3 vistas

Cargado por Bojian Cao

approximation theory of fuzzy systems

- AnIntroductiontoFLC.pdf
- 0353-36700502319M
- Autonomous Car Fuzzy Control Modeled by Iterative Genetic Algorithms
- Issn 1392 - 1207. Mechanika. 2009. Nr.1(75)
- th4bb
- a2faaaaa20cd41cdc0b3444f3b1bf343f13a.pdf
- 15.pdf
- smart traffic final
- Logix-um004 -Fuzzy Designer (1)
- 593-2657065
- Modern Irrigation Systems Towards Fuzzy
- mo dung ga 3
- AN OPTIMAL FUZZY LOGIC SYSTEM FOR A NONLINEAR DYNAMIC SYSTEM USING A FUZZY BASIS FUNCTION
- b 1498053213
- Synopsis of the Proposed Research Work Submitted to Magadh University
- jFuzzyLogic.pdf
- An Adaptive Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Logic Framework for Classification of Gait Patterns of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstructed Subjects
- Gac Wedge Eaai
- Neutrosophic Q-Fuzzy Subgroups
- MagLev

Está en la página 1de 6

Correspondence

Approximation Capability of Fuzzy Systems

Using Translations and Dilations of One

Fixed Function as Membership Functions

1) in a single input and single output fuzzy system, the membership functions are in the form of

1

theory of fuzzy systems. First, some basic principles were presented to

construct membership functions. Then, an approach was proposed to

form membership functions by using translations and dilations of one

fixed function (we named it basis function), which was very similar to that

in wavelets analysis. The properties of this type of membership function

reflected the advantages of the given approach. Finally, it was proved

that fuzzy systems based on such membership functions are universal

approximators under certain mild conditions on the basis function (i.e.,

integrable with nonvanishing integral and almost everywhere (a.e.) continuous). This conclusion enlarged the family of fuzzy systems, which can

be universal approximators.

Index TermsApproximation theory, fuzzy systems, membership functions, universal approximators.

I. INTRODUCTION

The study on approximation theory of fuzzy systems is very

important and necessary. In most applications of fuzzy systems, the

main design objective can be transformed to find desired mappings

from the input space to the output space, which may also be denoted

as functions. Thus, the problems of designing fuzzy systems can be

considered as approximation problems of functions. Before a type of

fuzzy systems is put into application, it is helpful if we know clearly

the basic mechanism of how they approximate a desired function

and whether they are universal approximators (i.e., whether they can

approximate any continuous functions on a compact set to an arbitrary

degree of accuracy). All this will be significant for the appropriate

design of fuzzy systems.

The approximation capability of fuzzy systems has been studied in

detail in the past few years [1][5]. It is shown that the appropriate

selection or construction of membership functions plays an essential

role to ensure the system capability. In the recent studies of B. Kosko

[1], L. X. Wang et al. [2], X. L. Zeng et al. [3], [4], and J. L. Castro

[5], different types of membership functions are discussed. From

their work, we can see that under certain conditions, fuzzy systems

can be universal approximators. In these fuzzy systems, the types

of membership functions are constrained to Gaussian membership

functions [2] or membership functions with compact supports [1],

[3][5]. However, many fuzzy systems do not belong to these classes,

the main reason being that other membership functions are used.

Manuscript received August 30, 1996; revised December 12, 1996. This

work was supported in part by the Climbing Program, National Key Project

for Fundamental Research, Beijing, China, under Grant NSC92097 and the

National Science Foundation, Beijing, China, under Grant 69682010.

Z.-H. Mao and X.-F. Zhang are with the Department of Automation,

Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 PR China.

Y.-D. Li is with the School of Information Science and Technology,

Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 PR China.

Publisher Item Identifier S 1063-6706(97)04845-5.

1 + e(0x0a)=

0 1 + e 0x10a =

(

+15

(1)

where > 0, a 2 R;

2) in a two input (x1 ; x2 ) and single output fuzzy system, each

membership function describing (x1 ; x2 ) is the product of a

Gaussian membership function and a triangular membership

function;

3) in a multi-input x 2 Rr and single output fuzzy system, the

membership functions describing the components of vector x

are Gaussian membership functions, but the T -norm is min.

