the
wave energy by surrounding media.
C. Amplitude measurements between maximum and
minimum values are functions of the percentage of
casing bond.
This single measurement (amplitude), and the oversimplified interpretation of it, is frequently the source of much
of the controversy and error regarding cement bond log
analysis.

AMPLITUDE
In wireline acoustic logging, the amplitude measurement
relates to the magnitude of acoustic energy at the receiver,
which is positioned at a fixed distance away from the
transmitter. The term attenuation is the energy loss
from wave propagation during transmission. The primary

Peak Amplitude
Amplitude can be electrically measured with a high degree of accuracy; however, physical constraints of the
logging instrument and their relationship to the casing,
borehole, cement, and formation, and their physical relationship to one another complicates the amplitude response.3 Proper instrument centralization in the borehole
is critical to obtaining accurate peak amplitude measurements for indications of cement bond to pipe (Fig. 112).30 With only 1/4-in. (0.64-cm) eccentering, as much
as a 50% signal loss results. The reference data shown in
Fig. 1-12 are more than 25 years old. Eccentering is not
likely to be as severe with todays instrumentation; however, Fig. 1-12 shows the significance of instrument
centering.

Fig. 1-11
Generally accepted qualitative interpretation of the amplitude
curve12

Fig. 1-12
Effects of eccentering on amplitude30

Industry practice has been to arbitrarily scale peak amplitude in millivolts (mV). Methods of calibrating peak
amplitude response to known conditions are used in determining the relationship of log measurements in the
borehole environment. The calibration method used by
Western Atlas Logging Services will be discussed in a
later section. Western Atlas equipment is currently following the industry standard.
Alternate Area Measurement of Amplitude
From the mid-1980s until 1990, Western Atlas CBL systems did not measure peak amplitude, but instead measured the area under the positive portion of the signal
amplitude and presented a linearly scaled (0 to 100)
trace called CBL Amplitude or percentage Unbonded
Pipe Signal. The purpose of using this area method was
to lessen the effects of instrument eccentering, which do
occur. A laboratory experiment (to be described) has
shown (Fig. 1-13) the signal to spread in width, although

Fig. 1-13
Effects of centering and eccentering on signal amplitude and
wave shape
Fig. 1-14
Laboratory fixture for eccentering experiment16

peak amplitude is reduced and area measurements beneath the signal pulse partially compensates for the reduction in peak amplitude caused by the eccentering.
This integrated area measurement of amplitude remains
an optional alternative.
An initial experiment to determine the effects of instrument eccentering on signal amplitude utilized a standard 3.375-in. (85.8-mm) dual-receiver CBL instrument.
The instrument was suspended from a 30-ft (9.1-m) mast
and positioned in the center of 5.5-in. (140-mm) [4.95-in.
(124.7-mm) ID], 15.5-lbm/ft (23.1-kg/m) casing. The instrument was clamped into position on top of the casing
(Fig. 1-14) in such a manner that would only allow movement along one axis; i.e., the guide rails. The movement
along this axis was controlled by a 13-turns/in. screw.
Starting at the side, the screw was rotated one turn at a
time to move the instrument across the test assembly. The
test results were carefully plotted (Fig. 1-15) for several

stations (CBL amplitude vs. amount of eccentering) for


both the 3-ft (0.9-m) and 5-ft (1.52-m) receivers. The actual data are shown in Fig. 1-16. Later, calculated data
were carefully plotted from the actual areal amplitude
measurements and a calculated early travel time, but
based solely on changes in fluid and casing travel time;
i.e., Snells Law was not considered. These data will be
shown later. The calculations did confirm that the areal
amplitude measurement is slightly less sensitive to eccentering effects than the peak amplitude method. However, further, more refined experiments in different casing
sizes are being undertaken by Western Atlas Logging
Services to determine the importance and validity of this
measurement and its comparable value with respect to
conventional peak amplitude responses.
8

Pipe Amplitude Gate


The dual-receiver instruments utilize a fixed electronic
gate (normally open for 50 sec), positioned at the
proper time (dependent on casing size) along the acoustic
time spectrum, to evaluate the first positive-going casing
energy pulse (Fig. 1-17). The gate opens on a negative
pulse and closes on a negative pulse, which limits the amplitude measurement to one positive amplitude pulse. In
the past, some of the conventional instruments measured
the first negative arrival, E2, for bond determination (Fig.
1-18), but the practice has been changed to E1 detection.
The time gate is set utilizing oscilloscope monitoring and
selected to include that interval of time in which casing
arrivals should occur. Gate width can be adjusted as necessary by the logging engineer.

Fig. 1-15
Test results of CBL areal amplitude experiment

Fig. 1-17
Positioning fixed electronic gate at the proper time

Fig. 1-18
Series 1456 CBL instruments formerly used the first negative arrival, E2, for bond determination.

Fig. 1-16
Data recording during CBL areal amplitude experiment

Formation Gates
A second fixed gate is occasionally used to evaluate formation amplitude when the relative separation of pipe and
formation arrival time is adequate (generally in low-velocity horizons). Formation fixed gates are, however, unreliable in many geological/geographical locales because
the normally encountered formation arrivals in a borehole
vary considerably from one formation to the next. A second gate can also be set in a floating (variable) mode,
which is sometimes advantageous for fast formation detection (Fig. 1-19). Recording of formation gates is
optional.

Fig. 1-20
Minimum amplitudes for well-bonded casing of different size and
weight

sumed. Information on cementing, logging operations,


and the mechanical make-up of the well is important. A
number of physical conditions can lead to erroneous amplitude interpretations and include the following:
A. Amplitude detection method fixed gate or floating
gate (This is a concern with older CBLs.)14
B. Instrument centering3,7,14,15,32,40
C. Insufficient curing time for cement18,30,40
D. Cement sheath less than 3/4 in. (2 cm) with either
well centered or poorly centered casing30
E. Microannulus26,33
F. Gas bubbles in the borehole fluid3,15
G. Void spaces in the cement sheath12,29
H. Fast formation occurs where formation signal arrives earlier than, or at the same time as, pipe arrival3,7,12,14,15,29
I. Cement bonded to the pipe, but not to the formation3,12,29
J. Changes in acoustic properties of the borehole
fluid density and viscosity due to pressure, temperature, and content26
Fig. 1-19
Floating gate threshold detection is used for the travel-time measurement. A floating gate formation amplitude measurement is
optional.

K. Minimum amplitude signal in well bonded casing


varies with respect to casing size and casing
weight; i.e., larger size casings have more steel
than smaller size casings and thicker pipe of one
diameter has more metal than lighter weight pipe
of the same diameter (Fig. 1-20).30

Pitfalls in Bond Interpretation from Amplitude


Response

L. Cements are mixed to particular specifications and


may be designed with different compressive
strengths.37,38

In recent times, cement bond log interpretation was based


on a qualitative (and quantitative) study of signal amplitude, but to depend on this method alone is unwise. Interpretation is not so simple and straightforward as often as-

M. Cement is sometimes gas cut.37,38


10

It is of the utmost importance to have an understanding of the time frame and mechanics of the well completion to thoroughly comprehend the message provided by
the log measurements. Examples of amplitude measurements that are either acceptable or unacceptable for interpretation of cement quality will be discussed in a later
section.

BOND ATTENUATION
Some of the physical problems outlined in the previous
section can be resolved by use of the Bond Attenuation
Log, a dual-transmitter, dual-receiver scheme that determines attenuation rate directly, while at the same time
providing some borehole compensation for slight instrument tilt or eccentering. As illustrated schematically
(Fig. 1-21), the BAL system uses the A1 and A2 amplitudes when the upper transmitter fires and corresponding
A3 and A4 amplitudes when the lower transmitter is
fired. The attenuation ratio of A2/A1 is not dependent on
transmitter strength; i.e., if the transmitter output was
doubled, both numbers double and the ratio would be
unaffected. Attenuation is calculated automatically as
follows,
20 log

A A

A
A
2

or

A2 A4
10 log
A2 A4

(1)

Attenuation calculated by this method does not depend upon receiver sensitivities; i.e., doubling the amplitudes at receiver 2 does not change the result since
both the numerator (A2) and the denominator (A3) are
doubled.29
When the signal level at the far receiver approaches
0.5 mV, the ratio becomes so small that it might be affected by noise. Therefore, the method for calculating attenuation is automatically changed to a method similar to
that used with standard tool configurations.29

SINGLE-RECEIVER TRAVEL TIME


This curve represents the time required to detect the first
pulse of sufficient amplitude at the receiver, utilizing a
floating gate detection system for measurement. Threshold detection level is critical. While the instrument is descending into the hole, the logging engineer can usually
determine the detection level by checking the first arrival

Fig. 1-21
Schematic of BAL transducer locations12

Fig. 1-22
Threshold detection level is critical to floating measurement and is set low (inset) to avoid cycle-skips.

11

Fig. 1-23
Travel time vs. casing size for 2.5-ft compensated and conventional 3-ft transmitter-receiver spacings29

TABLE 1-2

amplitude in free pipe. Detection level is normally set to


a value considerably less than 10% of the free pipe amplitude2,29 as illustrated in the inset of Fig. 1-22. Threshold level can be adjusted to the preference of the user. For
the travel-time measurement, the WALS instruments use
the 3-ft span the Bond Attenuation Log uses the 2.5-ft
span to the near receivers and the slimhole single-receiver
instrument uses a 4-ft span. When referring to trace designation on current cement bond logs, this measurement
is labeled as TT, travel time. Older CBL logs may designate the trace as SRT.12 Some of the older logs may also
have travel time recorded with a 5-ft span instead of the
shorter 3-ft span.

Mineral
Sandstone
Limestone
Dolomite
Salt
Anhydrite
Polyhalite
Trona
Sylvite
Gypsum
Water (fresh)
Water (100.000 ppm NaCl)
Water (20015.000 ppm NaCl)
Oil
Air
Casing

Instrument Centering
If the logging instrument is properly centered in free or
poorly bonded pipe, the travel time should be a reasonably precise value. Charts used to determine the approximate 3-ft CBL travel time or the 2.5-ft BAL travel time
for various casing sizes are presented as Figs. 1-23a and
1-23b. A tf value of 210 sec/ft was used to construct
the charts. Several values typically used for fluid travel
time (tf) are shown in Table 1-2.3,14,15 As illustrated in
Fig. 1-24, a well-centered instrument will measure a nominal time value from one pipe joint to the next in free or
poorly cemented casing.3,12,15 Small variations in travel

Travel Times12
t (sec/ft)
55.5
47.6
43.5
67.0
50.0
57.5
65.0
74.0
52.5
200.0
189.0
182.0
222.0
919.0
57.0

time may occur from one joint to the next if pipe thickness/weight varies between the adjacent pipe joints.
These variations are apparent because the time reading
may be relatively constant over the duration of one pipe
joint and may vary, as each successive joint is encountered. Some gradual change can occur within individual
pipe joints due to mill tolerances.
The travel-time measurement is beneficial in determining instrument centralization if a sufficiently sensitive
scale is used (e.g., 10 sec per chart division). Another
method for checking centralization is a repeat logging
12

Fig. 1-24
Travel-time curve indicating centered tool in uncemented pipe.

pass. If the instrument is well centered, acoustic measurements should be very repeatable (Fig. 1-25); however,
good repeats often occur with eccentered instruments in
deviated boreholes. Travel time will occur early (Fig. 126) if an instrument is poorly centered. Eccentering reduces signal amplitude (Fig. 1-12), resulting in an erroneous indication of an optimistic bond condition. The
omnidirectional characteristics of transducers require
proper centralization to ensure simultaneous first arrivals
from all azimuths.
It is easy to specify perfect centralization, but it is not
always easy to accomplish perfect instrument centering in
practice. Highly deviated boreholes present a particular
problem. Occasionally, it is necessary to lower the tool
through a restriction in the well (storm chokes, disaster
valves, collapsed pipe, production packer, etc.), prohibiting the use of proper centralizers. Sharp curvature or
doglegs in deviated wellbores often limit, or even prohibit, the use of the proper centralizers. In such conditions, the amplitude measurements may be meaningless.
A powered centralizer has been developed to alleviate
many of the centering problems encountered in deviated
wellbores.
Evidence of the tolerable limits of amplitude reduction
by observation of early travel-time arrivals was accumulated by Fitzgerald.15 He demonstrated that a 4 sec early
TT corresponded to a 28.5% reduction in peak amplitude.
Comparable calculations for the areal amplitude reduction indicated a tolerance of 5 sec for a similar reduction
in amplitude (Fig. 1-27). The data are calculated both
with and without Snells law, which states that

Fig. 1-25
Repeatability with well-centered instruments

where
i angle of incidence
r angle of refraction
v velocity of light in the first medium
v velocity in the second medium
n index of refraction
Eccentered Casing
Casing strings are often eccentered over long depth intervals. A misinterpretation of conditions can occur if
the analyst suspects lower amplitudes to be caused by
very slight eccentering of the instrument (Fig. 1-28).
Pipe amplitude response will often reach a minimal
value somewhat higher than amplitude values that are
normally considered indicative of good-to-excellent cement bond. This minimum amplitude reading may, however, exist over several feet (m) of depth (XX560XX620 and XX645-XX60 in Fig. 1-28). As a result,
conventional quantification of cement bond will lead to

n sin i/sin r v/v,

13

Fig. 1-26
Effects of poorly centered instrument

14

Fig. 1-27
Test results of peak amplitude reduction vs. areal amplitude reduction due to eccentering

Fig. 1-28
Eccentered casing can affect interpretation of cementing.3

pessimistic and often misleading analysis of cement


condition.
Amplitude can also increase when casing is eccentered
because a portion of the annular cement sheath is either
absent or extremely thin [less than 3/4 in. (2.0 cm)]. Since
the muffling effect of the cement sheath is not available
on the low side of the wellbore, pipe ringing will occur.
Several years ago, a study of minimal effective cement
sheaths for bond log responses led to the chart in Fig. 129.30 Pipe ringing will also be moderate-to-strong on the
Signature or Variable Density displays when this condition occurs. In the example well shown in Fig. 1-28, it
was known that casing centralizers were not used in the
depth intervals illustrated, and borehole drift was about
10. The fact that stretch occurs between XX520 and
XX560 also provides a clue that enough cement is present
to attenuate the first arrival. Analysis of adequate cement
bond was correct as subsequent pressure tests and production history proved.
An accurate record of casing centralizers and borehole drift should be kept and recorded at the proper
place on the cement bond log heading. Furthermore, the
mechanical nature of the well make-up should be
recorded (see Appendix C). The previous example could
not have been interpreted successfully without such information.

Fig. 1-29
Cement thickness vs. attenuation rate30

15

Fig. 1-30
Cycle skipping to later arrivals caused by attenuation of pipe arrivals12

Fig. 1-32
Severe cycle skipping example29

Stretch

Fig. 1-31
Cycle skipping noted on travel-time trace12

Travel-time stretch may occur when an attenuated first


pipe arrival is detected in bonded intervals. A slight delay
in travel time (less than 12 sec) is caused by the attenuated pipe amplitude, as shown in Fig. 1-33. Travel-time
stretch is noted on the log example (Fig. 1-34). Stretch
also occurs in Fig. 1-32 from 1816 m to 1819 m, 1827 m
to 1829 m, 1830 m to 1836 m, and 1844 m to 1846 m. An
in-situ check of tool centering from the travel-time curve
cannot be made in intervals such as those shown (Figs. 132 and 1-34). Travel-time stretch and fast formations are
both noted on the log example (Fig. 1-34).
Stretch is often an indication of adequate zone isolation.3,12 In depth intervals where bond conditions vary
from partial to good, the travel-time curve should not be
judged as an indication of tool centering. Determination
of instrument centering conditions from the travel-time
curve should be restricted to those intervals where free or
unsupported pipe exists.

Cycle Skipping
When travel time indicates a higher time value than the
calculated casing time (excluding collars), it is usually the
result of well-bonded cement, and a function of threshold
detection level.2 Bias levels are set at less than 10% of the
peak free-pipe signal (typically 5%). Pipe size and
weight should be a consideration in selecting threshold
level. Cycle-skipping to later amplitude arrivals is caused
by the attenuation of pipe arrivals (see Fig. 1-30). These
later, stronger arrivals, which are detectable above the
bias level, often represent strong acoustic coupling to the
formation. In well-bonded intervals, cycle skips to arrivals as late as E11 have been observed on travel-time
measurements.3
A cycle-skipping travel-time trace is illustrated in Fig.
1-31. Note that a fixed gate pipe amplitude and Variable
Density Log are also illustrated. More severe cycle skipping is observed on the log of Fig. 1-32. Note the depths
from 1819 m to 1822 m, 1825 m to 1826 m, 1829 m to
1830 m, 1847 m to 1848 m, and from 1850 m to 1868 m.
If cycle skipping is only from the first to the second or
third arrival, it is not likely to be formation signal (with
the exception of moderately fast formations), but either
poor threshold level or an attenuated first arrival.29

Fast Formation
High-velocity (low travel time) formations are defined as
those that have formation arrivals occurring earlier than
or at approximately the same time as the pipe arrivals (see
Table 1-2).
Low-porosity limestones and dolomites are examples
of fast formations [45 to 50 sec/ft (148 to 164 sec/m)],
16

Fig. 1-33
Delay in travel time caused by attenuated pipe amplitude

Fig. 1-35
BAL example showing several instances of fast formation. Note
changes in formation transit time on the wavefront and excellent
agreement with the gamma ray. Pronounced formation and resultant interference with amplitude and attenuation curves occur,
and partial bonding is also indicated by the amplitude and attenuation curves. The log may not be properly interpreted from the
amplitude and attenuation curves only. The waveform confirms a
good acoustic path (cement) exists from the pipe to the formation
and back. The entire interval is well cemented.29

prove extremely helpful.3 Fast formation arrivals also occur in Fig. 1-32 from 1837 m to 1841 m.
Interpretation of the attenuation curve on a Bond Attenuation Log may be complicated by certain fast formations whose formation arrivals can affect the 3.5-ft spaced
receiver signals (A2 and A4) but not the 2.5-ft spaced signals (A1 and A3).28 Such circumstances occur (Fig. 1-36).
The Variable Density Log in the example indicates strong
formation signal, a prerequisite in verifying adequate cement-to-formation bond. Cycle skips and stretch are apparent on the travel-time curve. An amplitude gate that is
too wide could also cause the problem. Note the interval
4,170 to 4,180 ft where travel time is late despite fast formation signal on the VDL (Fig. 1-36).

Fig. 1-34
BAL travel time exhibits t stretch from 4,190 to 4,216 ft and from
4,306 to 4,345 ft29

where the formation signals arrive earlier than the casing


signal [57 sec/ft (187 sec/m)]. Anhydrite and gypsum
are also considered to be fast formations. An example of
fast-formation signal arrivals on the TT trace is shown in
Fig. 1-35. The shortened travel time is caused by the formation signal reaching the receiver before the pipe signal.
It is also possible for the fixed-gate amplitude to increase
because of strong formation signal occurring within the
same time frame for the pipe gate. Evaluation of the FullWave Signature or Variable Density therefore becomes
very critical.3,7,12,14,15,29,41 Comparison of the VDL to a
log that is sensitive to porosity/lithology changes can also

FULL ACOUSTIC WAVEFORM PRESENTATIONS


The acoustic energy spectrum discussed earlier can be
presented in two ways: Signature or Variable Density,
17

both of which are the same physical measurement. A 5ft transmitter-to-receiver span is commonly used for either type of display, the difference being the presentation format. The Western Atlas slimhole instrument uses
a 4-ft span for all acoustic measurements. The following
discussion points out the advantages of both display
types.
Full Waveform Signature
The Full-Wave Signature is a display of the received signal as observed on an oscilloscope; i.e., an x-y plot. To accommodate the range of expected arrival times for pipe,
formation, and fluid waves, the x-axis is typically scaled
from 200 to 1200 sec and the amplitude (y-axis) may be
adjusted to afford maximum resolution. The Signature is
typically displayed every 1 or 2 ft (0.5 m or 1.0 m) of
depth and may be recorded in a full-wave or half-wave
format in which the negative portion of the waveform is
omitted (Fig. 1-37). A less frequent 5-ft (1.5 to 2 m) plot
is also possible.
The Signature format is considered advantageous to
some15 users because the amplitude of each pulse can be
observed. This amplitude is not, however, the same as
the 3-ft receiver measurement (Signature is measured at
the 5-ft receiver.), and the electronic detection of the 3ft amplitude is far superior to human observation.2,3 At
the same time, the Signature format can be more difficult to use, especially where more heterogeneous formation conditions exist. Such formations cause some intermixing of the waveforms. Signature is also the preferred
format inside two strings of casing because casing arrival for both the inner and outer strings can be more
clearly identified.

Fig. 1-36
The interval from 4,170-4,182 ft indicates fast formation reversals
in the attenuation measurements. In this case, formation arrivals
are strong in the 3.5-ft receivers but only just beginning to affect
the 2.5-ft receivers. The attenuation algorith indicates unbonding,
although the 2.5-ft amplitude measurements are only slightly affected. Formation amplitudes arriving late in the amplitude gate
are detected by the travel time. Good bonding is implied by the
waveform.29

Variable Density Log


This is a Z-axis intensity-modulated signal that continuously displays amplitude in varying shades from whiteto-black versus depth. The time scale is similar to the Signature display.
The advantage of this presentation is that it provides
a continuous panoramic view of the borehole. Features
not easily recognizable on a single waveform can be
correlated with other waveforms and traced up and
down the log to identify casing, formation, or fluid
arrivals.3,12,14
Figure 1-38 is intended to be used as an aid in understanding the development of the Variable Density Log.
A typical acoustic wave train Signature versus time
is shown at the bottom of the graphic. In the illustration,
black represents a large positive amplitude and white
represents negative amplitude. Tones of gray represent
varying intensities of positive amplitude (see inset of Fig.
1-38). The continual stacking of waveforms versus depth
provides an effective contour map of the multiple waveforms.

