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ROTC

Operations
Smart Book
Squad / Patrol
Operations
Chicago Army ROTC

ROTC Operations Smart Book

03 OCT 2016

Introduction How Leaders in the Army Speak

An Officers Role
The role of officers in the Army is to provide leadership and resources to their subordinates. According
to FM 6-22, Army Leadership, the word leadership is defined as the process of influencing people by
providing PURPOSE, DIRECTION (TASKS), and motivation while operating to accomplish the mission
and improving the organization.
PURPOSE gives subordinates the reason to act in order to achieve a desired outcome. Officers should
provide clear PURPOSE for their followers. Officers use direct means of conveying PURPOSE through
requests or orders for what to do.
Providing clear DIRECTION (TASKS) involves communicating how to accomplish a mission:
PRIORITIZING TASKS, assigning responsibility for completion, and ensuring subordinates understand
the standard.
Although subordinates want and need direction, they expect challenging TASKS, quality training, and
adequate resources. They should be given appropriate freedom of action. Providing clear direction
allows followers the freedom to modify plans and orders to adapt to changing circumstances. Directing
while adapting to change is a continuous process.

Conveying TASK, PURPOSE, AND FOCUS


We assign missions, either to units or individuals, in terms of TASK and PURPOSE. We provide focus
by assigning PRIORITIES. We tell people the BOTTOM LINE UP FRONT (BLUF), and then explain
the details. All of these allow for clear and concise communication and a common understanding of
expectations up and down the ranks.

March 2011, Zormat District, Paktia Province, Afghanistan


1st PLT was assigned the task on two separate missions to maneuver to and
command the heights of two mountains, Wach Shakh Ghar and Tir Gol Ghar (Major). These
operations involved climbing to heights well over 8,000 feet in order to provide observation.
The Platoon Leader issued his platoon their task and purpose and assigned them priorities
of work for their occupation of the observation posts.
The actual purpose of these two missions was to identify routes into the northern and
southern Shah-I Kowt, a valley known historically as a safe-haven for insurgents. In the
years since the last operation in the Shah-I Kowt, vehicles had changed from the sm aller
M1151 up-armored HMMWV to various larger MRAP designs. At this point it was unknown
whether the routes into the valley would be able to support MRAPs with their larger
wheelbase and axle track, as well as the heavier weight. The PLT was responsible for
identifying mapped and unmapped routes, and assess MRAP feasibility of access.
When the platoon reached their planned observation posts, the leadership quickly
determined that they did not have an adequate view of the valley entrances. From their
initial vantage points they could only see two major routes (one North and one South) into
the valley. Understanding the purpose of his mission, the Platoon Leader had his squads
occupy 3 additional observation posts in order to gain a complete view of the valleys
entrances.
The result of the two missions was that ten routes into the Shah-I Kowt were
identified, with only one route navigable with MRAPs- but only during certain weather
conditions. This information was critical for a planned mission into the Shah-I Kowt; the
mission was adapted to include an air assault in an area previously believed to have been
traversable by vehicle.

ROTC Operations Smart Book

03 OCT 2016

Contents
Section 1 Purpose and Scope.................................................................................................1
1.1

Purpose............................................................................................................................... 1

1.2

Scope.................................................................................................................................. 1

Section 2 Operational Terms...................................................................................................2


2.1

Mission Statement............................................................................................................... 2

2.2

Tactical Mission TASK.........................................................................................................2

2.3

Purpose............................................................................................................................... 3

2.4

Commanders Intent............................................................................................................ 3

2.5

Objective Rally Point (ORP)................................................................................................3

2.6

En Route Rally Point (ERP)................................................................................................4

2.7

Linear Danger Area (LDA)...................................................................................................4

2.8

Limit of Advance (LOA).......................................................................................................4

2.9

Priorities of Work.................................................................................................................4

2.10 Pre-Combat Checks (PCC).................................................................................................4


2.11 Pre-Combat Inspections (PCI)............................................................................................4
2.12 Short Halt Posture (SHP)....................................................................................................4
2.13 Long Halt Posture (LHP).....................................................................................................4
2.14 Stop, Look, Listen, Smell (SLLS).........................................................................................4
2.15 5-Point Contingency Plan....................................................................................................4
2.16 Friction................................................................................................................................ 4

Section 3 Operational Graphics..............................................................................................6


3.1

Units (Friendly/Enemy)........................................................................................................6

3.2

Locations............................................................................................................................. 7

3.3

Mission Graphics.................................................................................................................7

3.4

Personnel............................................................................................................................ 7

Section 4 Planning....................................................................................................................8
4.1

Troop Leading Procedures..................................................................................................8

4.2

METT-TC.......................................................................................................................... 10

4.3

Military Aspects of the Terrain (OCOKA)............................................................................11

4.4

Orders............................................................................................................................... 12

4.5

Rehearsals........................................................................................................................ 16

4.6

ROTC Timelines and Recommended Priorities of Work....................................................19

Section 5 Assembly Area Operations and Movement........................................................22


5.1

Assembly Area Operations (All operations).......................................................................22

5.2

Movement to the Objective (All operations).......................................................................24

Section 6 Actions on the Objective (Squad)........................................................................28


6.1

Actions on the Objective (Squad) Overview......................................................................28

6.2

Squad Attack..................................................................................................................... 28

6.3

Squad Ambush.................................................................................................................. 32

6.4

Squad Reconnaissance....................................................................................................35

Section 7 Actions on the Objective (Patrol).........................................................................38


7.1

Overview........................................................................................................................... 38

7.2

Patrol Raid........................................................................................................................ 46

7.3

Ambush............................................................................................................................. 49

7.4

Reconnaissance................................................................................................................ 55

7.5

Cordon and Search........................................................................................................... 58

Section 8 Consolidation and Reorganization on the Objective.........................................62


2

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03 OCT 2016
8.1 Consolidation and Reorganization Overview.....................................................................62
8.2

Security............................................................................................................................. 62

8.3

LACE................................................................................................................................. 62

8.4

SITREP............................................................................................................................. 62

8.5

Special Teams................................................................................................................... 62

8.6

Tactical Site Exploitation....................................................................................................63

8.7

Movement Off of the Objective..........................................................................................63

8.8

Exfiltration......................................................................................................................... 63

Appendix A

Cart oon Order Example................................................................................64

Appendix B

MEDEVAC Request (9-Line MEDEVEC).......................................................65

Appendix C

9 Line IED/UXO Report..................................................................................66

Appendix D

WF 12 Rules of Engagement.........................................................................67

Figures
Figure 3-1 - Unit Symbols............................................................................................................ 6
Figure 3-2 - Unspecified Friendly Squad.....................................................................................6
Figure 3-3 - Unit Echelons...........................................................................................................6
Figure 3-4 Friendly Infantry Squad............................................................................................6
Figure 3-5 - Basic Unit Types.......................................................................................................6
Figure 4-1 - Standard 5-Paragraph OPORD..............................................................................13
Figure 4-2 - FOOM / Cartoon OPORD Page 1...........................................................................14
Figure 4-3 - FOOM / Cartoon OPORD Page 2...........................................................................15
Figure 4-4 - Squad Lanes Timeline and Key Leader Distribution of Work..................................19
Figure 4-5 - Patrol Lanes Timeline.............................................................................................20
Figure 4-6 - Patrol Lanes Key Leader Distribution of Work........................................................21
Figure 5-1 - Cartoon Order (Example Phase 1).........................................................................22
Figure 5-2 - Squad Security at the Halt......................................................................................23
Figure 5-3 - Patrol Security at the Halt.......................................................................................23
Figure 5-4 - Cartoon Order (Example Phase 2).........................................................................24
Figure 5-5 Movement, Recon, and Occupation of the ORP....................................................26
Figure 6-1 - Cartoon Order (Example Phase 3 - Ambush).........................................................28
Figure 6-2 Squad Attack............................................................................................................ 31
Figure 6-3 Squad Area Reconnaissance....................................................................................37
Figure 7-1 Raid Formation......................................................................................................... 48
Figure 7-2 Ambush Formations..................................................................................................50
Figure 7-3 Actions on the Objective -- Hasty Ambush................................................................52
Figure 7-4 Actions on the Objective -- Deliberate Ambush.........................................................54
Figure 7-5 Urban Cordon........................................................................................................... 59
Figure 7-6 Cordon and Search Building Cluster.........................................................................59
Figure 8-1 Cartoon Order (Example Phase 4).........................................................................62

ROTC Operations Smart Book

03 OCT 2016

Section 1 Purpose and Scope


1.1

Purpose
The PURPOSE of this document is to provide Cadets with a basic understanding of squad and patrol
operations conducted at the Leadership Development and Assessment Camp (LDAC). It is intended as
a reference document to supplement classroom and hands-on training in the current SROTC
curriculum.

1.2

Scope
The scope of this document covers the squad and patrol operations Cadets will encounter at LDAC.
The tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTP) used throughout this smart book are hard and fast rules
only for ROTC. As Cadets enter the operational Army, they may find and use TTPs that deviate from
the TTPs presented here. This smart book shows a way that is doctrinally sound that Fire Battalion
Cadets will use throughout their Cadet careers.

Purpose and Scope

ROTC Operations Smart Book

03 OCT 2016

Section 2 Operational Terms


2.1

Mission Statement
A short paragraph or sentence describing the TASK and PURPOSE that clearly indicates the action to
be taken and the reason thereof (TASK and PURPOSE). It usually contains the elements of who, what,
when, and where, and the reason thereof (5 Ws), but never specifies how. A mission statement should
be developed by determining the PURPOSE, then determining the TASK.

2.2

Tactical Mission TASK


The specific activity performed by a unit while executing a form of tactical operation or form of
maneuver. It may be expressed in terms of either actions by a friendly force or effects on an enemy
force.
2.2.1

Overview

The following tasks are either ones that will be issued to you in your operations order, or that you as a
leader would identify to one of your subordinate units as a Cadet. This is a limited list and is focused on
the types of missions you will experience at LDAC. The operations orders (OPORDs) you will receive
your TASK and PURPOSE will be identified in the Task to Subordinate Units.
Task: Destroy enemy dismounted patrols; Purpose: Facilitate friendly freedom of movement
2.2.2

Actions by a Friendly Force

2.2.2.1 Clear
Clear is a tactical mission task that requires the commander to remove all enemy forces and eliminate
organized resistance within an assigned area. This task is specific to terrain. The force does this by
destroying, capturing, or forcing the withdrawal of enemy forces so they cannot interfere with the
friendly unit's mission. In all cases, this task requires a thorough reconnaissance to discover the
enemy's locations. After discovering the location, the clearing force maneuvers against the enemy
force.
2.2.2.2 Breach
Breach is a tactical mission task in which the unit employs all available means to break through or
secure a passage through an enemy defense, obstacle, minefield, or fortification. A commander
attempts to bypass and avoid obstacles and enemy defensive positions to the maximum extent
possible to maintain tempo and momentum. Breaching enemy defenses and obstacle systems is
normally his last choice. When they occur, they are a synchronized combined arms operation under the
control of the maneuver commander. Regardless of where the attack falls along the continuum, the
breaching tenets-intelligence, breaching fundamentals, breaching organization, mass, and
synchronization-apply when conducting breaching operations in support of an attack. Cadets are most
likely to use this TASK as part of an attack during your patrolling lanes.
2.2.2.3 Seize
Seize is a tactical mission task that involves taking possession of a designated area by using
overwhelming force. An enemy force can no longer place direct fire on an objective that has been
seized. This task differs from secure because it requires offensive action to obtain control of the
designated area or objective. It differs from the task of occupy because it involves overcoming
anticipated enemy opposition. Once a force seizes a physical objective, it clears the terrain within that
objective by killing, capturing, or forcing the withdrawal of all enemy forces.
2.2.2.4 Support-by-fire
Support-by-fire is a tactical mission task in which a maneuver force moves to a position where it can
engage the enemy by direct fire in support of another maneuvering force. The primary objective of the
support force is normally to fix and suppress the enemy so he cannot effectively fire on the
maneuvering force. The secondary objective is to destroy the enemy if he tries to reposition. The
commander must specify the desired effect on the enemy when assigning this task to a subordinate.
A unit conducting the task of support by fire does not maneuver to capture enemy forces or terrain. The
commander gives this task to another unit as part of a larger maneuver. When assigning a support-byfire mission, the commander designates the enemy, when to attack, the general location from which to
operate, the friendly force to support, and the purpose of the task, such as fix or suppress.
Once the commander gives an element the task of support by fire, it should occupy support by fire
positions that have cover and concealment, good observation, and clear fields of fire. Elements
occupying support-by-fire positions should
Check the security of the position.
Search for targets.
Orient weapons on likely or suspected enemy positions.
Assume fighting positions that provide some degree of protection. Heavy forces occupy hull-down firing
positions, while light forces use trees, natural berms, buildings, and similar existing terrain features.
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ROTC Operations Smart Book


03 OCT 2016
Assign observation sectors to each soldier or weapon system in the support-by-fire element.
Use its available thermal sights to locate heat sources not visible to the naked eye, such as vehicles
concealed in tree lines or other wooded areas or personnel serving at OPs.
Support by fire closely resembles the task of attack by fire. The difference is that support by fire
supports another force so it can maneuver against the enemy, while an attack by fire does not support
the maneuver of another friendly force.
2.2.3

Effects on Enemy Force

2.2.3.1 Destroy
Destroy is a tactical mission task that physically renders an enemy force combat-ineffective until it is
reconstituted. Alternatively, to destroy a combat system is to damage it so badly that it cannot perform
any function or be restored to a usable condition without being entirely rebuilt. The amount of damage
needed to render a unit combat-ineffective depends on the unit's type, discipline, and morale.
2.2.3.2 Fix
Fix is a tactical mission task where a commander prevents the enemy from moving any part of his force
from a specific location for a specific period. This may occur by engaging him to prevent his withdrawal
for use elsewhere, or by using deception, such as transmitting false orders. The commander uses fix in
offensive and defensive actions; it is always a shaping operation.
Fixing an enemy force does not mean destroying it. The friendly force has to prevent the enemy from
moving in any direction. The tactical mission task of fix differs from that of block in that a fixed enemy
force cannot move from a given location, but a blocked enemy force can move in any direction other
than the one obstructed.

2.3

Purpose
The specific reason for the tactical operation a unit is performing. This is the driving factor in
determining the TASK needed to accomplish the mission.
Example Mission Statement: Alpha Company destroys enemy forces along MSR WOLVERINE NLT
121800JUL in order to deny enemy freedom of movement and re-supply
In this example the leader has determined that the tactical TASK destroy fulfills the PURPOSE to deny
enemy freedom of movement and resupply.

2.4

Commanders Intent
A clear, concise statement of what the force must do and the conditions the force must meet to succeed
with respect to the enemy, terrain, and desired end state.