In 1), the membership functions do not belong to Gaussian membership functions or membership functions with compact supports.

In 2), the membership functions are not identical to either Gaussian

membership functions or membership functions with compact supports, but the combination of them. In 3), although the membership

functions are Gaussian membership functions, the T -norm applied

is not a product as discussed in [2]. We can easily find that

the fuzzy systems in the above examples do not belong to any

classes of fuzzy systems that have been proved to be universal

approximators by the known results. Thus, the question, Are they

also universal approximators?, or in a more general form, What

other types of fuzzy systems are universal approximators?, still

remains unanswered.

Here, we will answer whether a fuzzy system with weaker constraints to its membership functions can be a universal approximator.

The rest of the paper is designed as follows. Section II introduces the

formula of fuzzy systems. Section III presents the basic principles

of choosing and constructing membership functions and proposes the

concept of membership functions with translation factors and dilation

factors. Section IV discusses the approximation capability of fuzzy

systems using translations and dilations of one fixed function (we

call it basis function) as their membership functions and proves that

a fuzzy system is a universal approximator under conditions that its

basis function is integrable with nonvanishing integral and almost

everywhere (a.e.) continuous. Finally, some conclusions are given.

II. FORMULA

OF

FUZZY SYSTEMS

single-output systems y : U 7! V , where U = U1 2 U2 2 1 1 1 2 Ur

Rr (r 2 Z + ) is the input space and V R is the output space.

A multi-output system can always be separated into a group of

single-output systems.

Consider a fuzzy system which is comprised of four principal

components: fuzzifier, fuzzy rule base, fuzzy inference engine, and

defuzzifier. Assume that the fuzzifier is the most commonly used

singleton fuzzifier and that the fuzzy rule base consists of rules in

the following form:

Rk : If x1 is A1i and x2 is A2i and 1 1 1 and xr is Ari

then y is Ck

(2)

or

Rk : If x is Ak ; then y is Ck

(3)

fuzzy system, y is the output variable of the fuzzy system, and

fuzzy sets Aji (ij = 1; 1 1 1 ; nj ; j = 1; 1 1 1 ; r) in Uj and Ck (k =

1; 1 1 1 ; rj=1 nj M ) in V are linguistic terms characterized

by fuzzy membership functions Aji (xj ) and Ck (y ), respectively;

Ak = A1i 2 A2i 21 1 12 Ari is fuzzy set describing vector x in which

k = 1; 1 1 1 ; M is one-to-one corresponding to the members in the

index set f(i1 ; i2 ; 1 1 1 ; ir )jij = 1; 1 1 1 ; nj ; j = 1; 1 1 1 ; rg. Each

Rk can be reviewed as a fuzzy implication (relation) Rk : Ak 7! Ck ,

which is a fuzzy set in U 2 V with membership function Rk (x; y ) =

Ak (x)?Ck (y) = A1i (x1 )?Ai2 (x2 )?1 1 1?Ari (xr )?Ck (y), where ? is

a T -norm (the definition of T -norms can be found in [5, Appendix]).

The most commonly used T -norms are product and min.

The fuzzy inference engine is a decision-making logic that employs

fuzzy rules from the fuzzy rule base to determine a mapping from the

fuzzy sets in the input space U to the fuzzy sets in the output space

V . Let A be an arbitrary fuzzy set in U ; then each Rk of (2) or (3)

determines a fuzzy set VAR in V based on the sup-star composition

x2U

(4)

crisp points in V . Here, we choose the defuzzifier to be the centroid

defuzzifier (also called center-average defuzzifier), which maps the

fuzzy set VAR in V to a crisp point

y = k=1

M

yk VAR (yk )

k=1

(5)

VAR (yk )

value (when Ck is a normal fuzzy set Ck (yk ) = 1; here, we always

assume that Ck is a normal fuzzy set).