Fig. 1-37
Available signature presentations

18

Waveform Interpretation
To study the features of a single-waveform Signature, the
wave theory discussed earlier is quite useful. For practical applications, however, it is necessary to examine vertical depth intervals adjacent to critical geological formations. Features that may not be recognized on a single
waveform are quite often identifiable when many waveforms are examined simultaneously.
A simplified and practical approach to identifying the
important features of a VDL is shown in Fig. 1-39. Although this figure is very generalized, it can be seen that
pipe, formation, and fluid signals are easily recognized. If
these three signals can be individually identified, a practical determination of the presence or absence of cement can
be ascertained.3,12 Formations with very consistent formation arrival times over a considerable depth interval are
more difficult for signal recognition (e.g., tight limestones). The VDL pipe signal will occur at a relatively constant time. An approximate value of VDL pipe-arrival time
can be determined by adding 114 sec (2 additional feet of
pipe travel) to the 3-ft pipe time estimate found on the 3-ft
travel-time charts (Fig. 1-23a). In the case of a BAL instrument, 2.5 ft of additional pipe travel (142 sec) would
have to be added to the estimate determined on the BAL
travel-time chart (Fig. 1-23b). The VDL and/or Signature
time scale is relatively insensitive; therefore, an approximation of pipe time is adequate for interpretative purposes.
Fluid or mud waves can also be recognized by their
rather constant time of arrival. Since the T-R span is fixed
and the borehole fluid acoustical properties do not normally change, an arrival will typically be indicated as a
straight line trace. Instrument movement, while ascending through the fluid, will create some interference causing some slight trace distortion. Changes in casing size
also have a significant effect on fluid arrival time and its
amplitude. There is also a direct relationship between the
casing ID and the fluid/mud amplitude. A general method
for determining approximately where fluid/mud waves
occur on the spectrum is:

Fig. 1-38
Translating the acoustic signature log to a Variable Density Log

FLUID
FLUID
ARRIVAL
TRANSIT
TIME

TR
SPACING

(2)

The formation compressive arrival is predictable if the


user has porosity/lithology information available; e.g.,
openhole acoustic log shows a 90-sec/ft formation time.
With a fixed T-R span (5 ft) and an approximate value for
the fluid travel time (190 sec) across one casing diameter ( 0.5 ft) and twice through the casing thickness (0.07
ft 57 sec and essentially negligible), the user can
quickly estimate at what time formation signal should occur at a given depth interval. The time across one casing
diameter and twice through the casing thickness can be
approximated as 100 sec for a quick estimate of formation compressional arrival time; i.e., (90 5) 100
550 sec. More precise calculations can be made, but

Fig. 1-39
A practical approach to identifying the important features on a
VDL display3

19

Fig. 1-40
Characteristics of formation compressional arrivals and shear
arrivals3

must include some knowledge of hole diameter minus


casing diameter (annular space behind pipe). For typical
qualitative VDL or Signature cement evaluation purposes, an approximate time of formation compressional
arrivals will suffice.
Shear arrivals, if present, occur at a later time; i.e.,
about 1.6 to 1.9 times the compressional arrivals; e.g.,
550 1.6 800 sec. Failure to identify shear-wave arrival should not be disturbing as this is typically the case
in low-velocity formations. Shear amplitude may be so
low that it is masked by late compressional arrivals, particularly when the compressional transit time of the formation is greater than 100 sec/ft (328 sec/m).
The existence of shear waves can be identified by two
conditions: (1) changes in shear arrival time vs. depth will
not always parallel changes in formation compressional
arrival vs. depth, and (2) an increase in the acoustic wave
train amplitude, as indicated by a greater contrast in the
VDL dark/light shading, will be noted. Shear waves normally have about 1.5 times the amplitude of compressional wave amplitudes as illustrated in Fig. 1-40. Also,
shear arrivals often have an apparent lower frequency
than compressional waves. Shear wave detection is representative of cement integrity in the overwhelming majority of cases.3,12
A practical approach to ensure that the formation signal is present on the VDL is to compare it to a
porosity/lithology-sensitive log. Formation compressional waves will show variations vs. depth, as in a mirror
image to comparable changes on an openhole acoustic log

Fig. 1-41
VDL formation signal correlates in mirror image to openhole
acoustic log3

(Fig. 1-41). Other logs, including the cased hole gamma


ray or neutron, can also be used for an effective comparison. Without such a comparison, the formation signal can
be recognized on the VDL because it will eventually reflect changes in arrival time vs. depth. There is no reason
for pipe or mud signals to vary more than 4 or 5 sec/ft,
which is almost unnoticeable on the insensitive (100 sec
per chart division) waveform scale.
When fast formations are encountered, determining
whether pipe or formation signal was measured can be ascertained by tracing the first arrival up/down the log
(panoramic view).3 Changes will be observed only if it is
formation signal (Fig. 1-42).
Combined Signature and Variable Density Display
It is also possible to present the Variable Density with
a superimposed full-wave Signature. The Signature
trace is normally presented at depth intervals of 5 to 10
ft (or equivalent metric depths) to avoid too much com20

Fig. 1-42
VDL first arrival changes in time vs. depth, an indication of strong
formation coupling

Fig. 1-43
Signature superimposed on Variable Density Log

Fig. 1-44
Comparison of signature and variable density presentation

21

Fig. 1-46
W reflection pattern opposite casing collar12

Fig. 1-45
Energy transfer in a free casing collar12

plexity in the display (Fig. 1-43). A two-track, side-byside presentation of the full-wave Signature and Variable Density is an alternative approach (Fig. 1-44).
Computer software is required to provide the combination display.
Fig. 1-47
In free pipe, casing collars affect travel time and amplitude for 3ft intervals and VDL over 5-ft intervals.3

CASING COLLARS
Casing collars are identified as a decrease in the amplitude, a slight increase in TT, and/or clear chevron (W)
patterns on the VDL.12,41 These anomalies are caused by
the attenuation and reflection of sound energy as it encounters the threaded connections of a casing collar as
shown in Fig. 1-45. Furthermore, the slight increase in
travel time is the result of the longer travel path as indicated. It should also be mentioned that collars will be
much more obvious in free, unsupported pipe.
The distance between the W pattern corners on the
VDL represents the transmitter-receiver spacing (see
Fig. 1-46).12 The Fig. 1-47 log illustrates that T-R spacing is also indicated by the TT increase vs. depth and by
amplitude reduction vs. depth, in addition to the chevron
patterns on the VDL. Tool systems utilizing a wide gating system will exhibit a more rounded-off pattern.
The location of the collars is assumed to be at the mid-

point of each response, thus providing verification of the


correctness of collar locator depths. The chevron patterns will not be observed in flush-joint casing (Fig. 148).
Casing collar anomalies are typically not apparent in
well-bonded casing. Acoustic energy is reduced by good
cement bonding far more than it is by passing through a
threaded pipe connection. Slight indications of collars,
however, do not necessarily indicate poor cement quality. Other factors such as cement curing time, pipe thickness, cement compressive strength, T-R spacing, and
thickness of the annular cement sheath must also be
considered.
Collars can be detected in non-ferrous tubular goods
with acoustic measurements; however, cement evaluation
22

in holes cased with non-ferrous materials is primarily dependent on the waveform for formation detection, the assumption being that good bond to formation indicates
zone isolation. Amplitude measurements are generally
very low in non-ferrous pipe because the instrument does
not recognize any pipe presence. A floating gate detection
system will not reach threshold detection level until formation or fluid arrivals occur, so travel-time measurements occur very late. For cement evaluation in non-ferrous pipe, other wireline instrumentation (Appendix D)
should also be considered.
LINERS
When a liner is used in lieu of a long production string
of casing, the liner is usually extended upward for some
distance into a shallower intermediate pipe string, which
was cemented prior to drilling deeper. Several factors
must be considered; i.e., liners are often run without
centralizers and other exterior apparatus. Also, liner
hangers are not always used, and when they are employed, the hanger is not always set successfully. The
annular space between the liner and the casing (where
they overlap vs. depth) is often quite small and makes

Fig. 1-48
BAL instrument in 5-in., 18-lbm/ft flush-joint pipe

Fig. 1-49
Effective cementation is necessary between two pipe strings in the overlapping depth interval.

23

cementing between the two pipe strings difficult. Effective cementation needs to exist between the two pipe
strings in the overlapping depth interval to eliminate
communication problems in that area of the borehole
(Fig. 1-49). Interpretation of acoustic cement bond log
response is particularly difficult in this situation, because the cement sheath may be thin and the liner may
be eccentered inside the larger casing. Gate width, both
for amplitude and travel time, is often critical in obtaining meaningful responses.
Occasionally, a liner may be run in a borehole that is
not much larger than the liner diameter; i.e., the annular
space will be small. A cement sheath less than 3/4 in.
(19 mm) in thickness might result. Figure 1-50 is an example showing a CBL recorded in a 5.5-in. (127-mm)
liner, which was set in a 5.875-in. (149-mm) borehole.
The borehole was in gauge through a tight, limestone
reservoir. In such circumstances, the casing collars
would likely center the pipe. It must be recognized,
however, that the amplitude responses will be mislead-

Fig. 1-51
Zone isolation can be accomplished if mud properties are
adequate.

ing due to the thin cement sheath. Pipe signal will likely
be evident on the VDL due to the minimal muffling effect of the cement sheath in comparison to the metal volume of the pipe. Collars will, in all probability, affect all
the measurements. Fast formation signals should, however, be apparent on the travel-time trace. Strong formation signals, including shear arrivals, will likely occur
where adequate acoustic coupling to the formation is
found. The interval (Fig. 1-50) shown was interpreted as
well cemented, and initial production tests confirmed the
log analysis.
Another situation that occasionally complicates cement bond analysis is illustrated in Fig. 1-51. The example shows a 7-in. (179-mm) liner centered in an 81/2-in. (216-mm) borehole, but with a 1/4-in. (6.4-mm)
mudcake buildup. The cement sheath is too thin (see inset) and, as a result, cement bond to the pipe would appear to be poor.
If, for some reason, a cement bond log is run over a
portion of an intermediate string of casing after logging
the deeper liner, the instrument will probably not be adequately centered for the larger internal diameter of the
intermediate casing. This type of logging condition
should only be interpreted qualitatively, and then with
some knowledge of well mechanics and cement times
and conditions.

Fig. 1-50
Amplitude and VDL behavior in a borehole not much larger than
the pipe diameter

24

ADDITIONAL MEASUREMENTS COMBINED


WITH CEMENT BOND LOGS

Recognition of Concentric Pipe Strings


Occasionally, when proper conditions exist, it is possible
to recognize two pipe signals (Fig. 1-52). When large casing [e.g., 13-3/8 in. (340 mm)] lies inside a yet larger casing [i.e., 18-5/8 in. (473 mm)] and acoustic coupling between the two concentric strings is accomplished, two
strong compressional arrivals are observed. The earlier
arrival is representative of the smaller casing arrival time,
and the later strong arrival is representative of the larger
casing arrival time. The example illustrates such a situation in a deviated hole. Note the gradual decrease in travel
time below the 210-m depth, caused by eccentering of the
logging tool in the 35 borehole. The first arrival for the
13-3/8-in. (340-mm) pipe string occurs near 500 sec on
the Signature and the first arrival for the 18-5/8-in. (473mm) pipe string occurs near 700 sec on the Signature.
The steel mass and coupling between the two strings result in two strong arrivals. Compressional first arrivals for
the two pipe strings are clearly observed from 198 m to
209 m and from 221 m to 232 m.

Modular gamma ray and/or neutron instruments and a


casing collar locator can be run in combination with the
cement bond log equipment. Most of these components
are rated for 350F (177C). Nuclear instruments in the
hostile environment category are contained in thermal-insulated flasks and may be used up to 500F (260C).
These additional instruments add some length to the
downhole tool string. Appendix B illustrates some possible schemes for subsurface hardware makeup; i.e., BAL
instrument with a gamma ray and CCL, or perhaps a CBL
with a neutron and CCL, etc.
Other types of measurements are often used for evaluating cementing jobs. Temperature logs are frequently
used for determining cement tops and depth intervals
where cement is present behind pipe. Tracerlogs are routinely used to identify channeling behind pipe and, under
the proper conditions, tracer surveys can be used to identify cement tops. Temperature, noise, or Tracerlogs, or
any combination of the three are also used to evaluate the
extent of channels behind casing. These will be discussed
briefly in Appendix D.
OPENHOLE CALIPER AND
LITHOLOGY INFORMATION
Caliper information defining the size and perhaps the
shape and rugosity of the borehole wall behind pipe is always an important criteria to log analysis of cement condition. A knowledge of particular lithologies present behind pipe is also helpful. Openhole caliper and
porosity/lithology data help explain CBL responses (Fig.
1-53). Pipe and formation signals on the VDL and relatively low amplitude characterize the salt intervals in the
illustration. The anhydrite intervals exhibit free-pipe amplitude responses, whereas the VDL has both strong pipe
and strong formation signals. Salt formations are difficult
to cement because the water in the slurry tends to dissolve
the salt crystals and enlarge the borehole.
QUANTIFYING CEMENT
Effects of Cement Curing Time
Cement slurries are designed to provide an annular hydraulic seal having compressive strength sufficient to
withstand subsequent completion and production operations. As the slurry sets up or cures, the time required for
its compressive strength to increase up to or approach its
design limitation is a function of downhole temperature,
pressure, and the additives mixed into the slurry. Some
additives accelerate curing time while other additives retard it. The compressive strength of some modern cements is attained in relatively short time durations, while
others may require as long as two weeks to reach maximum strength. Curing time is an important consideration
in determining the proper time to run an acoustic cement

Fig. 1-52
Acoustic coupling can exist in concentric pipe strings.

25

Fig. 1-53
Openhole caliper and porosity/lithology data can help explain CBL responses.

26

Such factors include:

bond log (Fig. 1-54). If a bond log is run before the cement cures, it may only be useful in monitoring the cement curing time.12,30

100% distribution of cement assumed


Instrument centering
Presence or absence of microannulus
Annular cement greater than 3/4-in. (20-mm) thick
Formation arrival time vs. casing arrival time
Other differences in bonding strength vs. curing time
are lithologically related; e.g., opposite sand formations;
the bond may be completed several hours sooner than opposite shales. A possible explanation is that the cement
slurry loses its water to the permeable sand sections and
sets faster.
Laboratory experiments have established a definite relationship between cement compressive strengths and
acoustic attenuation rates.7 Due to this evidence, the API
CBL Advisory Board recommends 3-ft spans for amplitude and travel-time measurements and 5-ft spans for the
full-waveform measurements.

Fig. 1-54
Effects of curing time on CBL responses12,21

The pipe amplitude measurement (peak amplitude or


integrated area method) is used in calculating the cement
compressive strength. In order for this measurement to be
adequate for such calculations, knowledge that appropriate cement curing time occurred prior to logging is a prerequisite (Table 1-3). Several other factors must be considered before accepting the amplitude measurement.

Effects of Casing Dimensions


The effects of casing dimensions (i.e., wall thickness
and diameter) are independent of each other and can be
isolated. Diameter has practically no effect on the attenuation rate, although it does influence the signal amplitude.
At the receiver, the initial input level of the signal changes

TABLE 1-3

Cement Type
Pozzolan Cement 5050, 2% Gel
Slo-Jet, 4% Gel
Class A Cement, 5% Gel
Slo-Set
Class F
Class E, 4% Gel
Pozzolan Cement 5050,
2% Gel, 2% CACL
5050 Pozzolan Cement, 3% Gel
Pozzolan Cement, 2% Gel
Slo-set
Class A
Class A
Slo-set with Perlite, 4% Gel,
3% lignine retarder
Pozzolan Cement 5050
Slo-set
Class A

C17g
Time

Curing
Temp.

Casing Size

Spacing

Minimum
Amplitude

Computed
Comp. Strength

Theoretical
Comp. Strength

48 hrs.
54 hrs.
168 hrs.
42 hrs.
24 hrs.
36 hrs.
42 hrs.

112
140
110
162
243
220
110

4-1/2 9-1/2#
5-1/2 14#
10-3/4 45-1/2#
5-1/2 20#
5 18#
5-1/2 17#
10-3/4 40-1/2#

3
3
3
3
3
4
3

0.5
0.5
1.5
0.8
0.8
0.2
3.2

1400
2600
2800
5000
5000
2700
1000

1400
3000
3000
5000
5000
2800
1000

64 hrs.
Workover Well
19 hrs.
Workover Well
After Squeeze
11-1/2 hrs.

115
140
195
120
150
188

4-1/2 9-1/2#
7 26#
5 18#
5-1/2 14#
7 23#
9-5/8 47#

3
4
3
4
3
4

0.6
1.2
1.4
0.2
1.5
1.0

1300
1400
4000
1600
1900
2800

2000
2600
3800
6000
6500
1000

39 hrs.
36 hrs.
Workover Well

120
234
130

4-1/2 9-1/2#
7 29#
5 14#

3
3
4

0.4
1.1
0.4

1700
5000
1500

1600
5000
6000

27

as casing diameter changes. It is known that the transducers couple signal sound more efficiently as the casing diameter decreases, and hence casing diameter must be considered for interpretation purposes. As shown in Fig.
1-55, the casing wave frequency is higher on the VDL in
smaller diameter pipe.2,12

Fig. 1-56
Nominal thickness for different casing sizes and weights12

propriate casing thickness, a compressive strength can be


obtained graphically from a nomogram.2,28
Nomograms for the Series 1423 Bond Attenuation
Log (Fig. 1-57), the Series 1456 dual-receiver instrument (Fig. 1-58), and the Series 1412, 1415, and 1417
series instruments (Fig. 1-59) are provided. The three
nomograms, presented in English and metric, are based
on the assumption that fresh-water muds occupy the
borehole. It has also been demonstrated that foamed cement slurries, when cured, do not fit the traditional
graphical interpretation nomograms; therefore, an empirically derived compressive strength for foamed cements8 is also given on Figs. 1-57, 1-58, and 1-59. The
CBL Amplitude (integrated area approach) is used to enter Fig. 1-59, whereas peak amplitude values are used to
enter Figs. 1-57 and 1-58.

Fig. 1-55
Pipe size affects frequency of pipe ringing.3

Wall thickness has little effect on the attenuation rate


in unbonded casing. For commonly used casing thickness, surface attenuation rates average about 0.8 dB/ft
(2.6 dB/m) in uncemented steel casing, but not so in nonferrous pipe. This attenuation rate is about 1.25 dB/ft (4.1
dB/m) in typical downhole conditions. In bonded pipe,
the attenuation rate is very dependent upon the wall thickness, as will be shown by the interpretation nomograms.2,29 Data for various sizes, weights, and thicknesses of casing are given in Appendix E. Furthermore, a
chart that approximates the nominal thickness for particular casing sizes and weights is given in Fig. 1-56.

Bond Index
The bond index (BI) is numerically determined from the
following equation,
Attenuation Measured Bond Index
Bond Index
Maximum Attenuation

(3)

A bond index (BI) value of 1.0 indicates the existence


of perfect bond, while anything less implies a condition of
incomplete bond.
The advantage of this numerical method is that it depends on the ratio of attenuation rates rather than absolute values and results in reducing potential errors related to environmental conditions.7 It is critical,
however, to have at least one point with complete cement
bond and one point corresponding to free pipe. Free-pipe
readings should be made as near the zone of interest as
possible since the acoustic properties of fluid can change
significantly with depth due to pressure, temperature,
and content.

Cement Compressive Strength Determination


Provided that qualitative interpretation has determined an
amplitude response to be a valid measurement of cement
condition, a quantitative interpretation can and should be
made.2,3,12 Entering the appropriate chart with the amplitude measurement value, the proper T-R spacing, and ap28

Fig. 1-57
Cement compressive strength from Series 1423 Bond Attenuation Log

29

Fig. 1-58
Cement compressive strength from Series 1456 dual-receiver bond log

30

Fig. 1-59
Cement compressive strength from Series 1412, 1415, and 1417 cement bond log instruments

31

The quantitative interpretation of 3-foot amplitude


measurements made with the Western Atlas dual-receiver instruments is based on results of experimental
laboratory tests in various casing sizes and cements of
various compressive strengths. Table 1-5 is based on this
work with free-pipe amplitudes from the Series 1456
dual-receiver instrument. The compressive strength
nomogram (Fig. 1-58) allows for a conversion from amplitude to attenuation for several casing sizes. Attenuation for casing sizes not shown on the chart can be interpolated between the given values due to the fact that
attenuation varies only slightly with casing size. The
nomograph makes use of the experimental results and
the following equation,

tion; e.g., cutoffs from 0.6 to 0.8 BI are selected. Log


analysts generally accept this approach for determining
bond index.
A graphical bond index method is, however, utilized
by some analysts.15 Semilog paper is used to plot peak
amplitude, increasing vertically on a logarithmic scale,
and percent cement increasing horizontally on a linear
scale (Fig. 1-60). If Bond Index is to be determined with
a 0.6 cutoff, a vertical line is projected vertically from
the 60% point on the ordinate until it intersects a line
connecting the two extreme peak amplitude values observed. Amplitudes below that intersection are taken as
an indication of good cement quality. (If 0.8 BI were the
preferred cutoff, the line would extend upwards from
80% on the linear scale.) Obviously, this graphical approach implies that both 0% and 100% bonding was encountered in the well. For example, pessimistic results
can be expected if there was no free pipe; therefore, the
free-pipe chart value for the particular casing size should
be used.
While Bond Index provides an indication of cement
quality, effective zone isolation also requires the existence of a minimum depth interval of effectively bonded
cement in order to achieve zone isolation. This interval
length varies with casing size; i.e., larger diameter pipe

Amplitude Measured
20
Attenuation log
Free-Pipe Amplitude . (4)

Equation 4 is the commonly accepted definition of attenuation. The value of D is the T-R span; three is substituted for the dual-receiver CBL tools, and four would be
used in the equation if interpretation was made from a Series 1412 instrument.
When metric measurements are used, the BI ratio is
unaffected since it is dimensionless. Different operators
select various BI values as an acceptable bond indica-

TABLE 1-4
(Valid ONLY for Series 1456 instrument)

TRAVEL TIME
(SEC)

FREE PIPE
SIGNAL

#CLASS H#*
3,000 PSI CEMENT

#POZ MIX#
1,500 PSI CEMENT

100

60

100

60

INTERVAL
REQUIRED
FOR ISOLATION

CASING SIZE

WT.

4-1/2

9.5
11.5
13.5

213

95 mV

.2 mV
.7 mV
1.2 mV

2.6 mV
5.4 mV
8.2 mV

.6 mV
1.5 mV
2.3 mV

4.7 mV
9.5 mV
12.9 mV

15.0
18.0
21.0

222

83 mV

1.0 mV
2.4 mV
4.0 mV

6.1 mV
11.1 mV
16.6 mV

2.3 mV
5.0 mV
7.7 mV

11.1 mV
17.7 mV
22.1 mV

.8 mV
1.1 mV
2.3 mV
3.8 mV

5.2 mV
6.5 mV
9.7 mV
14.1 mV

1.8 mV
2.6 mV
4.4 mV
6.5 mV

8.7 mV
10.8 mV
18.3 mV
19.5 mV

1.1 mV
1.8 mV
2.5 mV
3.5 mV
4.2 mV
5.3 mV
6.4 mV

5.8 mV
8.0 mV
9.9 mV
13.8 mV
14.9 mV
15.9 mV
18.0 mV

2.5 mV
3.5 mV
5.1 mV
6.4 mV
7.7 mV
9.0 mV
10.6 mV

9.9 mV
13.8 mV
15.9 mV
18.0 mV
19.1 mV
21.2 mV
23.4 mV

1.2 mV
1.9 mV
2.8 mV
3.7 mV

5.9 mV
8.0 mV
10.6 mV
13.8 mV

2.7 mV
3.7 mV
5.3 mV
6.9 mV

9.6 mV
12.8 mV
16.0 mV
18.1 mV

2.0 mV
2.5 mV
3.0 mV
4.5 mV

7.6 mV
9.5 mV
10.0 mV
13.4 mV

3.5 mV
4.9 mV
5.6 mV
7.6 mV

11.3 mV
14.5 mV
15.8 mV
17.8 mV

1.9 mV
2.3 mV
2.7 mV
2.9 mV
3.0 mV

1.3 mV
7.0 mV
8.2 mV
8.6 mV
9.1 mV
9.5 mV

5.5 mV
3.3 mV
4.1 mV
4.5 mV
5.2 mV
5.4 mV

2.5 mV
10.3 mV
11.9 mV
13.0 mV
14.0 mV
15.1 mV

5-1/2

7-5/8

9-5/8

10-3/4

15.5
17.0
20.0
23.0
23.0
26.0
29.0
32.0
35.0
38.0
40.0
26.4
29.7
33.7
39.0
40.0
43.5
47.0
53.5
40.5
45.5
48.0
51.0
54.0
55.0

231

255

78 mV

69 mV

268

66 mV

297

59 mV

319

54 mV

* Amplitude data derived from chart published by G.D. Pardue et al., SPE, May 1964

32

11

12

15

8.6 mV

18

Bond Index can be recorded at the well site. Graphical


shading methods (beneath the BI trace) are typically used
to highlight bond indications above any selected cutoff
value.
Bond Rating (BR)
Bond interpretation from the Bond Attenuation Log
(BAL) system differs somewhat from conventional CBL
systems. The BAL system measures total attenuation of
the acoustic signal, not a relative attenuation. The traditional CBL acoustic arrays discussed previously assumed
free pipe to have zero attenuation; however, some acoustic energy is lost in free, unsupported casing. This signal
loss has been empirically determined to be between 0.75
and 2.0 dB/ft. Referring to the BAL example in Fig. 1-62,
the depth intervals from 3,230 to 3,270 ft show a constant
attenuation at about 1.5 dB/ft. This illustrates that BAL
attenuation rates in free pipe will be slightly higher than
attenuations calculated by the traditional conversion
method.