2.5

2.4.1

Expanded PURPOSE Elaborates on the PURPOSE given in the mission statement in order to
provide clarity.

2.4.2

Key TASKs TASKs the unit must accomplish. If the unit does not accomplish these TASKs, it
will fail at its assigned mission.

2.4.3

End State The conditions that, when achieved, accomplish the mission. Generally expressed
in terms of Friendly, Enemy, Environmental, and Civilian.

Objective Rally Point (ORP)


The objective rally point (ORP) is a point out of sight, sound, and small-arms range of the objective
area. It is normally located in the direction that the platoon plans to move after completing its actions on
the objective. The ORP is tentative until the objective is pinpointed. Actions at or from the ORP include

Issuing a final FRAGO.


Disseminating information from reconnaissance if contact was not made.
Making final preparations before continuing operations.
Accounting for Soldiers and equipment after actions on the objective are complete.
Reestablishing the chain of command after actions on the objective are complete.

The following are the five characteristics of a good ORP:

2.6

Easy to recognize on the ground


Away from natural lines of drift
Away from high-speed avenues of approach
Provide good cover and concealment
Provide little to no value to the enemy
Defendable for short periods

En Route Rally Point (ERP)


A En Route Rally Point is a place designated by the leader where the unit moves to reassemble and
reorganize if it becomes dispersed.
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Purpose and Scope

ROTC Operations Smart Book

2.7

03 OCT 2016

Linear Danger Area (LDA)


A danger area is any area on a route where the terrain would expose the unit to enemy observation,
fire, or both. A Linear Danger Area refers to areas such as roads, firebreaks, power line clearings, etc.
If possible, units will avoid these areas. When impractical or impossible, the unit will maximize caution
and speed when crossing all danger areas.

2.8

Limit of Advance (LOA)


A phase line used to control forward progress of the attack. The attacking unit does not advance any of
its elements or assets beyond the limit of advance, but the attacking unit can push its security forces to
that limit.

2.9

Priorities of Work
A list of TASKs, established by a leader, in order of precedence for completion. Priorities of Work
provide subordinates direction and focus for performing mission critical TASKs.

2.10 Pre-Combat Checks (PCC)


Detailed final checks Soldiers conduct immediately before the execution of training or operations.

2.11 Pre-Combat Inspections (PCI)


Quality control inspections, by leaders, to ensure PCCs are complete and thorough.

2.12 Short Halt Posture (SHP)


Anytime a tactical movement formation stops, individual Soldiers immediately assume the Short Halt
Posture. Soldiers take a knee behind the best cover and concealment immediately available, maintain
their rucksacks on their backs, weapon at the ready, and scan their assigned sectors of fire.

2.13 Long Halt Posture (LHP)


Position individual Soldiers assume if they know they will be in a location for longer than five minutes.
Soldiers take their rucksacks off placing them frame down, assume a prone position behind cover and
concealment, and scan their assigned sectors of fire.

2.14 Stop, Look, Listen, Smell (SLLS)


SLLS stands for Stop, Look, Listen, and Smell. This is a technique used when either acclimating your
element to your surroundings or trying to detect signs of the enemy.

STOP: You will stop all movement


LOOK: You will look for signs of the enemy, things like trash, old fighting positions, or the enemy
themselves.
LISTEN: You will listen for signs of the enemy, things like engines running, the enemy talking, or the
enemy moving.
SMELL: You will smell for signs of the enemy, things like food, smoke from fires, or POL products
(fuels).

2.15 5-Point Contingency Plan


G

Going

Where is the leader going?

Others

Who is going with the leader?

Time (duration)

How long will the leader be gone? & What time will the leader return?

What

What does the subordinate element do if the leader fails to return?

Actions

What actions does the departing element and main body plan to take on
contact?

2.16 Friction
Friction is the resistance that comes from the environment that leaders and their units experience
during the course of an operation. It is comprised of all the elements in the operational environment that
come together to reduce the units ability to accomplish its mission. Some (but not all) factors that
contribute to these incidents are

Danger
Unclear information or orders; misinterpreted orders
Rapidly-changing situations and continuous demands
Environmental factors such as noise, dirt, weather, and complex terrain
Physical factors such as hunger, fatigue, and lack of sleep
Fear

As expressed by Carl von Clausewitz in On War, Everything in war is very simple, but the simplest
thing is difficult. The difficulties accumulate and end by producing a kind of friction that is inconceivable
unless one has experienced war. This tremendous friction, which cannot, as in mechanics, be
4

Purpose and Scope

ROTC Operations Smart Book


03 OCT 2016
reduced to a few points, is everywhere in contact with chance, and brings about effects that cannot be
measured, just because they are largely due to chance.

Purpose and Scope

ROTC Operations Smart Book

03 OCT 2016

Section 3 Operational Graphics


3.1

Units (Friendly/Enemy)
3.1.1

Friendly units are depicted as rectangles, Enemy units are depicted as equilateral diamonds.

Figure 3-1 - Unit Symbols

3.1.2

Unit Size

Figure 3-2 Unspecified Friendly


Squad
Figure 3-3 - Unit Echelons

3.1.3

Unit Type

Figure 3-4 Friendly


Infantry Squad

Figure 3-5 - Basic Unit Types

Purpose and Scope

ROTC Operations Smart Book

3.2

03 OCT 2016

Locations
3.2.1

3.4

Assembly Area

Personnel
3.4.1

Fire Team Leader

3.4.2

Squad Leader

3.4.3

Assistant Patrol Leader

3.4.4

Patrol Leader

3.4.5

Grenadier

3.4.6

Rifleman

3.4.7

Automatic Rifleman (M249 SAW)

3.4.8

Machine Gunner (M60 / M240B)

AA
3.2.2

3.2.3

3.2.4

3.3

Check Point

Release Point

Observation Post (OP)

Mission Graphics
3.3.1

Ambush

3.3.2

Attack by Fire (ABF)

3.3.3

Axis of Attack / Advance

3.3.4

Support by Fire (SBF)

Purpose and Scope

Section 4 Planning
4.1

Troop Leading Procedures


4.1.1

Concept

TLP provide small unit leaders a framework for planning and preparing for operations. This section
discusses each step of the TLP.
Army leaders begin TLP when they receive the initial WARNO or perceive a new mission. As each
subsequent order arrives, leaders modify their assessments, update tentative plans, and continue to
supervise and assess preparations. In some situations, the higher headquarters may not issue the full
sequence of WARNOs; security considerations or tempo may make it impractical. In other cases, Army
leaders may initiate TLP before receiving a WARNO based on existing plans and orders (contingency
plans or be-prepared missions), and an understanding of the situation.
4.1.2

Structure

4.1.2.1 Receive the Mission


4.1.2.1.1 Perform an Initial Assessment
The initial assessment addresses the factors of mission, enemy, terrain and weather, troops and
support available, time available and civil considerations (METT-TC). The order and detail in which
Army leaders analyze the factors of METT-TC is flexible. It depends on the amount of information
available and the relative importance of each factor. For example, they may concentrate on the
mission, enemy, and terrain, leaving weather and civil considerations until they receive more detailed
information. Often, Army leaders will not receive their final unit mission until the WARNO is
disseminated after COA approval or after the OPORD. Effective leaders do not wait until their higher
headquarters completes planning to begin their planning. Using all information available, Army
leaders develop their unit mission as completely as they can. They focus on the mission,
commanders intent, and concept of operations of their higher and next higher headquarters. They
pick out the major TASKs their unit will probably be assigned and develop a mission statement
based on information they have received. At this stage, the mission may be incomplete. For
example, an initial mission statement could be, First platoon conducts an ambush in the next 24
hours. While not complete, this information allows subordinates to start preparations. Leaders
complete a formal mission statement during TLP step 3 (make a tentative plan) and step 6 (complete
the plan).
4.1.2.1.2 Allocate the Available Time
Based on what they know, Army leaders estimate the time available to plan and prepare for the
mission. They begin by identifying the times at which major planning and preparation events,
including rehearsals, must be complete. Reverse planning helps them do this. Army leaders identify
the critical times specified by higher headquarters and work back from them, estimating how much
time each event will consume. Leaders ensure that all subordinate echelons have sufficient time for
their own planning and preparation needs. A general rule of thumb for leaders at all levels is to use
no more than one-third of the available time for planning and issuance of the OPORD. Leaders
allocate the remaining two-thirds of it to subordinates.
4.1.2.2 Issue a Warning Order (WARNO)
As soon as Army leaders finish their initial assessment of the situation and available time, they issue a
WARNO. Leaders do not wait for more information. They issue the best WARNO possible with the
information at hand and update it as needed with additional WARNOs.
The WARNO contains as much detail as possible. It informs subordinates of the unit mission and
gives them the leaders time line. Army leaders may also pass on any other instructions or information
they think will help subordinates prepare for the new mission. This includes information on the enemy,
the nature of the higher headquarters plan, and any specific instructions for preparing their units. The
most important thing is that leaders not delay in issuing the initial WARNO. As more information
becomes available, leaders can -- and should -- issue additional WARNOs.
4.1.2.3 Make a Tentative Plan
4.1.2.3.1 Analyze the Mission
To frame the tentative plan, Army leaders perform mission analysis. This mission analysis follows the
METT-TC format, continuing the initial assessment performed in TLP step 1. FM 6-0 discusses the
factors of METT-TC.
The product of this part of the mission analysis is the restated mission. The restated mission is a
simple, concise expression of the essential TASKs the unit must accomplish and the PURPOSE to
be achieved. The mission statement states who (the unit), what (the TASK), when (either the critical
time or on order), where (location), and why (the PURPOSE of the operation).
4.1.2.3.2 Develop a Course of Action
Mission analysis provides information needed to develop COAs. The PURPOSE of COA
development is simple: to determine one or more ways to accomplish the mission. At lower
8

Orders

echelons, the mission may be a single TASK. Most missions and TASKs can be accomplished in
more than one way. However, in a time-constrained environment, Army leaders may develop only
one COA. Normally, they develop two or more. Army leaders do not wait for a complete order before
beginning COA development. They develop COAs as soon as they have enough information to do
so. Usable COAs are suitable, feasible, acceptable, distinguishable, and complete. To develop them,
leaders focus on the actions the unit takes at the objective and conducts a reverse plan to the
starting point.
4.1.2.4 Initiate Movement
Army leaders initiate any movement necessary to continue mission preparation or position the unit for
execution, sometimes before making a tentative plan. They do this as soon as they have enough
information to do so, or when the unit is required to move to position itself for a TASK. This is also
essential when time is short. Movements may be to an assembly area, a battle position, a new AO, or
an attack position. They may include movement of reconnaissance elements, guides, or quartering
parties. Army leaders often initiate movement based on their tentative plan and issue the order to
subordinates in the new location.
4.1.2.5 Conduct Reconnaissance
Whenever time and circumstances allow, Army leaders personally observe the AO for the mission. No
amount of intelligence preparation of the battlefield (IPB) can substitute for firsthand assessment of
METT-TC from within the AO. Unfortunately, many factors can keep leaders from performing a
personal reconnaissance. The minimum action necessary is a thorough map reconnaissance,
supplemented by imagery and intelligence products. In some cases, subordinates or other elements
(such as scouts) may perform the reconnaissance for the leader while the leader completes other TLP
steps.
Army leaders use the results of the wargame to identify information requirements. Reconnaissance
operations seek to confirm or deny information that supports the tentative plan. They focus first on
information gaps identified during mission analysis. Army leaders ensure their leaders
reconnaissance complements the higher headquarters reconnaissance plan. The unit may conduct
additional reconnaissance operations as the situation allows. This step may also precede making a
tentative plan if there is not enough information available to begin planning. Reconnaissance may be
the only way to develop the information required for planning.
4.1.2.6 Complete the Plan
During this step, Army leaders incorporate the result of reconnaissance into their selected COA to
complete the plan or order. This includes preparing overlays, refining the indirect fire target list,
coordinating combat service support and command and control requirements, and updating the
tentative plan as a result of the reconnaissance. At lower levels, this step may entail only confirming or
updating information contained in the tentative plan. If time allows, Army leaders make final
coordination with adjacent units and higher headquarters before issuing the order.
4.1.2.7 Issue the Operations Order (OPORD)
Small unit orders are normally issued verbally and supplemented by graphics and other control
measures. The order follows the standard five-paragraph format OPORD format. Typically, Army
leaders below company level do not issue a commanders intent. They reiterate the intent of their
higher and next higher commander.
The ideal location for issuing the order is a point in the AO with a view of the objective and other
aspects of the terrain. The leader may perform a leaders reconnaissance, complete the order, and
then summon subordinates to a specified location to receive it. Sometimes security or other
constraints make it infeasible to issue the order on the terrain; then Army leaders use a sand table,
detailed sketch, maps, and other products to depict the AO and situation.
4.1.2.8 Supervise and Refine
Throughout TLP, Army leaders monitor mission preparations, refine the plan, perform coordination
with adjacent units, and supervise and assess preparations. Normally unit SOPs state individual
responsibilities and the sequence of preparation activities. Army leaders supervise subordinates and
inspect their personnel and equipment to ensure the unit is ready for the mission.
Army leaders refine their plan based on continuing analysis of their mission and updated intelligence.
Most important, Army leaders know that they create plans to ensure all their subordinates focus on
accomplishing the same mission within the commanders intent. If required, they can deviate from the
plan and execute changes based on battlefield conditions and the enemy. Army leaders oversee
preparations for operations. These include inspections, coordination, reorganization, fire support and
engineer activities, maintenance, resupply, and movement. The requirement to supervise is
continuous; it is as important as issuing orders. Supervision allows Army leaders to assess their
subordinates understanding of their orders and determine where additional guidance is needed. It is
crucial to effective preparation.
A crucial component of preparation is the rehearsal. Rehearsals allow Army leaders to assess their
subordinates preparations. They may identify areas that require more supervision. Army leaders
conduct rehearsals to:
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4.2

Practice essential TASKs Identify weaknesses or problems in the plan


Coordinate subordinate element actions
Improve soldier understanding of the concept of operations
Foster confidence among soldiers

METT-TC
4.2.1

Concept METT-TC is an acronym used to establish a framework for analyzing individual


missions based on critical aspects, regardless of the mission type or level of unit executing the
mission.