When A = Ax is a fuzzy singleton [i.e., Ax (x) = 1 and

Ax (x0 ) = 0 for x0 6= x], (5) can be expressed as the following:

y = y(x)

M

= k=1M

yk Ak (x)

k=1

Ak (x)

(6)

III. USING TRANSLATIONS AND DILATIONS OF ONE

FIXED FUNCTION AS MEMBERSHIP FUNCTIONS

A. Basic Principles of Constructing Membership Functions

The construction of membership functions is a fundamental work

in practical applications of fuzzy systems. From linear (including

piece wise linear) membership functions to spline-based membership

functions, there have been various types of membership functions we

can choose and there have been different approaches to constructing

membership functions. Some outlines on developing the membership

functions are listed in [6].

When facing a specific problem, we should consider many factors

to choose or construct appropriate membership functions. First of all,

three basic principles should be followed. That is, the appropriate

membership functions applied should be: 1) intuitively understandable; 2) easily realizable; and 3) able to solve relatively general

problems, e.g., to the approximation problems of functions, the

469

universal approximator. Principle 1) and 2) need further explanations.

1) Intuitively Understandable: The membership functions should

be intuitively understandable, and should be capable of utilizing

linguistic information when such information is available. In another

point of view, they should be model-free because fuzzy systems are

usually applied to those practical systems whose models are unknown

[8]. Thus, the membership functions could be generalized to different

problems (models). Let us look at an example. If we do not consider

the principle of intuitively understandable, we will have Proposition

1.

Proposition 1 [7]: Let f : U 7! V be a bounded function where

U; V R. Then there is a fuzzy subset A of U and a standard model

additive fuzzy system F that uses A (and possibly Ac ) in its rules

such that f (x) = F (x) for all x 2 U .

The proof of Proposition 1 is given in [7]. In the proof, the

membership function of A is constructed as

A(x) =

where = supU f + 1;

based on the two rules

1 f (x) 0

0

(7)

x is A; then f is B2

(8)

If x is not A; then f is B1

(9)

where the output fuzzy sets B1 and B2 are unit area fuzzy subsets of

R with centroid at and , respectively. We will find that the fuzzy

systems output is F (x) = f (x).

If

be constructed arbitrary, every bounded function f : R 7! R has an

exact representation as an additive fuzzy system defined by only one

fuzzy set and two rules. However, it can be implied immediately

from (7) that A(x) is model-dependent and it cannot be seen how

linguistic information can be utilized in this exact representation.

When the approximated function f (x) is complex, A(x) is as

complex as f (x) and it is difficult or impossible to be expressed

as an understandable linguistic term [8] so we say that the exact

representation is difficult to understand. Therefore, we do not think

the construction of membership function in the proof of Proposition

1 is a good approach.

2) Easily Realizable: The membership functions should be easily

realizable. Usually the membership functions are in the form of

A(x; ) where A is a function depending on the systems input

vector x 2 Rr and parameter 2 Rq (q 2 Z + ). For example, in [3], [4] pseudotrapezoid-shaped (PTS) membership functions

A(x; a; b; c; d; h) are discussed where a; b; c; d; and h are the

adjustable parameters. By choosing different parameters, we may get

different membership functions.

To make A(x; ) easily realizable, the dimensions of should

be finite and should not be too great. Sometimes, to a fixed design

objective, the increase of the parameters dimensions will allow a

fuzzy system to decrease the amount of fuzzy sets (fuzzy membership

functions) applied. However, large dimensions will bring difficulty

to the parameters training of the system, so the dimensions of the

parameters should be constrained within an appropriate sizeneither

too small nor too great. The approach used in the proof of Proposition

1 does not satisfy Principle 2), either.

B. Translations and Dilations of One Fixed Function

Suppose function A: Rr 7!

dilations of A have the form

[0; 1];

A[3(x 0 )] = A x1 0 1 ; 1 1 1 ; xr 0 r

1

r

(10)

470

3 is an r 2 r diagonal matrix: 3 = diag f1=1 ; 1 1 1 ; 1=r g, i >

0(i = 1; 1 1 1 ; r), which is called the dilation factor. In (10), we

name A(1) basis function. Note that the concept of the translation

factor and dilation factor is very similar to that in wavelets analysis.

