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02/09/2016

Generacin de vapor

Doctor Mario Santizo

Sistema de vapor en la
industria

Doctor Mario Santizo

02/09/2016

Afuelbasedprocessheating
systemandopportunitiesfor
improvement

Doctor Mario Santizo

USOS DEL VAPOR EN LA INDUSTRIA


Indirectamente en intercambiadores de calor.
Directamente en el proceso de esterilizacin,
lavado y sanitizacin.
Calentamiento y/o reacciones en corrientes de
proceso.

Doctor Mario Santizo

02/09/2016

CALDERASDEVAPORPARA
PROCESOS(pirotubulares)

Doctor Mario Santizo

Doctor Mario Santizo

02/09/2016

Doctor Mario Santizo

Doctor Mario Santizo

02/09/2016

Doctor Mario Santizo

CALDERASDEVAPORPARAPOTENCIA
(calderasacuotubulares)

Doctor Mario Santizo

02/09/2016

Planta de vapor

Doctor Mario Santizo

Doctor Mario Santizo

02/09/2016

Doctor Mario Santizo

Doctor Mario Santizo

02/09/2016

Doctor Mario Santizo

Doctor Mario Santizo

02/09/2016

Doctor Mario Santizo

Generacindevaporen
calderasparaprocesoy
parapotencia
Proceso de combustin
Eficiencia de combustin
Eficiencia de caldera
Recuperacin de calor
Doctor Mario Santizo

02/09/2016

Proceso de Combustin
Es el proceso que se realiza en el quemador del generador
de vapor el cual transforma la energa qumica del
combustible en energa trmica a travs de una energa de
activacin

Doctor Mario Santizo

Elementosatomarencuenta
Comburente

Combustible
Purgatanqueprimario
(bunker)
Purgatanque
abastecimiento(bunker)
Serpentinesde
calentamientofluido
Limpiezafiltroscanasta
Temperaturadecombustin

Presindeatomizacin
Relacindecombustible
comburentemnimo
permisible
Composicindelaire:79%
N2 y21%02
Tuneupcaldera:boquilla,
caja,modutrolviscosidad,
varillasdireccionales,levas

Doctor Mario Santizo

10

02/09/2016

REACCIONESDECOMBUSTON
Oxidacindelcarbono
C+O2 =CO2+
Oxidacindelhidrogeno
H2+1/2O2=H2O+
Oxidacindelazufre
1/2S2+O2=SO2+

Doctor Mario Santizo

COLORACINDELALLAMA

rojoobscuro
rojo
rojobrillante
salmn
naranja
amarillo
amarilloligero

blanco
blancobrillante
deslumbrador

1000F
1350F
1500F
1650F
1750F
1850F
2000F(mnimopermisible
excesoaire)
2200F
2750F
3450F

Doctor Mario Santizo

11

02/09/2016

AIREDECOMBUSTIN(PRIMARIO)
79%ESNITROGENO
21%ESOXIGENO
INGRESAATEMP.AMBIENTEYSALEA
TEM.DECHIMENEA
ELNITROGENONOINTERVIENEENEL
PROCESODECOMBUSTION

Doctor Mario Santizo

EFICIENCIADECOMBUSTIN
Es la energa alimentada a la caldera menos la energa
desechada en los gases de chimenea.
En otras palabras: Es la energa que queda disponible en
la caldera para producir vapor + (perdidas debido a la
conveccinradiacin y purga en la caldera).
Qgases chimenea
combustin 1

Q
alim entados a caldera

Doctor Mario Santizo

12

02/09/2016

Medicindelaeficienciadecombustin
OPCION 1

OPCION 2

Porcentajedeoxigeno
Temperaturanetade
chimenea

Porcentajededixido
decarbono
Temperaturanetade
chimenea

Para determinar la eficiencia de combustin se utilizan


tablas, las cuales proporcionan la eficiencia de
combustin y el exceso de aire.
T e m p e ra tu ra n e ta d e c h im e n e a
T e m p e ra tu ra d e c h im e n e a T e m p e ra tu ra a m b ie n te
Doctor Mario Santizo