4.2.2

Structure

4.2.2.1 Mission - leaders analyze the higher headquarters WARNO or OPORD to determine how their unit
contributes to the higher headquarters mission:

Higher Headquarters Mission and Commanders Intent


Higher Headquarters Concept of Operations
Specified, Implied, and Essential TASKs
Constraints

The product of this part of the mission analysis is the restated mission. The restated mission is a
simple, concise expression of the essential TASKs the unit must accomplish and the PURPOSE to be
achieved. The mission statement states who (the unit), what (the TASK), when (either the critical time
or on order), where (location), and why (the PURPOSE of the operation).
4.2.2.2 Enemy with the restated mission as the focus, Army leaders continue the analysis with the enemy.
For small unit operations, Army leaders need to know about the enemys composition, disposition,
strength, recent activities, ability to reinforce, and possible COAs.
4.2.2.3 Terrain and Weather
Analyzing the mission through the military aspects of terrain (OKOCA):

Observation and Fields of Fire


Key Terrain
Obstacles
Cover and Concealment
Avenues of Approach

There are five military aspects of weather (see FM 34-130):

Visibility
Winds
Precipitation
Cloud Cover
Temperature/Humidity

4.2.2.4 Troops and Support Available Perhaps the most important aspect of a mission is determining the
combat potential of ones own force. Army leaders know the status of their Soldiers morale, their
experience and training, and their strengths and weaknesses. This analysis also include equipment
available:

Machine gun (M60/M240)


Claymore
Binoculars
AT-4
Litters/SKEDCOs
Grenades
EPW Handling Kit

4.2.2.5 Time Available Army leaders not only appreciate how much time is available, they understand the
time-space aspects of preparing, moving, fighting, and sustaining. They view their own TASKs and
enemy actions in relation to time. They know how long it takes under such conditions to prepare for
certain TASKs (prepare orders, rehearsals, etc.). The leaders objective is always to provide his
subordinates 2/3 of the planning/preparation time (1/3-2/3 rule).
4.2.2.6 Civil Considerations how the man-made infrastructure, civilian institutions, and attitudes and
activities of the civilian leaders, populations, and organizations within an area of operations influence
the conduct of military operations (FM 6-0). Civil considerations are analyzed in terms of six factors
(ASCOPE).

Areas
Structures
Capabilities
Organizations
People
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4.3

Events

Military Aspects of the Terrain (OCOKA)


4.3.1

Concept

Terrain analysis consists of an evaluation of the military aspects of the battlefields terrain to determine
its effects on military operations. The military aspects of terrain are often described using the acronym
OCOKA.
4.3.2

Structure

4.3.2.1 Observation and Fields of Fire


4.3.2.1.1 Observation
Observation is the ability to see the threat either visually or through the use of surveillance devices.
Factors that limit or deny observation include concealment and cover.
4.3.2.1.2 Fields of Fire
A field of fire is the area that a weapon or group of weapons may effectively cover with fire from a
given position. Terrain that offers cover limits fields of fire. Terrain that offers both good observation
and fields of fire generally favors defensive COAs.
The evaluation of observation and fields of fire allows you to:

Identify potential engagement areas, or fire sacks and kill zones


Identify defensible terrain and specific system or equipment positions
Identify where maneuvering forces are most vulnerable to observation and fire
Evaluate observation from the perspective of electronic and optical line-of sight (LOS) systems as
well as unaided visual observation. Consider systems such as weapon sights, laser range finders,
radars, radios, and jammers. While ground based systems usually require horizontal LOS, airborne
systems use oblique and vertical LOS. The same is true of air defense systems. If time and resources
permit, prepare terrain factor overlays to aid in evaluating observation and fields of fire. Consider the
following:

Vegetation or building height and density Canopy or roof closure


Relief features, including micro-relief features such as defiles (elevation tinting techniques are
helpful).
Friendly and threat target acquisition and sensor capabilities
Specific LOSs

4.3.2.2 Cover and Concealment


4.3.2.2.1 Cover
Cover is protection from the effects of direct and indirect fires. Ditches, caves, river banks, folds in
the ground, shell craters, buildings, walls, and embankments provide cover.
4.3.2.2.2 Concealment
Concealment is protection from observation. Woods, underbrush, snowdrifts, tall grass, and
cultivated vegetation provide concealment.
The evaluation of cover and concealment aids in identifying defensible terrain, possible approach
routes, assembly areas, and deployment and dispersal areas. Use the results of the evaluation to:

Identify and evaluate AAs


Identify defensible terrain and potential battle positions
Identify potential assembly and dispersal areas

4.3.2.3 Obstacles
Obstacles are any natural or man-made terrain features that stop, impede, or divert military
movement. An evaluation of obstacles leads to the identification of mobility corridors. This in turn
helps identify defensible terrain and AAs. To evaluate obstacles:

Identify pertinent obstacles in the Area of Interest


Determine the effect of each obstacle on the mobility of the evaluated force
Combine the effects of individual obstacles into an integrated product

4.3.2.4 Key Terrain


Key terrain is any locality or area the seizure, retention, or control of which affords a marked
advantage to either combatant. Key terrain is often selected for use as battle positions or objectives.
Evaluate key terrain by assessing the impact of its seizure, by either force, upon the results of battle.
A common technique is to depict key terrain on overlays and sketches with a large K within a circle
or curve that encloses and follows the contours of the designated terrain. On transparent overlays use
a color, such as purple, that stands out.
In the offense, key terrain features are usually forward of friendly dispositions and are often assigned
as objectives. Terrain features in adjacent sectors may be key terrain if their control is necessary for
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the continuation of the attack or the accomplishment of the mission. If the mission is to destroy threat
forces, key terrain may include areas whose seizure helps ensure the required destruction. Terrain
that gives the threat effective observation along an axis of friendly advance may be key terrain if it is
necessary to deny its possession or control by the threat.
In the defense, key terrain is usually within the AO and within or behind the selected defensive area.
4.3.2.5 Avenues of Approach
An Avenue of Approach (AA) is an air or ground route that leads an attacking force of a given size to
its objective or to key terrain in its path.
During offensive operations, the evaluation of AAs leads to a recommendation on the best AAs to the
commands objective and identification of avenues available to the threat for withdrawal or the
movement of reserves.
During the defense, identify AAs that support the threats offensive capabilities and avenues that
support the movement and commitment of friendly reserves.

4.4

Orders
4.4.1

WARNO

The WARNO serves as a notice of an upcoming mission and OPORD. Its also important because it
allows troops to prepare mentally and physically. Experienced troops and leaders know from the
mission statement what TASKs will likely be required. They begin to ready any special equipment as
well as their standard equipment. The troops also prepare themselves mentally, going over the
TASKs or lessons learned from previous experience and conducting battle drills or TASK rehearsals.
Finally, the troops can pace themselves to some extent, getting sleep and food prior to the mission.
The warning order is a preliminary notice of an order or action which is to follow. It helps subordinate
units and staffs prepare for new missions. WARNOs increase subordinates planning time, provide
details of the impending operations, and detail events that accompany preparation and execution.
At a minimum, the WARNO provides answers to the following questions:

Who is involved in the mission? How will the element be task organized?
What is the TASK to be accomplished?
Why are we performing this mission?
When is the start time and location of the OPORD?

4.4.2

OPORD

4.4.2.1 An operation order is a directive issued by a commander to subordinate commanders for the
PURPOSE of effecting the coordinated execution of an operation (JP 1-02). It is the detailed plan of
the mission, including the scheme of fire and maneuver, and the commanders intent. All Soldiers
need to understand what is expected of them, what their specific role is in the mission, and how each
fits into the bigger picture. Rehearsals of actions on the objective allow each troop to see that big
picture and where everyone will be physically located.
4.4.2.2 Traditionally called the five paragraph field order, an OPORD contains, as a minimum, descriptions of
the following:

TASK organization
Situation
Mission
Execution
Administrative and logistic support
Command and signal for the specified operation
OPORDs always specify an execution date and time

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4.4.3 5-Paragraph OPORD Format

03 OCT 2016

1. Situation:
A. Enemy
B. Friendly Forces
(1) Higher Msn (2 UP)
(2) Higher Msn (1 UP)
(3) Adjacent Units
(a) Adj Unit
C. Civil Considerations
D. Attach & Detach
2. Mission
3. Execution
1..1.8
rs Intent

Commande

A. Concept
(1) Scheme of
Maneuver
(2) Scheme of Fires
B. Tasks to Man Units
C. Coord Inst.
1..1.16 Timeline
4. Sustainment
A. Logistics
B. Personnel
C. Health Sys Support
5. Command & Control
A. Command
B. Control
C. Signal

1..1.1

Identify enemy forces and assess their general capabilities. Describe the enemys disposition, location, strength, and probable courses of action.
Identify known or potential threats and adversaries within the AO.

1..1.2
1..1.3

Identify the higher headquarters two levels up, with their mission and purpose
Identify the higher headquarters one levels up, with their mission and purpose

1..1.4
1..1.5
1..1.6
1..1.7

Identify and state the missions of adjacent units and other units whose actions have a significant impact on the overall operation
Describe the critical aspects of the civil situation that impact operations. Refer to Intelligence as needed.
List units attached to or detached from the issuing headquarters.
State the units missiona short description of TASK and PURPOSE for the unit. Should cover who, what, when, where, and why

1..1.9
1..1.10
1..1.11
1..1.12

Purpose: Clearly and concisely state the reason for conducting the operation *
Key Tasks: State the actions to be performed by designated sub-elements
End State: Describe what constitutes the success of an operation and provide the purpose and conditions that define that desired state
Describe the employment of units within the context of the operation. Provide the primary tasks of maneuver units conducting the decisive operation and the
purpose of each. Next, state the primary tasks of maneuver units conducting shaping operations, including security operations, and the purpose of each. For
offensive operations, identify the form of maneuver. For defensive operations, identify the type of defense. For stability operations, describe the role of maneuver
units by primary stability tasks. If the operation is phased, identify the main effort by phase. Identify and include priorities for the reserve.
Describe the use of fires to support the concept of operations with emphasis on the scheme of maneuver. State the fire support tasks and the purpose of each
task. State the priorities for, allocation of, and restrictions on fires.
State the task assigned to each unit that reports directly to the headquarters issuing the order. Each task must include who (the subordinate unit assigned the
task), what (the task itself), when, where, and why (purpose). Use a separate subparagraph for each unit. List units in task organization sequence. Place tasks
that affect two or more units in paragraph 3.j (Coordinating Instructions)
List only instructions and tasks applicable to two or more units not covered in unit SOPs. List rules of engagement, essential elements of friendly information
(EEFIs), and commanders critical information requirements (CCIRs) here.
State the time or condition when the OPORD becomes effective and list the overall timeline of the operation.

1..1.13
1..1.14
1..1.15
1..1.17

1..1.18 Identify ration cycle (M=MRE, A=Hot Prepared Meal)


1..1.19 Identify enemy prisoner of war (EPW) collection point locations (your unit and 1 level up)
1..1.20 Identify casualty collection point (CCP) locations (your unit and 1 level up)
1..1.21 Identify the commanders location (your unit and 1 level up) and the succession of command (your unit)
1..1.22 Identify Command Post location (your unit and 1 level up)
1..1.23 Identify call signs, challenge and password, number combination, and running password
1..1.24

Figure 4-6 - Standard 5-Paragraph OPORD

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4.4.4 FOOM / Cartoon Format

03 OCT 2016

1..1.25

1..1.26

Figure 4-7 - FOOM / Cartoon OPORD Page 1

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1..1.27

03 OCT 2016

1..1.28

4.4.5

Figure 4-8 - FOOM / Cartoon OPORD Page 2

FRAGO

1..1.29 The FRAGO is an adjustment to an existing OPORD. There are many reasons an order
might need adjusting. Most commonly, a FRAGO is issued due to a significant change in the
situation on the ground or for clarifying instructions. It is issued after an OPORD to change or
modify that order or to execute a branch or a sequel to that order.
1..1.30 FRAGOs differ from OPORDs only in the degree of detail provided. They address only
those parts of the original OPORD that have changed. FRAGOs refer to previous orders and
provide brief and specific instructions.

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1..1.31 FRAGOs include all five OPORD paragraph headings. After each heading, state either
new information or no change. As such, this information depends on the specifics of the
tactical situation. FRAGO may include:

4.5

Updates to the enemy or friendly situation


Changes to the scheme of maneuver
Coordinating and clarifying instructions
Expanding the mission TASKs (branches and sequels)

Rehearsals
4.5.1

Overview

1..1.32 The key to rehearsals is that they are 1) interactive and 2) focused. When rehearsing a play,
the director of said play does not describe what should happen and recite all of the lines. During a
theatrical rehearsal all of the actors recite their own lines to ensure everyone knows the script. The
same is true in Army rehearsals. It is important that the exercise remains centered on the subordinate
leaders acting out their parts and does not devolve into the person running the rehearsal regurgitating
the OPORD. Additionally, there is never enough time to rehearse everything. Leaders must prioritize
rehearsals to ensure sufficient time is dedicated to the most important TASKs. Squad and Patrol
rehearsals should always start with actions on the objective, then move to other friction points the
leader identifies.
1..1.33 The format of any of the following rehearsals is as follows:

1..1.34
1..1.37 T
A
S
K
1..1.40 P
U
R
P
O
S
E
1..1.43 A
ct
io
n
s
1..1.46 O
rd
er
s

4.5.2

The leader sets the stage by identifying the start point (i.e. for a rehearsal of
actions on the objective for an ambush, Alpha Team has reached the release
point en route to their ambush positions. Alpha Team Leader, at this time what
is your TASK and PURPOSE, and what are your actions and orders)
Subordinate leaders then describe, for this part of the operation, the following
1..1.35 Description

1..1.36 Example

1..1.38 TASK given to them for this portion of


the operation

1..1.39 Alpha Teams TASK for this part of


the operation is to establish left and
right security

1..1.41 PURPOSE the given TASK is


intended to meet

1..1.42 In order to prevent enemy counterattack against the assault element


(Bravo Team)

1..1.44 What the leader will personally do

1..1.45 I will signal my team to move from a


wedge formation into the left and right
security teams

1..1.48 Left security will move to the location


to the left of the assault element
identified in the leaders recon of the
1..1.47 What the leader will direct his unit to
objective. Right security will move to
do
the location to the right of the assault
element identified in the leaders recon
of the objective.
This format continues until the leader is satisfied that his subordinates fully
understand their role for this part of the operation and how they fit into the
overall scheme of maneuver.
Full-Dress Rehearsal

1..1.49 A full-dress rehearsal produces the most detailed understanding of the operation. It involves
every participating soldier and system. If possible, organizations execute full-dress rehearsals under
the same conditions-weather, time of day, terrain, and use of live ammunition-that the force expects to
encounter during the actual operation.

Time. Full-dress rehearsals are the most time consuming of all rehearsal types.
For companies and smaller units, the full-dress rehearsal is the most effective
technique for ensuring all involved in the operation understand their parts.
However, brigade and TASK force commanders consider the time their
subordinates need to plan and prepare when deciding whether to conduct a fulldress rehearsal.
Echelons involved. A subordinate unit can perform a full-dress rehearsal as part
of a larger organizations reduced-force rehearsal.
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OPSEC. Moving a large part of the force may attract enemy attention.
Commanders develop a plan to protect the rehearsal from enemy surveillance
and reconnaissance. One method is to develop a plan, including graphics and
radio frequencies, that rehearses selected actions but does not compromise the
actual OPORD. Commanders take care to not confuse subordinates when
doing this.
Terrain. Terrain management for a full-dress rehearsal can be difficult if it is not
considered during the initial array of forces. The rehearsal area must be
identified, secured, cleared, and maintained throughout the rehearsal.
4.5.3

Key Leader Rehearsal

1..1.50 A Key Leader rehearsal involves only key leaders of the organization and its subordinate units.
It normally takes fewer resources than a full-dress rehearsal. The commander first decides the level of
leader involvement. The selected leaders then rehearse the plan while traversing the actual or similar
terrain. A reduced-force rehearsal may be used to prepare key leaders for a full-dress rehearsal.