When A(x) is the combination of some membership functions of

the components of x = (x1 ; 1 1 1 ; xr )T based on T -norm ?, i.e.,

A(x) = A1 (x1 ) ? A2 (x2 ) ? 1 1 1 ? Ar (xr ), we have

A[3(x 0 )] = A1 x1 0 1 ? A2 x2 0 2

1

2

x

r 0 r

r

?111 ?A

:

r

Especially in the case that 1 = 2 = 1 1 1 = r = , (10)

simplified to

A x0 :

(11)

can be

(12)

properties.

1) Since all A[3(1 0 )] are the translations and dilations of

A(1), they are similar in the shape. If A(1) is intuitively

understandable in the shape, so are all A[3(1 0 )].

2) The adjustable parameters in A[3(1 0 )] are the translation

factor and the dilation factor. The dimensions of parameters are

not too great, so it is not difficult for system training, which

satisfies the principle easily realizable.

3) Because of the dilation factor, an A[3(1 0 )] can change its

shape to an arbitrary size whether large or small. This makes it

suitable for linguistic representationwe can use it for sketchy

descriptions as well as for detailed descriptionsand because

of the translation factor, an A[3(1 0 )] can move arbitrary

in the input space so that its center (the point or points at which

A[3(1 0 )] obtains its maximum value) can erode the input

space.

4) Even without strong constraints to A(1), i.e., when A(1) is

integrable with nonvanishing integral and continuous almost

everywhere, fuzzy systems based on membership functions in

the form of (10) can be universal approximators. (Detailed

discussion of this property is given in the next section.)

The above properties reflect the advantages of using translations

and dilations of some basis function as membership functions.

IV. UNIVERSAL APPROXIMATION CAPABILITY

In this section, we consider the approximation of a function

by some element of a specific family of fuzzy systems based on

membership functions of (10). By applying membership functions of

(10), (6) turns to

M

wi A[3(x 0 ai )]

y(x) = =1M

i

=1

A[3(x 0 ai )]

(13)

A[3(x 0 ai )] 6= 0 for all

dilation factor and the denominator M

i=1

x 2 U . Now we have a family containing functions of (13). We call

this family SA .

Next, we will analyze the distribution of SA in Lp (p > 1) (space

p

L on a compact set E contains the space of continuous functions

on E ). Therefore, we can evaluate the capability of fuzzy systems in

(13) when approximating functions in Lp .

which is neither a Gaussian membership function nor a membership function

with compact support.

definitions. To a Lebesgue (L)-measurable set E Rr , denote m(E )

as its measure. Lp (E ) ff j E jf jp dx < 1; f is L-measurable on

E g, p > 0. If f; g 2 Lp (E ), we denote kf kp; E [ E jf jp dx]1=p ,

and p; E (f; g ) kf 0 g kp; E . When E = Rr , k 1 kp; E , p; E are

simplified to k 1 kp and p . Let S be a function family. Suppose

that for any f 2 Lp (E ) and > 0 there exists g in S such that

p; E (f; g) < . Then we say that S contains a subset p; E dense

in Lp (E ). If, in addition, g 2 Lp (E ) for every g in S , we say that

S is p; E dense in Lp (E ).

The following theorem establishes that under certain mild conditions on the basis function A, fuzzy systems represented by (13)

are capable of approximating arbitrarily well any function in Lp (E )

where E Rr is an arbitrarily chosen L-measurable bounded set

whose measure is nonzero.

Theorem 1: Let A: Rr 7! [0; 1] satisfy:

1) A 2 L1 (Rr ) and R A(x) dx 6= 0;

2) A is a.e. continuous.

Then to any L-measurable bounded E Rr [m(E ) 6= 0] and any

p 2 [1; +1), SA is p; E dense in Lp (E ).

The proof of Theorem 1 is given in the Appendix of this paper.