Tablas de eficiencia de combustin


Bnker
Temperatura neta (F)
Aire

%O2

%CO2

170

180

190

200

210

220

230

240

250

260

270

280

290

300

0.0

0.0

16.5

91.4

91.2

91.0

90.8

90.6 90.4

90.2

90.0

89.8

89.6

89.4

89.1

89.0

88.8

2.3

0.5

16.1

91.3

91.1

90.9

90.7

90.5 90.3

90.1

89.0

89.7

89.5

89.3

88.9

88.9

88.6

4.7

1.0

15.7

91.3

91.0

90.8

90.6

90.4 90.2

90.0

89.9

89.6

89.4

89.2

88.8

88.7

7.3

1.5

15.3

91.2

91.0

90.8

90.5

90.3 90.1

89.9

89.8

89.5

89.3

88.0

88.5

88.6

88.4

10.0

2.0

14.9

91.1

90.9

90.7

90.4

90.2 90.0

89.8

89.6

89.3

89.1

88.8

88.5

88.3

88.1

12.8

2.5

14.5

91.0

90.8

90.6

90.3

90.1 89.9

89.7

89.4

89.2

89.0

88.8

88.4

88.3

88.1

15.8

3.0

14.1

90.9

90.7

90.5

90.2

90.0 89.8

89.6

89.3

89.1

88.9

88.6

88.2

88.2

87.9

18.9

3.5

13.8

90.8

90.6

90.4

90.1

89.9 89.7

89.4

89.2

88.9

88.7

88.5

88.1

88.0

87.8

22.3

4.0

13.4

90.7

90.5

90.2

90.0

89.8 89.5

89.3

89.0

88.8

88.6

88.3

87.9

87.8

87.6

25.8

4.5

13.0

90.6

90.4

90.1

89.9

89.6 89.4

89.1

89.9

88.6

88.4

88.5

87.7

87.6

87.4

29.6

5.0

12.6

90.5

90.3

90.0

89.8

89.5 89.2

89.0

88.7

88.5

88.2

87.3

87.5

87.5

87.2

33.6

5.5

12.2

90.4

90.1

89.9

89.6

89.3 89.1

88.8

88.6

88.3

88.0

87.1

87.3

87.2

87.0

37.9

6.0

11.8

90.3

90.0

89.7

89.5

89.3 88.9

88.7

88.4

88.1

87.8

87.0

87.3

87.0

86.8

42.4

6.5

11.4

90.1

89.8

89.6

89.3

89.0 88.7

88.5

88.2

87.9

87.6

87.8

87.1

86.8

86.5

47.3

7.0

11.0

90.0

89.7

89.4

89.1

88.8 88.6

88.3

88.0

87.7

87.4

87.6

86.8

86.5

86.3

52.6

7.5

10.6

89.8

89.5

89.2

88.9

88.6 88.3

88.1

87.8

87.5

87.2

87.4

86.6

86.3

58.2

8.0

10.2

89.6

89.3

89.0

88.7

88.4 88.1

87.8

87.5

87.2

86.9

87.1

86.3

86.0

85.7

64.3

8.5

9.8

89.5

89.1

88.8

88.5

88.2 87.9

87.6

87.3

86.9

86.6

86.9

86.0

85.7

85.3

71.0

9.0

9.4

89.3

88.9

88.6

88.3

88.0 87.6

87.3

87.0

86.6

86.3

85.6

85.7

85.3

85.0

78.2

9.5

9.0

89.0

88.7

88.4

88.0

87.7 87.4

87.0

86.7

86.3

86.0

85.3

85.3

85.0

84.6

86.0

10.0

8.6

88.8

88.5

88.1

87.8

87.4 87.0

86.7

86.3

86.0

85.6

84.0

84.9

84.5

84.2

94.6

10.5

8.3

88.6

88.2

87.8

87.4

87.1 86.7

86.3

86.0

85.6

85.2

84.6

84.5

84.1

83.7

104.1

11.0

7.9

88.3

87.9

87.5

87.1

86.7 86.3

86.0

85.6

85.2

84.8

83.3

84.0

83.6

83.2

114.5

11.5

7.5

88.0

87.6

87.1

86.7

86.3 85.9

85.5

85.1

84.7

84.3

83.9

83.5

83.1

82.7

126.1

12.0

7.1

87.6

87.2

86.8

86.3

85.9 85.5

85.1

84.6

84.2

83.8

82.4