Time. A reduced-force rehearsal normally requires less time than a full-dress


rehearsal. Commanders consider the time their subordinates need to plan and
prepare when deciding whether to conduct a reduced-force rehearsal.
Echelons involved. A small unit can perform a full-dress rehearsal as part of a
larger organizations reduced-force rehearsal.
OPSEC. A reduced-force rehearsal is less likely to present an OPSEC
vulnerability than a full-dress rehearsal because the number of participants is
smaller. However, the number of radio transmissions required is the same as
for a full-dress rehearsal and remains a consideration.
Terrain. Terrain management for the reduced-force rehearsal can be just as
difficult as for the full-dress rehearsal. The rehearsal area must be identified,
secured, cleared, and maintained throughout the rehearsal.
Terrain Model Rehearsal. The terrain-model rehearsal takes less time and
fewer resources than a full-dress or reduced-force rehearsal. It is the most
popular rehearsal technique. An accurately constructed terrain model helps
subordinate leaders visualize the commanders intent and concept of
operations.
Time. Often, the most time-consuming part of this technique is
constructing the terrain model. This will be delegated to another
member of the squad/patrol (not the PL/SL).
Terrain. Terrain management is less difficult than with the previous
techniques. An optimal location overlooks the terrain where the
operation will be executed.
Other Visual. If other higher level resources are available (i.e. imagery
of the objective area), the can be used in lieu of or in conjunction with a
terrain model.

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4.5.4 Terrain Model

03 OCT 2016

4.5.4.1 Terrain Model Overview. The terrain model is an outstanding visual means used during the planning
process to communicate the patrol routes and also detailed actions on the objective. At a minimum,
the first terrain model is required during planning to display routes to the objective and to highlight
prominent terrain features the patrol will encounter during movement. A second terrain model is
usually constructed of the objective area, enlarged to a sufficient size and detail to brief the patrols
actions on the objective.
4.5.4.1.1 Checklist.
(1) Identify a location for your terrain model. The area should be relatively clear and free of objects that may be
confused with parts of your terrain model. The area must have enough room for both terrain
models (broad view and objective)
(2) North-seeking arrow. Identify magnetic north and place your north-seeking arrow accordingly.
(3) Grid lines. Identify grid lines that bisect your locations and place them to scale in your terrain model area.
(4) Objective location. Identify the objective location on the primary terrain model. Significant detail of the
objective area is not required for the broad view terrain model. The majority of the detail for the
objective will be on the objective terrain model.
(5) Exaggerated terrain relief, water obstacles. Start detailed replication of the terrain with the terrain that impacts
the mission or aids movement to the objective area. (i.e. streams you will cross, roads you will
handrail, etc.)
(6) Identify friendly boundaries.
(7) Friendly patrol locations. Pull these from paragraph 1 of the OPORD.
(8) Known or suspected enemy locations. Pull these from paragraph 1 of the OPORD.
(9) Targets (indirect fires, including grid and type of round).
(10) Routes, primary and alternate.
(11) Planned RPs (ORP, L/URP, Planned ERP).
(12) Danger areas (roads, trails, open areas).
(13) Legend.
(14) Blowup of objective area.
4.5.4.1.2 Materials. The following are some field-expedient techniques to aid in terrain model construction:
(1) Use a 3 x 5 card, MRE box, or piece of paper to label the objective or key sites.
(2) Grid lines can be made using string from the guts of 550 cord or colored tape. (Grid lines are identified by
writing numbers on small pieces of paper.)
(3) Trees and vegetation are replicated by using moss, green or brown spray paint, pine needles, crushed leaves,
or cut up grass.
(4) Water is designated by blue chalk, blue spray paint, blue yarn, tin foil, or MRE creamer.
(5) North seeking arrows are made from sharpened twigs, pencils, or colored yarn.
(6) Enemy positions are designated using red yarn, M-16 rounds, toy Soldiers, or poker chips.
(7) Friendly positions such as security elements, support by fire, and assault elements are made using M-16
rounds, toy Soldiers, poker chips, small MRE packets of sugar and coffee, or pre-printed acetate
cards.
(8) Small pieces of cardboard or paper can identify target reference points and indirect fire targets. Ensure grids
are shown for each point.
(9) Breach, support by fire, and assault positions are made using colored yarn or string so that these positions can
be easily identified.
(10) Bunkers and buildings are constructed using MRE boxes or tongue depressors/sticks.
(11) Perimeter wire is constructed from a spiral notebook.
(12) Key phase lines are constructed with colored string or yarn.
(13) Trench lines are replicated by colored tape or yarn, by digging a furrow and coloring it with colored chalk or
spray paint.
1..1.51 Note: All symbols used on the terrain model must be clearly identified in the legend.

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4.6

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ROTC Timelines and Recommended Priorities of Work


4.6.1

Squad Lanes

Figure 4-9 - Squad Lanes Timeline and Key Leader Distribution of Work

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4.6.2 Patrol Lanes

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Figure 4-10 - Patrol Lanes Timeline

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Figure 4-11 - Patrol Lanes Key Leader Distribution of Work

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Section 5 Assembly Area Operations and Movement


5.1

Assembly Area Operations (All operations)


5.1.1

Overview.

The primary purpose for assembly area operations is planning, preparation, and rehearsal of future
operations. This is where the leaders conduct the majority of their Troop Leading Procedures (see
paragraph 4.1). The leaders key tasks in the assembly area are:

Establish Security
Establish TASK, PURPOSE, and Priorities of Work for subordinates
Conduct necessary mission planning
Supervise mission preparation (Pre Combat Checks and Inspections)
Conduct Rehearsals

Figure 5-12 - Cartoon Order (Example Phase 1)

5.1.2

Security

Throughout ROTC Fire Battalion Cadets will use strongpoint security while in an assembly area, during
security halts, and in ORPs. Cadets from other programs may use different methods to establish
security, but strongpoint security is recommended due to its simplicity of execution and standardization.
Strongpoint security consists of establishing buddy team positions throughout the perimeter rather
than individual positions. This allows leaders to remove individual Soldiers from the perimeter without
having to adjust personnel in order to maintain 360 degree security.
5.1.2.1 Squad Security
With the direction of travel being the 12 oclock position, the squad establishes buddy team
positions at 10 oclock, 2 oclock, 4 oclock, and 8 oclock positions. Under a standard dismounted
infantry squad. The A Team Leader and A Team Automatic Rifleman occupy the 10 oclock position,
the A Team Grenadier and the A Team Rifleman occupy the 2 oclock position, the B Team Leader and
the B Team Automatic Rifleman occupy the 4 oclock position, the B Team Grenadier and the B Team
Rifleman occupy the 8 oclock position, and the squad leader occupies the center of the formation. If
the squad has an attached machine gun team, the squad leader would position the team nearest the
greatest threat to the squad (i.e. a high-speed avenue of approach to the squads 9 oclock would
warrant collocating the machine gun team with the 10 oclock position, the 8 oclock position, or
creating its own position at the 9 oclock whichever provides the best over watch of the high-speed
avenue of approach.)
During many Army ROTC field exercises there are typically more than four individuals per team.
Under situations like that, then the team leader is able to stay off the perimeter and focus on
preparing their soldiers.

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Figure 5-13 - Squad Security at the Halt

5.1.2.2 Patrol Security


Patrol security is established in the same manner as squad security with 4-man teams at each
position rather than 2-man teams. Fire Team integrity is not maintained in order to facilitate removing
Soldiers for planning, rehearsals, recons, etc.

Figure 5-14 - Patrol Security at the Halt

5.1.3

TASK, PURPOSE, and Priorities of Work

Providing PURPOSE and direction for subordinates is one of the fundamental duties of leaders in the
Army. Leaders do this by establishing TASK, PURPOSE, and priorities of work for their subordinates at
all times.
A TASK is a clearly defined and articulated assignment. These range from universally defined Tactical
Mission TASKS (i.e. secure, control, etc. See FM 3-90 Tactics) to mundane chores that must be
accomplished (i.e. sweep the motor pool bay floor). The important point is that the TASK is presented
to the subordinate by the leader in a way that is clear and concise.
The PURPOSE is the reason the leader is assigning the TASK to the subordinate. This should
describe for the subordinate how their task fits into the larger scheme of maneuver.
Priorities of work are generally used when a unit is at the halt (i.e. assembly area, security halt, ORP,
etc.) Priorities of work provide a common understanding, between leader and subordinate, of the
relative importance of TASKS the subordinate is to accomplish (the assumption is that the more
important TASKS will be higher in priority).
5.1.4

Mission Planning.

The assembly area is the primary location for mission planning. The leader will conduct his Troop
Leading Procedures (see paragraph 4.1) culminating in an OPORD and rehearsal of the mission.
5.1.5

Mission Preparation.

This consists of preparing men (gender neutral sense), weapons, and equipment (MWE) for the
upcoming operation. The process we have for this is Pre-Combat Checks (PCC) and Pre-Combat
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Inspections (PCI). Pre-Combat Checks are conducted by individuals at the lowest levels. Soldiers will
make sure they have replenished their first aid kits or topped off their canteens with fresh water before
a mission. These are examples of PCCs. Leaders going through and spot-checking their Soldiers
attention to detail while conducting PCCs is known as a PCI, not micromanagement.
5.1.6

Rehearsals.

Rehearsals in the Assembly Area consist of special team rehearsals and unit rehearsals. Unit
rehearsals are discussed in paragraph 4.5 of this document. Special team rehearsals are generally at
the fire team level and below. Examples of special teams rehearsals include, but are not limited to:

5.2

Enemy Prisoner of War (EPW) Search


Aid and Litter (A&L) Teams
Demolition (Demo) Teams
Civilians on the Battlefield (COB) Teams

Movement to the Objective (All operations)


5.2.1

Overview

Movement to the objective is generally the same process no matter the operation. The only exceptions
you will encounter in ROTC will be the Reconnaissance mission and the Movement to Contact (MTC)
mission. The general process is as follows:

Cross the Line of Departure


Conduct SLLS
Establish Short Halt Posture / Long Halt Posture
Conduct a Leaders Recon of the Objective Rally Point (ORP)
Secure the ORP
Occupy the ORP
Prepare for the Leaders Recon of the OBJ
Conduct Leaders Recon of the OBJ

(Not used in MTC)


(Not used in MTC)
(Not used in MTC)
(Not used in Recon or MTC)
(Not used in Recon or MTC)

Figure 5-15 - Cartoon Order (Example Phase 2)

5.2.2

Cross the Line of Departure (LD)

1. In land warfare, a line designated to coordinate the departure of attack elements. 2. In amphibious
warfare, a suitably marked offshore coordinating line to assist assault craft to land on designated
beaches at scheduled times. (Army) A phase line crossed at a prescribed time by troops initiating an
offensive operation. Also called LD. (See FM 1-02)
LD, for a situational training exercise (STX), is the moment you depart the AA heading towards your
objective. When you cross the LD, all prior mission preparation should be complete as stated above in
Assembly Area Operations.
5.2.3

Conduct SLLS

Leaders base their selection of crossing LDAs, location of ORPs, location of security halts, and
particular movement techniques (traveling, traveling over watch, or bounding over watch) on the
likelihood of enemy contact and the requirement for speed. However, a units ability to move depends
on its movement skill. Stopping to acclimate to your surroundings is one way to help identify the
presence of enemy. SLLS (stop, look, listen, and smell) is the preferred method of becoming acclimated
to your surroundings.
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Stop the formation in the short halt, everyone is on a knee pulling security. The signal is given by the
elements leader signifying the start of SLLS. Once SLLS has begun everyone stays still and follows
the following guidelines.
Look for signs of the enemy. Avoid cleared, open areas and tops of hills and ridges.
Listen when birds or animals are alarmed (the enemy may be nearby). Listen for vehicles, people
talking, or anything that suggests that the enemy is near.
Smell for odors such as petroleum, smoke, and food; they are additional signs of the enemys
presence. (See FM 3-21.75)
SLLS is a technique, that when used properly can help units identify proper avenues of approach and
locate the enemy before they locate you. Although used inappropriately, or too often, it can
unnecessarily slow a units movement.
5.2.4

Establish Short Halt Posture (SHP) / Long Halt Posture (LHP)

During movement elements need to stop for varying amounts of time. Depending on the amount of time
halted determines the posture the element takes.
Short Halt Posture (SHP)
Anytime a tactical movement formation stops, individual Soldiers immediately assume the Short Halt
Posture. Soldiers take a knee behind the best cover and concealment immediately available, maintain
their rucksacks on their backs, weapon at the ready, and scan their assigned sectors of fire.
Long Halt Posture (LHP)
If the leader knows they will be in a location for longer than five minutes they should have their Soldiers
assume the long halt posture. Soldiers take their rucksacks off placing them frame down, assume a
prone position behind cover and concealment, and scan their assigned sectors of fire.
5.2.5

Conduct the Leaders Recon of the Objective Rally Point (ORP) (Issue 5-Point Contingency
Plan)

If time allows, prior to establishing an ORP, the leadership will conduct a reconnaissance of the ORP.
The units leader will establish a security halt prior to the ORP. The leader will take at least three
subordinates with on the reconnaissance of the ORP, two to remain at the ORP and the third to return
to the security halt with the leader. The ORP is typically 200 to 400m from the objective, or at a
minimum, one major terrain feature away.
Leaders reconnaissance will conduct the following-Conduct SLLS and pinpoint location.
Ensure that it meets the characteristics of an ORP.

5.2.6

Easily to identify from the ground


Away from natural lines of drift
Away from high speed avenues of approach
Provides good cover and concealment
Provides little to no tactical value for the enemy
Defendable for a short period of time.
Secure the ORP (Issue 5-Point Contingency Plan)

After the leader is satisfied with the ORP selection, the leader gives a 5-point contingency plan to the
two Soldiers who will remain at the ORP. The two who remain at the ORP should be placed to the six
oclock position, one facing towards the direction the squad will enter from and the other facing the
opposite direction. Their feet should be touching, and will utilize a tap code. The tap code allows for the
two to have basic communication as they wait for the squad to occupy the ORP.
The tap code should be established prior. A recommended tap code is as follows. One tap, (Check to
make sure everything is okay), two taps (I hear something), three taps (I detect enemy).
5.2.7

Occupy the ORP

When the squad arrives at the ORP for the first time, they will enter from the six oclock. Team leaders
are responsible for emplacing their team members into properly covered and concealed positions and
allow for interlocking sectors of fire. Securing the ORP is accomplished by establishing strong point
security around your perimeter. The strong points should have interlocking sectors of fire. If the ORP is
near a high speed avenue of approach, or a natural line of drift, there should be sufficient security
oriented in that direction.
If you are under time constraints, you will have to occupy the ORP by force. This simply means that the
leaders reconnaissance of the ORP is not conducted. The squad will walk your directly to where the
best ORP location is. When occupying by force you must still consider the characteristics of an ORP.