Theorem 1 shows that a wide class of fuzzy systems are capable

of approximating any real continuous function on a compact set to

arbitrary accuracy. The types of membership functions discussed in

[1][5] all satisfy the condition of Theorem 1. Besides, many fuzzy

systems using other types of membership functions can be proved to

be universal approximators by Theorem 1.

Let us look back at the examples presented in Section I. By

the conclusion of Theorem 1, it can be tested that now we are

able to design universal approximators using fuzzy systems based

on membership functions as described in the three examples (see

Figs. 13). We give another example as shown in Fig. 4 which depicts

a somewhat irregular basis function allowed by Theorem 1.

It is easy to find that in (11), if each Aj satisfies a) Aj 2 L1 (R)

and R Aj (xj ) dxj 6= 0 and b) Aj is a.e. continuous and the T

norm is product, then the conditions of Theorem 1 are satisfied.

However, we should notice that sometimes even each Aj satisfies

the above two conditions and A(x) = A1 (x1 ) ? 1 1 1 ? Ar (xr ) is not

allowed by the theorem because of the selection of some other T

norm instead of product. For example, consider a two-dimensional

of a Gaussian membership function and a triangular membership function.

471

in dimension size, so in some situations, applying (14) instead of (13)

may make it more convenient to train parameters.

V. CONCLUSIONS

Here, we present an approach to construct membership functions

by using translations and dilations of one fixed function (called the

basis function). We find that this approach has many advantages.

We prove, especially, that without strong constrains to the basis

function (i.e., under conditions that the basis function is integrable

with nonvanishing integral and a.e. continuous), fuzzy systems can

be universal approximators. This conclusion enlarged the family of

fuzzy systems with universal approximation capability.

However, for a particular problem, we still have not discussed the

practical problem: how to choose the basis function with appropriate

shape that can construct the optimal fuzzy system to the given

problem. Further studies are needed to answer this question.

APPENDIX

Fig. 3. A two-dimensional membership function which is the combination

of two different scaled Gaussian membership functions by using T norm of

min: min fe0(x =4) ; 0:6e0(x =16) g.

Ai (xi ) = [1=(jxi j +1)2 ](i = 1; 2). It can be tested that each Ai (xi )

is integrable with nonzero integral and continuous but A(x1 ; x2 ) 2

=

L1 (R2 ).

In SA , if each i (i = 1; 1 1 1 ; r) in 3 is selected the same value

0 containing functions of

of > 0, we can get a family SA

M

y (x) = i=1

M

!i A

i=1

x 0 ai

x 0 ai

(14)

corollary immediately.

Corollary 1: Let A satisfy the conditions in Theorem 1, then

to any L-measurable bounded E Rr [m(E ) 6= 0] and any

0 is p; E dense in Lp (E ).

p 2 [1; +1), SA

To a Lebesgue (L)-measurable set E Rr , denote 1E (1) as

its characteristic function, denote C (E ) as the space of continuous

functions on E , and C0 (E ) as the space of continuous functions

with compact support containing in E . suppf fxjf (x) 6= 0g is

defined as the support of f . The convolution operation is denoted by

3. Let : Rr 7! R be an integrable function and define 3 (x) =

j3j(3x) = [1=(12 1 1 1 r )](x1 =1; x2 =2; 1 1 1 ; xr =r ) where

3 diag f1=1 ; 1 1 1 ; 1=r g, i > 0(i = 1; 1 1 1 ; r), j3j det 3 =

1=( ri=1 i ), x 2 Rr .

As a direct generalization of a lemma in [9, p. 249], we have the

following.

Lemma 1: Let f 2 Lp (Rr ), p 2 [1; 1), and let : Rr 7!

R satisfy R (x) dx = 1. Then 3 3 f 2 Lp (Rr ) and

limmax f g!0 k3 3 f 0 f kp = 0.

The following is the proof of Theorem 1.

Let E Rr [m(E ) 6= 0] be an L-measurable and bounded set,

p 2 [1; +1); f 2 Lp (E ), and " > 0.

Denote fE = f 1 1E ; then obviously fE 2 Lp (Rr ). Since C0 (Rr )

is dense in Lp (Rr ) [10, Theorem 3.14], there exists an fC 2 C0 (Rr )

such that kfC 0 fE kp < "=4. Denote h max fsup [jfC (x)j; x 2

Rr ]; 1g.