82.9

82.5

82.1

139.1

12.5

6.7

87.2

86.8

86.3

85.9

85.4 85.0

84.5

84.1

83.6

83.2

82.9

82.3

81.8

81.4

153.7

13.0

6.3

86.8

86.3

85.8

85.4

84.9 84.4

83.9

83.5

83.0

82.5

81.3

81.5

81.1

80.6

170.2

13.5

5.9

86.3

85.8

85.3

84.8

84.3 83.8

83.3

82.8

82.2

81.7

80.7

80.7

80.2

79.7

189.1

14.0

5.5

85.7

85.2

84.6

84.1

83.6 83.0

82.5

82.0

81.4

80.9

89.0

79.8

79.2

78.7

210.9

14.5

5.1

85.1

84.5

83.9

83.3

82.8 82.2

81.6

81.0

80.4

79.9

79.3

78.7

78.1

77.5

236.4

15.0

4.7

84.3

83.7

83.1

82.4

81.8 81.2

80.6

79.9

79.3

78.7

78.1

77.4

76.8

76.2

88.5

86.0

Doctor Mario Santizo

13

02/09/2016

Tablas de eficiencia de combustin


Bnker
Temperatura neta (F)
Aire

%O2

%CO2

310

320

330

340

350

360

370

380

390

400

410

420

430

440

0.0

0.0

16.5

88.6

88.4

88.2

87.9

87.7

87.5

87.3

87.1

86.7

86.4

86.3

86.1

85.9

88.8

2.3

0.5

16.1

88.4

88.2

88.0

87.8

87.6

87.4

87.2

87.0

86.8

86.5

86.3

86.1

85.9

85.7

4.7

1.0

15.7

88.3

7.3

1.5

15.3

88.2

87.9

87.7

87.5

87.3

87.1

86.8

86.6

86.4

86.2

86.0

85.7

85.5

85.3

10.0

2.0

14.9

88.0

87.8

88.1

87.6

87.9

87.3

87.7

87.1

87.4

86.9

87.2

86.7

87.0

86.4

86.8

86.2

86.6

86.0

86.4

85.8

86.1

85.5

85.9

85.3

85.7

85.1

85.5

12.8

2.5

14.5

87.9

87.6

87.4

87.2

86.9

86.7

86.5

86.3

86.0

85.5

85.6

86.3

85.1

84.9

15.8

3.0

14.1

87.7

87.5

87.2

87.0

86.8

86.5

86.3

86.1

85.8

85.6

85.3

86.1

84.9

84.6

18.9

3.5

13.8

87.5

87.3

87.l0

86.8

86.6

86.3

86.1

85.8

85.6

85.4

85.1

84.9

84.6

84.4

22.3

4.0

13.4

87.3

87.1

86.8

86.6

86.4

86.1

85.9

85.6

85.4

85.1

84.9

84.6

84.4

84.1

25.8

4.5

13.0

87.1

86.9

86.6

86.4

86.1

85.9

85.6

85.4

85.1

84.9

84.6

84.3

84.1

83.8

29.6

5.0

12.6

86.9

86.7

86.4

86.2

85.9

85.6

85.4

85.1

84.9

84.6

84.3

84.1

83.8

83.5

33.6

5.5

12.2

86.7

86.5

86.2

85.9

85.6

85.4

85.1

84.8

84.6

84.3

84.0

83.0

83.5

83.2

37.9

6.0

11.8

86.5

86.2

85.0

85.7

85.4

85.1

84.8

84.6

84.3

84.0

83.7

83.4

83.2

82.9

42.4

6.5

11.4

86.2

85.7

85.7

85.4

85.1

84.8

84.5

84.2

84.0

83.7

83.4

83.1

82.8

82.5

47.3

7.0

11.0

86.0

85.7

85.4

85.1

84.8

84.5

84.2

83.9

83.6

83.3

83.0

82.7

82.4

82.1

52.6

7.5

10.6

85.7

85.4

85.1

84.8

84.5

84.2

83.9

83.6

83.3

82.9

82.6

82.3

82.0

58.2

8.0

10.2

85.4

85.0

84.7

84.4

84.1

83.8

83.5

83.2

82.9

82.5

82.2

81.9

81.6

81.3

64.3

8.5

9.8

85.0

84.7

84.4

84.1

83.7

83.4

83.1

82.8

82.4

82.1

81.8

