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ENGLISH

ADVERBS
Modo
o Following the verb or direct object.
o Passive; between to be and the verb.
o Two manner adverbs: first the shortest and linked with AND
o In the beginning: luckily, naturally, suddenly, personally
Lugar
o If we put in the begging inversion suj-verb: Near the river was an old castle
o Beginning: along, away, off, here, round, up, thereW do an inversions if the
subject is not a pronoun: In you go! There comes Tony, Here is the post man
o Two adverbs: first the smallest one
Tiempo
o At the end
o More emphasis in the beginning
o Two adverbs: first the more exact
Varios:
o MANNER + PLACE + TIME
o Movement verb: place is immediately behind verb: They went to the doctor in
a hurry yesterday.

INVERSIN SUJETO VERBO


Los adverbios, especialmente restrictivos, pueden ir al principio de la oracin, el orden
sujeto-verbo se invierte.
She had not only finished her homework, but she also had cooked dinner/ Not only had
she finished her homework

WORD ORDER
Subject + verb + object + manner (how) + place (where) + time (when)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

SUBJECT + VERB + OBJECT: I often play basketball


SUBJECT + AUX + VERB + OBJECT: I will never play basketball.
SUBJECT + MODAL + VERB: I can often guess
QUESTION WORD + AUXILIARY VERB + SUBJECT: Where did they go?
SUBJECT QUESTIONS: Question Word + verb + rest: Does she pay tennis?
INDIRECT OBJET AND THE DIRECT OBJECT: She wrote a letter to him.

INDIRECT QUESTIONS
We use it when a question is preceded by another sentence or question: Subject + verb
I want to know when they are coming except of: When are they coming?
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ENGLISH
The police wanted to know what we were doing when we saw the accident.

TENSES
Present Simple:
o A regular habit, general truth, stative verbs.
o Always, usually, sometimes, rarely, once a month
Present Continuous
o An action that is happening now now, right now
o A temporally action this year, today
o A definitive plan next [], tomorrow
Past Simple
o A complete action, a series of completed actions
o Yesterday, when, then
Past Continuous
o An incomplete action in progress at a specific time in the past last
night/week
o An incomplete action interrupted, incomplete actions at the same time in the
past when, while
Present Perfect Simple
o An action that began in the past and continues in the present
o A past actions connected with the present
o Never, ever, just, already, yet, recently
Past Perfect Simple
o A completed action that took place after another past action
o Already, by this time, after, just
Future Simple
o Predictions, timetables or spontaneous decisions
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ENGLISH
o
Be
o
o
o

This evening, later, tomorrow


going to
A planned action
An action that is about to happen
This evening, in a few weeks

Future Perfect Simple


o A completed action at a certain future time
o By this time next [], in [] months
Future Continuous
o An action in progress at a certain future time
o In the next decade, at this time tomorrow
Present Perfect Continuous (Llevo)
o An action that started in the past and still continues
o An action whose results still apparent
o All Night/ morning, how long
Past Perfect Continuous (Llevaba)
o An action that continues up to another past action
o For hour, since, all morning

BE USED TO/ GET USED TO

Be used to: something we are accustomed to do


Get used to: we are in progress of becoming accustomed to do

USED TO/ WOULD

Used to: actions that took place frequently in the past but do not take place
anymore. To speak about past situations and states.
Would: actions that took place frequently in the past but do not take place
anymore

WH-EVER WORDS
Whatever - Anything (This could also be everything)
Whenever - Any time (This could also be 'every time')
Wherever - Any 'where' (Anywhere or everywhere).
Whoever - Anyone (Any person or every person, or sometimes used to refer to a
person unknown to the speaker)
Whichever - Any 'which' (Choice between a group or set).
However - Any 'way' (In any manner or way, regardless of how).

SUFIXES
-Y----------------------------------------tiene la apariencia o cualidad de
-LY---------------------------------------------------------tiene la cualidad de
-LIKE-------------------------------------------------------se comporta como
-ISH-----------------------a grupos de gente que se comportan como
----------------------------------------------------Adjetivos de nacionalidad
-----------------------------------------------------A colores ms o menos
-FULL-----------------------------------a nombres abstractos-lleno de
-LESS----------------------------------------------------carecen de cualidad
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ENGLISH
-ABLE, -IBLE--------------------------------------------tienen la capacidad
-ED--------------------------------------------------------------indica posesin
-ESE, -IAN-----------------------------------------------con pases: idiomas
-EN----------------------------------------------indica la materia de origen
-IVE, -IST, -AL, -ARY, -ICAL, -ATE, -SOME
PREFIXES
UN-, IL (L)-, DIS-, IM (P)-, IR (R)-, IN-, INTER-, OVER-, UNDER-, RE-, MIS-, ANTI- , MULTI-