472

(x) dx = 1. Thus, by Lemma 2 there is a 3 such that

k3 3 fC 0 fC kp < "=4 where 3 3 fC 2 Lp (Rr ).

Since fC has compact support, there exists T1 > 0 such that

suppfC [0T1 ; T1 ]r . Since E is bounded, there exists T2 > 0

such that E [0T2 ; T2 ]r . Since A3 2 L1 (Rr ), there exists T3 > 0

Let :

then R

lim

n!1 E

jun () 0 vn ()jp d

E n!1

such that

A(x) dx

"

A3 (x) dx < R 1=p

8

m

(

E

) 1h

R nD

[0T3 ; T3 ]r . Since R

for any D

from (15), we have

A(x) dx 0

(15)

A3 (x) dx < :

r

3 ( 0 ai )fC (ai ) 2T

n

i=1

n

r

wn () =

A3 ( 0 ai ) 2T

n

i=1

n

(17)

(18)

i=1

A3 ( 0 ai )

[0T;T ]

[from (17)], one has

lim

n!1

[0T; T ]

A3 ( 0 x) dx

A(x) dx

(20)

A3 ( 0 x) dx:

(21)

jvn()j [hj3j(2T )r =

j(3 3 fC )() 0 vn ()jp d = 0

A(x) dx]

(22)

n!1

k(vn 0 3 3 fC )1E kp < "=4 for any n N1 .

From (19) we have jun ()j < h; then

because

r

h + hj3j(2T ) :

A(x) dx

(23)

01

[0T; T ] A3 ( 0 x) dx 0 1 d:

E

A(x) dx

R

[0T; T ]r + [0T + 1 ; T + 1 ] 2 [0T + 2 ; T + 2 ] 2 1 1 1 2

[0T + r ; T + r ]; then

For

A3 ( 0 x) dx =

A3 (x) dx

(25)

[0T; T ] +

when 2 E [0T2 ; T2 ]r , one has [0T; T ]r + [0T3 ; T3 ]r .

[0T; T ]

A(x) dx 0

2 E , we have

[0T; T ] +

A3 (x) dx <

so

3 ( 0 x)fC (x) dx

wn () 0 1

A(x) dx

n!1 n

R

hp 1

(19)

lim v () =

n!1 n

[0T; T ]

where the set fai 2

r

[0T; T ] of the form [0T +(2i1 T=n); 0T +(2i2 T=n); 1 1 1 ; 0T +

(2ir T=n)], (ij = 1; 1 1 1 ; n; j = 1; 1 1 1 ; r). Note that vn (); wn ()

are Riemann sums for

[0T; T ] 3 ( 0 x)fC (x) dx and

r

[0T; T ] A3 ( 0 x) dx, respectively. Thus, for any 2 R

lim w () =

n!1 n

2 d

A3 ( 0 ai )fC (ai )

un () = i=1 n

Rr :

(16)

lim un ()

n!1

2 d

Then (3 3 fC )() = R 3 ( 0 x)fC (x) dx = [0T; T ] 3 ( 0

x)fC (x) dx.

Note that 3 ( 0 x)fC (x) is Riemann integrable on [0T; T ]r

because it is a.e. continuous and is bounded by hj3j=[ R A() d].

Also A3 ( 0 x) is Riemann integrable on [0T; T ]r .

Define vn ; wn ; un by

vn () =

(26)

lim

n!1 E

p

=

m(E )

A(x) dx

i.e.,

n!1

(27)

(28)

Thus, there exists N2 > 0 such that k(un 0 vn )1E kp =8+ =8 =

for any n N2 .

Let N = max fN1 ; N2 g; then k(uN 0 f )1E kp = k(uN 0

=4

fC 0 fC kp + kfC 0 fE kp < =4 + =4 + =4 + =4 = .