81.5

81.1

80.8

71.0

9.0

9.4

84.7

84.3

84.0

83.7

83.3

83.0

82.6

82.3

82.0

81.6

81.3

81.0

80.6

78.2

9.5

9.0

84.3

83.9

83.6

83.2

82.9

82.5

82.2

81.8

81.5

81.1

80.8

80.4

80.1

79.7

86.0

10.0

8.6

83.8

83.5

83.1

82.7

82.4

82.0

81.7

81.3

80.9

80.6

80.2

79.8

79.5

79.1

94.6

10.5

8.3

83.4

83.0

82.6

82.2

81.8

81.5

81.1

80.7

80.3

79.9

79.6

79.2

78.8

78.4

104.1

11.0

7.9

82.8

82.4

82.0

81.7

81.3

80.9

80.5

80.1

79.7

79.3

78.9

78.5

78.1

77.7

114.5

11.5

7.5

82.3

81.8

81.4

81.0

80.6

80.2

79.8

79.4

78.9

78.5

78.1

77.7

77.3

76.8

126.1

12.0

7.1

81.6

81.2

80.8

80.3

79.9

79.4

79.0

78.6

78.1

77.7

77.3

76.8

76.4

75.9

139.1

12.5

6.7

80.9

80.4

80.0

79.5

79.1

78.6

78.2

77.7

77.2

76.8

76.3

75.8

75.4

74.9

153.7

13.0

6.3

80.1

79.6

79.1

78.6

78.2

77.7

77.2

76.7

76.2

75.7

75.2

74.7

74.2

73.8

170.2

13.5

5.9

79.2

78.7

78.2

77.6

77.1

76.6

76.6

76.1

75.6

75.1

74.5

74.0

73.5

72.5

189.1

14.0

5.5

78.1

77.6

77.1

76.5

76.0

75.4

74.9

74.3

73.7

73.2

72.6

72.1

71.5

71.0

210.9

14.5

5.1

76.9

76.4

75.8

75.2

74.6

74.0

73.4

72.8

72.2

71.6

71.0

70.4

69.8

69.2

236.4

15.0

4.7

75.5

74.9

74.3

73.6

73.0

72.4

71.7

71.1

70.5

69.8

69.2

68.5

67.9

67.2

81.7

80.3

Doctor Mario Santizo

Tablas de eficiencia de combustin


Bnker
Temperatura neta (F)
Aire

%O2

%CO2

450

460

470

480

490

500

510

520

530

540

550

560

570

580

0.0

0.0

16.5

85.7

85.4

85.0

84.8

84.6

84.4

84.2

83.9

83.7

83.5

83.3

83.1

83.1

82.9

2.3

0.5

16.1

85.5

85.3

84.8

84.6

84.4

84.2

83.9

83.7

83.5

83.3

83.1

82.9

82.9

82.6

4.7

1.0

15.7

85.3

7.3

1.5

15.3

85.1

84.8

84.4

84.2

83.9

83.7

83.5

83.3

83.0

82.8

82.6

82.3

82.3

82.1

10.0

2.0

14.9

84.8

84.6

85.1

84.2

84.6

83.9

84.4

83.7

84.2

83.5

83.9

83.2

83.7

83.0

83.5

82.8

83.3

82.5

83.1

82.3

82.8

82.1

82.6

82.1

82.6

81.8

82.4

12.8

2.5

14.5

84.6

84.4

83.9

83.7

83.4

83.2

83.0

82.7

82.5

82.3

82.0

81.8

81.8

81.5

15.8

3.0

14.1

84.4

84.1

83.7

83.4

83.2

82.9

82.7

82.4

82.2

82.0

81.7

81.5

81.5

81.2

18.9

3.5

13.8

84.1

83.9

83.4

83.1

82.9

82.6

82.4

82.1

81.9

81.6

81.4

81.1

81.1

80.9

22.3

4.0

13.4

83.9

83.6

83.1

82.8

82.6

82.3

82.1

81.8

81.6

81.3

81.1

80.8

80.8

80.5

25.8

4.5

13.0

83.6

83.3

82.8

82.5

82.3

82.0

81.7

81.5

81.2

81.0

80.7

80.4

80.4

80.2

29.6

5.0

12.6

83.3

83.0

82.5

82.2

81.9

81.7

81.4

81.1

80.9

80.6

80.3

80.0

80.0