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Figure 5-16 Movement, Recon, and Occupation of the ORP

5.2.8

Prepare for the Leaders Recon of the Objective

As in any reconnaissance, certain preparation of men, weapons, and equipment must be accomplished
to ensure the success of the reconnaissance. While at the ORP, those Soldiers going on the
reconnaissance must ensure their equipment makes no noise, is not reflective, radios work properly
and are set to a low volume, binoculars function properly, and camouflage is properly applied. Once
these tasks are complete, Soldiers will position themselves in the ORP.
5.2.9

Conduct the Leaders Recon of the Objective (Issue 5-Point Contingency Plan)

When Soldiers are prepared to depart the ORP, the leader will give the 5-Point Contingency Plan to the
senior subordinate who will be remaining at the ORP and make sure it is disseminated to the entire
element to include the leaders reconnaissance element and the element remaining at the ORP. The
Soldiers going on the leaders reconnaissance of the objective should include the units leader, their
RTO, surveillance and overwatch team, and any other personnel the leader deems necessary. The
leaders reconnaissance will be counted when leaving the ORP and will conduct the reconnaissance of
the ORP. The leader will first identify a release point when close to the objective. He will leave the
majority of the leaders reconnaissance group there and will take one additional Soldier forward to
identify the location of the objective. Once the objective has been located he will emplace the
surveillance and overwatch team (S&O team). He will then provide a 5-point contingency plan to the
two Soldier team. That plan will identify that the two man team will continue conducting surveillance on
the OBJ and will provide supporting fire if the recon team gets engaged, this will allow them to break
contact. The S&O team remains in position, the recon team may return to the S&O team requesting a
confirmation of status of the OBJ. The S&O team will signify a confirmation of no change, that there has
been a change, or that they may want to abort. (An abort would be given if an overwhelmingly large
enemy force has arrived on the OBJ). After the leaders reconnaissance has completed their plan, they
will give the S&O team their final 5-point contingency plan (This may be given prior but the time is
subject to change at this point). The recon team minus the S&O team will return to the ORP and will be
counted back into the perimeter.
5.2.9.1 Movement to Contact
A leaders reconnaissance is not used for Movements to Contact.
5.2.9.2 Ambush
In an ambush, the leader first identifies the kill zone, followed by the assault location, then the support
by fire line, and lastly the security locations. During the reconnaissance the leader may first identify a
perfect support by fire line first, if that is the case, he must then also confirm it will work for the other
positions.
5.2.9.3 Attack/Raid
In an attack, the leader first identifies the objective, followed by the assault location, looking for any
possible enemy obstacles, then the support by fire line, and lastly the security locations.

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5.2.9.4 Reconnaissance

03 OCT 2016

Since the mission is a reconnaissance, a leaders reconnaissance takes a slightly different approach.
The team will typically be comprised of two reconnaissance team, each consisting of two Soldiers, and
an S&O team. The leader will identify a rally point and then the objective. Once the OBJ has been
identified the leader will identify and communicate a limit of advance (LOA) for each recon team, this
LOA will prevent each team from running into the other while conducting their recon. See
Reconnaissance.

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Section 6 Actions on the Objective (Squad)


6.1

Actions on the Objective (Squad) Overview

Cadets in Army ROTC are expected to know the following types of missions at the squad level: movement to
contact, ambush, attack, and reconnaissance. During these missions you may encounter additional
challenges. See each mission below to learn about the potential branch plans you should have for each of the
missions. A branch plan is a contingency plan or course of action (an option built into the basic plan or course
of action) for changing the mission to aid success of the current operation, based on anticipated events,
opportunities, or disruptions caused by enemy actions.
During an ambush a variable you may face could be unarmed civilians walking into your kill zone. If this
happens you should have a branch plan. That branch would be to not fire on the unarmed civilians.

Figure 6-17 - Cartoon Order (Example Phase 3 - Ambush)

6.2

Squad Attack
6.2.1

Overview

An attack destroys or defeats enemy forces, seizes and secures terrain, or both. Attacks require
maneuver supported by direct and indirect fires. They may be either decisive or shaping operations.
Attacks may be hasty or deliberate, depending on the time available for planning and preparation and
the type of specified mission. Commanders execute hasty attacks when the situation calls for
immediate action with available forces and minimal preparation. They conduct deliberate attacks when
there is more time to plan and prepare. Success depends on skillfully massing the effects of all the
elements of combat power. Attacks seen at the squad level, for Cadet Command, can be broken up into
movement to contact and deliberate attack. A deliberate attack hinges on a leaders reconnaissance,
and initiating contact with the enemy.
During an attack mission, prior to committing any forces the leader MUST assess the enemy situation.
During a leaders reconnaissance or after direct fire contact with the enemy, the leader must make a
decision: to attack, withdraw, maintain eyes on the enemy, or establish a support by fire position to
allow another friendly element to maneuver on the enemy. If the ratio between the squad and the
enemy is 3:1 (Friendly:Enemy) or more the squad leader will communicate to his/her PL and request to
conduct a squad attack. If the ratio between the squad and the enemy is less than 3:1 then the squad
will establish a squad support by fire, this will allow the platoon to maneuver other squads to conduct a
platoon attack.
6.2.2

Branches

1) The objective is larger than a squad can handle. This can be mitigated by utilizing indirect fire
assets, or calling the platoon leader and requesting additional forces.
2) The objective does not match mission statement. Instead of the objective having SAPA forces, it
may have US Forces or Atropians on the objective. If it does, call higher and inform them of the
situation requesting to confirm the presence of friendly forces in the area. If Atropian, confirm
that they are not SAPA or aiding SAPA.
3) You receive a casualty during your mission, properly assess a friendly casualty and call up a 9line MEDEVAC request.
4) Your squad may receive indirect fire (IDF), and must properly react to IDF.

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What numbers cant describe.


There are many things that the science of numbers does not take into account. The science has a tough
time accounting for other contributing factors, such as surprise, morale, training, experience etc. Numbers
warfare doesn't do well calculating well-organized raids and ambushes. The science of relative combat
power also excludes the principles of war: objective, offensive, mass, economy of force, maneuver, unity
of command, security, surprise, simplicity. (See FM 3-0)
There are countless examples of Army officers surprising the enemy with fantastic results. Joshua
Chamberlain's counterattack at the battle of Little Big Top was one of the greatest tactical decisions of all
time. He didn't have a three to one advantage. The Great Raid at Cabanatuan used speed, surprise and
organization to overwhelm a Japanese garrison and rescue over 500 POWs. They didn't have a three to
one advantage; in fact, they were at a 127-700 disadvantage (not including the 8,000 Japanese soldiers
patrolling the countryside).
It is a good guideline: try to have three times as many Soldiers as your enemy. This will not always be the
case. We invaded Iraq without obeying this law. Guidelines are good in their place; rules hamstring our
Officers. Remember the rule isn't a law. At LDAC, attacks of any kind will result in a squad attack. The
ratio you will see will be at or close to 3:1.
6.2.3

Squad Attack Hasty / Movement to Contact

A movement to contact develops the situation and establishes or regains contact. It also creates
favorable conditions for subsequent tactical actions. Forces executing this TASK seek to make
contact with the smallest friendly force feasible. On contact, the commander has five options: attack,
defend, bypass, delay, or withdraw. Movements to contact include search and attack and cordon and
search operations (cordon and search operations are not squad missions).
Squad attack is a battle drill. A battle drill is defined as, A collective action rapidly executed without
applying a deliberate decision-making process. Squad attack is a technique a squad uses to quickly
establish fire superiority on an enemy and to maneuver to kill or capture the enemy. This could be
used following a react to contact during a movement to contact, or could be the basis of a squad
deliberate attack. The basic tenants are the same, locate the enemy, suppress the enemy with a fire
team, and use the other fire team to maneuver against the enemy.
6.2.3.1 TASK and PURPOSE
Typical task organization for a squad is for Team A (lead fire team) to be the Support Team and Team
B (trail fire team) to be the Assault Team. The first action is for Team A to establish the Support by Fire
(SBF) position, generally to the enemys front. The squad leader then maneuvers Team B to the
enemys flank to establish the Assault Position.
When issuing your operations order, make sure to specify their task and purpose. Alpha Teams TASK
is to FIX the enemy, with the PURPOSE to ALLOW Bravo team freedom of maneuver to DESTROY
the enemy. Bravo teams TASK is to DESTROY the enemy, their PURPOSE will be identical to the
squads stated purpose in the higher level OPORD.
NOTE: The following squad attack is written for a movement to contact.
6.2.3.2 Locate the Enemy
a. The fire team in contact acquires known and suspected enemy position(s).
b. The fire team leader in contact begins to facilitate C2 by directing giving fire commands.
c. The squad leader moves into a position where he can observe the enemy and can assess the
situation.
d. The squad leader requests, through the platoon leader, immediate suppression indirect fires.
e. The squad leader reports the size and location, and any other information to the platoon leader.
6.2.3.3 Suppress the Enemy (Point 1 on Figure 6-18 Squad Attack)
a. The squad leader determines if the fire team in contact can gain suppressive fire based on the
volume and accuracy of enemy fire. If the answer is yes, the fire team continues to suppress the
enemy.
(1) The fire team leader identifies enemy positions and controls his fire team. The fire team destroys
or suppresses enemy crew-served weapons first.
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(2) Buddy teams fire in sequence so that they are not reloading at the same time.
b. The squad is outmatched and requires help from the rest of the platoon to conduct a platoon
attack. The squad leader then deploys the fire team not in contact with the enemy to establish a
support by fire position. He reports to the platoon leader. Normally, the squad will become the base of
fire element for the platoon. The squad continues to shoot well-aimed fires at the enemy and
responds to orders from the platoon leader. (The platoon leader, his RTO, the platoon FO, one
machine gun team, the squad leader of the next squad, as well as the weapons squad leader and the
other machine gun team, are already moving to begin a platoon attack).
6.2.3.4 Assault (Point 2 on Figure 6-18 Squad Attack)
The determination to assault is dependent on two things: first, can the fire team in contact suppress
the enemy? Second, can the fire team not in contact maneuver to the enemys flank? If the squad
leader identifies that the support can effectively suppress the enemy and that the team not in contact
can flank the enemy he will give the order to assault.
a. Location of enemy positions and obstacles.
b. Size of enemy force engaging the squad. (The number of automatic weapons, presence of enemy
vehicles, and the employment of indirect fires are indicators of enemy strength.)
c. Vulnerable flank. (The flank that offers the least enemy resistance.)
d. Covered and concealed flanking route to the enemy position.
e. If the answer is yes, the squad leader maneuvers the fire team in the assault.
The squad leader identifies the side he will flank to his support team leader. The squad leader
maneuvers back to his team not in contact and issues them quick instructions and leads them on a
bold flanking maneuver to the specified flank.
(1) The squad leader directs the fire team in contact to support the movement of the other fire team.
(2) The squad leader controls the maneuver of the squad. He directs the assault team to the
following.
(a) Enemy positions and obstacles.
(b) A covered and concealed route to the flank.
(c) Identifies the assault lanes for the team.
(3) The fire team in contact:
(a) Continues to suppress the enemy.
(b) The team leader continues to identify high pay off targets and directs his subordinates with fire
commands to destroy those targets.
(4) The squad leader provides command and control (C2) by directing the fire team in contact to
support the movement of the other team. He uses any signaling techniques available to identify the
status of the maneuver element.
(5) The squad leader requests indirect fires to destroy and isolate enemy positions.
(6) The squad leader leads the assaulting team along the covered and concealed route to the flank of
the enemy position.
(7) Upon reaching the last covered and concealed position:
(a) The squad leader positions himself where he can best control his teams.
(b) The squad leader provides C2 signal to the fire team in support to shift fires away from the
assaulting team.
(c) The assaulting fire team assaults the enemy position from the blind side and does not mask the
fire of the team in support. Assaulting across the objective can be done in many ways and are
dependent on the nature of the terrain and the number of enemy positions, as well as the amount of
enemy fire being received. Under heavy enemy fire this could be done by bounding one individual at
a time along the assault line, while the remainder of the squad provides suppressive fire, under less
fire it could be done by bounding a buddy team at a time, or if there is no fire it could be done online.
(d) Soldiers constantly watch for enemy positions and other enemy positions that could be in support
of those positions.
(8) The squad leader ensures that security has been established at the limit of advance for the
assault element, and signals for the support to assault across the objective. Once the support has
reached their LOA, the squad begins consolidation and reorganization.