N

Note that uN (x) = N

i=1 A3 (x 0 ai )fC (ai )= i=1 A3 (x 0 ai ) =

N A[3(x 0 a )]f (a )= N A[3(x 0 a )] 2 S (A; 3; a) and

i C i

i

i=1 p

i=1 p

E jy (x)j dx (maxiMp fjwi jg) m(E ) < 1 for any py (x) 2

S (A; 3; a), i.e., y(x) 2 L (E ), so SA is p; E dense in L (E ).

The proof is complete.

such that

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

(24)

Electrical Engineering and Applied Electronic Technology, Tsinghua,

University, Beijing, China, for his enlightening course of wavelets

analysis and Y. Huang, Department of Computer Science, Sichun

Union University, for her constructive suggestions.

REFERENCES

[1] B. Kosko, Fuzzy system as universal approximators, in Proc. IEEE

Int. Conf. Fuzzy Syst., San Diego, CA, Mar. 1992, pp. 11531162.

[2] L. X. Wang and J. M. Mendel, Fuzzy basis functions, universal approximation, and othogonal least-squares learning, IEEE Trans. Neural

Networks, vol. 3, pp. 807814, May 1992.

[3] X. J. Zeng and M. G. Singh, Approximation theory of fuzzy systemsSISO case, IEEE Trans. Fuzzy Syst., vol. 2, pp. 162176, May

1994.

, Approximation theory of fuzzy systemsMIMO case, IEEE

[4]

Trans. Fuzzy Syst., vol. 3, pp. 219235, May 1995.

[5] J. L. Castro, Fuzzy logic controllers are universal approximators, IEEE

Trans. Syst., Man, Cybern., vol. 25, pp. 629635, Apr. 1995.

473

[6] C. H. Wang, W. Y. Wang, T. T. Lee, and P. S. Tseng, Fuzzy Bspline membership function (BMF) and its applications in fuzzy-neural

control, IEEE Trans. Syst., Man, Cybern., vol. 25, pp. 841851, May

1995.

[7] F. A. Watkins, Comments on Singh and Zeng: Approximation theory

of fuzzy systemsSISO case, IEEE Trans. Fuzzy Syst., vol. 4, p. 80,

Feb. 1996.

[8] X. J. Zeng and M. G. Singh, Authors reply to Watkins comments,

IEEE Trans. Fuzzy Syst., vol. 4, p. 81, Feb. 1996.

[9] J. Park and I. W. Sandberg, Universal approximation using radial-basisfunction networks, Neural Computat., vol. 3, pp. 246257, 1991.

[10] W. Rudin, Real and Complex Analysis. New York: McGraw-Hill,

1974.

- AnIntroductiontoFLC.pdfCargado porteknikpembakaran2013
- 0353-36700502319MCargado porFaltu Accnt
- Autonomous Car Fuzzy Control Modeled by Iterative Genetic AlgorithmsCargado porJoanne Peralta
- Issn 1392 - 1207. Mechanika. 2009. Nr.1(75)Cargado pora95857
- th4bbCargado porGanesh Nhivekar
- a2faaaaa20cd41cdc0b3444f3b1bf343f13a.pdfCargado porMoufid Bouhentala
- 15.pdfCargado porArnav Guddu
- smart traffic finalCargado pornady2209
- Logix-um004 -Fuzzy Designer (1)Cargado porJohn Cruz M
- 593-2657065Cargado porXavier Martínez Moctezuma
- Modern Irrigation Systems Towards FuzzyCargado porshaikshaa007
- mo dung ga 3Cargado pornguyendattdh
- AN OPTIMAL FUZZY LOGIC SYSTEM FOR A NONLINEAR DYNAMIC SYSTEM USING A FUZZY BASIS FUNCTIONCargado porAIRCC - IJCNC
- b 1498053213Cargado porAnthony Luna
- Synopsis of the Proposed Research Work Submitted to Magadh UniversityCargado porDeepak Mitra
- jFuzzyLogic.pdfCargado porWilmer Alfredo Conde
- An Adaptive Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Logic Framework for Classification of Gait Patterns of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstructed SubjectsCargado porOwaisAhmedMalik
- Gac Wedge EaaiCargado porjinxichange
- Neutrosophic Q-Fuzzy SubgroupsCargado porMia Amalia
- MagLevCargado porVeera Chaitanya
- Project Report FinalCargado porSatyam Gupta
- bldc1Cargado porAdavelli Shirisha Reddy
- Correlated Aggregating Operators for Simplied Neutrosophic Set and their Application in Multi-attribute Group Decision MakingCargado porAnonymous 0U9j6BLllB
- Two Decision Makers’ Single Decision over a Back Order EOQ Model with Dense Fuzzy Demand RateCargado porMia Amalia
- Get PDF 2Cargado pormahes
- Chapter 2 FLC Part 2Cargado porHafisIzran
- Fuzzy Logic (CT430)Cargado porTimothy Fields
- Fuzzy Logic Assignment 1Cargado porSam Keays
- PID Water Temperature ControllerCargado porJuuaanchoo Cnnz
- Spatial Modeling for Base-Metal Mineral ExplorationCargado porrene yasmany