Fig. 1-60
Empirical determinations of bond index15

requires a greater interval to be effectively bonded to


achieve zone isolation. In short, a safety factor is built
into any resulting evaluation of necessary zone isolation.
Later generation instruments (Segmented Bond Tool)
are designed to provide more lateral and vertical definition of cement quality. The more detailed resolution may
reduce the indicated required depth interval for adequate
zone isolation. The graph in Fig. 1-61 presents the minimum cemented interval needed (feet or meters) versus
casing diameter (in. or mm) for a Bond Index of 0.8. For
example, 5-1/2-in. (140-mm) casing requires 5 ft (1.5 m)
of 0.8 BI to achieve a reasonable assurance of zone
isolation.

Fig. 1-61
Minimum cemented interval required for zone isolation vs. casing
size for an 0.8 BI.7

Fig. 1-62
BAL attenuation rates in free pipe will be slightly higher than calculated attenuations.

33

A new parameter called Bond Rating (BR) was introduced to account for this difference in attenuation rates
determined by the two methods.29 The BR ratio is defined as

Attenuation in Free Pipe


zone of interest
Attenuation
BR
Attenuation in Free Pipe
100% cement zone
Attenuation

(5)

Attenuation rates for free pipe of various sizes can be


found along the Free-Pipe Curve of the BAL interpretation chart (Fig. 1-57). The value of attenuation in 100%
cement may be taken from the nomogram or directly from
the log if it is assumed some part of the well is totally cemented.
The BAL nomogram (Fig. 1-57) relates amplitude, attenuation, and Bond Rating in several casing sizes as well
as the relation between cement compressive strength and
casing wall thickness. Freshwater mud is assumed to occupy the borehole. The chart may be used to convert amplitude from the 2.5-ft (0.8-m) receiver to attenuation, and
the resultant value should agree with the compensated attenuation measurement. As an example, a 79-mV amplitude signal in 9-5/8-in. (244-mm) casing depicts free pipe
(BR 0) and 0.8-dB/ft attenuation. Also, 9-5/8-in. (244mm) casing [36-lbm/ft (0.35-in. casing thickness)] and
3,500 psi compressive strength cement exhibits 11.8dB/ft and 3.2-mV amplitude.
In very well cemented intervals, the direct attenuation
measurement calculation, A2-A4/A1-A3, is poorly resolved.29 The signal-to-noise ratio at the far receiver becomes unacceptable. When this occurs, attenuation is automatically computed from the following equation,

Fig. 1-63
Bond Ratio above 0.75 highlighted for ease in recognizing wellbonded intervals

Amplitude
Measured
Free Pipe
2
0
Attenuation Log Attenuation . (6)
Free Pipe
2.5 ft
Amplitude

Fig. 1-64
Internal electrical calibration for peak amplitude measurements23

The Bond Rating method for interpretation requires no


change when this phenomenon occurs. Specific interpretative playbacks can be generated at the well site. Flexibility in selecting arbitrary cutoff limits is provided, and
the area beneath the BR trace is shaded when good bond
is inferred (Fig. 1-63). Bond Index and Bond Rating rely
solely on either peak amplitude or attenuation data, and
the cutoff value (e.g., 0.8 BI) is totally arbitrary and depends on the discretion of the individual who selected the
cutoff. Questionable aspects of the measurements were
discussed earlier.

permit the electronic gain of the system to be adjusted to


a known value. Since both the acoustic sensitivity and the
electronic gain are known, free-pipe response can then be
predicted. Accurate peak amplitude measurements are
therefore obtainable, whether or not free pipe is present in
a specific borehole.
Shop Calibration
The shop calibration fixture utilized is a 5.5-in. (140-mm)
OD aluminum pressure tube. The tube is filled with water
and pressured up to 500 psi or greater. The ratio between
the instrument calibration pulse and the amplitude pulse
is expected to be uniform in this fixture for particular
Western Atlas instruments. For example, the Bond Attenuation Log instrument reads a 20-mV calibration pulse
compared to 150-mV peak amplitude; thus, yielding a ratio of 1:7.5. If an instrument is out of calibration during

CALIBRATION
An internal electrical calibration for the peak amplitude
measurement is utilized to calibrate the instrument. The
transducers are normalized as explained in Fig. 1-64.
Each instrument is placed into a shop calibrator and adjusted to a fixed, known output. An electrical calibration
signal is generated in the downhole electronic cartridge to
34

this periodic test, the size of the calibration pulse is adjusted to produce the proper ratio for that instrument type.
Shop calibrations are required monthly or more frequently as needed. A BAL shop calibration is shown as
Fig. 1-65. Another shop calibration fixture is also being
designed and tested.

Fig. 1-66
Before and after log calibrations are recorded and presented.

Fig. 1-65
BAL shop calibration example

Well-site Calibration
A complete calibration sequence requires BEFORE and
AFTER records, including Signature (or VDL) and
travel-time calibrations. A copy of the shop calibration
should also be attached to the log. The calibration sequences (Fig. 1-66) should show the calibration pulse
value for the prescribed instrument and the instrument
zero setting.
If possible, a free-pipe reading should be made showing the calibration pulse amplitude and a free-pipe waveform. In addition, all nuclear logs run in conjunction with
the cement bond log device should have BEFORE and
AFTER calibrations recorded and presented.

Fig. 1-67
CBL Ledex relay calibration

ment was initially adjusted to a 97% value of the total


scale. A multiposition Ledex relay was then switched to
provide a 60% reduction in signal strength from the initial
signal level. The objective of 60% reduction steps from
each subsequent level was to demonstrate linearity and
that the measured signal was not saturated due to electrical over-ranging in the 97% position. The entire range of
calibration positions was 97%, 40%, 16%, 6.4%, and
2.5% (Fig. 1-67). Two problems can occur in the use of
this technique. First, the wellbore may contain some cement around its periphery over the entire depth interval.
Second, the logging engineer must be careful to not verify free pipe reading in a casing that is different in size
than the section that is bonded (this can occur where liners are set below sections of intermediate casing strings).

Previous Calibration Procedures


It is important to note that the single-receiver CBL instruments (series 1412, 1415, and 1417) were previously
calibrated in the borehole; i.e., the instrument was set to
its maximum amplitude reading in a depth interval where
free or unsupported pipe was located. The surface equip35

ANALYSIS OF DIFFERENT CEMENT CONDITIONS

In this section, a number of typical cement bond conditions will be discussed. Actual field examples will be
used to show the behavior of cement bond logs in these
various conditions.
GOOD BOND TO PIPE AND FORMATION
Low-to-Medium Velocity Formations
Good bond to both the casing and formation creates a favorable acoustic coupling condition between casing, cement, and formation, as shown in Fig. 2-1. An effective
shear coupling at the casing-cement interface allows most
of the acoustic energy received at the casing to be
absorbed by the cement. The energy is efficiently transmitted through the cement to the formation with both
compressional and shear coupling because of favorable
acoustic impedance conditions between the materials. As
a result, maximum energy is transferred to the formation.
Fig. 2-2 presents a CBL recorded under these ideal conditions (in a low-to-medium velocity formation), the
characteristics of which include:
A. Very weak or missing casing arrivals on the VDL
or Signature
B. Very low fixed gate pipe amplitude (If instrument
is centered, cement sufficiently cured, and other
well mechanics are tolerable.)
C. Travel time possibly cycle skipping to a later arrival or indicating stretch
D. Strong formation compressional arrivals on VDL
or Signature
E. Shear arrivals might be detected (In very low velocity formations, they probably would not be
seen.)
High-Velocity Formations
Dense, high-velocity formations (i.e., limestone,
dolomite, anhydrite, gypsum), especially those with low
porosities, will exhibit openhole transit times less than 57
sec/ft (187 sec/m). Such formations are said to be fast
because the formation signal arrives earlier at the receiver
than the casing signal, as illustrated in Fig. 2-3.
When high-velocity formation conditions are encountered, the fixed-gate pipe amplitude may not identify a
good bond. Strong formation compressional arrivals
might also be received within the pipe gate time frame.
Favorable coupling from the pipe, through the cement, and
to the formation is available. The formation signal can
arrive prior to the pipe signal only if the cement is well
bonded to the casing and formation. As shown in Fig. 2-4,
bond log characteristics under these conditions are:

Fig. 2-1
Good bond to casing and formation results in favorable acoustic
coupling as shown by the waveform and VDL.

37

Fig. 2-2
Acoustic energy is efficiently transferred when good bond to pipe
and formation exists.

A. Travel time may read less than pipe time.


B. Fixed-gate amplitude may read high because it
includes strong formation signals.
C. Floating-gate amplitude (if recorded) will probably read higher than the fixed-gate pipe amplitude.
D. VDL or Signature will show strong formation signal, which arrives near the predicted pipe time. By
tracing the first VDL arrival up or down the log
versus depth, a change in time will be observed.
The pipe signal should not change.
E. Shear arrivals are very probable and will occur
about 1.6 to 1.9 times later than the formation
compressional arrivals. They are easily identified
because of the stronger amplitude (stronger contrasts on VDLs vs. other arrivals). They will not
necessarily parallel the compressional arrivals in
time when compared visually vs. depth.
F. On-depth correlation of the VDL to a porosity/
lithology-sensitive log will show corresponding
characteristics; i.e., changes will occur on both
logs at similar depths (Fig. 1-41). The changes
may be in opposite directions due to the method of
scaling different logs, and the waveform scale will
probably be less sensitive to the change.

Fig. 2-3
Fast (high-velocity) formation signals12

38

Fig. 2-4
Bond log characteristics in a fast formation

GOOD BOND TO PIPE ONLY


This cement condition is accentuated in Fig. 2-5, showing
a casing periphery totally surrounded by a thick, hardened
cement sheath, which is not in contact with the formation. Such a condition can occur where mud cake was not
removed from the face of a permeable formation and
cement does not bond with the mud cake. As the mud
dissipates behind hardened cement, it leaves a void space
between the cement and formation, which is very unfavorable for acoustic coupling. If the cement sheath
bonded to the pipe is sufficiently thick, very little energy
will remain in the casing and the cement will attenuate the
transmitted energy. This problem does not occur when
good mud solids are present.
An example of these conditions is shown in Fig. 2-6.
Formation arrivals are lacking, and the pipe arrivals are
attenuated, resulting in a low fixed-gate pipe amplitude.
Travel time reads greater than predicted pipe time.
In high-porosity, gas-bearing zones (Fig. 2-7), a
response similar to the one just described may occur
because the acoustic energy in the formation is attenuated by gas within the pore structure. This condition
usually occurs in low-velocity formations at shallow
depth intervals, and also affects openhole acoustic log
measurements.

Fig. 2-5
Acoustic signal and VDL behavior when only good bond to pipe
exists.12 (A similar response can occur in shallow unconsolidated
gas sands.)

FREE PIPE
If the casing is free and unsupported, and not in contact
with the borehole wall (Fig. 2-8), it will vibrate and
transmit strong casing signals to the receiver. Very little
acoustic coupling can occur between the casing and
annular liquid because their acoustic impedances are
quite different. This acoustic impedance is given by v or
b 1,000,000/t. For iron, b7.8 g/cc and t57
sec/ft; for water, b 1.0 g/cc and t 189 sec/ft.
Most of the acoustic energy therefore remains in the
casing, which results in large, multiple (echo) ringing.
39

Fig. 2-6
BAL log in conditions of good pipe bond and poor formation bond

Fig. 2-8
Signature and VDL characteristics in free pipe12

Fig. 2-7
BAL log in a shallow, high-porosity, gas-bearing zone

40

A CBL run in free pipe (Fig. 2-9) shows a strong


VDL pipe ring and echo effect, high fixed-gate amplitude, and a travel time that approximates predicted pipe
time (PPT).

Fig. 2-9
Free-pipe signals

POOR BOND OR PARTIAL BOND


The set of conditions illustrated in Fig. 2-10 represents
the gray area of decision-making that plagues numerous
operators; i.e., should a squeeze cement job be attempted?
Or is it necessary? The Signature and VDL show two
distinct energy periods. The earlier acoustic energy
arrivals are apparent because some percentage of the
casing periphery is free to vibrate. Later energy arrivals
are also possible because the cemented portion of the casing provides good acoustic coupling to the formation.

Fig. 2-10
Signature and VDL characteristics where poor bond or partial
bond exists

Channeling
Consistent amplitude measurements, indicating partial
bonding over long depth intervals, are usually related to a
microannulus. Channels in the cement sheath are not
likely to remain uniform in size or shape, and therefore
cause some variation in the amplitude responses (Fig. 211). An example of VDLs before and after a successful
squeeze job are shown in Fig. 2-12.

When channeling is present within the cement sheath,


pressuring up on the casing will produce little or no
change in amplitude or waveform responses. Where
continuous channeling occurs, vertical isolation does not
exist. Channeling is often a localized condition; i.e., it
does not typically persist over a long depth interval.
41

Microannulus
A microannulus is defined as a very small annular gap,
about 510 mils in size, located between the casing and
cement sheath. The cement is not bonded to the pipe, but
the annular space between casing and the formation is
well cemented. The cement job, under normal production
conditions, is sufficient to form a hydraulic seal and prevent fluid migration behind pipe. A microannulus may be
caused by several factors such as:
Holding pressure on the casing until the cement has
set, and then allowing the pipe to contract after pressure release
Thermal expansion of the pipe while cement cures
Thermal contraction of the pipe as a result of filling
the borehole with cooler fluids prior to logging
Contaminants such as mill varnish or grease on the
external surface of the casing
Squeeze cementing
Reduction of fluid density when logging.
Fig. 2-11
Channels in the cement sheath usually cause some variation in
amplitude responses.

Under such conditions, the fixed-gate pipe amplitude


will be pessimistic. A method for determining if a
microannulus is present or not is to rerun the log with
additional pressure applied to the casing. In some cases,
this may be accomplished by completely filling the hole
with fluid, but more often than not it requires pressuring
up the well by some other means. Two logging runs under
different pressures (0 psi and 1,500 psi) are shown in Fig.
2-13. The logging pass with 1,500-psi (10.3-MPa)
pressure shows much better bonding, hence indicating a
microannulus was present on the first pass (0 psi).
The 1,500-psi value was chosen by the client for

Fig. 2-12
Elimination of channel by cement squeezing12

Today, many intervals are cemented intentionally with


nitrogen-based foam cements, which are literally honeycombed with void spaces, but specially designed to have
low permeability. It is important to know the type of
cement used and to take special precautions when analyzing cement bond logs in foam-cemented casings. Otherwise, foam-cemented intervals could easily be interpreted
as a partial bond condition.

Fig. 2-13
Field example showing microannulus effect on amplitude and
VDL.12

42

microannulus determination in this particular well, and


should not be construed as a recommended value for
universal application. Many operators currently use a
1,000-psi (7-MPa) value as a rule of thumb for pressuring up the casing. Figure 2-14 illustrates the degree of
pipe expansion for different internal pressures.

TABLE 2-1
Type of Microannulus

Be prepared to pressure-up to

Thermal
Produced
Induced
Squeeze
Limited by:
Burst pressure of casing
Casing pressure test
Liner top test

1,000 psi
Pressure held 1,000 psi*
Reduction in hydrostatic 1,000 psi
Maximum squeeze pressure*

* Upper limit-pressure-up with camera in time to determine minimum


pressure required.

A thermal microannulus is caused by the production


of heat around the casing periphery as cement sets. The
amount of heat varies with annular volume, type of
cement, and cement additives. Because of these variables,
temperature logs are often run to locate the cement
top (Appendix D). The heat of hydration can cause temperature increases of 50 to 60F (27 to 33C) above the
normal wellbore temperature. This heat causes the pipe to
expand, but as the heat of hydration dissipates, the pipe
will contract and small gaps between the casing and
cement, known as a microannulus result. The thermal
microannulus has been said to have been observed in over
90% of bond log-analyzed wells. Pressuring the casing to
1,000 psi at the surface while logging has typically
eliminated the thermal microannulus effect.
The produced microannulus is created by applying
surface pressure to the casing. Occasionally, pressure is
held on the casing for prestress purposes in deep, hightemperature wells to prevent cement from flowing back
into the casing when the cement plug does not hold, to test
a liner top, and for leak-off tests.
Applying the 1,000-psi rule of thumb to a cement
bond log could be futile in this instance. While waiting
on cement setup (WOC) to occur, it is also common
practice to test blowout preventers (BOPs). If the casing
is not isolated from the BOP test pressures, a large
microannulus could occur. The produced microannulus
can cause erroneous interpretations of bond logs and
lead to expensive and unnecessary squeeze jobs. It is not
the fault of the log, but rather the lack of documentation
that results in an improperly recorded log. For this type
of microannulus, the log should be recorded with a
surface pressure somewhat above the pressure originally
held against the casing, usually less than 1,000 psi above
that original figure.
The induced microannulus can be created by reducing
the hydrostatic head of the fluid inside the casing. The
mud used to bump the plug is often displaced with a
lower density completion fluid, and the resulting pressure
reduction may be as much as 3,500 to 4,000 psi ( 24 to
27.5 MPa). A cement bond log recorded with the rule of
thumb 1,000-psi ( 7-MPa) surface pressure would
probably be insufficient to properly evaluate cement
integrity.

Fig. 2-14
Pipe expansion due to internal pressures

Methods for determining the pressure required to


eliminate the microannulus effect have been discussed
recently by Pilkington.33,34 He describes four types of
microannuli that could handicap conventional CBL or
BAL analysis-thermal microannulus, produced microannulus, induced microannulus, and the squeeze job, and
recommends different logging procedures to eliminate
the microannulus effect (Table 2-1).
43

Another means of inducing a microannulus often


occurs in deep, high-pressure wells. Casing may be set
across a transition zone (pressure transition) with 12.5
lbm/gal mud, and then drilling continues below with
mud weight increased to the 1617 lbm/gal range. The
well is later plugged back to test a normal pressured
zone behind casing above the pressure transition zone,
and mud may be displaced with a much lighter 9.5 to 10
lbm/gal brine. The decrease in hydrostatic head may
exceed 4,000 psi at the zone of interest, and a microannular gap is created. Obtaining an interpretable cement
bond log typically requires logging under a surface pressure that is about 1,000 psi above the reduction in
hydrostatic head.
A thorough review of the well history is a necessity
before surveying the well and properly evaluating the
integrity of the cement sheath (see Appendix C).
The squeeze job typically employs a cementing pressure over an isolated portion of the casing string; i.e., the
interval where zone isolation is prerequisite for production. The cementing pressure during squeeze cementing is
increased until the necessary pressure is attained to
squeeze cement out through perforations into the targeted
portion of poorly cemented annular space. Pressure may
then be held on the squeeze after reversing out. Should the
cement bond log then be run with the 1,000 psi rule of
thumb procedure? The answer is that it will probably be
necessary to pressure up at the surface to the squeeze
pressure attained if an interpretable log is to be obtained
across the isolated portion of the casing. Intervals above
and/or below the isolated squeeze zone may show poor
bond at the surface pressure used.
A microannulus can also be created by squeezing a
liner top. A useable cement bond log might then require
logging under the maximum pressure used while squeezing the liner top.
With conventional CBLs or the BAL instrument, a
microannulus can only be confirmed by making two logging runs with the casing under different internal pressure conditions. The well history should dictate the optimum method if microannulus conditions are to be
eliminated and an interpretable log is to be obtained. A
thorough review of completion reports is necessary to determine the magnitude of squeeze pressures used, and unfortunately, the last squeeze in a series of squeeze jobs
may not have used the highest pressures. Therefore, it
may not be advisable to pressure up to the maximum
pressure used since depth intervals removed from the
vicinity of the squeeze perforations may indicate poor
bond. Steps can be taken during cement set up time to
minimize the microannulus effect, and these are discussed briefly in Appendix A.
How much surface pressure is necessary to run an
interpretable cement bond log? A simple procedure, first
used by E. Cousins of Conoco, involves the following:

Run a repeat section with no surface pressure


Identify a potential microannulus zone (both pipe and
formation signals occur on the Signature or VDL)
Stop the logging instrument at the microannulus
depth
Switch the surface instrumentation to time drive
Tighten the wireline packoff at the surface and begin
pressuring up by pumping mud slowly into the
casing
Monitor the amplitude traces until they no longer decrease
Stop pressuring up, but record the pressure on the
log heading
Record the log under this pressure.
FOAM CEMENT
Depth intervals cemented with lightweight foam cements
can easily be misinterpreted. It is imperative that cement
information pertaining to the lightweight slurry be provided. An example (Fig. 2-15) illustrates foam cement
placed above a stage collar at 800 m. At deeper depths in
the same borehole, traditional cement provided good
bond. A comparison of log data in the foam-cemented
interval to the deeper log data could easily result in a
prediction of poor cement quality (5.0 MPa or 750 psi) on
the standard cement scale of Fig. 1-57. Knowing that the
cement is lightweight foam cement, a more encouraging
and probable compressive strength of 6.2 MPa (900
psi) is calculated.

Fig. 2-15
Lightweight foam cements tend to cause higher than normal
minimum amplitudes.

44

Thin cement sheaths often occur where liners are run


in small diameter boreholes (Fig. 2-16). The example
illustrates a CBL run inside a 5.5-in. (140-mm) liner,
which was set in a 5-7/8-in. (149-mm) borehole.3 The
liner is likely to be well centered, if for no other reasons
than the collars. It would be surprising to find the liner
all the way to total depth as it was not in this specific
wellbore. Cement sheath in the described set of conditions would be no more than 3/16-in. (4.8-mm) thick
around the periphery of a perfectly centered pipe inside
a gauge borehole. Pipe ring should be expected to and
did occur under these adverse conditions of compressional amplitude measurement. However, travel time
shows a fast formation arrival (tight limestone interval),
and the VDL illustrates strong formation arrivals, including shear waves. The early VDL arrivals appear to
be fairly straight bands, but close examination shows
that time can be seen to vary slightly with depth (a contour map of the borehole). These early arrivals on the
VDL are due to fast formation arrivals, and pipe signal
is essentially masked on the VDL. Recall that the VDL
is recorded with a longer 5-ft span.
The annular space is frequently critical where a production liner overlaps an intermediate casing string. A
typical concern with deviated wells is eccentered casing
that creates a problem since annular cement might be
extremely thin or even absent on the low side of the
borehole. An earlier discussion and example (Fig. 1-51)
described a common problem with 7-in. (178-mm)
casing in an 8.5-in. (216-mm) borehole, and 1/4-in. (6.3mm) mudcake buildup [mudcake diameter 1/2 in.
(12.7 mm)].