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Figure 6-18 Squad Attack

6.2.4

Squad Attack - Deliberate

A deliberate operation is conducted with detailed planning. A deliberate squad attack is conducted
after having made several considerations.
1. Reconnoiter, pinpoint objective/enemy positions/obstacles.
2. Determine weak points; designate supporting positions.
3. Assign platoon/squad objectivesidentify the decisive point.
4. Determine main attack, supporting attack, reserve.
5. Assign breach, support, assault missions.
6. Designate fire control measures.
7. Coordinate indirect/direct fires and CAS to time of attack.
8. Control measures during attack.
9. Secure (ground and air).
10. Consolidate and reorganize.
6.2.4.1 Organization
Typical task organization for a squad is for Team A (lead fire team) to be the Support Team and Team
B (trail fire team) to be the Assault Team. The first action is for Team A to establish the Support by Fire
(SBF) position, generally to the enemys front. The squad leader then maneuvers Team B to the
enemys flank to establish the Assault Position.
NOTE: The following squad attack is written for a squad deliberate attack.
6.2.5

Fundamentals

During a deliberate attack you will be expected to establish an ORP for final preparation prior to
reaching your objective, conducting a leaders reconnaissance to determine the exact location of your
objective, plan your support by fire location, assault lane, and security positions. See leaders
reconnaissance (Section 5.2.9) for more information.
Note: Since you will be splitting your force, a technique that is often used is making sure to keep your
teams organic (those in alpha team remain together as those in bravo team remain together). Your
support by fire should have good overwatch over as much of the objective as possible. Since this is
the case, your S&O during your leaders reconnaissance also needs to be in a good overwatch
position. It is suggested that your S&O be from your support by fire element. This will allow them to
easily rejoin their element as you are emplacing your forces.
6.2.5.1 Departing the ORP to the OBJ
a. Your first goal is to make it to the release point. The lead should be taken by an individual who
went on the leaders reconnaissance and knows exactly where the release point is. The order of
march out of the ORP is not critical but should be well distributed for fire power, and could go support,
assault. This will make it easier at the release point for splitting your forces.
b. Upon reaching the release point the squad leader will drop off the squad and take one person with
him for security. The squad leader will then move to check with the S&O team, who kept eyes on the
OBJ while the squad leader was bringing the rest of the squad forward, to confirm, change, or abort
the mission. (Confirm nothing has changed, identify that there has been a change on the objective
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that affects the plan, or abort that something serious has changed and it may no longer be wise to
attack.)
c. If there are any changes, the squad leader will brief them to his squad at the release point.
d. If there is a reason to abort (at LDAC there will not be a reason to abort, all objectives only have 23 OPFOR), the squad leader will assess the situation and call higher with a SITREP.
6.2.5.2 Positioning the Squad
a. Assuming that there were no major changes, the squad leader will move back to emplace the
support by fire in their position and have the S&O rejoin their element.
Technique - A quick technique for this is to have brought your support team leader with you on the
leaders reconnaissance, you would have explained to him how you want the support position to be
established, along with the left and right limits. You could have him take his element to their positions
while you move into position with your assault.
b. If time allows the squad leader can place his team and orient them on the objective, identifying key
targets to the support team leader, along with his left and right limits, and confirming the side he will
assault from.
c. The support team leader will ensure his entire team has their sectors of fire, and know their left and
right limits.
d. The squad leader moves back to the release point and takes his assault element on a bold flanking
maneuver to the enemys flank. Once there he assigns assault lanes to each Soldier.
Technique If terrain does not allow for a stealth approach for the assault team, the support by fire
can begin suppressing the enemy to allow the assault team to maneuver into position free from
enemy fire.
6.2.5.3 Assault
The fire team initiates fire based of the predetermined signal or time. The support by fire team will
engage the objective with a high volume of fire for a predetermined amount of time (depending on the
amount of ammo and strength of the enemy.
a. The support team leader continues to identify high pay off targets and directs his subordinates with
fire commands to destroy those targets.
b. The squad leader provides C2 by directing the support fire team to support the movement of the
other team. He uses any signaling techniques available to identify the status of the maneuver
element.
c. Upon reaching the last covered and concealed position:
(a) The squad leader positions himself where he can best control his teams.
(b) The squad leader provides C2 signal to the fire team in support to shift fires away from the
assaulting team.
(c) The assaulting fire team assaults the enemy position from the blind side and does not mask the
fire of the team in support. Assaulting across the objective can be done in many ways and are
dependent on the nature of the terrain and the number of enemy positions, as well as the amount of
enemy fire being received. Under heavy enemy fire this could be done by bounding one individual at
a time along the assault line, while the remainder of the squad provides suppressive fire, under less
fire it could be done by bounding a buddy team at a time, or if there is no fire it could be done online.
(d) Soldiers constantly watch for enemy positions and other enemy positions that could be in support
of those positions.
(8) The squad leader ensures that security has been established at the limit of advance for the
assault element, and signals for the support to assault across the objective. Once the support has
reached their LOA, the squad begins consolidation and reorganization.

6.3

Squad Ambush
6.3.1

Overview

An ambush is a form of attack by fire or other destructive means from concealed positions on
a moving or temporarily halted enemy. It may include an assault to close with and destroy the
engaged enemy force. In an ambush, ground objectives do not have to be seized and held,
and will have a planned withdrawal.
6.3.2

Branches
1) Higher may call accelerating the time of the ambush. This will force you to conduct a hasty
ambush.
2) Armed or Unarmed Civilians move into kill zone, you will have to ensure that no one shoots
until they have positive identification of enemy in the kill zone.

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3) Enemy does not die in ambush, they throw weapons down and surrender or are wounded. As
the squad moves across the OBJ the squad member who has the surrendering enemy in their
lane will secure that EPW with the support of a buddy.
6.3.3

Organization.

A typical ambush organizes into a Security Element, Support Element, and Assault Element. Squad
ambushes task organize into a Security Element and a Support/Assault Element. For the Squad,
Support and Assault are combined because a Squad is not large enough to organize into three distinct
elements.
6.3.4

Security

TASK The Security Elements primary TASK during actions on the objective is to secure the
Support/Assault Element. The tactical mission task secure means preventing a unit from being
damaged or destroyed as a result of enemy action (FM 1-02). This means the primary focus of the
Security Element is to prevent enemy reinforcements from affecting the Support/Assaults mission of
destroy.
6.3.5

Fundamentals

During a deliberate attack you will be expected to establish an ORP for final preparation prior to
reaching your objective, conducting a leaders reconnaissance to determine the exact location of your
objective, plan your support by fire location, assault lane, and security positions. See leaders
reconnaissance (Section 5.2.9) for more information.
Note: Since you will be splitting your force, a technique that is often used is making sure to keep your
teams organic (those in alpha team remain together as those in bravo team remain together). Your
support by fire should have good overwatch over as much of the objective as possible. Since this is
the case, your S&O during your leaders reconnaissance also needs to be in a good overwatch
position. It is suggested that your S&O be from your support by fire element. This will allow them to
easily rejoin their element as you are emplacing your forces.
6.3.5.1 Departing the ORP to the OBJ
a. Your first goal is to make it to the release point. The lead should be taken by an individual who
went on the leaders reconnaissance and knows exactly where the release point is. The order of
march out of the ORP is not critical but should be well distributed for fire power, and could go support,
assault. This will make it easier at the release point for splitting your forces.
b. Upon reaching the release point the squad leader will drop off the squad and take one person with
him for security. The squad leader will then move to check with the S&O team, who kept eyes on the
OBJ while the squad leader was bringing the rest of the squad forward, to confirm, change, or abort
the mission. (Confirm nothing has changed, identify that there has been a change on the objective
that affects the plan, or abort that something serious has changed and it may no longer be wise to
attack.)
c. If there are any changes, the squad leader will brief them to his squad at the release point.
d. If there is a reason to abort (at LDAC there will not be a reason to abort, all objectives only have 23 OPFOR), the squad leader will assess the situation and call higher with a SITREP.
6.3.5.2 Positioning the Squad
a. Assuming that there were no major changes the squad leader will move back to emplace the
support by fire in their position and have the S&O rejoin their element.
Technique - A quick technique for this is to have brought your support team leader with you on the
leaders reconnaissance, you would have explained to him how you want the support position to be,
along with the left and right limits. You could have him take his element to their positions while you
move into position with your assault.
b. If time allows the squad leader can place his team and orient them to the objective, identifying key
targets to the support team leader, along with his left and right limits, and confirming the side he will
assault from.
c. The support team leader will ensure his entire team has their sectors of fire, and know their left and
right limits.
d. The squad leader moves back to the release point and takes his assault element in a bold flanking
maneuver to the enemys flank. Once there he assigns assault lanes to each Soldier.
Technique If terrain does not allow for a stealth approach for the assault team, the support by fire
can begin suppressing the enemy to allow the assault team to maneuver into position free from
enemy fire.
6.3.5.3 Assault
The fire team initiates fire based of the predetermined signal or time. The support by fire team will
engage the objective with a high volume of fire for a predetermined amount of time (depending on the
amount of ammo and strength of the enemy.
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a. The support team leader continues to identify high pay off targets and directs his subordinates with
fire commands to destroy those targets.
b. The squad leader provides C2 by directing the support fire team to support the movement of the
other team. He uses any signaling techniques available to identify the status of the maneuver
element.
c. Upon reaching the last covered and concealed position:
(a) The squad leader positions himself where he can best control his teams.
(b) The squad leader provides C2 signal to the fire team in support to shift fires away from the
assaulting team.
(c) The assaulting fire team assaults the enemy position from the blind side and does not mask the
fire of the team in support. Assaulting across the objective can be done in many ways and are
dependent on the nature of the terrain and the number of enemy positions, as well as the amount of
enemy fire being received. Under heavy enemy fire this could be done by bounding one individual at
a time along the assault line, while the remainder of the squad provides suppressive fire, under less
fire it could be done by bounding a buddy team at a time, or if there is no fire it could be done online.
(d) Soldiers constantly watch for enemy positions and other enemy positions that could be in support
of those positions.
(8) The squad leader ensures that security has been established at the limit of advance for the
assault element, and signals for the support to assault across the objective. Once the support has
reached their LOA, the squad begins consolidation and reorganization.

6.4

Squad Reconnaissance
6.4.1

Overview

Reconnaissance operations are those operations undertaken to obtain, by visual observation


or other detection methods, information about the activities and resources of an enemy or
potential enemy, or to secure data concerning the meteorological, hydrographical or
geographical characteristics and the indigenous population of a particular area.
Reconnaissance primarily relies on the human dynamic rather than technical means.
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Reconnaissance is performed before, during, and after other operations to provide information
used in the intelligence preparation of the battlefield (IPB) process, as well as by the
commander in order to formulate, confirm, or modify his course of action (COA). As a Cadet in
Army ROTC, you will be expected to conduct reconnaissance of enemy positions, to include,
communications nodes and cache sites.
Recon patrols provide timely and accurate information on the enemy and terrain. They confirm
the leaders plan before it is executed. Units on reconnaissance operations collect specific
information (priority intelligence requirements [PIR]) or general information (information
requirements [IR]) based on the instructions from their higher commander.
6.4.2

Branches

Part of the recon element is compromised, if so the squad breaks contact.


The recon element is engaged by direct fire - the squad engages in order to break contact.
SAPA maneuvers on S/O or R/S teams - Does the squad initiate fire in order to disengage and break
contact?
Meet Atropian soldier enroute He provides INTEL, do they trust him?
6.4.3

Fundamentals

In order to have a successful area reconnaissance, the leader must apply the fundamentals of the
reconnaissance to his plan during the conduct of the operation.
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)

Ensure continuous reconnaissance


Do not keep reconnaissance assets in reserve
Orient on the reconnaissance objective
Report information rapidly and accurately
Retain freedom of maneuver
Gain and maintain enemy contact
Develop the situation rapidly

6.4.3.1 Gain all required information.


In coordinating instructions of your higher operations order is Commanders Critical Intelligence
Requirements (CCIR). CCIRs comprise information requirements identified by the commander as
being critical in facilitating timely information management and the decision-making process that affect
successful mission accomplishment. The two subcomponents are friendly force information
requirements (FFIR) and priority intelligence requirements (PIR).
Priority intelligence requirements are things that the commander has identified as being critical
information about the terrain or the enemy that will affect future operations. During the entire patrol,
members must continuously gain and exchange all PIR gathered, but cannot consider the mission
accomplished unless all PIR has been confirmed or denied, or the allowed time has expired.
6.4.3.2 Avoid detection by the enemy.
A patrol must not let the enemy know that it is in the objective area. If the enemy knows he is being
observed, he may move, change his plans, or increase his security measures. Methods of avoiding
detection are-(a) Minimize movement in the objective area (area reconnaissance).
(b) Move no closer to the enemy than necessary.
(c) If possible, use long-range surveillance or night vision devices.
(d) Camouflage, stealth, noise, and light discipline.
(e) Minimize radio traffic.
6.4.3.3 Employ security measures in the form of a Surveillance and Overwatch Team
A patrol must be able to break contact and return to the friendly unit with what information is gathered.
If necessary, break contact and continue the mission. Security elements are emplaced so that they
can overwatch the reconnaissance elements and suppress the enemy so the reconnaissance element
can break contact.
6.4.3.4 Task organization.
When the leader receives the order, he analyzes his mission to ensure he understands what must be
done. Then he task organizes his patrol to best accomplish the mission IAW METT-TC. Recons are
typically squad-sized missions.
6.4.3.5 Task Standards.
The area recon patrol collects all available information on PIR and other intelligence not specified in
the order for the area. The patrol completes the recon and reports all information by the time specified
in the order. The patrol is not compromised.

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6.4.4
Actions on the Objective, Area Reconnaissance (Figure 5-1).
(1) The element occupies the ORP as discussed in the section on occupation of the ORP. The RTO
calls in spare for occupation of ORP. The leader confirms his location on map while subordinate leaders
make necessary perimeter adjustments.
(2) The leader organizes the patrol in one of two ways: separate recon and security elements, or
combined recon and security elements.
(3) The leader takes subordinates leaders and key personnel on a leaders recon to confirm the
objective and plan.
(a) Issues a 5-point contingency plan before departure.
(b) Establishes a suitable release point that is beyond sight and sound of the objective if possible, but
that is definitely out of sight. The RP should also have good rally point characteristics.
(c) Allow all personnel to become familiar with the release point and surrounding area.
(d) Identifies the objective and emplaces surveillance. Designates a surveillance team to keep the
objective under surveillance. Issues a contingency plan to the senior man remaining with the
surveillance team. The surveillance team is positioned with one Soldier facing the objective, and one
facing back in the direction of the release point.
(e) Takes subordinate leaders forward to pinpoint the objective, emplace surveillance, establish a limit
of advance, and choose vantage points.
(f) Maintains commo with the platoon throughout the leaders recon.
(4) The leader at the ORP maintains security and supervises priorities of work.
(a) Reestablishes security at the ORP.
(b) Disseminates the leaders contingency plan.
(c) Oversees preparation of recon personnel (personnel re-camouflaged, NVDs and binos prepared,
weapons on safe with a round in the chamber).
(5) The leader and his recon party return to the ORP.
(a) Confirms the plan or issues a FRAGO.
(b) Allows subordinate leaders time to disseminate the plan.
(6) The patrol conducts the recon by long-range observation and surveillance if possible.
(a) R&S elements move to observation points that offer cover and concealment and that are outside of
small-arms range.
(b) Establishes a series of observation posts (OP) if information cannot be gathered from one location.
(c) Gathers all PIR using the SALUTE format.
(7) If necessary, the patrol conducts its recon by short-range observation and surveillance.
(a) Moves to an OP near the objective.
(b) Passes close enough to the objective to gain information.
(c) Gathers all PIR using the SALUTE format.
(8) R&S teams move using a technique such as the cloverleaf method to move to successive OPs. In
this method, R&S teams avoid paralleling the objective site, maintain extreme stealth, do not cross the
limit of advance, and maximize the use of available cover and concealment.
(9) During the conduct of the recon, each R&S team will return to the release point when any of the
following occurs:
They have gathered all their PIR.
They have reached the limit of advance.
The allocated time to conduct the recon has elapsed.
Contact has been made.
(10) At the release point, the leader will analyze what information has been gathered and determine if
he has met the PIR requirements.
(11) If the leader determines that he has not gathered sufficient information to meet the PIR
requirements, or if the information he and the subordinate leader gathered differs drastically, he may
have to send R&S teams back to the objective site. In this case, R&S teams will alternate areas of
responsibilities. For example, if one team reconnoitered from the 6 3 12, then that team will now
recon from the 6 9 12.
(12) The R&S element returns undetected to the ORP by the specified time.