- Decoupled double synchronous reference frame PLL for power converters control.pdfCargado porBojian Cao
- Prdictive Control SchemeCargado porsai1290
- Power Electronics as Efficient Interface in Dispersed Power Generation SystemsCargado pornmotan
- SysEng 5212-EE5370 Course Outline Spring 2017Cargado porBojian Cao
- tocDSP1v2eCargado porpes_krishna
- Enhanced Decoupled Double Synchronous Reference Frame Current Controller for Unbalanced Grid Voltage Conditions.pdfCargado porBojian Cao
- Motor Drive and Control SolutionsCargado porthietdaucong
- Motor Drive and Control SolutionsCargado porthietdaucong
- Kalman filterCargado porbboyvn
- Enhanced Decoupled Double Synchronous Reference Frame Current Controller for Unbalanced Grid Voltage Conditions.pdfCargado porBojian Cao
- Maximum Power Point Tracking Using Model Reference Adaptive Control_Solar Application.pdfCargado porBojian Cao

- Laplace_Table.pdfCargado pormahfuja akter
- Staad Pro basics-iRFAN.pptCargado porsushilkumar
- Chapter 2Cargado porLyana Jaafar
- download-MathematicsCargado pors.meinathan
- Ejercicios_resueltos_series (3).pdfCargado porNicolás Bórquez Monsalve
- Uni of Frankfurt - Thermodynamic PotentialsCargado portabooga
- 3Polyn.pdfCargado porRaviteja Kala
- Galerkin MethodCargado poranpyaa
- Articol Metode Si ModeleCargado porAndrei Stanciu
- MPC-6 (1)Cargado pordeepshrm
- IMC robust controlCargado porJavier Ruiz Thorrens
- Stability Analysis of Lotka-Volterra Model With Holling Type II Functional ResponseCargado porrobert0rojer
- NASA-FTA-1.1[1]Cargado porFvsilva01
- Ap Calculus SyllabusCargado porwoodrowirby
- First_order_Reliability_Method_Neethu.pdfCargado porcemekaobi
- Data Travelling Pasien HDCargado porabuyusuf-abu
- HypothesisCargado pormgskumar
- Shirangi-ApplyingMachineLearningAlgorithmsToOilReservoirProductionOptimization.pdfCargado porChun Yan
- erf(t)Cargado porbrayan2904
- Lagrange Multivariate InterpolationCargado porDeewakar Sharma
- EC1sh_D Solomon PressCargado por007salman
- Proiecte functii splineCargado porCristina Nico
- Extension of Integral Tables FINAL.pdfCargado porsoleb
- Overview 541 Probability TheoryCargado porAlbert Pang
- Paradojas Matemáticas - Northrop EugeneCargado porLea Eleuteri
- Lecture Notes NumAnal-1.pdfCargado porJelyn Mercado
- hw7_565_f17.pdfCargado porCairn Overturf
- PLS Algorithm.xlsxCargado porRetno Puji Astuti
- Introduction to Green's FunctionsCargado porElvis Arguelles
- Lab 3Cargado porsatoruheine