CONDITIONALS

Zero: PRESENT SIMPLE + PRESENT SIMPLE


First: PRESENT SIMPLE + FUTURE SIMPLE (IMPERATIVE)
Second: PAST SIMPLE + CONDITIONAL (WOULD + PP)
Third: PAST PERFECT + CONDITIONAL PERFECT (WOULD + HAVE + PP)
o Suppose/ supposing that-suponiendo que
o Providing/ provided that- siempre que
o As long as/ so long as- con tal de que
o On condition that- con la condicin de que
o Unless + affirmative verb
o Inversion SI HAY AUXILIAR: Third conditional- de haber
o But for + noun group- de no ser por

THE SUBJUNCTIVE
1. Wish Clauses
a. WISH+SUBJECT+PAST: to express regret about present situation.
b. WISH+SUBJECT+PASTPERFECT: to express regret about past situation.
c. WISH+SUBJECT+WOULD (COULD)+ROOT OF THE VERB: express
dissatisfaction with present situations and a wish for a change.
d. IF ONLY: can replace I wish if it is to express a strong wish or regret.
2. Subjunctive after certain verbs
a. Suggest, demand, insist, propose, recommend, order, prefer, advise, ask,
command
b. SUBJECT1+VERB+THAT+SUBJECT2+(SHOULD)+ROOT OF VERB
3. Subjunctive after certain structures
a. IT IS+ VERB+ THAT+SUBJECT2+ROOT OF THE VERB
b. Verbs: important, vital, essential, imperative, advisable, necessary
4. Its time
a. Something that should have be done already or something should be done
before it is too late
b. ITS TIME/ABOUT TIME+SUBJET+PAST
5. I would rather
a. Is used to show preference.
b. WOULD RATHER+SUBJECT+PAST- someone elses action
c. WOULD RATHER+BASE INF- OWN ACTIONS IN PRESENT
6. I Want
a. WANT+INFINITIVE: I want to go
b. WANT+PRONOUN/NOUN
c. WANT+OBJECT+INFINITIVE: I want Susan to finish her homework
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ENGLISH

REPORTED SPEECH
A. STATEMENTS
a. Tenses
Present Simple---------------------------------------------------Past Simple
Present Continuous---------------------------------------Past Continuous
Past Simple--------------------------------------------------------Past Perfect
Present Perfect---------------------------------------------------Past Perfect
Past perfect-------------------------------------------------------Past Perfect
Will--------------------------------------------------------------------------Would
Can---------------------------------------------------------------------------Could
May--------------------------------------------------------------------------Might
Must----------------------------------------------------------------------Have to
b. Time and Place expressions
Now---------------------------------------------------------------------------Then
Today, Tonight-----------------------------------------That day, that night
Tomorrow--------------------------------------------------The following day
This, these---------------------------------------------------------That, those
Yesterday---------------------------------------------------The previous day
Last Night---------------------------------------------------The night before
Next week/year---------------------------------The following week/year
A week ago----------------------------------------------------a week before
Here-------------------------------------------------------------------------There
B. QUESTIONS
a. Yes/No Questions: we use IF/WETHER to introduce
b. Wh- Questions: We use an INTERROGATIVE CLAUSE
C. ORDERS
a. Imperative: TO INFINITIVE
b. Negative imperative: NOT TO INFINITIVE
D. SUGGESTIONS
a. SUGGESTED/RECOMMENDED+THAT+SUBJECT+BASE FORM
b. SUGGESTED/RECOMMENDED+ GERUND (not specifying the subject)

RELATIVE CLAUSES
Give us extra info.
DEFINING: can be omitted if it is not the subject
PEOPLE
THING
POSSESSIVE
PLACE
REASON
TIME

Who
Which
Whose (Never omitted)
Where
Why
When

ENGLISH
NON-DEFINING: cannot be omitted, they go between commas
PEOPLE
THING
POSSESSIVE
PLACE
REASON
TIME

Who
Which
Whose (Never omitted)
Where
Why
When

FORMAL
We use WHICH referring to a thing
We use WHOM referring to a person

Precedido de la preposicin,
omitimos el pronombre

This is the house in which I lived ------This is the house which I live in
The student to whom I talked was very mature------The student who I talked to was
very mature