THIN CEMENT SHEATH


It is well documented that pipe attenuation rates are
reduced exponentially when the annular cement sheath
becomes less than 3/4 in. (2 cm) in thickness. A cement
thickness greater than 3/4 in. (2 cm) causes minimal
effect.18,26,30 These effects are illustrated on the inset of
Fig. 2-16.
The 3/4-in. (2-cm) value may not be precise with todays instrumentation, but caution should be exercised
where pipe amplitude is relatively high, and it is known
that the hole size minus the casing diameter is less than 11/2 in. (38 mm). CBL analysis often identifies this condition by comparing openhole caliper information with
known casing diameter data.

POOR CENTERING OF THE


CBL INSTRUMENT
The log in the example shown in Fig. 2-17 was run without properly sized centralizers inside 9-5/8-in. (244-mm),
47-lbm/ft casing. A storm choke (disaster valve) near the
surface prevented use of proper centralizing apparatus
because the instrument could not be lowered through the
valve opening when centralizers were placed on the CBL
instrument. As a result, the pipe amplitude curve does not
provide a valid response to actual cement conditions.
Laboratory experiments have shown that signal loss
occurs with eccentering (see inset in Fig. 2-17).30
Considering an eccentered 3-1/2 in. (89-mm) diameter
instrument in 5-in. (127-mm) ID casing would lose most
of its amplitude signal, the CBL Amplitude curve is
overly optimistic in the 9-5/8-in. (244-mm) casing (Fig.
2-17). The VDL indicates pipe ring (shown on the railroad tracks of the VDL) and casing collars. The problems
encountered in this well (gas leaking to the surface)
verified the log analysis. Corrosion logs (Vertilog and
MagnelogSM) indicated splits and holes in the casing, and
a temperature log confirmed that gas was migrating
upwards behind the casing.

Fig. 2-16
An annular cement sheath less than 3/4 in. in thickness exponentially reduces pipe attenuation rates.

45

Fig. 2-18
Variation of attenuation with casing wall thickness29

Fig. 2-17
Effect of poorly centered tool on amplitude12

CBL RESPONSE IN LARGE,


EXTREMELY THICK CASING
Both diameter and weight of casing affect amplitude
response. In general, signal strength is reduced in larger
casing. The free-pipe signal amplitude with both CBL and
BAL instruments in controlled lab measurements of various size casings confirm this prediction (Figs. 1-57, 1-58,
and 1-59). In well-cemented casings, the casing weight
also becomes important. Sound travel in thick-walled
pipe is much less affected by cement than sound travel in
thin-walled pipe. Relatively low attenuation rates and
relatively high amplitudes will therefore occur in heavy,
thick casing strings, although cement is adequate for zone
isolation. The variation of attenuation with wall thickness
is shown in Fig. 2-18.
The log example shown in Fig. 2-19 was recorded in
13-3/8-in. (340-mm), 88-lbm/ft casing. Tables on tubular
goods indicated this particular brand of pipe had a nominal thickness of 0.65 inches (16.5 mm). Some energy is
lost in the transmission through the larger radius of fluid
to the casing wall. Also, as the signal impinges upon the

Fig. 2-19
SRT and VDL in 13-3/8-in., 88-lbm/ft casing3

46

thick pipe, much of the remaining acoustic energy is


absorbed, creating strong pipe ring due to the large
volume of metal. Only a small amount of acoustic energy
remains to proceed through the annular cement and
couple with the formation. This set of conditions makes
correct interpretation particularly difficult. Note that
some formation signal occurs on the VDL in the example.
In addition, some travel-time stretch and cycle skipping is
also apparent. Pipe amplitude was very high due to the
large volume of metal, and is not shown in the example.
Interpolation of the proper nomogram (Fig. 1-58) indicates a minimum peak amplitude of about 15 mV would
be required to achieve a 500-psi compressive strength.
The cement quality was correctly judged as being
adequate to good. Subsequent pressure testing
during completion operations confirmed the log analysis
conclusions. A review of the early sections concerning
amplitude responses and peak mV measurements is
recommended.
BOREHOLE GAS EFFECTS ON THE CBL
Gas bubbles in the borehole fluid can cause the acoustic
signal to be attenuated; i.e., as the volume of gas increases, a corresponding decrease in amplitude occurs. In
an extreme case, gas volume can completely eliminate the
acoustic signal.2
Research has shown that bubbles in water exhibit a
resonant absorption when the bubble attains a certain
cross-sectional area with respect to the acoustic wavelength in the liquid. The bubble sizes are determined primarily by the pressure on the fluid in which they are contained, as well as upon the gas pressure.
The gas bubbles must attain a critical size (about 0.013
cm) to cause much attenuation. Size of the gas bubbles is
determined predominantly by the gas pressure and the
pressure on the fluid containing the bubbles. Since acoustic logging devices require a liquid-filled environment,
this attenuation condition usually occurs in (1) shallow
wells or (2) in wells only partially filled with fluid; i.e., the
hydrostatic head is not great enough to cause the gas bubbles to diminish or at least become smaller. The solution
to the problem is to (1) fill the hole with fluid or (2) pump
fluid into the well to drive the lighter bubbles upward.
The logs shown in Fig. 2-20 demonstrate the effects of
such a bubble condition. Run 1 was recorded up to 7,300
ft, with the signal beginning to die away at 7,350 ft. The
logging engineer initially thought he had logged above
the fluid level in the borehole. Learning that the well had
a full hydrostatic head, water pressure was applied for
two hours. Another logging pass was then made and resulted in the log shown as Run 2.

Fig. 2-20
Gas (air) bubbles in borehole fluid dampen or even kill acoustic
signals.12

cement. Extensive field tests have been carried out to determine the effects on cement bond log measurements.14
The test results showed that a thick resin coating (50 to 70
mils) with numerous air bubbles trapped within the resin
resulted in poor indications of bond. When thinner applications of the resin coating (10 to 30 mils) were applied,
wireline measurements were not adversely affected.
Examples (Fig. 2-21) of these conditions have been
demonstrated in earlier publications.14
SMALL-DIAMETER PIPE CEMENTED IN A
MUCH LARGER BOREHOLE
Circumstances occasionally require setting small pipe in
a relatively large borehole. Figures 2-22 and 2-23 are
CBL examples using a slim-hole instrument in 2-7/8-in.
(73-mm) pipe. The pipe was set in a 7-7/8-in. (200-mm)
borehole. Note that the VDL was scaled from 100 to 1100
sec to accommodate the earlier pipe arrivals. Both
gamma ray and neutron were recorded simultaneously
with the CCL, Amplitude, travel time (SRT), and VDL.
In Fig. 2-22, formation signals and no pipe arrivals
occur over the interval from 6,290 to 6,510 ft. Also, the
Amplitude is near zero, and the travel-time curve is off
the page due to cycle-skipping over the well-bonded
section. Fluid waves can be observed on the VDL at
approximately 750 sec, and low-frequency Stoneley
waves can be observed from 800 to 1100 sec. The
shaded area in Track II represents zones where Bond
Index greater than 0.8 occurs.

RESIN SAND-COATED CASING STRINGS


The outside of casing is often coated with a resin sand
substance to obtain stronger bond between the pipe and
47

Fig. 2-21
Effects on signal frequency with different instruments and various thicknesses of resin sand coatings14

48

Figure 2-23 shows a poorly cemented interval from


5,090 to 5,210 ft. Again, gamma ray and neutron are
presented simultaneously with the CBL data. The traveltime trace is on scale in this interval with the exception
of the interval from 5,140 to 5,148 ft where cement
quality improved. Note the early pipe arrivals on the
VDL, the recognition of collars on the travel-time trace,
and the Bond Index trace that consistently reads less
than 0.8 BI.
CEMENT TOP IDENTIFICATION
Recognition of the cement top in a wellbore is usually not
difficult. Using the peak amplitude and attenuation
responses in Fig. 2-24, the cement top is picked at 8,688
ft. Exact depth of the top of cement is often ambiguous as
confirmed by the VDL (5-ft span) locating the cement top
at 8,690 ft. The exact depth is not typically important as
long as the general depth interval of cement top is
pinpointed.

Fig. 2-22
Slim-hole instrument example of a well-cemented interval

Fig. 2-24
Identifying the cement top

Fig. 2-23
Example of a poorly cemented interval and a poorly centered
slim-hole instrument

49

RECOGNITION OF CHANGES IN
BOREHOLE FLUID
A change in borehole fluid can be recognized (Fig. 2-25)
if the analyst is cognizant of the fact an interface occurs.
At about 2000 m, the fluid column changed from water to
oil. Note the change on travel time, peak amplitude, and
VDL curves. The log was recorded in 177-mm casing.
The travel-time shift at the fluid change is excessive and
might be due to an improperly set gate.

Fig. 2-26
Displacing cement by rotation25
Fig. 2-25
Recognizing changes in borehole fluid

EXTERNAL MECHANICAL APPARATUS


Many devices are used as aids in obtaining better primary
cement jobs. Located on the outside of the casing string,
they are usually placed, as well as spaced, to obtain
mechanical clearances/restrictions in the annular space
between the pipe and formation. Centralizers, scratchers,
and wipers33,34 are effective devices for centering pipe
and removing mud cake when the casing is moved/rotated
during the cementing operation (see Fig. 2-26).24 Cement
baskets37,38 might be used to prevent lost circulation
while cementing, act as a cement spreader, hold cement
load off weak pay zones, etc. Some of these mechanical
devices are depicted in Fig. 2-27. Since additional metal
is present in the depth intervals where these devices were
placed, pipe ring will possibly be different from the intervals immediately above or below.
External packers are occasionally used to form a seal
in the annular space. The casing is coated with a resin
sand coating to inhibit movement of the packer while

descending the hole with pipe. Although the rubber


packer may be inflated with cement, the amplitude
response may not be greatly attenuated because the
rubber packer material does not have good acoustic properties. The resultant break in formation acoustic path
causes attenuation in the formation signal opposite the
packer, which has a 0.5-in. (1.25-cm) thickness of rubber.
Thickness of the resin coating must also be appreciated as
stated earlier. Stage collars and DV tools also have an
effect on the acoustic responses.
In very highly deviated and horizontally drilled boreholes, rheological properties of the cement and other
fluids are more carefully controlled in an attempt to
improve mud displacement. The hole condition makes it
very difficult to keep the low side of the casing string
away from the borehole wall, and conventional controls
are usually not adequate to displace mud from the narrow
annular gap. Mechanical aids, which alter the flow
50

profile, have been developed to increase flow in the


narrow annular space. These mechanical aids are called
turbulators. Turbulators (Fig. 2-28) are short cylindrical
sections with rigid welded bars that are attached to the
outside periphery of the casing. The bars are welded to the
pipe at angles of 30 to 50 from the flow direction and
tend to redirect the flow by imparting a swirling action
around the pipe. The narrow gap on the low side is
particularly affected by the swirling action.

Fig. 2-28
Turbulators are used on pipe in highly deviated to horizontally
drilled holes.

The general discussion of mechanical devices is an important consideration when analyzing a cement bond log.
A detailed discussion of the numerous devices used and
their purposes are beyond the scope of this document;
however, it is important that this well information be
made available and recorded on the log heading for future
reference.

Fig. 2-27
Array of scratchers and centralizers installed on the bottom joints
of casing.37,38

51

PERIPHERAL AND LONGITUDINAL EVALUATION OF CEMENT BOND

More than 30 years have transpired since the earliest


CBLs were run. Subsequent advances in the development
of digital electronics, computers, microcircuity, transducers, and evolutionary steps in cement evaluation methods
have led to the development of the Western Atlas secondgeneration radial cement evaluation instrumentation.24

which appear somewhat like closed-cell styrofoam. Gas


foamed conditions may not be desirable, but they do not
necessarily prevent zone isolation.
Frequently strong, unpredictable responses to foamed
cement occur on pulse-echo measurements, and at the extreme, they may incorrectly identify a foamed cement
condition as being free-pipe signal.19 This is probably the
most significant limitation of the pulse-echo device. Gas
infiltration may only contaminate a short interval of the
cement sheath; however, if it occurs in or adjacent to the
zone of interest where zone isolation is prerequisite, confidence in the pulse-echo method may diminish.
If the logging instrument becomes eccentered, the
transducers are no longer geometrically balanced with the
center axis of the borehole, and all the ultrasonic beams
are no longer perpendicular to the casing wall. Those
transmitted signals are at least partially reflected away
from the receiver mode of the transducer.17
The schematic of the described system would allow
only 42% radial coverage in 7-in. casing, and the circumferential coverage would decrease in larger casings. Instrument centering is essential. Assuming a spot size of 1
in. (25 mm) and an operating frequency of 500 kHz, only
30% radial coverage would be expected in 9-5/8-in.
casing.
As a result of the foregoing, Western Atlas Logging
Services directed its attention to a new generation of cement bond evaluation devices to aid in resolving the important questions concerning partial bond indications.

FIRST-GENERATION RADIAL CEMENT


EVALUATION INSTRUMENTS
A pulse-echo system, employing eight small-diameter
transducers wound in a helical manner (45 intervals)
around the tool mandrel, was a first-generation attempt to
resolve the peripheral measurement of cement bond conditions. Using a broadband emission of 500 kHz, the casing resonating frequency is excited, allowing the rate of
decay to be measured on an acoustic waveform. The rate
of decay varies with changes of material impedance on either the inside or outside of the casing. Some typically encountered acoustic impedance values are:

Gas under pressure


Iron (cast)
Steel
Kerosene
Oil
Water
11-lbm/gal oil-base mud (6k psi)
15-lbm/gal oil-base mud (6k psi)
19-lbm/gal oil-base mud (6k psi)
500-psi Class G/H cement
5,000-psi Class G/H cement

0.1
37.4
4557
1.07
11.6
1.5
1.9
2.26
2.98
2.8
5.8

SECOND-GENERATION RADIAL CEMENT


EVALUATION INSTRUMENT

Maximum impedance contrast occurs between water


and high compressive strength cement. A pulse-echo
measurement in such conditions varies by a ratio of nearly
4:1 from free pipe to well-cemented intervals. Normally,
acceptable criteria for good cement is 500 psi, and the dynamic range of free pipe-to-bonded pipe signal is only a
1.5 ratio. In fact, impedance contrast is negligible between 14.5-lbm/gal mud and 500-psi cement. It is essential to understand that pulse-echo devices have an upper
limit for reliable cement evaluation. The reliability limit
of an echo-based system is substantially lower than the
14.5-lbm/gal theoretical impedance limit due to the necessity of practical electronic circuitry and a reasonable
dynamic range.
In wells drilled for oil or gas, it is not unusual to have
some degree of gas contamination in the cement sheath. If
surfactants are not added to the cement slurry to contain
bubble growth, the curing of cement in front of gasproducing formations will result in foamed, closed-cell
structures within the cement. In severe cases, the bubbles
may coalesce and join to form substantial void spaces,

The Segmented Bond Tool (SBTSM) instrument is a


promising second-generation radial cement bond device,
which measures the quality of cement effectiveness, both
vertically and laterally around the circumference of the
casing. The SBT instrument is designed to quantitatively
measure six segments, 60 each, around the pipe periphery. The instrument employs an array of high-frequency
steered transducers,24 which are mounted on six pads.
Each of six motorized arms position a transmitter and receiver against the casing wall. The instrument is capable
of logging in casing sizes from 4.5 in. (114 mm) to 13.38
in. (340 mm) with any type fluid or gas occupying the
borehole. A 5-ft omnidirectional transmitter-receiver span
is provided for Signature or Variable Density display.
Bond measurements are made in a wraparound fashion
(Fig. 3-1). The six pads are positioned to form a six subcycle pattern (Fig. 3-2). As a transmitter fires in each subcycle, the receivers on the two adjacent arms measure the
acoustic amplitude. The two amplitudes represent a near
and far reception. The loss of energy across the spacing
53

Fig. 3-2
SBT acoustic pad array

Fig. 3-1
Transducers positioned in a wraparound configuration

between the two receivers is a direct measurement of attenuation, and infers cement quality for a 60 segment of
the pipe periphery. The subcycle is completed, and a compensated measurement is accomplished by firing the
transmitter on a fourth arm as those two receivers (arms 2
and 3) measure amplitude (Fig. 3-3). Thus, in each of the
six subcycles, four measured amplitudes are used to derive attenuation (Fig. 3-4). Differences in receiver sensitivity and/or transmitter power cancel since the data are in
both the numerator and denominator of the calculation.
Therefore, each of the resultant attenuations measured for
each of the six subcycles are fully compensated over the
entire 25 dB/ft (82 dB/m) range.
SBT Presentations
The primary SBT presentation (Fig. 3-5) is similar to the
Bond Attenuation Log format; i.e., attenuation and amplitude traces, Signature or Variable Density display,
CCL, a correlation curve, and line tension. The correlation trace may be a gamma ray, or a neutron, or both. The
two attenuation traces are an average of the six segmented
measurements, and a minimum attenuation trace representative of the 60 segment with the least attenuation.
Both traces are presented alongside one another, and the
highlighted separation of the two attenuation curves indicates a cement void on one side of the casing. A continuing wide separation over a considerable depth interval infers the presence of channeling within the cement sheath.
The amplitude and X5 amplitude traces are calculated
from the average attenuation and are similar to those observed on traditional cement bond logs.
A secondary SBT presentation (Fig. 3-6) displays all
six compensated attenuation measurements and the Variable Attenuation Log (VAL) or cement map of the casing periphery versus depth. VAL shadings range from
dark to white, with five 20% increments of intensity. The

Fig. 3-3
Two-transmitter/two-receiver combination provides compensated
measurement.

54

darkest shading is representative of greater than 80%


Bond Rating, white implies less than 20% Bond Rating,
and the three different gray tones signify conditions between the extremes.
Two downhole accelerometers are used to determine
the low side of the instrument with respect to hole drift
and drift direction. When the instrument is vertical, this
azimuthal reading (Fig. 3-6) is ambiguous and may tend
to wander. If deviation is greater than 1, however, the
relative-bearing measurement is accurate to within 5.

(2) an adequate cement bond completely around the


pipe circumference.

The downhole hardware is self-diagnostic, selfcalibrated, and microprocessor controlled. Digital measurements are collected and transmitted to the surface by
means of a duplex telemetry link. In addition, special
methods are employed to reduce road noise and improve
signal levels. The logging engineer remotely controls all
aspects of the operation from the surface.

Case 1 would indicate a hydraulic seal was not present


and a cement squeeze may be necessary; Case 2 would
require no action. In the interest of time and economics,
operators preferred to have one instrument that would
thoroughly investigate the cement condition in their
wells.
Furthermore, it is important that the instrument be
designed to adequately eliminate the effects of different
fluids and gas in the borehole, and essentially eliminate
eccentering effects. A compensation system was designed to remove the effects of temperature and pressure.
The instrument should be suitable for all common casing
sizes and weights, and should accommodate changes in
casing diameter when they occur over the logged interval.
Reliability is of utmost importance. The instrumentation
should have built-in self-checks to ensure proper instrument operation and data transmission.

Laboratory and Field Tests

SBT Specifications

Downhole Digital Electronics and Telemetry

Extensive laboratory tests have been performed with a


number of cement conditions to determine effects on attenuation rates. If spreading losses are considered, the results are comparable to those observed with a standard
CBL or BAL instrument. One field experiment with the
SBT instrument included a reproduction of standard CBL
measurements as a subset of data.

A complete SBT instrument string includes gamma ray,


neutron or both, a casing collar locator, and centralizers
(Appendix B). Centralizer type can vary:
In-line centralizers
Slip-on centralizers in larger casings
Gemco centralizers if no change in casing diameter
is expected.

Purpose of SBT Design


The purpose in designing the SBT instrument was to remove the ambiguity found with cement evaluation from
standard CBL or BAL instruments. Traditional bond log
measurements average the cement condition around the
borehole; i.e., they are unable to distinguish:

All the combined SBT measurements are digitized downhole. Data are transmitted to the surface through a digital
telemetry link, preserving measurement accuracy. Instrument specifications are given in Table 3-1.

(1) portions of the casing periphery that are well


bonded from other portions that are poorly
bonded, as opposed to

TABLE 3-1
Length (with G/R-CCL)
with in-line centralizers
with slip-on centralizers
Diameter w/gamma ray
Temperature rating
Pressure rating
Minimum casing diameter
Maximum casing diameter
Maximum casing deviation from vertical
Dynamic range
Attenuation measurement accuracy
Azimuthal measurement accuracy at 1 dev.

53 ft (16.2 m)
45 ft (13.7 m)*
3.625 in. (92 mm)
350F (177C)
20,000 psi (138 MPa)
4.5 in. (114 mm)
13.375 in. (340 mm)
50**
25 dB/ft (82 dB/m)
0.75 dB/ ft (2.4 dB/m)
5

* For casing diameters greater than 4.5 in. (114 mm)


** High angle (50) and horizontal wellbores can be logged with optional motorized roller centralizers and by
pipe-conveyed methods

55

SBT Attenuation Measurement


It has been recognized for some time that the most acceptable assessment of cement bond strength is derived
from sound attenuation measurements. Attenuation measurements were adapted to the circumferential measurements of the SBT instrument.
A simple solution would seem to be a planar placement of an array of transducers that would circumvent the
internal side of the casing. Unfortunately, such an array
places the transducers too close to one another to allow
accurate attenuation measurements. In addition, a resonating frequency that will produce an acoustic wavelength of four times greater than the casing thickness is
needed to effectively measure attenuation. This implies
that a resonating frequency of about 100 kHz would be required. Furthermore, the transducers need to be separated
by at least three wavelengths (approximately 6 in.) to allow attenuation to be measured with acceptable accuracy.

Fig. 3-4
Each subcycle provides four amplitudes to derive compensated
attenuation data.