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(a) Disseminates information to all patrol members through key leaders at the ORP, or moves to a
position at least one terrain feature or one kilometer away to disseminate. To disseminate, the leader
has the RTO prepare three sketches of the objective site based on the leader's sketch and provides the
copies to the subordinate leaders to assist in dissemination.
(b) Reports any information requirements and/or any information requiring immediate attention to higher
headquarters, and departs for the designated area.
(13) If contact is made, move to the release point. The recon element tries to break contact and return
to the ORP, secure rucksacks, and quickly move out of the area. Once they have moved a safe
distance away, the leader will inform higher HQ of the situation and take further instructions from them.
(a) While emplacing surveillance, the recon element withdraws through the release point to the ORP,
and follows the same procedures as above.
(b) While conducting the reconnaissance, the compromised element returns a sufficient volume of fire
to allow them to break contact. Surveillance can fire an AT-4 at the largest weapon on the objective. All
elements will pull off the objective and move to the release point. The senior man will quickly account
for all personnel and return to the ORP. Once in the ORP, follow the procedures previously described.

Figure 6-19 Squad Area Reconnaissance

Section 7
Actions on the
Objective
(Patrol)
7.1

Overview
Cadets in
ROTC are
to know the
types of
at the section
raid, ambush,

Army
expected
following
missions
level:
area

reconnaissance, and cordon and search. During these missions you may encounter additional
challenges. A branch plan is a contingency plan or course of action (an option built into the basic plan
or course of action) for changing the mission to aid success of the current operation, based on
anticipated events, opportunities, or disruptions caused by enemy actions. All patrols are subject to a
wider range of changes in the situation.
7.1.1

Patrolling Branches

7.1.1.1 React to IED


Overview
During military operations, you may encounter a possible improvised explosive device (IED.) IEDs
come in many different types and variations, as well as being detonated in a plethora of different ways
by the enemy. Anything that can explode can be used as an IED, and they can vary from the size of a
ballpoint pen to a large dump truck. IEDs can be detonated in numerous ways, from command
detonated (command wire, radio controlled) to victim operated (pressure plate, infrared, trip wire,
magnetic).
Fundamentals
Proper reaction to a possible improvised explosive device requires the execution of four fundamental
steps:
1

Ensuring the safety of soldiers and civilians;

Securing the IED site and area around it;

Continuously scanning for any additional threats;


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4 Properly reporting the device to higher HQ.
5
(a)

(b)

(c)
(d)

(e)

(f)

Upon contact with a possible IED, immediately move away from the suspect device to a
minimum safe distance, then implement the 5 Cs (Confirm, Clear, Call, Cordon, and
Control.)
Confirm- Using any method of observation from a distance (binoculars, thermal imaging, NVGs,
etc.) or as little personnel as possible, look for telltale signs of an IED to confirm the device. Do
not, under any circumstance, move up to the suspect device itself- IEDs can have motion
sensitive or magnetic triggers. Items like wire, lamp cord, protruding ordinance, reference
points/stakes, or signs of recent burial of an object may all be possible indicators of an IED.
Clear- Upon confirmation, clear away all personnel, to include civilians, from the immediate area
to a safe distance away from the device. A safe distance is determined by several factors: The
tactical situation, avoidance of predictability, and movement several hundred meters away. Mark
the area around the device, at a distance, to warn others of the hazard.
Call- While the threat area is being cleared of all personnel, including civilians, send up a nine
line IED/UXO report. See Appendix Ab for a complete IED/UXO Report.
Cordon- Once the danger area has been cleared, establish soldiers in covered fighting positions
to seal off the area from vehicle and foot traffic. Soldiers should be mindful of possible
secondary IEDs and identify potential enemy force observation and vantage points. Quite often,
IEDs are used in concert with a complex attack- ensure that soldiers are scanning the areas
near and far away from the device for enemy forces, to include a triggerman or possible
cameraman.
Control- Soldiers should control the site to prevent people from getting too close to the device
until the site has been cleared. While waiting for an Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) team
to arrive, make sure soldiers are prepared for a possible attack by the enemy, and know the
contingency plan in case the unit comes under attack.
Once the IED has been safely detonated, continue mission IAW higher HQ guidance.

7.1.1.2 React to Media


Overview
Many military leaders have become aware that news media coverage of their operations can be a
force multiplier. Impressed by Gen. Walt Boomers example of encouraging favorable news media
coverage of the US Marines in the Gulf War - to the point where most observers agree that the
Marines received more credit than they deserved, mostly at the expense of the US Army - many
military leaders have come to the conclusion that media coverage not only develops public
awareness and the support of military units, it has the side benefit of enhancing their morale by
informing their families and friends of the activities of the troops. If used prudently, media is indeed a
Force Multiplier as it builds public opinion. In the words of Abraham Lincoln:
Public opinion is everything. With it nothing can fail, Without it nothing can succeed.
Extract from Field Manual 46-1, Public Affairs Operations
Standards for a Successful Encounter
1) Interviews are not conducted with non-accredited media representatives.
2) Media team, also known as a Unit Public Affairs Representative (UPAR), provides guidance to
both interviewer and Soldier to be interviewed.
3) Soldier interviewed does not speculate, nor does he express opinions beyond the scope of his
experience or duties.
4) Operational information is not discussed.
5) Unit adheres to the rules of engagement.
7.1.1.2.1 Actions to be taken
1) Soldier asks to see accreditation certification.
2) Soldier asks where the escort is if the reporter appears to be unescorted.
3) If all details are in accordance with instructions received from briefings, Soldier participates in the
interview. (See subtask 6 below if reporter is not escorted.)
4) UPAR remains nearby during the interview.
5) Soldier responds to interviewers questions.
(a) Soldier listens to the question, asks for clarification if needed.
(b) Soldier thinks about answer before responding.
(c) Soldier is honest in his answers. Says I dont know if answer is beyond scope.
(d) Soldier explains if he cannot answer a question due to operations security.
(e) Soldier does not respond to hypothetical situations used by correspondent to elicit a
response.
(f) Soldier terminates interview if he becomes uncomfortable with the questions being asked, or
if questioning becomes provocative.
(g) Soldier does not allow himself to be baited into a response by a controversial or so-called
investigative reporter.
(h) Soldier avoids saying No comment.
6) If press representative is unescorted, Soldier:
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(a) Determines if escort is in the area. Asks for a specific name and unit rather than accepting a
general wave over there.
(b) Requests person or team to accompany the reporter to headquarters element location or
calls for superiors to come to the location.
(c) Uses tact in dealing with media team.
7) Leader attempts to verify identity of media team.
(a) Notifies higher headquarters UPAR or public affairs officer (PAO).
(b) Advises media team to depart area of operations to make contact with higher headquarters
UPAR or PAO. Provides location and recommends route.
8) Guidelines for media team operations in a controlled area. If media team is in an area under
direct U.S. force control (e.g., secure compound, protected area, buffer zone), Soldier detains
the media team to maintain positive control.
(a) Soldier informs media team that they are in a controlled area.
(b) Soldier informs media team that detention is for security reasons and will continue until
released by higher headquarters.
(c) Soldier uses restraint consistent with authorized methods.
(d) Soldier/Leader considers that a ploy may be engineered to portray U.S. force unfavorably.
(e) Soldier/Leader keeps higher headquarters informed of all actions taken.
7.1.1.3 React to Civilians
Your higher element will be responsible for developing a complete list for the Rules of Engagement.
Commanders at all levels may provide further guidance regarding civilians occupying the area of
operations (AO). Leaders must daily reiterate the ROE to subordinates, and immediately inform them
of any changes to the ROE. Soldiers must have the discipline to identify the enemy from
noncombatants and ensure civilians understand and follow all directed commands.
Civilians may not speak English, may be hiding (especially small children), or dazed from a breach.
Civilians must not be given the means to resist. Rehearse how clearing/search teams will react to
these variables. Never compromise the safety of your fellow Soldiers.
There are two types of situations you may interact with civilians during. You may be conducting a type
of mission where your presence must not be known to the enemy. During this type of situation, you
may need to detain a civilian, or send them out of the area depending on the situation. Or you may be
conducting an operation where your presence may need to be known by the local populace.
Sometimes you may have civilians who may become unruly. Often times during training situations,
civilians my grab your gear, or weapon forcibly, under these situations you should follow your
escalation of force (see below). Make sure to maintain security at all times.
Escalation of Force:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)

SHOUT - verbal warning to halt.


SHOVE - nonlethal physical force.
SHOW - intent to use weapon.
SHOOT - deliberately aimed shots until threat no longer exists. If ROE allows utilize warning shots
are not permitted.

7.1.1.4 Assess a Casualty


Tactical combat casualty care (TCCC) can be divided into three phases. The first is care under fire;
the second is tactical field care; the third is combat casualty evacuation care. In the first, you are
under hostile fire and are very limited as to the care you can provide. In the second, you and the
casualty are relatively safe and no longer under effective hostile fire, and you are free to provide
casualty care to the best of your ability. In the third, the care is rendered during casualty evacuation
(CASEVAC).
Assessing an enemy casualty will utilize the same procedures as below, except you will neutralize any
possible threat by searching the casualty and having a Soldier pull security on the prisoner. Your
security member may be required to hold the casualty down or bound him.
Warning: If a broken neck or back is suspected, do not move the casualty unless to save his/her life.
1. Perform care under fire.
a. Return fire as directed or required before providing medical treatment.
b. Determine if the casualty is alive or dead.
Note: In combat, the most likely threat to the casualty's life is from bleeding. Attempts to check for
airway and breathing will expose the rescuer to enemy fire. Do not attempt to provide first aid if your
own life is in imminent danger.
Note: In a combat situation, if you find a casualty with no signs of life-no pulse, no breathing-do NOT
attempt to restore the airway. Do NOT continue first aid measures.
c. Provide tactical care to the live casualty.
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Note: Reducing or eliminating enemy fire may be more important to the casualty's survival than the
treatment you can provide.
(1) Suppress enemy fire.
(2) Use cover or concealment (smoke).
(3) Direct the casualty to return fire, move to cover, and administer self-aid (stop bleeding), if possible.
If the casualty is unable to move and you are unable to move the casualty to cover and the casualty is
still under direct enemy fire, have the casualty "play dead."
(4) If the casualty is unresponsive, move the casualty, his/her weapon, and mission-essential
equipment to cover, as the tactical situation permits.
(5) Keep the casualty from sustaining additional wounds.
(6) Reassure the casualty.
d. Administer life-saving hemorrhage control.
(1) Determine the relative threat of the tactical situation versus the risk of the casualty's bleeding to
death.
(2) If the casualty has severe bleeding from a limb or has suffered amputation of a limb, administer
life-saving hemorrhage control by applying a tourniquet before moving the casualty. (See task 081
-831-1032.)
e. Transport the casualty, his/her weapon, and mission-essential equipment when the tactical
situation permits.
f. Recheck bleeding control measures as the tactical situation permits.
2. Perform tactical field care when no longer under direct enemy fire.
Note: Tactical field care is rendered by the individual when no longer under hostile fire. Tactical field
care also applies to situations in which an injury has occurred during the mission but there has been
no hostile fire. Available medical equipment is limited to that carried into the field by the individual
Soldier.
Warning: If there are any signs of nerve agent poisoning, stop the evaluation, take the necessary
NBC protective measures, and begin first aid. (See task 081-831-1 044. )
Note: In the following situations communicate the medical situation to the unit leader and ensure that
the tactical situation allows for time to perform these steps before initiating any medical procedure.
Note: When evaluating and/or treating a casualty, seek medical aid as soon as possible. Do NOT
stop treatment; but, if the situation allows, send another person to find medical aid.
a. Form a general impression of the casualty as you approach (extent of injuries, chance of survival).
Note: If a casualty is being burned, take steps to remove the casualty from the source of the burns
before continuing evaluation and treatment. (See task 081-831-1007.)
b. Check for responsiveness.
(1) Ask in a loud, but calm, voice: "Are you okay?" Gently shake or tap the casualty on the shoulder.
(2) Determine level of consciousness by using AVPU: A = Alert; V = responds to Voice; P = responds
to Pain; U = Unresponsive.
Note: To check a casualty's response to pain, rub the breastbone briskly with a knuckle or squeeze
the first or second toe over the toenail.
(3) If the casualty is conscious, ask where his/her body feels different than usual, or where it hurts.
Go to step 2e. If the casualty is conscious but is choking and cannot talk, stop the evaluation and
begin treatment. (See task 081-831-1003.)
(4) If the casualty is unconscious, continue with step 2c.
c. Position the casualty and open the airway. (See task 081-831 - 1023.)
d. Assess for breathing and chest injuries.
(1) Look, listen, and feel for respiration. (See task 081-831-1023.)
Note: If the casualty is breathing, insert a nasopharyngeal airway (see task 081 -831-1023) and place
the casualty in the recovery position.
Note: On the battlefield the cost of attempting cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) on casualties with
what are inevitably fatal injuries may result in additional lives lost as care is diverted from casualties
with less severe injuries. Only in the case of nontraumatic disorders such as hypothermia, near
drowning, or electrocution should CPR be considered prior to the CASEVAC phase.
(2) Expose the chest and check for equal rise and fall and for any wounds. (See task 081-831-1026.)
(a) If the casualty has a penetrating chest wound, and is breathing or making an effort to breathe,
stop the evaluation to apply an occlusive dressing.
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(b) Monitor for increasing respiratory distress. If this occurs, decompress the chest on the same side
as the injury. (See task 081 -831-1026.)
(c) Position or transport with the affected side down, if possible.
e. Identify and control bleeding.
(1) Check for bleeding.
(a) Remove minimum of clothing required to expose and treat injuries. Protect casualty from the
environment (heat and cold).
(b) Look for blood-soaked clothes.
(c) Look for entry and exit wounds.
(d) Place your hands behind the casualty's neck and pass them upward toward the top of the head.
Note whether there is blood or brain tissue on your hands from the casualty's wounds.
(e) Place your hands behind the casualty's shoulders and pass them downward behind the back, the
thighs, and the legs. Note whether there is blood on your hands from the casualty's wounds.
(2) If life-threatening bleeding is present, stop the evaluation and control the bleeding. Apply a
tourniquet, field dressing, or an emergency trauma dressing, as appropriate. (See tasks 081-8311025, 081-831-1026, 081-831-1032, and 081-831-1033.) Treat for shock, as appropriate. (See task
081-831-1005.)
Note: If a tourniquet was previously applied, consider converting it to a pressure dressing. (See task
081-831-1032.) By converting the tourniquet to a pressure dressing, it may be possible to save the
casualty's limb if the tourniquet has not been in place for 6 hours.
(3) Dress all wounds, including exit wounds.
f. Check for fractures.
(1) Check for open fractures by looking for bleeding or bone sticking through the skin.
(2) Check for closed fractures by looking for swelling, discoloration, deformity, or unusual body
position.
(3) If a suspected fracture is present, stop the evaluation and apply a splint. (See task 081-831 -1
034.)
g. Check for burns.
(1) Look carefully for reddened, blistered, or charred skin. Also check for singed clothes.
(2) If burns are found, stop the evaluation and begin treatment. (See task 081-831-1007.)
h. Administer pain medications and antibiotics (the casualty's combat pill pack) to any Soldier
wounded in combat.
Note: Each Soldier will be issued a combat pill pack prior to deployment on tactical missions.
i. Transport the casualty to the site where evacuation is anticipated. (See task 081-831-1046.)
3. Monitor an unconscious casualty during casualty evacuation (CASEVAC).
Note: CASEVAC refers to the movement of casualties aboard nonmedical vehicles or aircraft.
Combat casualty evacuation care is rendered while the casualty is awaiting pickup or is being
transported. A Soldier accompanying an unconscious casualty should monitor the casualty's airway,
breathing, and bleeding.
7.1.1.5 Presence Patrols
Conducted a presence patrol so that the military presence of US troops is projected, and all
appropriate human intelligence (HUMINT) information is gathered and the commander's intent is met.
Interaction with local or foreign civilians, law enforcement, governmental officials or military is
conducted in a manner that did not incite aggression against US forces or our allies. Such patrols will
maintain force protection, as appropriate, for the threat situation and will maintained situational
awareness by monitoring FM communications.
The patrol interacts with the local civilians as the OPORD or situation dictates. This includes local or
foreign civilians, law enforcement and governmental officials, and other forces located in the area. Act
in a manner that will not incite aggression against U.S. forces or our allies.
(1) Utilize any designated human intelligence (HUMINT) collector or civilians on the battlefield team
(COB)
(2) Maintains situational awareness of local activities, civilians, military forces, and other potential
threats to the patrol.
(3) Due to the interaction the patrol may have with the local civilians, and other personnel in the area
along the route, progressive levels of force protection may be necessary.
(4) Conducts continuous reconnaissance during and after the patrol. Make note of suspicious activity,
persons, vehicles, etc.
(5) Reports all suspicious activities to higher headquarters.
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7.1.1.6 Culturally Sensitive Sites