79.8

33.6

5.5

12.2

82.9

82.7

82.1

81.8

81.6

81.3

81.0

80.7

80.5

80.2

79.9

79.5

79.6

79.4

37.9

6.0

11.8

82.6

82.4

81.8

81.5

81.2

80.9

80.6

80.3

80.0

79.8

79.5

79.2

79.2

78.9

42.4

6.5

11.4

82.2

82.0

81.4

81.1

80.8

80.5

80.2

79.9

79.6

79.3

79.0

78.7

78.7

78.4

47.3

7.0

11.0

81.8

81.7

80.9

80.6

80.3

80.0

79.7

79.4

79.1

78.8

78.5

78.2

78.2

77.9

52.6

7.5

10.6

81.4

81.2

80.5

80.2

79.9

79.6

79.2

78.9

78.6

78.3

78.0

77.7

77.7

77.4

58.2

8.0

10.2

81.0

80.8

80.0

79.7

79.4

79.0

78.7

78.4

78.1

77.7

77.4

77.1

77.1

76.8

64.3

8.5

9.8

80.5

80.3

79.5

79.1

78.8

78.5

78.1

77.8

77.5

77.1

76.8

76.5

76.5

76.1

71.0

9.0

9.4

79.9

79.8

78.9

78.6

78.2

77.9

77.5

77.2

76.8

76.5

76.1

75.8

75.8

75.4

78.2

9.5

9.0

79.4

79.2

78.3

77.9

77.6

77.2

76.8

76.5

76.1

75.8

75.4

75.0

75.0

74.7

86.0

10.0

8.6

78.7

78.6

77.6

77.2

76.9

76.5

76.1

75.7

75.4

75.0

74.6

74.2

74.2

73.9

94.6

10.5

8.3

78.0

78.0

76.9

76.5

76.1

75.7

75.3

74.9

74.5

74.1

73.7

73.3

73.3

72.9

104.1

11.0

7.9

77.3

77.3

76.0

75.6

75.2

78.4

74.4

74.0

73.6

73.2

72.8

72.4

72.4

72.0

114.5

11.5

7.5

76.4

76.5

75.1

74.7

74.3

73.9

73.4

73.0

72.6

72.2

71.7

71.3

71.3

70.9

126.1

12.0

7.1

75.5

75.6

74.1

73.7

73.3

72.8

72.4

71.9

71.5

71.0

70.6

70.1

70.1

69.6

139.1

12.5

6.7

74.4

74.6

73.0

72.6

72.1

71.6

71.1

70.7

70.2

69.7

69.2

68.8

68.8

68.3

153.7

13.0

6.3

73.3

73.5

71.8

71.3

70.8

70.3

69.8

69.3

68.8

68.3

67.8

67.2

67.3

66.8

170.2

13.5

5.9

71.9

72.3

70.3

69.8

69.3

68.8

68.2

67.7

67.2

66.6

66.1

65.6

65.6

65.0

189.1

14.0

5.5

70.4

80.9

68.7

68.2

67.6

67.0

66.5

65.9

65.3

64.7

64.2

63.6

63.6

63.0

210.9

14.5

5.1

68.6

67.4

66.8

66.2

65.6

65.0

64.4

63.8

63.2

62.6

62.0

61.4

61.4

60.7

236.4

15.0

4.7

66.6

65.3

64.6

64.0

63.3

62.7

62.0

61.4

60.7

60.1

59.4

68.7

58.7

58.1

Doctor Mario Santizo

14

02/09/2016

Tablas de eficiencia de combustin


Bnker
Temperatura neta (F)
Aire
0.0

% O2
0.0

%CO2
16.5

590
82.7

600
82.4

610
82.2

620
82.0

630
81.8

640
81.6

650
81.3

660
81.1

670
80.9

680
80.7

690
80.5

700
80.2

710
80.0

720
79.8

2.3

0.5

16.1

82.4

82.2

82.0

81.7

81.5

81.3

81.1

80.8

80.6

80.4

80.2

79.9

79.7

79.5

4.7

1.0

15.7

7.3

1.5

15.3

81.9

81.6

81.4

81.2

81.0

80.7

80.5

80.3

80.0

79.8

79.5

79.3

79.1

78.8

10.0

2.0

14.9

81.6

81.4

81.1

80.9

80.6

80.4

80.2

79.9

79.7

79.5

79.2

79.0

78.7