Fig. 3-6
Secondary SBT presentation

Fig. 3-5
Primary SBT presentation

56

SBT Transducer Configuration


To satisfy the requirements defined in the previous section, a six-pad transducer array was designed. Each pad
contains an acoustic transmitter and receiver. Six separate
attenuation measurements are made by the pad array with
each measurement employing two transmitters and two
receivers (Fig. 3-7). The measurement sequence for any
segmented section of the periphery is:
1. Transmitter T1 is fired and the amplitudes at R2
and R3 are measured. Attenuation in the down direction is computed using Eq. (1). Since both amplitudes are measured using the same transmitter
pulse, and the fact that the attenuation measurement depends only on the ratio of amplitudes, the
down-attenuation measurement is unaffected by
changes in the strength of the transmitter. The
result does depend on the sensitivities of the
receivers.
2. Transmitter T4 is then fired and an attenuation in
the upward direction is computed. Again, the measurement does not depend upon the strength of T4,
but does depend on the sensitivities of the
receivers.
As shown earlier, the square root of the product of the
two measurements previously described is the true attenuation of the casing interval between receivers R2
and R3 and independent of the sensitivity of either R1 or
R3. The sequence is repeated for each of the remaining
five segments or subcycles, resulting in a complete measurement of the cement bond quality around the pipe periphery.
SBT Field Examples
Example 1 is a portion of test results from the EPA test
well at Ada, Oklahoma (Fig. 3-8). The fabricated channels in the portion of the well illustrated had a peripheral
range of 10 to 30, and the instrument responded to each
channel. In situations where the channel was completely
within one 60 instrument segment, better channel definition resulted. The 60 azimuthal resolution of the SBT
does cause the width of small channels to be magnified on
the log display.
Example 2 shows a portion of the SBT log at
Amocos test well near Tulsa, Oklahoma. Amoco simulated channels in their well by strapping wood strips to
the outside of the casing prior to cementing. The known
simulated channels are exhibited in the depth track of
Fig. 3-9, and were identified by the SBT system. The
channel at 500 ft exhibits an echo on the side of the casing opposite the channel, and it is not clear whether this
echo is caused by sound wrapping around the casing or
is due to the straps used to secure the wood strip. The
SBT instrument defined the majority of the fabricated
channels in this test well.

Fig. 3-7
Six separate compensated attenuation measurements are
provided.

57

Example 3 demonstrates SBT response in a section of


free, unsupported casing (Fig. 3-10). The cement map is
virtually all white with patches of light gray tone. The individual pad segments all demonstrate minimal attenuation values except for the casing collar responses.
Example 4 shows conventional dual-receiver CBL
compared to the two SBT presentation formats (Fig. 311). In the Segmented Array presentation, the Variable
Attenuation display indicates cement voids over a portion
of the casing periphery at depths of X500X504,
X518X528, X580X597, X634X643, X680X702,
X728X734, and X742X748 ft. Nearly total absence of
cement is inferred at depths of X530X578, X598X628,
and X669X673 ft. The Primary SBT presentation shows
a wide separation between the Minimum Attenuation and
Average Attenuation SBT curves in most of the listed intervals. The conventional dual-receiver CBL indicates
good to excellent bond at the depths of X525X535,
X550X554, X580X592, X634X670, and X676X690
ft, which is contrary to the more sophisticated circumferential SBT measurements at many of those depth intervals. The indications of poor bond on the CBL generally
agree with SBT evaluation over similar depth intervals.
The CBL is also in agreement with the SBT, indicating
good to adequate bond at the depths of X505X517,
X650X670, and X703X725 ft. In this example, the
SBT log was able to identify channeling and better define
the poorly cemented intervals.
Example 5 demonstrates that the Bond Attenuation
Log (BAL) is a compensated CBL system. A section of
BAL log is compared to an SBT Segmented Array presentation (Fig. 3-12). Channels are indicated over a portion of the casing periphery at depth intervals of
X514X534, X576X597, and X641X661 ft. The BAL
log recognizes the poor cement from X646 to X661 ft.
Poorer bond quality is indicated from X582 to X598 ft,
but little indication of poor cement is shown in the X514
to X534 ft depth interval. This example demonstrates
once again the superiority of SBT peripheral measurements.

Fig. 3-8
SBT test results at EPA test well24

58

Fig. 3-10
SBT log in free pipe

Fig. 3-9
SBT log at Amocos test well

59

Fig. 3-11
Comparison of SBT primary and secondary presentations to a conventional dual-receiver CBL

60

Fig. 3-12
Comparison of a BAL log with the secondary presentation of an SBT log

61

CHANNELING
In depth interval from X002 to X076 m, the Primary presentation shows low amplitude, and the VDL reflects essentially no pipe signal (Fig. 3-13). As with any traditional interpretation of CBLs, an analyst would most
likely consider the interval to be well cemented. Additional perspective is provided, however, with the wide
separation of the minimum and average attenuation traces
over several portions of the interval.

The cement map (Fig. 3-13) shows the cement to be


weak over a majority of the interval from X002 to X076
m. The tool azimuth trace is within segment six throughout the interval, and the lower attentuations on the segment traces generally occur on segments one, two, and
three near the high side of the wellbore. The worst cement condition occurs from X057 m to X064 m in all but
segment two.

Fig. 3-13
Channeling condition shown on the Primary and Segmented Array presentation.

62

GRADATIONAL CEMENT TOP


A gradational change from uncemented to well-cemented
casing occurs on two sections of the SBT log (Fig. 3-14).
From X525 to X600 m, the cement map shading gradually becomes darker with increasing depth, indicating an
improving cement bond. The second panel, from X600 to
X675 m, continues to become darker with depth, demonstrating a trend of improving cement bond.

Fig. 3-14
Gradational cement top

63

LARGE-DIAMETER CASING
These examples demonstrate the effective evaluation of
cement integrity by the SBT pad-type assembly in casing
as large as 16 in. (406 mm). Channeling is indicated from
X400 to X680 ft in Fig. 3-15. Overall, a well-cemented
interval is generally indicated from X800 to X1100 ft in
Fig. 3-16.

Fig. 3-15
Channeling indicated in 16-in. (406-mm) casing.

64

Fig. 3-16
Well-cemented interval in 16-in. (406-mm) casing

65

tenuation recordings are very similar and the calculated


amplitude is very low. The Segmented Array presentation
indicates weaker cement at the casing collars and over a
few isolated depth intervals. Good zone isolation is, however, achieved through this interval.

BRINE WELL
This well was drilled through a salt plug and cased with
9-5/8-in. (244-mm) casing. A storage cavern will be
leached out below the casing point. The hole was filled
with saturated brine for logging. A section of log from
this well (Fig. 3-17) graphically demonstrates the ease
with which the SBT log can be interpreted. The Segmented Array presentation and cement map indicate good
cement in all six segments for the interval below X085 m.
A similar interpretation results from the SBT Primary
presentation where average and minimum attenuation are
high and almost of equal value; i.e., the derived amplitude
curve is low, and the VDL indicates loss of pipe arrival
and replacement with formation character below X098 m.
The remainder of the displayed interval has low attenuation rates and the VDL indicates essentially free pipe.
DENSE BOREHOLE FLUID

In Fig. 3-19, possible channeling was suspected over a


depth interval from X350 to X430 ft in the same well. The
SBT Primary presentation confirms this condition from
X378 to X424 ft where a wider separation occurs between
the minimum and average attenuation curves. The cement
bond amplitude value increases, and stronger casing signals appear on the VDL. This characteristic is highlighted
on the SBT Segmented Array presentation by the behavior of the cement map, which shows lighter shades of gray
over attenuation. Channeling is eveident in segments two,
three, and four, while the upper and more extensive portion of the channel is also identified by segments five and
six. Segment five is shown to be on the low side of the
casing, by the orientation curve.

The SBT example in Fig. 3-18 was recorded in 7-in. (178mm), 32-lbm/ft (47.6-kg/m) casing filled with 16.1lbm/gal mud. The interval from X850 to X010 ft shows
good to excellent bond on both the SBT Primary and Segmented Array presentations. Average and minimum at-

This well was also logged with a pulse-echo device. To


obtain the desired acoustic impedance differences, it was
necessary to remove the heavy mud and replace it with
water. This example demonstrates the time and cost savings achieved by using the SBT system.

Fig. 3-17
Intervals of good and poor cement bonding in a brine well

66

Fig. 3-18
Good-to-excellent bond conditions demonstrated by SBT log recorded in dense borehole fluid.

Fig. 3-19
Channeling demonstrated by SBT log recorded in dense borehole fluid.

67

Another cement packer was set in the horizontal interval


between the measured depth of X048 to X084 ft. In Fig.
3-22, segment one is identified as the low side of the
borehole and poor to no cement bond. The cement bonding observed in this depth interval is near the high side of
the hole.

SBT REPEATABILITY
Fig. 3-20 shows the Primary Log presentation over the
depth interval from X900 to X940 m with a repeat section. In spite of the fact that conditions varied through the
interval, the logs show good repeatability. Since the SBT
measurements are segmented, it is reasonable to assume
that exact repetition of the six attenuation curves is unlikely on subsequent log passes. The Primary Log presentation, however, shows acceptable repeatability.

ADVANTAGES OF THE
SEGMENTED BOND TOOL SYSTEM
The instrument description and field examples presented
illustrate the advantages of this second-generation radial
cement evaluation system over previous measuring systems. These advantages include:

HORIZONTAL WELL
The SBT instrument has been run successfully in a horizontal well using coiled-tubing-conveyed methods. The
subject well was completed with 5.5-in. (140-mm) casing
and the hole filled with lease water. The borehole was
kicked off at X600 ft and built to 90 deviation over an
1,100-ft (335-m) interval. The well was essentially horizontal for 1,300 ft (396 m) from that point to the total
measured depth of the well.

Stand-alone cement evaluation service


Inferences of cement bond around the entire circumference of the casing
A quantitative compensated measurement
Allows better decision-making for squeezing

Fig. 3-20
SBT log repeatability

Slight eccentering not detrimental

In the horizontal interval from X600 to X800 ft, shown in


Fig. 3-21, a cement packer is identified at a measured
depth from X688 to X720 ft. While the packer almost certainly provides isolation, its rubber bladder excludes cement, resulting in a log response of essentially free pipe.
Over the interval shown, both SBT Primary and Segmented Array presentations display low-attenuation rates.
As the tool was pushed into the hole on coiled tubing, little or no torque was exerted and no rotation occurred. As
a result, segment one is on the low side of the horizontal
hole. The log indicates generally poor cement bonding
over this interval.

When necessary, the SBT log can resolve the ambiguity of CBLs
SBT log not affected by borehole fluid type or gas
SBT log can be used in most common casing sizes
above 4.5 in. (114.3 mm)

68

Fig. 3-21
SBT log over a portion of a horizontal well

69

Fig. 3-22
SBT log over a second selected depth interval in the same horizontal well as shown in Fig. 3-21

70

Fig. 3-23
Cement compressive strength from segmented bond tool log

71

BIBLIOGRAPHY

12. Bruckdorfer, R. A., Jacobs, W. R., and Masson, J. P.:


CBL Evaluation of Foam-Cemented and SyntheticCemented Casings, paper SPE 11980 presented at
the 1983 SPE Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA,
October 58.

1. Albert, L. E., Standley, T. E., and Alford, G. T.: A


Comparison of CBL, RBT, and PET in a Test Well
with Induced Channels, paper presented at the 1987
SPE Annual Technical Conference, Dallas, TX,
Sept. 2730.

13. Carter, L. G. and Evans, G. W.: A Study of CementPipe Bonding, JPT (February 1964).

2. Log Interpretation Charts, Atlas Wireline Services,


Western Atlas International, Inc., Publication 1901
(1988).

14. Cheung, P. R. and Beirute, R. M.: Gas Flows in Cements, JPT (June, 1985).

3. Bigelow, E. L.: A Practical Approach to the Interpretation of the Cement Bond Log, JPT (July 1985).

15. Davis, M., Guy, J. O., and Vogel, C.: Transverse


Wave Logger, Patent pending (1987).

4. Bigelow, E. L., Domangue, E. J., and Lester, R. A.:


A New and Innovative Technology for Cement
Evaluation, paper presented at the 1990 65th Annual Technical Conference of SPE, New Orleans,
LA, Sept. 2326.

16. Dresser Atlas Acoustic Cement Bond Log and Prolog CBL. Dresser Atlas Publication 2206 (1985).
17. Dresser Atlas Well Logging and Interpretation Techniques The Course for Home Study, Dresser Atlas
Publication 9333 (1985).

5. Bigelow, E. L. and Domangue, E. J.: An Effective


New Technology for Evaluation of Cement Integrity:
The Segmented Bond Tool, paper presented at the
1990 13th SPWLA European Symposium, Budapest,
Hungary, Oct. 2226.

18. Fertl, W. H., Pilkington, P. E., and Scott, James B.:


A Look at Cement Bond Logs, JPT (June 1974).

6. Bigelow, E. L.: How to Obtain Better Cement Bond


Logs in High-Angle Holes, World Oil (October,
1991).

19. Fitzgerald, D. D., McGhee, B. F., and McGuire, J.


A.: Guidelines for 90% Accuracy in Zone Isolation
Decisions, paper SPE 12141 presented at the 1983
SPE Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA, October
58.

7. Bigelow, E. L.: Effective Evaluation of Well Mechanical Integrity, Trans. Symposium on Class II
Injection Well Management and Practices, UIPRF
and USDOE, Houston, Texas (1992).

20. Froelich, B., Pittman, D., and Seeman, B., 1984:


Cement Evaluation Tool A New Approach to Cement Evaluation, presented at the 1984 SPE Annual
Technical Conference, Houston, TX, Sept. 1619.

8. Bigelow, E. L.: Confirmation of a Wells Mechanical Integrity, paper OTC 7344 presented at the 1993
25th Annual Offshore Technology Conference,
Houston, TX, May 36.

21. Gollwitzer, L. H. and Masson, J. P.: The Cement


Bond Tool, Trans. SPWLA 23rd Annual Logging
Symposium, Corpus Christi, TX (1982).
22. Grosmangin, M., Kokesh, F. P., and Majani, P.: A
Sonic Method for Analyzing the Quality of Cementation of Borehole Casings, JPT (February 1961).

9. Bigelow, E. L. and Lincecum, V.: SBT: The


Leading Edge in Cement Evaluation, paper presented at the 1994 23rd Annual Conference of the Indonesian Petroleum Association, Jakarta, Indonesia,
September.

23. Havira, R. M.: Ultrasonic Cement Bond Evaluation, Trans. SPWLA 23rd Annual Logging Symposium, Corpus Christi, TX (1982).

10. Broding, R. A.: Application of the Sonic Volumetric Scan Log to Cement Evaluation, paper presented
at the 1984 SPWLA Annual Logging Symposium,
New Orleans, LA, June 1013.

24. Kinsler, L. E. and Frey, A. R.: Fundamentals of


Acoustics, second edition, John Wiley and Sons,
Inc., New York (1950).

11. Brown, H. O., Grijalva, V. E., and Raymer, L. L.:


New Developments in Sonic Wave Train Display
and Analysis in Cased Holes, Trans. SPWLA
Eleventh Annual Logging Symposium, Los Angeles,
CA (1970).

25. Lazor, F., Foulger, P., and Quinn, T.: Computer


Processed Interpretation of the Cement Bond Log,
paper presented at the 1985 Symposium of the Canadian Well Logging Society, Calgary, Alberta,
September 29October 2.
72

36. Pilkington, P. E.: Perennial CBL Centering Problem


Can Be Minimized, Oil & Gas J. (November 30,
1987).

26. Leigh, C. A. et al.: Results of Field Testing the Cement Evaluation Tool, paper presented at the 1984
SPWLA 25th Annual Logging Symposium, New Orleans, LA, June 1013.

37. Pilkington, P. E.: Pressure Needed to Reduce Microannulus Effect on CBL, Oil & Gas J. (May 30,
1988).

27. Leslie, H. D., De Selliers, J., and Pittman, D. J.: Coupling and Attenuation: A New Measurement Pair in
Cement Bond Logging, paper presented at the 1987
SPE Production Operations Symposium, March 810.

38. Pilkington, P. E.: New Methods Allow Evaluating


Cement from Floating Rig, Oil & Gas J. (November
21, 1988).

28. Lester, R. A.,: The Segmented Bond Tool: A PadType Cement Bond Device, paper presented at the
1989 Symposium of the Canadian Well Logging Society, Calgary, Alberta, September 2628.

39. Pilkington, P. E.: CBLs Can Evaluate Cement Integrity Between Two Casing Strings, Oil & Gas J.
(December 10, 1990).

29. Lindsey, H. E., Jr. and Durham, J. S.: Field Results


of Liner Rotation During Cementing, paper SPE
13047 presented at the 1984 SPE Annual Technical
Conference, Houston, Texas, September 1619.

40. Schmidt, Mathew G.: The Micro CBLA Second


Generation Radial Cement Evaluation Instrument,
paper presented at the 1989 SPWLA Thirtieth Annual Logging Symposium, Denver, CO June 1114.

30. McGhee, B. F. and Vacca, H. L.: Guidelines for Improved Monitoring of Cementing Operations,
Trans. Annual SPWLA Logging Symposium,
Lafayette, LA (1980).

41. Smith, Dwight K.: Cementing, Monograph Volume


4, Henry L. Doherty Series, SPE, Dallas, TX (1976).
42. Suman, George O., Jr. and Ellis, Richard C.: World
Oils Cementing Handbook Including Casing Handling Procedure, Gulf Publishing Company, Houston, TX (1977).

31. Morris, R. L., Grine, D. R., and Arkfeld, T. E.: Using Compressional and Shear Acoustic Amplitudes
for the Location of Fractures, JPT (June 1964).
32. Nayfeh, T. H., Wheelis, W. B., Jr., and Leslie, H. D.:
The Fluid Compensated Bond Log, Proc., SPE
Formation Evaluation, (August 1986) 335341.

43. Thornhill, J. T. and Benefield, B. G.: Injection Well


Mechanical Integrity, EPA Document 625/9
87/007 (Sept. 1987).

33. NL McCullough Cement Bond Long Interpretation


Manual, NL McCullough Publication (October 1986).

44. Tyndall, J. H.: Segmented Bond Log A New Generation Cement Bond Logging Device, paper presented at the 1990 CIM International Technical
Meeting, Calgary, Alberta, June 1013.

34. Pardue, G. M., Morris, R. L., Gollwitzer, L. H., and


Moran, J. H.: Cement Bond Log A Study of Cement
and Casing Variables, paper SPE 453 presented at
the 1962 SPE Annual Fall Meeting, Los Angeles,
CA, October 710.

45. Walker, T.: A Full Wave Display of Acoustic Signal in Cased Holes, JPT (August 1968).

35. Pilkington, P. E.: A High Frequency Cement Bond


Log Tool Test, The Log Analyst (SeptemberOctober 1976).

46. Walker, T.: Origin of the W Pattern on Cased Hole


Micro-Seismogram Logs, The Log Analyst (MarchApril 1968).

73

PRACTICAL WORK SESSION PROBLEMS

The practical exercises contained in this section include


wells having a variety of cement conditions and pipe
sizes, and located in a wide variation of geological
formations.
In many of the exercises, pipe, borehole, and cement information is missing. Also, openhole logs are not provided
with any of the examples. Appendices A, B, and C are
placed in this text to exhibit the problems caused by well
mechanics and cement type, to illustrate different sizes
and dimensions of instrument makeup, and some suggested means of providing important and often necessary
information. The exercises in this section are purposely
presented in this fashion to make those interested in cement evaluation painfully aware that such information is
usually necessary if a reasonable analysis of cement conditions is to be determined from a bond logging device.

75

PROBLEM 1
Well location: Texas, U.S.A.
Borehole conditions: 5.5-in., 14-lbm/ft casing in a 7-7/8-in. borehole
Observe the Travel-time, Peak Amplitude, Bond Index, and Attenuation traces and compare them to the Variable Density
Log. Is the cement sheath adequate to isolate the following two zones from the interval 4,278 to 4,311 ft?
(1) 4,240 to 4,248 ft

(2) 4,252 to 4,268 ft

Describe the phenomenon that occurs on the Travel-time trace, and indicate the depth intervals.

Indicate the depth intervals where you believe shear arrivals occur.

What are the Transmitter-Receiver spans for Travel time?

Amplitude?

and Variable Density Log?

76

PROBLEM 2
Well location: Illinois basin, U.S.A.
Borehole conditions: Unknown.
Determine the depth where you think the cement top occurs.
Amplitude differently from the Signature?

77

Would you choose the depth from the

PROBLEM 3
Well location: Persian Gulf
Borehole conditions: 4.5-in. liner, 11.6-lbm/ft pipe
Would you consider the cement job over this interval to be adequate or better?

Are there intervals

where you believe cement quality is lesser in quality than in other depth intervals?

If so, what

depth interval(s)?
Indicate the compressional arrivals on the VDL.
Also indicate those depth intervals where you believe shear arrivals are detected on the VDL.

78

PROBLEM 4
Well location: Indonesia
Borehole conditions: Unknown
What is the cement condition in the interval shown? Explain why.

79

PROBLEM 5

Can you identify compressional waves?

Well location: Venezuela


Borehole conditions: 7-in. casing; openhole size and pipe
weight were not given

Can you identify shear waves?


Can you identify fluid waves?
Indicate where the different wave types occur on the example problem.

Note the free-pipe signal at the top of the example. The


borehole was filled with oil during the logging operation.
The reservoir rocks were high porosity in the interval
given.

Using the proper chart (Fig. 1-59), determine the compressive strength of this conventional cement at the following intervals.

Describe the cement condition qualitatively.

80

4,308 - 4,314 ft

psi

4,348 - 4,352 ft

psi

4,395 - 4,398 ft

psi

4,458 - 4,462 ft

psi

PROBLEM 6
Well location: Texas, U.S.A.
Borehole conditions: 4.5-in., 9.6-lbm/ft casing filled with formation water
Give a general interpretation of cement quality from 3,450 to 3,900 ft.

Where would you pick the cement top?

81

PROBLEM 7
Well location: Permian basin, U.S.A.
Borehole conditions: 5.5-in., 14-lbm/ft casing set in a 7-7/8-in borehole; the CBL was recorded with 1,000-psi surface pressure applied to the casing.
Give your analysis of the cement job from 3,350 to 3,540 ft.

Do you recognize any shear arrivals on the VDL? If so, identify the depth interval(s).

82

PROBLEM 8
Well location: Permian basin, U.S.A.
Borehole conditions: Unknown
From the given BAL data, what type of cement job is present between 8,408 and 8,550 ft?

What does the Travel-time curve tell you?

What does the VDL tell you about cement integrity?

Can you explain what you think occurs at 7,550 ft?


Why?

What do the amplitude/attenuation traces indicate?

Indicate the depth intervals where you see fluid waves.

Indicate the depth intervals where you see shear waves.

Indicate the depth intervals where you see Stoneley


waves.

83

Using Fig. 1-59, determine the cement compressive


strength over the previously designated depth interval.
Conventional cement was used.
psi

PROBLEM 9
Well location: Oklahoma, U.S.A.
Borehole conditions: Unknown

Indicate the depth intervals, in both the upper and lower


portions of the problem, where shear arrivals appear.

Identify the location of the cement top in this well.

In the zone from 4,694 to 4,750 ft, does the VDL indicate
good bond to the formation?
Does the
Amplitude indicate good bond to the casing?

84

PROBLEM 10
Well location: Offshore, Gulf of Mexico
Borehole conditions: 7-in., 32-lbm/ft casing cemented in 10-5/8-in. borehole with 910 sacks of Class H cement plus additives (extenders/retarders). Borehole drift was greater than 30. CBL instrument was centralized with three Gemco centralizers.
Is the cement job adequate over the depth interval shown?

Explain.

If an 11-ft interval is needed for effective zone isolation, identify those intervals where Bond Index is high enough to isolate
one zone from another.

85

PROBLEM 11
Well location: Permian basin, U.S.A.
Borehole conditions: 5.5-in. casing set in a 7-7/8-in. borehole
Explain your description of cement condition over the depth interval shown.

86

PROBLEM 12
Well location: Offshore, Gulf of Mexico
Borehole conditions: 4.5-in. casing
Explain the cement condition between 4,550 ft and 4,730 ft.

Indicate depth intervals where fluid arrivals and shear arrivals occur.

87

PROBLEM 13
Well location: Offshore, Louisiana
Borehole conditions: 7-in., 29-lbm/ft pipe Following two squeeze jobs, the CBL was recorded after allowing more than 3
days setup time.
Describe the condition of cement over the interval given.

88

PROBLEM 14
Well location: Alberta, Canada
Borehole conditions: 140-mm, 20.8-kg/m casing
What is your overall interpretation of cementing conditions across the interval given?

What specific cement condition exists over most of the interval?

89

assume the borehole was filled with fairly fresh fluid,


and the pipe reasonably centered to allow at least a 3/4in. (1.9-cm) thickness of cement sheath around the pipe
circumference. The pipe size will be representative of its
internal diameter. What do you note free or unsupported
pipe signal to read on the Travel-time trace?

PROBLEM 15
Well location: Canada
Borehole conditions: 7000-kPa pressure at the wellhead
Give your analysis of cement condition over the interval
from 775 m to 825 m.

What pipe ID did you determine?


Do you recognize the occurrence of shear waves?
At this point, you must assume an outside diameter for the
pipe (reference the pipe data in Table 1-4). You will find
two or three pipe weights that fit the Travel-time response
in the unsupported pipe. This will give an assumed pipe
thickness to use in compressive strength determination.
Using the appropriate chart (Fig. 1-57), determine the cement compressive strength over the depth interval from
785 m to 790 m.
MPa

If so, at what depth intervals?

Do you recognize the occurrence of fluid waves?


If so, at what depth intervals?

If the interval had been cemented with a lightweight foam


cement, what would you determine its compressive
strength to be?
MPa

Pipe and borehole information were not available. Use


the Travel-time trace in free or unsupported pipe to determine pipe size (refer back to Fig. 1-23B). You must

90

PROBLEM 16
Well location: U.S. gulf coast
Borehole conditions: 7-in. casing cemented in a 9-7/8-in. borehole
Give an overall description of cement conditions for the interval presented.

91

PROBLEM 17
Well location: Italy
Borehole conditions: 7-in., 29-lbm/ft casing in 8-1/2-in. borehole
Give a quick analysis of cement condition over the interval shown.

What is the problem with the SRT (Travel-time trace)?

How could the SRT (Travel time) recording be improved?

92

the following intervals:

PROBLEM 18

14,196 - 14,204 ft
14,209 - 14,211 ft
14,212 - 14,214 ft
14,216 - 14,220 ft
14,230 - 14,250 ft

Well location: Venezuela


Borehole conditions: Concentric 7-in. and 9-5/8-in. pipe
strings
Describe cement conditions in the section below the concentric strings.

psi
psi
psi
psi
psi

Give your analysis of the cement condition within the


concentric pipe strings from 14,080 to 14,150 ft.

Using the appropriate chart (Fig. 1-59), determine the


cement compressive strength (conventional cement) for

93

PROBLEM 19
Well location: Permian basin, U.S.A.
Borehole conditions: 7-in., 26-lbm/ft casing The first logging pass was recorded with no pressure at the wellhead.
Give your overall impression of the cement condition from this logging pass.

The second logging pass was recorded with 2,000 psi at the wellhead. Does this pass confirm a microannulus condition?

Using the appropriate chart (Fig. 1-58), determine the cement compressive strengths for both logging passes over the following intervals and compare:

94

Run 1
with 0 psi

Run2
with 2,000 psi

9,2109,220 ft
9,3159,320 ft
9,3209,324 ft
9,3809,390 ft
From the text material discussing microannulus, would you now recommend the logging procedure used on this well?
Why or why not?

95

PROBLEM 20
Well location: North Sea
Borehole conditions: 7-in., 29.0-lbm/ft casing in 8-1/2-in. borehole
Approximately 50 cement bond logs were obtained from Western Atlas locations worldwide for this text. This North Sea
field example provided the most extensive information regarding borehole conditions; however, it too lacked information on
scratchers, centralizers, and other mechanical apparatus that might have been used in the well completion.
The log was run 3 days after cementing. Based on the information given, and the log data presented, what is your opinion of
the cement job over the given depth interval?

96

97

PROBLEM 21
Well location: Oklahoma, U.S.A.
Borehole conditions: 5.5-in., 17-lbm/ft casing in 7.875-in. borehole

98

The Segmented Bond Tool was discussed in Chapter 3 of the text. Give your analysis of the cement over the SBT depth
intervals given.

99

PROBLEM 22
Well location: Oklahoma, U.S.A.
Borehole conditions: 5.5-in., 17-lbm/ft casing in 7.875-in. borehole

100

Give your opinion of the cement job over the depth intervals shown with this Segmented Bond Tool log.

101

Identify intervals where fluid waves appear.

PROBLEM 23
Well location: Canada
Borehole conditions: 139.7-mm casing, 7000-kPa pressure at the wellhead
Describe the cement condition across the interval shown.

Do Stoneley waves appear?

Identify those intervals where shear waves occur.

102

If so, where?

CEMENTINGAN OVERVIEW

APPENDIX A

During well cementing operations, a cement slurry is


pumped downhole through casing and back up the annular space between the pipe and formation. The cement is
then allowed to set up or cure, and as a result, develop
its compressive strength. Cement serves two principle
functions:
1. Shear bond, which mechanically supports the
casing, and
2. Hydraulic bond, which restricts fluid movement
longitudinally along the casing and between adjacent formations.
The bond and support aspects are particularly important in wells that require subsequent drilling below the
casing and perhaps a pipe string to be hung from it. Bond
and support might also be critical for intermediate casing
strings, which may be subject to stress from deeper
drilling operations. Hydraulic seal is crucial where fluid
movement in the annulus cannot be tolerated.
The technology supporting modern well cementing is
a complex science in the chemistry of cement slurries and
the mechanical devices employed for the purpose of
achieving good cement coverage downhole.19,20 In-depth
details are beyond the scope of this document, but a brief
overview is prudent.
A schematic of a typical primary cementing job is
shown in Fig. A1.20 The casing string is assembled with
a float collar and guide shoe, where the float collar acts
as a check valve to prevent cement from flowing back
into the casing after it is pumped down. Centralizers are
often run at regular intervals, especially over critical
depth intervals and in deviated wellbores. Cement is
mixed at the surface with a jet mixer just prior to being
pumped downhole as a liquid slurry. The cementing operation begins when the bottom plug is released, immediately followed by the cement slurry. When the bottom
plug, which is hollow, lands or bumps on the float collar, an increase in pressure causes a rubber membrane in
the plug to rupture. The cement then passes through the
bottom plug until the upper plug, which is solid and separates the cement slurry from the displacing fluid, lands
on top of the bottom plug. A dramatic increase in pressure is then indicated at the surface. At this time, the cement job is completed, and only curing time is required
for the cement to solidify and achieve its compressive
strength.
On production strings, the cement is not commonly
extended to the surface, but is usually extended a few
hundred feet (or meters) above the interval(s) of interest.
Displacement to the surface is normally avoided because of (1) economic considerations, and/or (2) the
possibility that the dense slurry may fracture a formation, causing lost returns and resulting in formation

Fig. A1
Diagram of cementing job20

103

damage. Complete cement coverage is, however, required in some environmentally sensitive areas; e.g., to
protect potable waters. Surface casings across fresh-water aquifers are commonly cemented to the surface, and
the same may be true with some intermediate strings. In
areas where formation damage/fracturing is of concern,
long intervals are frequently cemented in stages.
In todays deep wells, economic considerations, and
occasional steel shortages, have resulted in the more common use of liners. A liner may be hung through the productive interval or perhaps utilized for well repair where
the casing has been damaged. Successful cement jobs
with a liner are often difficult to accomplish because of
small annular clearances and the inability to use centralizers. The interval of overlap between the liner and the
casing string from which the liner is hung is especially
critical because the annular clearance between the two
pipe strings is typically small.
A basic problem in cementing is to fully displace the
fluid in the casing annulus. Displacement efficiency is defined as:

Displacing cement at turbulent flow


Using a preflush ahead of cement
Moving the pipe while circulating
Cleaning or coating the pipe.
Failure of primary or secondary cementing jobs can
be detected by log-derived cement evaluation or by the
production of undesired fluids during production tests.
Corrective action usually requires a remedial cement
squeeze, which involves forcing or squeezing a cement
slurry out through perforations and behind the casing by
applying high-pressure, as illustrated in Fig. A3. A relatively small volume of cement is commonly used. The
objective is to force the cement to a specific place; i.e.,
to fill and plug off perforations, to fill or choke off channels behind pipe, repair damaged pipe, or to supplement
the primary cement job. The danger is the formation
may have to be fractured in order to successfully
squeeze.

Annular Area Filled with Cement


Displacement

Total Annular Area
Efficiency (%)

Hydraulic bond at the cement-formation interface is


largely influenced by the presence or absence of filter
mud cake and rock type. Permeable formations usually
result in obtaining a better hydraulic bond since cement
slurry loses water to the formation, and develops a higher
compressive strength.18
High efficiency is often difficult to achieve due to the
ease with which cement flows through the larger annular
regions and its inability to flow through the narrow annular regions, as shown by the flowing velocity profile in
Fig. A2. Some remedial measures include:
Centralizing the pipe
Using scratchers to remove wall cake

Fig. A3
Schematic of a remedial squeeze cement job12

Cements are broadly classified as being neat or tailored. Neat cement generally has properties that are inflexible. Tailored cements are almost always used in oilwell cementing operations due to their flexibility and
cost.
Portland cements are finely ground mixtures of calcium
compounds. The mix is usually made from limestone (or
other rock high in CaCO3) and clay or shale. Iron and aluminum oxides are often added if necessary. After the material is thoroughly mixed and finely ground, it is subjected to intense heat in a rotary kiln. The resulting

Fig. A2
Flowing velocity profile9

104

material is then ground with a controlled amount of gypsum to form the cement. All API classes of cement are produced in this general way, but oilwell cementing requirements demand different properties and different particle
sizes for specific purposes. High temperatures, high pressures, particular rock type, etc. dictate different admixtures of cement to provide the necessary casing support
and zone isolation. Cement cures through a process of
crystal growth. Once cement is in place around the periphery of a casing string, it is important that the crystallization process proceed quickly to reduce exposure time
to mechanisms that could interfere with the desired results.
Pozmix cement combines Portland cement with pozzolan, a siliceous material, which reacts with lime and
water to form calcium silicates, resulting in good cementing properties. Pozmix cements are in common use because they are less expensive.
Calcium aluminate cements are manufactured by
heating limestone and bauxite until liquefied, then cooling and grinding. Cements high in alumina are used to
cement casing through depth intervals where extreme
temperatures are encountered. Their use is limited due to
expense.
Gypsum cements cure rapidly and expand significantly after setup. These cements tend to deteriorate in
contact with water; therefore, they are seldom used except
as an additive to Portland.

Permafrost cements are a special blend of Portland and


gypsum cement, which has low heat of hydration and will
set up at 15F (9C). These types of cements are utilized in cementing through frozen formations in Arctic
locales.
CEMENT API CLASSIFICATIONS
American Petroleum Institute (API) classifications of cement for various depths and temperature conditions are
shown in Table A1. Most of the API cements have been
replaced by Class G (Basic) cement due to its wide range
of applications.
API Class A and B cements are generally less expensive. Class B is also resistant to sulfate attack. API Class
C cement develops a higher compressive strength in the
first 30 hours than Class A; however, Class A with calcium chloride provides better strength than Class C without accelerators. Class C is limited to certain geographical areas, and is often called high early cement.
API Class D-E-F cements, delayed by organic compounds and/or a coarser grind, are referred to as retarders.
Special well conditions might justify their expense. They
too are limited in availability.
API Class G and H cements are similar to Class B,
but are manufactured under more rigorous control standards than Class B to ensure a more uniform product

TABLE A1

105

with respect to chemical and physical specifications. G


and H contain no accelerators, retarders, or viscositycontrol agents. Class H is similar to Class G except for
a slightly coarser grind, which provides a moderate increase in retarding effect for deeper, hotter borehole
conditions. Both G and H are compatible with accelerators or retarders for use over the complete range of API
conditions; therefore, either cement (API G or H) can be
used with the proper additives for almost any cementing
situation. API Class G has replaced most other API cements. These are possibly the most universally used.
API Class J cement is intended for use from 300F
(149C) to possibly 600F (315C), if retarder extended.
J is not a Portland cement because silica flour (SiO2) is
added. Relatively small amounts of retarders are needed
in comparison to API Class H cement. Only calcium sulfate retarders are added to Class J.

tion. They are effective in lowering the viscosity of highdensity cement slurries.
Lignosulfonates are probably the most common retarder, and when treated with specific chemicals; e.g., borax can be used to very high temperatures (600F or
315C). At lower temperatures, cellulose retarder additives are more common.
Extenders
When it is necessary to reduce cement density, extenders
are used. Cementing across weaker, less competent formations often requires their use to avoid breaking down
the formation and causing a loss of circulation. Extenders reduce the amount of cement needed and lessen expense.
Water extenders allow an addition of water to the
slurry while ensuring the suspension of solids. Bentonite
is probably the most common water extender; however,
cement compressive strength suffers. Sodium silicate is
also used as a water extender since it produces a viscous
gel.
Pozzolans are used as low-density aggregates. They
are found in the form of volcanic ashes and diatomaceous
earth. Pozzolans reduce slurry density and increase compressive strength.
In the late 70s, high-strength foam cements were introduced to the industry. By injecting nitrogen at a controlled rate into specially formulated cement slurries, a
foamed cement column with uniform density and compressive strength can be achieved. The nitrogen gas
replaces the use of water for density reduction, and
allows cement integrity to be maintained without substantially reducing its strength or substantially increasing the cements permeability. As a result, hydrostatic
pressure across weak formations is substantially reduced, coverage over long depth intervals can be accomplished in a single stage, and costs are generally
less.
Alternative approaches to foam slurries might include
air-filled glass balls or beads, which are light weight and
inhibit permeability in the cement sheath. These are considered by many to be the most efficient, low-density aggregate available as they preserve cement compressive
strength and reduce slurry density without the necessity
for adding much water. Cement additives designed for
specialized applications can also be applied to foam or
air-filled bead slurries.
A comparison of slurry density to compressive
strength for several extenders is given in Fig. A4.

CEMENT ADDITIVES
Oilwell cements typically contain some additive(s) to
modify the basic cement properties for a particular downhole condition. Additives may be used for a variety of
reasons:
To vary cement density
To increase or decrease compressive strength
To accelerate or retard the setting time
To control filtration rate
To reduce slurry viscosity
To bridge for lost circulation control
To improve economics.
Accelerators
Cement setup is accelerated by use of additives (accelerators) that speed up early stages of hydration. CaCl2 is the
most common accelerator and is typically added in
concentrations of 2 to 4 percent by volume, with higher
concentrations shortening cement thickening time. Compressive strength of the cement also develops faster. Accelerators are more commonly used in shallower, lowtemperature wells.
Retarders
Additives used to slow the cement setting time, called retarders, are typically used in deep, hot wells to allow the
slurry to be placed properly. Retarder technology is well
established, and several types of retarder additives have
been developed for specific conditions.
Recently, organic phosphate retarders, which are effective at high temperatures, have been developed and
have the ability to tolerate variations in cement composi-

Dispersants
Cementing jobs are successfully achieved when mud has
been adequately removed. Cement is usually pumped at
turbulent flow, but dispersants control the rheology to induce turbulence at low pump rates.
106

to cementing contractors. High temperature accelerates


the hydration process, making it prerequisite to use retarders and other special additives to slow setup time and
allow cement to be placed properly. Cement compressive
strength is also affected by high temperature after setup.
Portland cement becomes totally unstable above 400C
(750F). Therefore, consideration of calcium aluminate
cements becomes very important in extremely hot wells.
Numerous phases of calcium silicate mix are being studied and experimented with; however, it is known that cement stability can be restored with the addition of silica
sand or silica flour cured to specific high temperatures;
e.g., 600F (315C).
FACTORS AFFECTING
DOWNHOLE CEMENTING
The cement being forced down a borehole with the intent
to support the pipe and provide a hydraulic seal is affected
by many factors. These effects on the cement (or lack of
effects) influence the messages given by wireline log responses. These factors are:

Fig. A4
Comparison of slurry density to compressive strength for different
types of extenders

1. Cement setting time


2. Bottomhole
temperature
3. Pressure
4. Depth
5. Type of cement
6. Cement additives
7. Mud additives
8. Quantity of cement
9. Cement injection rate
10. Reservoir fluids
11. Borehole fluids

Agents to Control Lost Circulation


Everything from corn cobs and walnut shells to cellulose
and more elaborately designed granular materials such as
gilsonites or coals are used to prevent lost circulation
across weak zones. Special gel cements are also used
when bridging agents do not perform as required.
Fluid Loss Agents
Additives to control water loss from the slurry into the
formation include finely ground materials such as bentonite, water-soluble polymers, and cellulose derivatives.

12.
13.
14.
15.
16.

Borehole size and shape


Borehole deviation
Casing size and weight
Casing centralizers
Casing scratchers and
wipers
17. Damage to bond by
perforating
18. Damage to bond by
high-pressure squeezing

RECOMMENDED PROCEDURES
TO MINIMIZE MICROANNULUS

Special Additives
Agents to prevent gas migration or foaming that can destroy a cementing operation are also used. Special lattice
agents have been developed to form an impermeable
membrane and coagulate gas. Polyethylene glycol is often used to prevent foaming.

Achieving an adequate cement job for the necessary


isolation of certain zones has become a prerequisite for
oilwell completions. Wireline cement evaluation services prove to be the simplest and least expensive
method of determining cement effectiveness provided
conditions are acceptable for obtaining log responses
that reflect the true condition. Microannulus problems
interfere with effective evaluation of cement integrity.
Therefore, measures should be taken to remove or at
least minimize the microannulus effect for the life of
the production casing. Steps have been described by
Pilkington.33
The first step is to bump the plug with water, then
pressure test the casing before the cement sets, and release the pressure before setup occurs. This should be
done only if the cement head can withstand the pressure
and the plug will hold.

Weighting Agents
High-pressure formations often create problems with
low-density cement slurries; i.e., the cement loses stability. Weighting agents are added to the slurry to increase
its density across potentially high-pressure zones.
High-Temperature Additives
Thermal recovery methods, geothermal wells, and the
deeper, hotter oil wells drilled today present a challenge
107

If the cement head cannot withstand the pressure, preplan the job to hang off the casing. Then close the blind
rams and pressure test before the cement sets.
It should be remembered that it is not necessary to test
up to 80% of the casing yield strength if the pressure exceeds the fracture pressure of the formation below the
shoe. Fracture gradient considerations will normally result in testing the casing to a lower pressure, provided that
regulatory requirements are met.
To ensure that unanticipated pressure problems will
remain below the casing, casing test pressure should exceed the minimum fracture pressure expected below the
casing shoe by a few hundred psi (less than 3 MPa). Make
a bit and scraper run, and displace the water with completion fluid prior to running wireline cement evaluation services. This will increase hydrostatic pressure in the
casing.
Wireline cement evaluation services should then be
run without pressure across the zones of interest. It might
not be necessary to log with surface pressure if the increase in hydrostatic pressure has minimized the thermal
microannulus.
If the cement job is good, then the completion fluid in
the casing will now eliminate the microannulus during the
production life of the well. This simple procedure should
be useful in gas wells where migration up a microannulus
can occur.
It could still be necessary to run the log under pressure
if the increase in hydrostatic head does not eliminate the
microannulus effect on the bond log in the intervals of interest. How much pressure should be applied? This may
vary if there are zones of interest over a long depth interval. The increase in hydrostatic pressure at the shallowest
zone of interest will be less than at deeper zones of interest, and more pressure may be required across a shallow
zone. The pressure and logging procedure to use is described under the microannulus portion of the text.
The preceding discussion on cementing and methods
to decrease or eliminate microannulus effects is meant
only as a broad overview, but is sufficient for an understanding of cement and well mechanics with respect to
their influence on wireline cement evaluation services.

108

SKETCHES OF
DIFFERENT INSTRUMENT CONFIGURATIONS
Instrument sketches are provided in this section for convenience of the user. A number of different lengths and
configurations can be accomplished for each of the cement evaluation instruments discussed in the text. For example, a gamma ray, a neutron, or both gamma ray and
neutron may be added to an instrument string. A casing
collar locator is normally included in the instrument
makeup in conjunction with downhole electronics and
centralizing apparatus.
It is common practice to place centralizers just above
and below the transducers to ensure centering of the transmitter(s) and receiver(s). A minimum of three centralizers
should be used to log boreholes that are nearly vertical,
including a third at the top of the instrument assembly.
Deviated boreholes require a minimum of five centralizers, and should be of the rigid metal, rubber or plastic fin,
or rigid aluminum roller-type design.
When logging deviated wells, the centralizers should
again be located at the top of the instrument string, just
above and below the transmitter-receiver section, at the
top of the acoustic section, and near the center of the
gamma ray or neutron instrument. Fin-type standoffs
should be placed in such a way that the fins are randomly
oriented around the instrument circumference. As many
as 12 centralizers have been used to properly center instruments in high-angle (greater than 55) boreholes.
It is important to place a centralizer at the top of the instrument string because the upper portion of the instrument (typically a collar locator) acts as a lever to create
centering problems. Recall that the instrument is operating in a dynamic mode. Still photos or illustrations of the
instrument configuration do not demonstrate the problems caused by instrument movement.
The centralizer type may differ due to specific downhole well mechanics. In-line centralizers are available
with some of the cement evaluation instruments. Rigid
metal and fin-type standoffs usually accomplish their
mission if they are sized properly for the casing internal
diameter, but both the metal and fins wear with use and
should be replaced as needed.
In-line centralizers are more applicable for liners
where it may be necessary (in vertical boreholes) to log a
portion of the casing above the liner. Liners do require
centralizers that fit the pipe interior.
Considering the many possible instrument configurations, several manifestations have been given. However,
every possible combination or condition for the downhole
instrument has not been covered.

APPENDIX B

SERIES 1412 SLIMHOLE INSTRUMENT

109

Maximum diameter

1.7 in. (43.2 mm)

Maximum temperature

400F (204C)

Maximum pressure

17,000 psi (120 MPa)


20,000 psi (138 MPa) with
special housing

Transmitter frequency

20 kHz

SERIES 1424 SEGMENTED BOND TOOL


Maximum diameter

3.38 in. (85.7 mm)


3.63 in. (92 mm) with gamma ray sub

Maximum temperature

350F (177C)

Maximum pressure

20,000 psi (138 MPa)

VDL Transmitter
frequency

20 kHz

110

SERIES 1423 BAL INSTRUMENT


Maximum diameter

2.75 in. (69.9 mm)

Maximum temperature

350F (177C)

Maximum pressure

20,000 psi (138 MPa)

Transmitter frequency

20 kHz

111

SERIES 1456 DUAL-RECEIVER BOND INSTRUMENT


Maximum diameter

3.375 in. (85.7 mm)

Maximum temperature

500F (260C)

Maximum pressure

20,000 psi (138 MPa)

Transmitter frequency

20 kHz

112

SERIES 1415 DUAL-RECEIVER


CBL INSTRUMENT

SERIES 1417 RECEIVER CBL


INSTRUMENT

Maximum diameter

3.38 in. (85.7 mm)

Maximum diameter

3.375 in. (85.7 mm)

Maximum temperature

350F (177C)

Maximum temperature

450F (232C)

Maximum pressure

20,000 psi (138 MPa)

Maximum pressure

25,000 psi (176 MPa)

Transmitter frequency

20 kHz

Transmitter frequency

20 kHz

113

CHARTS AND FIGURES DEPICTING


THE MECHANICAL CONFIGURATION OF THE
WELLBORE AND PROPER USE OF THE LOG HEADING
As emphasized in the text material, it is important to have
some information on the physical configuration of the
well prior to performing an analysis of a wireline cement
evaluation service.