78.5

12.8

2.5

14.5

81.3

81.0

80.8

80.6

80.3

80.1

79.8

79.6

79.3

79.1

78.9

78.6

78.4

78.1

15.8

3.0

14.1

81.0

80.7

80.5

80.2

80.0

79.7

79.5

79.2

79.0

78.7

78.5

78.2

78.0

77.7

18.9

3.5

13.8

80.6

80.4

80.1

79.9

79.6

79.4

79.1

78.9

78.6

78.3

78.1

77.8

77.6

77.3

22.3

4.0

13.4

80.3

80.0

79.8

79.5

79.2

79.0

78.8

78.5

78.2

77.9

77.7

77.4

77.1

76.9

25.8

4.5

13.0

79.9

79.6

79.4

79.1

78.8

78.6

78.3

78.0

77.8

77.5

77.2

76.9

76.7

76.4

29.6

5.0

12.6

79.5

79.2

79.0

78.7

78.4

78.1

77.9

77.6

77.3

77.0

76.7

76.5

76.2

75.9

33.6

5.5

12.2

79.1

78.8

78.5

78.2

77.9

77.7

77.4

77.1

76.8

76.5

76.2

76.0

75.7

75.4

37.9

6.0

11.8

78.6

78.3

78.0

77.7

77.5

77.2

76.9

76.6

76.3

76.0

75.7

75.4

75.1

74.8

42.4

6.5

11.4

78.1

77.8

77.5

77.2

76.9

76.6

76.3

76.0

75.7

75.4

75.1

74.8

74.5

74.2

47.3

7.0

11.0

77.6

77.3

77.0

76.7

76.4

76.1

75.8

75.4

75.1

74.8

74.5

74.2

73.9

73.6

52.6

7.5

10.6

77.0

76.7

76.4

76.1

75.8

75.5

75.1

74.8

74.5

74.2

73.9

73.5

73.2

58.2

8.0

10.2

76.4

76.1

75.8

75.5

75.1

74.8

74.5

74.1

73.8

73.5

73.1

72.8

72.5

72.1

64.3

8.5

9.8

75.8

75.4

75.1

74.8

74.4

74.1

73.7

73.4

73.1

72.7

72.4

72.0

71.7

71.3

71.0

82.1

75.1

81.9

74.7

81.7

74.4

81.5

74.0

81.2

73.7

81.0

73.3

80.8

73.0

80.6

72.6

80.3

72.3

80.1

71.9

79.9

71.5

79.6

71.2

79.4

70.8

79.2

72.9

9.0

9.4

78.2

9.5

9.0

74.3

73.9

73.6

73.2

72.8

72.5

72.1

71.7

71.4

71.0

70.6

70.3

69.9

69.5

86.0

10.0

8.6

73.5

73.1

72.7

72.3

72.0

71.6

71.2

70.8

70.4

70.0

69.6

69.3

68.9

68.5

70.5

94.6

10.5

8.3

72.6

72.2

71.7

71.4

71.0

70.6

70.2

79.8

69.4

69.0

68.6

68.2

67.8

67.4

104.1

11.0

7.9

71.5

71.1

70.7

70.3

69.9

69.5

69.1

68.6

68.2

67.8

67.4

67.0

66.5

66.1

114.5

11.5

7.5

70.4

70.0

69.6

69.1

68.7

68.3

67.8

67.4

66.9

66.5

66.1

65.6

65.2

64.7

126.1

12.0

7.1

69.2

68.7

68.3

67.8

67.4

66.9

66.4

66.0

65.5

65.1

64.6

64.1

63.7

63.2

139.1

12.5

6.7

67.8

67.3

66.8

66.4

65.9

65.4

64.9

64.4

63.9

63.5

63.0

62.5

62.0

61.5

153.7

13.0

6.3

66.2

65.7

65.2

64.7

64.2

63.7

63.2

62.7

62.2

61.6

61.1

60.6

60.1

59.6

170.2

13.5

5.9

64.5

63.9

63.4

62.9

62.3

61.8

61.2

60.7

60.1

59.6

59.1

58.5

58.0

57.4

189.1

14.0

5.5

62.5

61.9

61.3

60.7

60.2

59.6

59.0

58.4

57.8

57.3

56.7

56.1

55.5

54.9

210.9

14.5

5.1

60.1

59.5

58.9

58.3

57.7

57.0

56.4

55.8

55.2

54.6

53.9

53.3

52.7