APPENDIX C

Information Forms
A suggested form for recording such pertinent information as well name, location, depth and elevation references, borehole fluid, pipe strings, borehole deviation,
depth intervals where centralizers, scratchers, packers,
cement baskets, etc., is given in Fig. C2. A form to provide information on the cement job(s) is shown in Fig.
C3. Many user groups have similar forms. These forms
are suggested in lieu of the user having no set guidelines
to provide such information to the service contractor.

Well Sketch
A simple sketch of the borehole, including bit diameters,
sizes and lengths of tubular goods, and indications of
depths where external apparatus is placed on the different
pipe strings is extremely useful information (Fig. C1).

Fig. C1
Example of a well sketch and other pertinent information

115

Fig. C2
Example form for information critical to CBL interpretation

116

Fig. C3
Example form of cement data critical to CBL interpretation

117

In retrospect, it can be said that the overwhelming majority of cement evaluation services seldom have pertinent information recorded on the log heading, although
adequate space is provided for such information (Figs. C4
and C5). The user of wireline cement evaluation services
should provide this information to the logging engineer
and insist it be recorded on the log header.
Many bond logs are referred to after a well has been
producing for several years. The people initially involved
with the interpretation of that log are, at best, occasionally
available. At a later date, the information discussed previously is often prerequisite to an accurate analysis of the
log data.

Fig. C4
Cement data can be critical to log evaluation.

Fig. C5
Log heading information should be complete as possible.

118

OTHER WIRELINE SERVICES


FOR CEMENT EVALUATION

APPENDIX D

Wireline services other than acoustic are also used to determine the presence or absence of cement behind pipe.
Protection of freshwater aquifers, ensuring zone isolation
in or adjacent to hydrocarbon reservoirs, and identifying
channels in the cemented annular space did not begin with
the environmental protection agencies, nor with acoustic
cement bond log devices. Most operators policed themselves and recognized the dangers of polluting specific
horizons long ago.
Many of the methods utilized to detect cementing
problems in the past are still practiced today. Temperature
profiles, radioactive tracer surveys, and listening devices
are often employed to determine how borehole conditions
are related to the cement sheath.

tion to another within a given area. A sketch of a temperature profile (Fig. D1) shows a low gradient through materials with high-thermal conductivities and a steep gradient when materials with low-thermal conductivities are
encountered.
The slope of the geothermal gradient typically ranges
from about 0.6F to 2.0F per 100 foot of depth (Fig. D2)
and is representative of formation temperatures undisturbed by production or injection of fluids or gases. The
gradient should therefore be derived from a base temperature log, which was recorded prior to production from or
injection into the well.

TEMPERATURE LOGS
Temperature logs play a definite and important role in detecting communication and evaluating casing mechanical
condition. The log is a continuous recording of temperature vs. depth and is usually subject to numerous temperature anomalies over an appreciable depth interval. Differential temperature traces are often recorded as an
additional interpretative aid.
Geothermal Gradient
The geothermal gradient is caused by the continuous flow
of heat from the interior of the Earth. The magnitude is
dependent on the difference between surface temperature
and the heat source in the interior of the Earth, and the
thermal conductivities of the materials in between.
The in-between materials include the geological formations penetrated by a borehole and different types of
rock, fluid, and gas, which exhibit their own peculiar thermal conductivities. Cement and steel casing also exhibit
thermal conductivities. Table D1 lists thermal conductivities for a few materials commonly encountered in a cased
borehole. As is evident from the list, the gradients may
vary widely from one geographical area to another, and
may also vary considerably from one geological forma-

Fig. D1
Comparison of temperature gradient steepness and lithology

TABLE D1
Thermal Conductivity (10 3 calories/s/cm/ C)
Shale
Sandstone
Porous Limestone
Dense Limestone
Dolomite
Quartzite

2.85.6
3.57.7
47
68
913
13

Gypsum
Anhydrite
Salt
Sulphur
Steel
Cement

119

3.1
13
12.75
.6
110
.7

Water
Air
Gas
Oil

1.21.4
.06
.065
.35

cal heat flow will also tend to smear the heat anomalies
we are looking for in reference to cement. It is therefore
critical to run the log soon after cementing when the
slurry is still generating heat.
Channeling in the Cement Sheath
Temperature logs have been used for more than 25 years
to detect upward or downward fluid and gas movement
behind casing. However, it is important to understand that
temperature log interpretation cannot be based on a firm
set of rules. The condition of each well must be studied
individually. The principles of heat flow, fluid mechanics, and reservoir engineering can then be applied. In addition, specific procedures are recommended for running
the log, and these procedures should be tailored to resolve
the specific well conditions.
The complexity of detecting channels in numerous
specific sets of circumstances is beyond the scope of this
text. More detailed data associated with temperature
logs is recommended (Western Atlas Logging Services,
Publication No. 9441, Interpretation Methods for Production Well Logs, 3rd Edition). A simple example
(Fig. D5) is, however, given here to illustrate the effectiveness of comparing several temperature log passes.
The well was first shut-in for about 48 hours, allowing
it to return to a geothermal gradient. A cooling effect
was then accomplished by injecting 200 bbl of 50F water over a two-hour period. The water becomes a temperature tracer, and the subsequent shut-in temperature
logs recorded after injection clearly identify the channeled area behind pipe.

Fig. D2
Variation of geothermal gradient as a function of geographical
location

Cement Top Location


Generation of heat as a cement slurry hardens also causes
anomalies on a temperature log. Recognizing these, many
operators use temperature logs to determine where cement is present behind pipe, but it is also important to
record the log during the curing time; i.e., a few hours after completion of the cement job. Considering the fast
curing cements utilized in boreholes today, effective utilization of the log occurs about 8 to 15 hours after the cement plug is down.
Openhole caliper information is important to the interpretation of temperature logs used for cement location. If
both measurements are scaled with a numerical increase
to the right (Fig. D3), the temperature recorded during the
cement curing period will track, or parallel, the openhole
caliper trace over the cemented portions of the borehole.
An hour-glass or mirror-image effect will occur in
the free or poorly cemented pipe intervals.
Some typical situations with respect to cement conditions (Fig. D4) are (1) a clearly diagnosed cement top,
(2) separated cement columns, and (3) an ambiguous cement top. It is important to recognize (Table D1) that
timing is essential. Steel casing has a thermal conductivity of 110 compared to 1.2 for water, 0.7 for cement, and
3.0 to 13.0 for most encountered formations. Vertical
heat flow will tend to occur along the casing whenever
there is a vertical temperature difference, and this verti-

TRACERLOG
Radioactive tracer surveys are also used to determine the
mechanical integrity of a well and to locate communication problems behind pipe. The instrument is comprised
of an injector assembly, used to release a small volume of
short half-life radioactive material into a fluid or gas
stream, and two gamma ray detectors, which are located
at fixed and known intervals from one another and the
ejector port. A casing collar locator ensures depth control.
The tool is in motion during a Tracerlog application. The
same instrumentation can also be utilized for other cased
hole purposes.
The function of the Tracerlog is to locate radioactive
materials in the wellbore, in perforations, or behind pipe.
The radioactive material may be released by the instrument or purposely emplaced hydraulically during a cementing operation.
Radioactive Cement Top Location
When radioactive material is emplaced in the cement, it is
relatively simple to detect the hot zone with the gamma
ray detection system. Materials with a short half-life (a
120

Fig. D3
Importance of openhole caliper data to interpretation of temperature logs used for locating cement

Fig. D4
Using temperature logs to locate cement top

121

Fig. D6
Identification of radioactive cement top by Tracerlog
Fig. D5
Detecting channeling behind the pipe with temperature logs

in the annulus. A specific amount of radioactive material


is typically ejected at the bottom of the tubing and successive timed runs are recorded with the gamma ray. The
times of ejection and each logging run should be carefully
noted (Fig. D7). The material will first enter the perforations and be detected at that depth interval. If a channel is
present, increased radioactivity will begin to occur above
or below, or both above and below the perforations on
subsequent timed passes.

few hours to a few days) are commonly used. A water-wet


tracer is mixed with the first few barrels of cement and
pumped at the head of the slurry. After completing the cement job, the Tracerlog is run to locate the radioactive
zone, which should be the uppermost extent of the emplaced cement.
Elapsed time between the cement job and the recording of the log requires some decision-making on the type
of tracer material. Iridium 192 might be preferred because
of its longer half-life (74 days).
Typically, a base Tracerlog is run prior to cementing
and another Tracerlog pass is made at the time of completing the well (Fig. D6). It also helps to have an openhole gamma ray and caliper available for comparison. In
the example, the high radioactivity occurs between 2,950
and 3,045 ft. Two additional hot spots correspond to a
caliper increase from 3,060 to 3,070 ft and the openhole
gamma ray indicates increased shale content from 3,060
to 3,070 ft and from 3,105 to 3,130 ft.
A similar application can be applied with cement
squeeze jobs to determine if cement was effectively
placed over the intended interval.

SONAN LOGA NOISE DETECTION LOG


Downhole microphones are employed to listen for particular sound patterns that are associated with typical downhole communication problems; i.e., unwanted production
or channeling problems in the cement sheath behind pipe.
A description of the noise log instrumentation and interpretation procedures are beyond the scope of this document. However, Western Atlas Document No. 9441 discusses the subject in more detail. Noise recordings are
made with the instrument positioned stationary in the
borehole.
Noise logs are often recorded sequentially with Tracerlog and/or temperature services to establish the depth
intervals where channeled cement occurs. A well producing large unwanted amounts of salt water from perforations just below 9,800 ft was surveyed with noise and

Channel Detection with Tracerlog


A timed-run tracer method is used to detect the flow of
fluids up or down the wellbore, either within the casing or
122

Fig. D7
Timed-run Tracerlog indicates channeling below perforations.

temperature logs. Channeling in the cement was suspected. The crossplot (Fig. D8) of temperature and noise
data was obtained with the well producing. Geothermal
gradient is also plotted. The temperature log, under dynamic flow conditions, departs from the geothermal gradient at 10,050 ft, and as depth decreases above that point,
temperatures exceed geothermal. This indicates that water production commences at approximately 10,050 ft.
The plots of noise recordings also indicate a channel below the perforations. Levels of sound energy are low below 10,100 ft, but the sound level increases above 10,000
ft due to water being forced through varying restrictions
in the channeled cement. At 9,825 ft, noise plots peak
sharply, characteristic of a leak and, in this specific instance, occur at the perforations.
The temperature log interpretation is water production
from 10,050 ft upwards, but this information does not recognize if water movement occurs behind pipe or within
the casing. The noise data show flow to be behind pipe.
Noise recordings alone, however, cannot detect the depth
where water movement begins.
Obviously, an interpretation could have been made
with only one log available, but a more complete analysis
is made possible with a combination of data. The problem
of excessive water production was solved with a cement
squeeze below the perforations.

Fig. D8
Temperature and noise data for a producing well

123

CASING SIZES, WEIGHTS, AND THICKNESS

APPENDIX E

TABLE E-1*
Casing OD
in.
4.0

4.5

mm
101.6

114.3

Casing Wt.
lbm/ ft kg/ m
11.6

17.3

Casing ID

Thickness

Casing OD

in.

in.

in.

3.428

mm

87.1 0.286

103.9
102.9
101.6
100.5
99.6
97.2
95.4
93.9
92.4
88.9
85.9
82.3

mm

9.5
10.5
11.6
12.6
13.5
15.1
16.8
17.7
18.8
21.6
24.6
26.5

14.1
15.6
17.3
18.8
20.1
22.5
23.8
26.3
28.0
32.1
36.6
39.4

4.090
4.052
4.000
3.958
3.920
3.826
3.754
3.696
3.640
3.500
3.380
3.240

0.205
0.224
0.250
0.271
0.290
0.337
0.373
0.402
0.430
0.500
0.560
0.630

5.21
5.69
6.35
6.88
7.37
8.56
9.47
10.20
10.92
12.70
14.22
16.00

8.48

120.6

16.0

23.8

4.082 103.7 0.334

5.0

127.0

11.5
13.0
15.0
17.7
18.0
20.3
20.8
21.0
23.2
24.2

17.1
19.3
22.3
26.3
26.8
30.2
31.0
31.3
34.5
36.0

4.560
4.494
4.408
4.300
4.276
4.184
4.156
4.154
4.044
4.000

115.8
114.2
112.0
109.2
108.6
106.3
105.6
105.5
102.7
101.6

0.220
0.253
0.296
0.350
0.362
0.408
0.422
0.423
0.478
0.500

5.59
6.43
7.52
8.89
9.19
10.36
10.72
10.74
12.14
12.70

13.0
14.0
15.0
15.5
17.0
20.0
23.0
26.0
28.4
32.3
36.4

19.3
20.8
22.3
23.1
25.3
29.8
34.2
38.7
42.3
48.1
54.2

5.044
5.012
4.974
4.950
4.892
4.778
4.670
4.548
4.440
4.276
4.090

128.1
127.3
126.3
125.7
124.3
121.4
118.6
115.5
112.8
108.6
103.9

0.228
0.244
0.263
0.275
0.304
0.361
0.415
0.476
0.530
0.612
0.705

5.79
6.20
6.68
6.99
7.72
9.17
10.50
12.01
13.46
15.54
17.91

15.0
16.0
18.0
20.0
23.0
26.0

22.3
23.8
26.8
29.8
34.2
38.7

5.524
5.500
5.424
5.352
5.240
5.132

140.3
139.7
137.8
135.2
133.1
130.4

0.238
6.05
0.250
6.35
0.288
7.32
0.324
8.23
0.380
9.65
0.434 11.02

6.0

139.7

152.4

lbm/ ft kg/ m

Casing ID

Thickness

in.

mm

in.

mm

7.26

4.75

5.5

mm

Casing Wt.

125

6.625 168.3

17.0
20.0
22.0
24.0
26.0
28.0
29.0
32.0

25.3
29.8
32.7
35.7
38.7
41.7
43.2
47.6

6.135
6.049
5.989
5.921
5.855
5.791
5.761
5.675

155.8
153.6
152.1
150.4
148.7
147.1
146.3
144.2

0.245
6.22
0.288
7.32
0.318
8.08
0.352
8.94
0.385
9.78
0.417 10.59
0.432 11.00
0.475 12.06

7.0

177.8

17.0
20.0
22.0
23.0
24.0
26.0
28.0
29.0
30.0
32.0
35.0
38.0
40.0
41.0
44.0
49.5

25.3
29.8
32.7
34.2
35.7
38.7
41.7
43.2
44.6
47.6
52.1
56.6
59.5
61.0
65.5
73.7

6.538
6.456
6.398
6.366
6.336
6.276
6.214
6.184
6.154
6.094
6.004
5.920
5.836
5.820
5.720
5.540

166.1
164.0
162.5
161.7
160.9
159.4
157.8
157.1
156.3
154.8
152.5
150.4
148.2
147.8
145.3
140.7

0.231
0.272
0.301
0.317
0.332
0.362
0.393
0.408
0.423
0.453
0.498
0.540
0.582
0.590
0.640
0.730

7.625 193.7

20.0
24.0
26.4
29.7
33.7
39.0
45.3

29.8
35.7
39.3
44.2
50.2
58.0
65.5

7.125
7.025
6.969
6.875
6.765
6.625
6.435

181.0
178.4
177.0
174.6
171.8
168.3
163.5

0.250
6.35
0.300
7.62
0.328
8.33
0.375
9.53
0.430 10.92
0.500 12.70
0.595 15.11

7.75

196.8

46.1

68.6

6.560

8.625 219.1

24.0
28.0
32.0
36.0
38.0
40.0
43.0
44.0
49.0
52.0

35.7
41.7
47.6
53.6
56.6
59.5
64.0
65.5
72.9
77.4

8.097
8.017
7.921
7.825
7.775
7.725
7.651
7.625
7.511
7.435

8.75

49.7

74.0

7.636 194.0 0.557 14.15

222.3

5.87
6.91
7.65
8.05
8.43
9.19
9.98
10.36
10.74
11.51
12.65
13.72
14.78
14.98
16.25
18.54

66.6 0.595 15.11

205.7
203.6
201.2
198.8
197.5
196.2
194.3
193.7
190.8
188.9

0.264
0.304
0.352
0.400
0.425
0.450
0.487
0.500
0.557
0.595

6.71
7.72
8.94
10.16
10.80
11.43
12.37
12.70
14.15
15.11

TABLE E-1 (Contd.)


Casing OD
in.
9.0

mm

Casing Wt.
lbm/ ft kg/ m

Casing ID

Thickness

Casing OD

in.

mm

in.

mm

in.

mm

13.0

330.2

40.0
45.0
50.0
54.0

13.375 339.7

13.5

228.6

34.0
38.0
40.0
45.0
55.0

50.6
56.6
59.5
67.0
81.9

8.290
8.196
8.150
8.032
7.812

210.6
208.2
207.0
214.0
198.4

0.355
0.402
0.425
0.484
0.594

9.02
10.21
10.80
12.29
15.09

9.625 244.5

29.3
32.3
36.0
40.0
43.5
47.0
53.5
58.4
61.1
71.8

43.6
48.1
53.6
59.5
64.7
69.9
79.6
86.9
90.9
106.9

9.063
9.001
8.921
8.835
8.755
8.681
8.535
8.435
8.375
8.125

230.2
228.6
226.6
224.4
222.4
220.5
216.8
214.2
212.7
206.4

0.281
0.312
0.352
0.395
0.435
0.472
0.545
0.595
0.625
0.750

7.14
7.92
8.94
10.03
11.05
11.99
13.84
15.11
15.87
19.05

9.75

247.7

59.2

88.1

8.560 217.4 0.595 15.11

9.875 250.8

62.8

93.5

8.625 219.1 0.625 15.88

10.0

33.0

49.1

9.384 238.4 0.308

254.0

10.75 273.0

7.82

32.75
40.0
40.5
45.0
45.5
48.0
51.0
54.0
55.5
60.7
65.7
71.1
76.0
81.0

48.7 10.192 258.9 0.279


7.09
59.5 10.054 255.4 0.348
8.84
60.3 10.050 255.3 0.350
8.89
67.0
9.960 253.0 0.395 10.03
67.7
9.950 252.7 0.400 10.16
71.4
9.902 251.5 0.395 10.03
75.9
9.850 250.2 0.450 11.43
80.4
9.784 248.5 0.483 12.27
82.6
9.760 247.9 0.495 12.57
90.3
9.660 245.4 0.545 13.84
97.8
9.560 242.8 0.595 15.11
105.8
9.450 240.0 0.650 16.51
113.1
9.350 237.5 0.700 17.78
120.5
9.250 234.9 0.750 19.05

38.0
42.0
47.0
54.0
60.0
65.0
71.0

56.6
62.5
69.9
80.4
89.3
96.7
105.7

11.875 301.6

71.8

106.9 10.711 272.1 0.582 14.78

12.0

40.0

11.75 298.5

304.8

11.150
11.084
11.000
10.880
10.772
10.682
10.586

283.2
281.5
279.4
276.4
273.6
271.3
268.9

0.300
0.333
0.375
0.435
0.489
0.534
0.582

59.5 11.384 289.2 0.308

7.62
8.46
9.53
11.05
12.42
13.56
14.78

7.82

Casing Wt.

Casing ID

Thickness

in.

mm

in.

mm

59.5
67.0
74.4
80.4

12.438
12.360
12.282
12.220

315.9
313.9
312.0
310.4

0.281
0.320
0.359
0.390

7.14
8.13
9.12
9.91

48.0
54.5
61.0
68.0
72.0
77.0
80.7
83.0
85.0
86.0
88.0
92.0
98.0

71.4
81.1
90.8
101.2
107.2
114.6
120.1
123.5
126.5
128.0
131.0
136.9
145.8

12.715
12.615
12.515
12.415
12.347
12.275
12.215
12.175
12.159
12.125
12.075
12.031
11.937

323.0
320.4
317.9
315.3
313.6
311.8
310.3
309.2
308.8
308.0
306.7
305.6
303.2

0.330
0.380
0.430
0.480
0.514
0.550
0.580
0.600
0.608
0.625
0.650
0.672
0.719

8.38
9.65
10.92
12.19
13.06
13.97
14.73
15.24
15.44
15.87
16.51
17.07
18.26

342.9

81.4

121.1 12.340 313.4 0.580 14.73

13.625 346.1

88.2

131.3 12.375 314.3 0.625 15.88

14.0

355.6

50.0

16.0

406.4

55.0
65.0
75.0
84.0
109.0

18.625 473.1

78.0
87.5
96.5

lbm/ ft kg/ m

74.4 13.344 338.9 0.328

81.9
96.7
111.6
125.0
162.2

15.375
15.250
15.125
15.010
14.688

390.5
387.4
384.2
381.3
373.1

0.313
7.95
0.375
9.53
0.438 11.13
0.495 12.57
0.656 16.67

116.1 17.855 453.5 0.385


9.78
130.2 17.755 451.0 0.435 11.05
143.6 17.655 448.4 0.485 12.32

20.0

508.0

90.0
94.0
106.5
133.0

133.9
139.9
158.5
197.9

19.190
19.124
19.000
18.730

487.4
485.7
482.6
475.7

21.5

546.1

92.5
103.0
114.0

137.7 20.710 526.0 0.395 10.03


153.3 20.610 523.5 0.445 11.30
169.7 20.510 521.0 0.495 12.57

24.5

622.3 100.5
113.0

149.6 23.750 603.3 0.375


9.53
168.2 23.650 600.7 0.425 10.80

* Valid ONLY for Series 1456 Instruments

126

8.33

0.405
0.438
0.495
0.635

10.29
11.13
12.57
16.13

SUGGESTED SOLUTIONS TO PRACTICAL WORK SESSION PROBLEMS

The solutions contained in this section should be studied


with the understanding that a number of exercises lack
sufficient information to properly explain, with a great
degree of certainty, the causes of some specific log responses. This lack of pertinent information; i.e., borehole,
lithology, porosity, mechanical apparatus on the casing,
cementing information, etc., forces the analyst to make
some assumptions, which may occasionally be incorrect.

127

PROBLEM 1
(1) 4,240 to 4,248 ft: Isolated both above and below the
zone, and isolated from the zone
below (4,252 to 4,268 ft).

Stretch occurs in the following locations: 4,194 to


4,216 ft, 4,218 to 4,222 ft, 4,274 to 4,276 ft, 4,308 to
4,328 ft; and possibly below.
Throughout most of the interval, shear arrivals occur,
but stand out particularly well at 4,175 to 4,210 ft; 4,240
to 4,254 ft; and from 4,320 to 4,330 ft.
The transmitter-receiver spans for travel time 2.5 ft;
Compensated Amplitude 2.5 and 3.5 ft; and Variable
Density Log 5 ft.

(2) 4,252 to 4,268 ft: Cement is adequate to isolate this


zone from the zone (4,278 to 4,311
ft) below. Less than 5 ft of adequate bond rating is required for
this size pipe.

128

PROBLEM 2
The cement top occurs at 1,510 ft. In this example, the
Amplitude depth would not be chosen differently from
the Signature, although some analysts might choose the
cement top as being as much as 1 ft different from the example given.

129

PROBLEM 3
The cement job over this interval would be considered excellent. There are no intervals where cement quality is
lesser in quality than in other depth intervals. The intervals 6,852 to 6,855 ft and 6,942 to 6,948 ft are dominated
by early formation arrivals.

The compressional arrivals are indicated with arrows


on the VDL. The more pronounced shear arrivals appear
on the VDL at 6,850 to 6,854 ft, 6,905 to 6,908 ft, and
6,942 to 6,949 ft. The shear waves are also indicated on
the log.

130

PROBLEM 4
The cement condition is free or unsupported pipe in the
interval shown. Strong pipe ring appears on both the VDL
and Amplitude; Travel time tracks the Predicted Pipe
Time (PPT); casing collars are very obvious on TT, CBL
Amplitude, and VDL; formation signal is essentially absent from the VDL; and there is no cement to allow for

acoustic coupling to the formation. Knowledge of the cement type is very important. In Dubai, U.A.E., several
wells were cemented with very low compressive strength
cements (50 to 300 psi) and resulted in similar CBL,
VDL, and SRT responses.

131

PROBLEM 5
4,308 to 4,314 ft 4,000 psi (Using 1 for CBL Amp.)

Cement quality is good to excellent. Moderate to weak


pipe signals occur from 4,354 to 4,358 ft, 4,374 to 4,417
ft; and 4,458 to 4,462 ft, but formation coupling is also
strong in those intervals.
Yes, compressional waves occur throughout the interval given, with the exception of 4,324 to 4,332 ft and
4,442 to 4,448 ft. Yes, shear waves occur from 4,382
to 4,392 ft. Yes, fluid waves occur from 4,300 to 4,336 ft,
4,395 to 4,454 ft, and 4,467 to 4,470 ft. The different
wave types are identified on the example log.
Using the chart (Fig. 1-59), the compressive strength
of the specified intervals is as follows:

4,348 to 4,352 ft 1,800 psi (Using 5 for CBL Amp.)


4,395 to 4,398 ft 900 psi (Using 10 for CBL Amp.)
4,458 to 4,462 ft 850 psi (Using 12 for CBL Amp.)
Answers reasonably close to these values are acceptable. Some accuracy is lost in using a nomogram.

132

PROBLEM 6
Free or weakly supported pipe is present from 3,450 to
3,570 ft. A partial cement top is located at about
3,570 ft. The pipe is poorly cemented from 3,570
to 3,820 ft. Cement is good to excellent below 3,820 ft,
with the exception of a possible channel from 3,880 to
3,890 ft. This log was recorded with 0 psi at the wellhead. If the apparent channel is located in an interval

where it could present a problem, the log should have


been run with some surface pressure applied to the casing to determine if it was a microannulus effect, and if
not, the questionable interval should be squeezed. Excellent zone isolation occurs above and below the suspected channel. The top of the well-cemented interval
is 3,820 ft.

133

PROBLEM 7
In the interval from 3,330 to 3,450 ft, a generally good cement job exists. Fast formation arrivals occur over most
of the interval. The interval (3,520 to 3,470 ft) demonstrates a transition in formation transit time on both the
VDL and gamma ray. Formation arrivals are driving the

3.5-ft amplitudes and not yet affecting the 2.5-ft amplitudes, thus giving a reversal on attenuation from 3,470
to 3,482 ft.
Shear arrivals occur in the following intervals: 3,360
to 3,415 ft, 3,440 to 3,480 ft, and 3,506 to 3,524 ft.

134

PROBLEM 8
From the given BAL data, the type of cement job between 8,408 ft and 8,550 ft is probably good to excellent.
The Travel-time curve indicates that early formation
arrivals, cycle skips, and stretch all occur throughout the
interval from 8,408 to 8,550 ft. Strong pipe readings, typical of poorly cemented pipe, are never apparent.
The VDL shows that strong formation coupling occurs
throughout the interval.
At 7,550 ft is the top of a liner. The sudden shift in
travel time at that depth is not a cycle skip, but a shift due
to the longer arrival time in larger casing. Cement from
7,550 to 7,570 ft in the overlap of the two pipe strings is
probably adequate to prevent communication between the
concentric strings.

The amplitude and attenuation traces show alternate indications of good bond and poor bond. Bear in mind, the
numerous pitfalls that affect amplitude type responses.
Fluid waves occur in the following intervals: 7,425 to
7,445 ft, 8,392 to 8,406 ft, and 8,490 to 8,550 ft; shear
waves occur in the following intervals: 7,435 to 7,450 ft,
7,470 to 7,485 ft, 8,422 to 8,435 ft, and 8,530 to 8,546 ft.
Stoneley waves occur in each of the two log intervals.
Well-cemented intervals in high-velocity (low t) formations often exhibit a high-amplitude value because the
pipe ring and formation signal occur at or nearly the same
time. Travel time will usually occur before but occasionally at the same time as pipe signal. Strong formation coupling (good cement conditions) will exhibit a strong formation signal on the VDL.

135

PROBLEM 9
Several depths for the location of the cement top could be
selected by different individuals; e.g., 4,470 ft, 4,512 ft,
4,522 ft, or 4,545 ft. Cement quality improves progressively going downward in the well. Excellent cement conditions exist below 4,545 ft, while cement in the intervals
above that depth becomes progressively worse.
In the zone from 4,694 to 4,750 ft, the VDL indicates
good bond to the formation. Yes, the Amplitude indicates
good bond to the casing. CBL Amplitude is approximately 2 to 3.

Since no information on pipe size and weight was


given, you should have had great difficulty in determining compressive strength of the cement. It is difficult to
approximate it from the Travel-time trace since it appears
only at the location of casing collars.
Shear arrivals are poorly defined, but possibly occur at
4,660 ft, 4,670 to 4,675 ft, 4,696 to 4,706 ft, and 4,710 to
4,734 ft.

136

PROBLEM 10
The cement job is adequate over the depth interval shown.
There are no pipe arrivals on the VDL and very little pipe
ring on the Peak Amplitude. The Travel-time trace indicates some instrument eccentering occurs, but Predicted
Pipe Time is 255 sec, and for the most part, pipe arrivals
occur at about 255 sec. Pipe time on the Variable Density should be about 370 sec, but no signals occur that

early; therefore, it is an indication of good bond to the formation.


Portions of each pipe joint indicate adequate depth intervals to provide zone isolation.

137

PROBLEM 11
The cement job is good throughout the interval shown.
High amplitudes coincide with early formation arrivals
on the Travel-time trace and are likely the result of strong
formation amplitude signal, not casing response. Shear
arrivals are also more apparent on the VDL at those intervals where peak amplitude increases.

138

PROBLEM 12
The cement job is good to excellent (between 4,550 and
4,730 ft). The CBL Amplitude is less than 10 throughout
the interval shown. Formation signals on the VDL are
mostly weak, but stronger formation signals occur at the
4,680 to 4,705 ft depth.
Fluid arrivals appear throughout the interval shown.
Shear arrivals occur from 4,580 to 4,600 ft and 4,676 to
4,715 ft.

139

PROBLEM 13
Following two squeeze jobs, the CBL was recorded after
allowing more than 3 days setup time. Apparently, there
is a good bond to pipe from 6,656 to 6,770 ft. Bond is poor
below 6,770 ft, and from 6,644 to 6,656 ft. Bond to formation may be weak, but the lack of VDL formation arrivals could be due to high-porosity, gas-bearing formations. Openhole log data could enhance the CBL analysis.

140

PROBLEM 14
Strong casing signal and poorer quality cement occur in
the intervals from 627 m to 630 m, 652 to 656 m, and
664 m and below. The other depth intervals exhibit low
amplitude and cycle skipping on the Travel-time recording, but the Variable Density displays essentially no
signal.
Over most of the interval, good bond to pipe and poor
bond to formation exists.

141

PROBLEM 15
Cement quality is good from 775 m down to 800 m; poor
quality cement exists, probably channeled, from 800 to
811 m. Below 811 m, the casing is essentially unsupported with cement.
Shear waves occur at the following depth intervals:
775 to 790 m, 793 to 798 m, and 800 to 805 m.
Fluid waves occur in the 775 to 807-m depth intervals.
Free or unsupported pipe signal is 230 sec as indicated on the Travel-time trace. The pipe ID was determined to be 6.2 in. (157.5 mm).
The 6.2-in. ID is reasonably close to the thicknesses
found with 7-in. (177.8 mm) casing (Table 1-4). Two

weights, 28 lbm/ft (41.7 kg/m) and 29 lbm/ft (43.2 kg/m)


fit the criteria. Therefore, to use the nomogram (Fig. 157), you must assume 0.4-in. (10 mm) thickness for 7-in.
(177.8 mm) casing to use the peak amplitude response.
The BAL has calculated a compensated attenuation measurement 9 dB/ft (25.9 db/m). Compressive strength of
the cement should be approximately 2,000 psi (14 MPa)
in the interval.
If lightweight foam cement was used, its compressive
strength would be much greater than 1,000 psi (7 MPa).

142

PROBLEM 16
No information is given as to whether the log was run under pressure; therefore, it must be concluded it was not.
From 1,540 to 1,556 ft, pipe signals occur on the CBL
Amplitude and Variable Density. Travel time is apparently reading pipe signal. Bond is probably inadequate.
Similar reasoning can be applied to the intervals from
1,576 to 1,580 ft, 1,592 to 1,612 ft, 1,644 to 1,648 ft, and
1,678 to 1,712 ft. Formation compressional waves, although difficult to distinguish, appear at about 500 sec.

The interval between 1,554 and 1,678 ft where travel time


cycle skips (scale increases from left to right), amplitude
is reduced, and only the Stoneley waves on the VDL are
probably high-porosity, gas-bearing intervals. More information, including openhole log data, would be helpful.
The travel-time curve could have been presented and
scaled more effectively (from 300 sec on the left of
Track 1 to 200 sec on the right of Track 1).

143

PROBLEM 17
Cement is probably excellent from 1424 to 1438 m, 1442
to 1446 m, and 1449 to 1460 m. Although pipe signal occurs at the other depth intervals, formation signals also
occur, and with relatively low CBL Amplitude responses,
those intervals are also probably cemented adequately.

The problem with the SRT (Travel-time) scale is that


it is too insensitive.
The SRT (Travel time) recording could be improved
by using a 200 to 300-sec scale, which is more suitable
for travel-time measurements.

144

PROBLEM 18
Below the concentric pipe strings, cement is poor to excellent. Using the appropriate chart (Fig. 1-59), the compressive strengths (conventional cement) for the following intervals are:
14,196 - 14,204 ft

2,600 psi (Using Amplitude 8)

14,209 - 14,211 ft

100 psi (Using Amplitude 52)

14,212 - 14,214 ft

600 psi (Using Amplitude 33)

14,216 - 14,220 ft

800 psi (Using Amplitude 21)

14,230 - 14,250 ft

5,000 psi (Using Amplitude 4)

Your answers will vary somewhat if you used a different number for CBL Amplitude. The compressive
strength numbers given are approximate values.
The cement condition within the concentric pipe
strings from 14,080 to 14,150 ft is probably marginal.
Both strong pipe signal and weak-to-moderate formation
signal appear, and travel time occasionally cycle skips,
but CBL Amplitude is consistently between 20 and 40.
The 7-in. casing may be eccentered inside the 9-5/8-in.
casing, which would create a relatively high minimum
amplitude. The cement is possibly better than indicated
by the CBL Amplitude. More information on the wells
mechanical makeup would enhance the log analysis.

145

PROBLEM 19
The overall impression of the cement condition from the
logging pass with no pressure is that it is a poor cement
job with the exception of the intervals from 9,228 to 9,244
ft, 9,260 to 9,282 ft, 9,310 to 9,332 ft, 9,352 to 9,372 ft,
and 9,392 to 9,400 ft.

The second logging pass, recorded with 2,000 psi at


the wellhead, confirms a microannulus condition.
Using the appropriate chart (Fig. 1-58), the cement
compressive strengths for both logging passes over the intervals are:

146

9,2109,220 ft
9,3159,320 ft
9,3209,324 ft
9,3809,390 ft

Run 1
with 0 psi

Run 2
with 2,000 psi

(2 mV) 1,600 psi


(2 mV) 1,600 psi
(8 mV) 300 psi
(4 mV) 750 psi

(2 mV) 1,600 psi


(2 mV) 1,600 psi
(2.5 mV) 1,400 psi
(2 mV) 1,600 psi

The pressure could break down the cement since the


well was cemented at 2,000 psi. The recommended procedures for identifying microannulus use a more practical
method. The 1,000-psi rule of thumb method would be
preferred to the one used.

147

PROBLEM 20
Based on the information given and the log data presented, the cement job over the given depth interval is
probably an excellent cement job. The type of additional
cement, instrument, and casing information provided is
often essential to making a bond log interpretation with
confidence.

148

149

PROBLEM 21
The known conditions for this test well are illustrated in
the depth track of both the Primary and Secondary SBT
presentations. All fabricated channels are detected on the
two log displays. The easy-to-read segmented array pre-

sentation shows the two channels from 380 to 400 ft and


from 514 to 534 ft to be weaker (a gray tone), while the
Primary presentation demonstrates less separation
(shaded area) between the Minimum Attenuation and Av-

150

erage Attenuation. The other channels from 448 to 452 ft,


577 to 597 ft, and 641 to 661 ft are easily identified on
both presentations. The SBT also identifies some channeling between 458 and 484 ft, an interval that was meant

to be cemented. The remainder of the displayed depth interval is well cemented. The clear advantages of this second-generation radial cement evaluation device are
apparent.

151

PROBLEM 22
The three fabricated channels are located from 707 to
727 ft, 772 to 792 ft, and 837 to 857 ft. All three channels are readily identifiable on both the Segmented Array presentation and the Primary SBT presentation. The

remainder of the interval is well cemented. Again, the


advantages of cement evaluation with this device are
apparent.

152

153

PROBLEM 23
The cement job across the interval shown is excellent, except from 1684 to 1688 m where bond to pipe is good but
there is no bond to formation.

Shear waves occur in the interval from 1688 to 1697


m, fluid waves appear in the interval from 1670 to
1698 m, and Stoneley waves appear in the interval from
1670 to 1705 m.

154

INDEX

Accelerators, 106
Accelerometers, 55
Acoustic, 14
impedance, 4
log, 20
measuring system, 13
signal processing, 4
ADA Test Wells (EPA), 5758
Additional Log Measurements, 22, 25
casing collar locator, 22
gamma ray, 25
neutron, 25
Additives, Cement, 105107
accelerators, 106
dispersants, 106
extenders, 106
fluid loss agents, 107
high-temperature additives, 107
lost circulation agents, 107
retarders, 106
special additives, 107
Amoco Test Well, 5759
Amplitude, 711
area measurement, 89
peak amplitude, 7
Array Presentation (SBT), 5455, 60
API Cement Bond Log Advisory Board, 3
API Cement Classification, 105106
Attenuation, 7, 11, 2834, 46, 5357

Cement Additives, 106107


Cement, API Classifications, 105106
Cement Basket, 5051
Cement, Compressive Strength, 28, 106107
Cement, Light-Weight, 106107
Cement Map (VAL), 5371
Cement Sheath Thickness, 2, 24, 45
Cement Slurry, 103104
Cement Top Identification, 49, 120
Cementing, 103108
Centralization, 1214, 4546, 5051, 55
casing, 5051, 103
instrument, 1214, 4546, 55
Channeling, 4142, 5759, 62, 64, 67
Charts, Cement Evaluation, 2931
Collar, Float, 103
Collars, Casing, 22
Compressional Waves, 1, 4, 5
Compressive Strength, Cement, 2832
nomograms, 2931
table, 32
Concentric Pipe Strings, 25
Curing Time, Cement, 2527, 105107
Cycle-Skipping, 16
Density, Materials, 39
Depth Control, 2223, 25
Detection, Amplitude, 711
Detection, Casing Collars, 2223
Detection, Travel Time, 67
Dispersants, Cement, 106
Displacement, Cement, 5051, 103104

Basket, Cement, 5051


Bias Setting, 1112
Bibliography, 7273
Bond Conditions, Cement, 3750
Bond Attenuation Log (BAL), 3, 11, 28, 29
Bond, Hydraulic, 103
Bond Index (BI), 28, 3233
Bond Rating (BR), 3334
Bond, Shear, 103
Borehole Fluid, 12, 3940, 47, 50, 53
types of, 12
changes in, 50
Bottom Plug, 103

Early Arrivals, 1618


amplitude, 1617
travel time, 1618
Eccentering Effects, 1215, 4546, 5051, 55
casing, 13, 15, 5051
instrument, 1215, 4546, 55
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 57
EPA Test Well, 5758
Evaporites, 25
Expansion, Pipe, 4244
Extenders, Cement, 106107
External Mechanical Apparatus, 5051
Extremely Thick Casing, 46, 6465

Calibration, 3436
previous method, 35
well site, 35
shop, 3435
Caliper, Openhole, 2526
Casing Collars, 2223, 25
Casing Collar Log (CCL), 22
Casing Dimensions, 10, 2728, 46, 6465, 125126
Casing Thickness, 10, 28, 46, 6465, 125126
CBL Area Amplitude Measurement, 89

Factors Affecting Downhole Cementing, 103107


Fast Formation Arrivals, 1618, 3739
Fitzgerald, Bond Index Determined Empirically, 3233
Fixed Gate Amplitude Detection, 610
Float Collar, 103
Floating Gate, 10
Fluids, 12, 19, 50, 67
155

Fluid Loss Agents, 107


Fluid Waves, 46
Foam Cement, 4244, 105106
Formation Bond, 1719, 53
Forms, Information, 115118
casing sizes and weights, 116
cement job, 117
dates and times, 115118
mechanical apparatus, 115118
Free Pipe, 22, 3940, 59
Frequency, 12, 2728, 48, 53
Full Waveform, 5, 1719, 53

Mud Waves, 46, 19


Natural Gamma Ray, 25
Neutron, 25
Noise Log (see Sonan), 122123
Openhole Acoustilog, 20
Openhole Calipers, 2526
Openhole Logs, 20, 2526
Packer, 5051
Partial Bond, 4142
Peak Amplitude, 7
Peripheral Cement Evaluation, 5371
Piezoelectric Transducers, 1
Pilkingtons Microannuli Descriptions, 4344
Pipe Amplitude Gate, 9
Pitfalls, Amplitude Responses, 10
Portland Cement, 105106
Pozzolans, 106
Practical Work Session Problems, 75102
Practical Work Session Solutions, 127154
Pressure, 4244
Produced Microannulus, 43
Preflush, 102
Presentations, 23, 54, 56
Bond Attenuation Log (BAL), 3
Segmented Bond Tool (SBT), 54, 5662
Pseudo-Rayleigh Waves, 4, 6
Pulse-Echo System, 53

Gamma Ray, 25
Gas, 3940, 47, 53
Gas Effects, 3940, 47, 53
borehole, 47, 53
high porosity formation, 3940, 53
Gating Systems, 611
amplitude detection, 69
travel time detection, 1117
Geothermal Gradient, 119120
Glass Bead Cement, 106
Good Bond to Pipe and Formation, 3738, 66
Good Bond to Pipe Only, 39
Gradational Cement Top, 63
Guide Shoe, 103
Half-Wave Acoustic Waveform, 18
High Temperature, 106107
cements, 105107
cement additives, 106107
Horizontal Well, 6870
Hydraulic Integrity, 103104

Qualifying Cement Integrity, 7, 20


Quantifying Cement Integrity, 2526, 28, 3234
Radial Cement Evaluation, 5371
Radioactive Cement Top Location, 120, 122
Receivers, 1, 5355
Refraction, 12
Reflection, 12
Remedial Cementing, 42, 104
Resin-Coated Casing, 4749
Retarders, 106

Impedance, Acoustic, 4
Induced Microannulus, 4344
Information Forms, 115118
cement, 117118
well mechanics, 116, 118
Instrumentation, 109113
Large Casings, 46, 6465
Light-Weight Cements, 42, 44, 105106
Lignosulfonate, 106
Liners, 2324
Lithology Effects, 12, 2526
Lost Circulation Control, 107
Low-Velocity Formation, 3940

Schematics, Tools, 109113


Scratchers, 5051, 104
Segmented Bond Tool (SBT), 5370
acoustic pad array, 54, 57
advantages, 58
attenuation, 5356
field examples, 5770
laboratory and field tests, 55, 5759
presentations, 5455, 60
subcycles, 53, 54
specifications, 55
test well results, 5759
transducer configuration, 54, 57
Set-Up Time, Cement, 2527, 104107
Shear Bond, 103

Magnetostrictive Transducers, 1
Mechanical Apparatus, 5051
Microannulus, 4244, 107108
causes, 42
procedures to minimize effect, 107108
types of, 4244
Mud Systems, 24, 53, 67
156

Shear Waves, 12, 45, 20


Signature, Acoustic, 5, 1719, 53
Single-Receiver Travel Time (SRT), 1119
Sleeve, Slotted, 2
Small-Diameter Casings, 47, 49
Small-Diameter Casing, Large Borehole, 47, 49
Snells Law, 13
Sonan (Noise) Log, 122123
Spacings, Transducers, 23, 1112
Special Additives, Cement, 42, 106107
Squeeze Cementing, 42, 104
channels, 42
damage to cement, 42
microannulus, 42
Steered Transducers, 5354
Stoneley Waves, 4, 6
Stretch, 1617

presentation of, 2021, 5356


side-by-side with Signature presentation, 2021
Velocity, 12, 104
acoustic, 12
cement flow profiles, 104
Varification, 3436
tool operation, 3436
Wave Theory, 46
Waveform Interpretation, 1719, 53
Weighting Agents, Cement, 107
Well Sketch, 115
Z-Axis Modulation, 4, 1819

Temperature, 2527, 103107


additives to cement, 106107
effects on cement, 2527, 103107
Temperature Logs, 119120
Thermal, 4243
expansion/contraction, casing, 4243
microannulus, 43
Thickness, 10, 24, 4546
casing, 10, 24, 26
cement sheath, 2, 45
Threshold Detection, 67
Thin Cement Sheath, 2, 45
Tool Schematics, 109113
Top Plug, 103
Tracerlog, 120123
Transducers, 12, 5354
piezoelectric, 12
magnetostrictive, 1
steered, 5354
Transmitters, 1, 5355
frequency, 1, 5355
Travel Time, 1119
cycle-skipping, 1516
fast formation, 1618, 3739
free pipe signal, 22, 3940, 59
confirm tool centering, 1214
stretch, 1617
unsupported pipe, 22, 3940, 59
Tube Waves, 4, 6
Turbulators, 5051
Unsupported Pipe, 22, 3940, 59
Variable Attenuation Log (VAL), 5456
description, 5456
presentation, 5456
Variable Density Log (VDL), 5, 1719, 53
combined with Signature presentation, 2021
measurement, 2021
157