52.1

236.4

15.0

4.7

57.4

56.8

56.1

55.4

54.8

54.1

53.4

52.8

52.1

51.4

50.7

50.1

49.4

48.7

Doctor Mario Santizo

Doctor Mario Santizo

15

02/09/2016

Eficienciadecaldera
STDagua fresca h

%Ppurga
sensible 100
STDagua caldera hvapor

%Pradiacinconveccin

T 460 4 Ta 460 4
1.25
0.174 s

0.296 Ts Ta


100 100
pie2 100


combustible

HHV

La eficiencia de combustin menos las prdidas de energa por purga


y radiacinconveccin, equivale a la energa que se aprovecha para
producir vapor o eficiencia de caldera:

caldera combustin %Ppurga en energa %Pradiacin y conveccin

Doctor Mario Santizo

Eficiencia de caldera

caldera

lb vapor
hr. hvapor hagua alim entacin caldera

galcombustible MBtu

gal.
hr.

Balance de agua de retorno


agua a lim entacin m
condensados m
agua fresca
m

Tanque
condensado

Retorno de condensados

Agua fresca (make up)


Agua alimentacin a caldera
Doctor Mario Santizo

16

02/09/2016

CASO
flujo alim entacin 100
flujo condensados 48

lb
y temperatura 145F
min

lb
y temperatura 200F
min

Deter minar flujo de agua fresca y su temperatura


Balance total :

agua a lim entacin m


condensados m
agua fresca
m

Balance temperatura :

Tagua fresca

agua fresca 52 lb
m
min

lb
lb
lb

100 min 145F 48 min 200F 52 min Tagua fresca

lb
lb

100 min 145F 48 min 200F

94.23F
lb

52 min

Doctor Mario Santizo

Eficiencia de caldera
caldera

lbmvapor

hvapor hagua caldera


h

gal.comb.

HHV
hr

Caballos de vapor y % de carga


lbmvapor

hvapor hagua alim entacin caldera


h

Bhp
lbmvapor
Btu

970.3

34.50

h
lbm

Bhp utilizados
%c arga
100
Bhp
no
minales

Doctor Mario Santizo

17

02/09/2016

Costo 1,000 libras vapor

Q
CEC

gal

hvapor ha.a.c

MBtu
HHV gal caldera
Q

Costo Vapor
1,000 lbs vapor
1,000

Doctor Mario Santizo

CLCULOVAPORGENERADOYCOSTODE1,000
LIBRASDEVAPOR
DATOS
Eficienciacaldera=78%
Bnkerconsumido=100gal/h
Costobnker=8.00Q/gal
Podercalorfico=150,000Btu/gal
Vaporproducidoa155psigsaturado
Aguaentrandoalacalderaa162.21f

Determinarelcostode1,000librasdevapor

Doctor Mario Santizo

18

02/09/2016

poder calorfico bnker 150,000

hvapor 170 psia saturado 1,193.8

Btu
MBtu
0.15
gal
gal

Btu
lb

hagua a lim entacin caldera 162.21 F 130.17

Btu
lb

Btu
Btu
Btu

H 1,193.8
130.17
1,063.63
lb
lb
lb

gal
Btu

5 Btu
Energa consumida 100
150,000
150x10
h
gal
h

Doctor Mario Santizo

Energa utilizada para producir vapor


Btu
Btu

0.78 150x105
117x105
h
h

lb
Btu
Vapor generado =
117x105

h
1,063.63 Btu
= 11,000

lb vapor
h

8.00

Btu
Btu
gal

1,193.8
130.17
0.15
MBtu
lb
lb

0.78

gal

Costo Vapor
1,000

Q 72.7278
1,000 lbs vapor

Doctor Mario Santizo

19