03 OCT 2016

Partly due to our homogenized culture, dealing with culturally sensitive sites may be challenging to
many Americans. Our culture does not place a reverence on many locations. Early during in the Iraq
war, cultural sensitivity was not high on the priority list for the coalition. Often times, Americans
working to stop the insurgency and protect the local populace would enter sites revered by locals, only
leading to more violence. Certain locations should only be entered if it is a requirement for safety and
depending on the situation should only be entered if it is the last possible alternative. Depending on
the culture it is important to identify sites that are culturally sensitive prior to arriving. Some may
include but are not limited to: Mosques or any place of worship, cemeteries, archeological sites,
museums, schools (religious or otherwise).

U.S. raid on Iraq mosque sparks Sunni Arab anger


The U.S. military said they conducted the raid in response to a tip-off of "substantial terrorist activity" in the
mosque.
By Reuters | Jan.09, 2006 | 12:00 AM

Sunni Arab political parties in Iraq condemned the weekend U.S. raid on the Baghdad offices of an influential
Islamic organization, accusing the U.S. military of targeting Muslim clergy and violating a place of worship.
Sunday's raid on the offices of the Muslim Clerics' Association appears likely to worsen the relationship
between the U.S. military and the Sunni Arab community in Iraq at a time when Washington is trying to
encourage Sunnis to abandon support for the insurgency and embrace the political process.
The U.S. military said they conducted the raid in response to a tip-off of "substantial terrorist activity" in the
mosque and says its soldiers behaved respectfully during their search of the premises and their arrest of six
people. Late on Sunday, the Front issued a statement demanding the release of the six men detained in
Sunday's operation and called on them "to respect the worship places and religious clergy, and never to repeat
this in the future."
While the raid appears likely to fuel grievances among the once-dominant Sunni Arab community who feel
marginalized under the Shi'ite and Kurdish-led government, it was not immediately clear if it would complicate
efforts to form a new government.

7.1.1.7 FRAGOs from Higher


The FRAGO is an adjustment to an existing OPORD. During small unit STX training there are many
reasons why the evaluator might adjust the situation through the use of a FRAGO.
(1) The lane may specify a mission change.
(2) The unit being trained may be running behind schedule.
(3) The unit may be doing very well, and the evaluator may want to apply more stress to the
element.
(4) The evaluator has not seen a specific task go successfully and may want to make sure the
element has the opportunity to demonstrate it.
Depending on the mission there are many potential FRAGOs that may be issued. It could be based
on one of the identified branches, the time required to conduct the execution could be moved to a
sooner time, or there could be a mission change.
7.1.1.8 React to Indirect Fire
At any time during movement you may receive indirect contact. Indirect fire means aiming and firing a
projectile in a high trajectory without relying on a direct line of sight between the gun and its target, as
in the case of direct fire. Aiming is performed by calculating azimuth and elevation angles, and may
include correcting the fall of shot by observing it and calculating new angles, typically mortars,
rockets, or artillery.
7.1.1.8.1 Actions to be taken
(1) You hear the sound of incoming indirect fire, typically a high pitched whistle sounds.
(2) Shout "incoming" in a loud, easily recognizable voice, this can be done by anyone in the patrol.
(3) When you hear incoming, every member of the patrol will immediately get as low to the ground as
possible, preferably near cover. Remain in your defensive position, making no unnecessary
movements that could alert the enemy to your location.
(4) After the explosion of the round, the leader will call out a direction and distance. 3 OClock, 200
meters.
(5) Move quickly, while attempting to maintain a loose formation. Make sure to maintain security
during movement.
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(6) Once at the specified destination 3 OClock, 200 meters. The senior Soldier will immediately take
charge until the patrol leader arrives. He/She will gain accountability and begin forming a security
perimeter.
7.1.1.9 React to Direct Contact
When you make direct contact with the enemy, you will be expected to immediately react to contact.
Depending on METT-TC you will either break contact or attack. See 6.2.3 for an explanation for react
to contact.
React to Sniper
Snipers are a very deadly problem for conventional military forces in any environment, urban or
otherwise. A trained sniper or a decent marksman is a formidable foe who can create confusion,
cause casualties, harass or even disrupt the flow of operations. Their precision shooting capability
and knowledge of field craft make them hard to detect and difficult to counter. This is another form of
direct contact, you will react in a very similar way to direct contact against a conventional force.
Fundamentals
1

Immediately get to cover;

Return fire (if position known);

Locate the sniper;

Isolate the sniper from egress routes;

Maneuver to eliminate the sniper.

The initial reaction to sniper fire in any situation is to immediately find cover, return fire, and break
contact out of the kill zone, if possible. Use the maximum amount of force possible in accordance with
current ROE to accomplish this task. A good sniper has a kill zone that is well developed to his/her
advantage, making it critical to minimize exposure in this environment. Consider the use of all
weapons systems available, including indirect fire (if possible) and any additional units not in contact
as maneuver elements to suppress the sniper or facilitate movement out of the kill zone. Use any
possible means to obscure the snipers ability to target soldiers; methods like smoke or the use of
vehicles as moving cover are two examples.
Be mindful about casualties. Snipers often use casualties as bait to lure other soldiers into the kill
zone and create further casualties. Casualties within the kill zone must administer self-aid until the
sniper can be effectively suppressed or destroyed.
Soldiers not directly in the kill zone should attempt to locate the snipers position and suppress it.
Snipers are hard to detect, but many times they can be found by their mistakes: muzzle flashes,
reflection of light from optics, and dust clouds are examples of this.
Once the snipers location has been detected, the maneuver element conducts a flanking maneuver
using covered and concealed routes to cut off the sniper from any potential egress routes and
establishes a solid cordon of the immediate area. With the snipers ability to escape defeated, units
can methodically maneuver to the snipers location and eliminate the threat.
7.1.1.10 Conduct a Key Leader Engagement
Key Leader Engagements (KLEs) are planned to convey selected information and indicators to
foreign audiences to influence their emotions, motives, objective reasoning, and ultimately the
behavior of foreign governments, organizations, groups and individuals. This is in order to collect
intelligence, develop relationships in support of commanders intent, and obtain mutually satisfying
outcomes within constraints existing in partnered nations cultural belief system. In other words, we
seek to maintain the support of those who are sympathetic or neutral to our cause, persuade those
who are not to adopt a more favorable view or position, and isolate those who are irreconcilably or
actively hostile.
7.1.1.12.2 Fundamentals
A successful KLE, within the scope of Information Operations (IO), is all about relationship building. A
KLE is not about engaging key leaders when a crisis arises, it is about building relationships over time
with enough strength and depth, so that they can then support our interests during times of crisis.
KLEs are complex tasks that require focused preparation, execution, and post-KLE assessment in
order to build the overall desired outcomes. Because of this, a KLE is an amorphous process, in that it
has no absolute structure that must be followed to the letter. The KLE process requires a leader to have
good communication skills, the ability to create and strengthen personal relationships, establishing trust
and rapport, skillful negotiation, and cultural awareness. A good process to follow is detailed below:
1

Identify Key Leader;

Intelligence Preparation of the Environment;


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3 Identify Desired Effects;
4

Prepare for KLE;

Execute;

Debrief/Report;

Reengage.

03 OCT 2016

As with many processes in the military, these steps can be viewed in three phases: Preparation,
Execution, and Follow-through.
7.1.1.12.3 Preparation
1

Identify who it is you will be speaking with. Who exactly is this person, and why will you be speaking
to this person in particular? What is their agenda? Determine the key leaders network, his/her
source of authority, and potential for long term influence.

View the Key Leader and the KLE in general terms of the environment. In many cases, this can be
seen as a cultural assessment. Cultural awareness is a key factor in KLEs; it provides proper
context for the engagement. Identify what cultural components of the environment (religion,
ethnicity, language, social norms, political affiliation, customs/courtesies, etc.) will have an effect on
the KLE, and what can be done to develop these to the advantage of the engagement.

Identify what the desired end state is for the KLE. Remember that a desired outcome is not always
the actual outcome. Identify what conditions must be met in order to achieve these outcomes, and
predetermine what you are willing to give in order to facilitate the desired end state. If a desired
outcome is not possible, plan for the best alternative.

Discuss desired effects with personnel attending the KLE. Identify personnel with key roles, such as
the recorder. Remember to always include the interpreter. Your interpreter, in almost all cases, is
your only communication link to the key leader and his sphere of influence. As such, he/she is the
most critical asset to a KLE. Additionally, it is important to distinguish the difference between
interpretation and translation. While both methods take information in one language and transfer it
into a different language, simply translating word-for-word can have the effect of losing the meaning
of the discussion. A good interpreter can paraphrase what is being said, interpret the meaning of
what is being said, and translate both the words and meaning into a different cultural context. This
is why it is important to include the interpreter in preparation for the KLE; it gives the leader an
opportunity to brief the interpreter on key discussion points, desired outcomes, and the general
meaning behind the KLE to come.

7.1.1.12.4 Execution
1

Begin introductions in accordance with custom. Be courteous, and engender a sense of mutual
respect. Do not attempt to rush the discussion; many cultures do not immediately sit down and
begin negotiations. Be patient- know when it is time to listen, and when it is time to speak. Do not
make promises you cannot uphold. Be specific and on task. Above all, use your common sense.
All KLEs are not the same. But while the subject matter may be different, all KLEs require a leader
with good communication and negotiation skills. It is important to have the proper assumptions
when conducting negotiations, in order to direct the KLE toward a mutually beneficial outcome.
Examples of incorrect versus correct assumptions can be seen on the next page.

7.1.1.12.5 Follow-through
(6) Conduct a post-KLE debrief with the personnel involved. Was the desired end state achieved? If
not, what has been achieved? Remember that the measure of success for a KLE is not always the
meeting of the desired end state. Identify the key points of discussion and any
commitments/promises made to the key leader. Ensure a good record of the KLE has been made;
this will allow for continuity and uniformity in the future.
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Poor Assumptions

Successful Assumptions

The keys to a successful negotiation


are compromise and concession.

The key to a successful negotiation is


creativity.

My best tools are statements of Yes


or No, Ill give X if you give Y, and
Or Else.

My best tools are the questions, Whats


driving that? Would we defend that and
based on what standard? and Are there
some ways you think we might solve this?
My main job is to fully understand their
perceptions and interests and engage them
in problem-solving.
I am most persuasive when I think and
show that I am open to persuasion, and
when I truly believe I have at least a 1%
chance of being wrong or can learn
something from them.

My main job is to get our message


across.
I am most persuasive when I know
and show that I am right.

Power comes from using force or


financial and material leverage.

VERSUS

Power comes from driving understanding,


creativity, and a fair process.

The only way to get something is to


give them what they want.

If we can understand why they want


something, we can discover more and likely
better possible solutions.

If we give now, we can get later.

Creating fair, equal agreements that


manage both parties abilities for followthrough is more effective in the long run.

Failure is their problem.


There are only two choices in
negotiation: Be a hard (anchor
positions and make threats) or a soft
(Give in to build the relationship)
negotiator.

Failure is a joint problem.


The most effective negotiator knows his/her
walk-away criteria, builds the relationship
(develops trust on actions, not concessions)
and negotiates substance on the merits
(making use of interests and legitimacy).
I should behave in a way that will move us
toward where we want to go.
The purpose and desired outcome for this
event builds upon and sequences with past
and future engagements.

If they behave badly, I should too.


This negotiation is an isolated,
transactional event.

Negotiation Assumptions

(7) A KLE is never a singular event. A KLE is about building a relationship, something that requires time
and dedication. Always prepare for the next KLE in the future with the same leader to sustain the
relationship and follow-up on issues discussed and commitments made from the previous KLE.
Ensure, if possible, that the leader has the ability- or at least the information necessary- to contact
you in the future.

7.2

Patrol Raid
7.2.1

Overview

A raid is a form of attack, usually small scale, involving a swift entry into hostile territory to
secure information, confuse the enemy, or destroy installations. It ends with a planned
withdrawal from the objective area on mission completion. A raid can also be used to support
operations designed to rescue and recover individuals and equipment in danger of capture. In
short, a raid is an attack with a detailed infiltration and withdrawal plan.
The patrol initiates the raid NLT the time specified in the order, surprises the enemy, assaults the
objective, and accomplishes its assigned mission within the commanders intent. The patrol does not
become decisively engaged en route to the objective. The patrol obtains all available PIR from the
raid objective and continues follow-on operations.
7.2.2

Fundamentals

(1) Planning Considerations.


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The sequence of platoon actions for a raid is similar to those for an ambush. Additionally, the assault
element of the platoon may have to conduct a breach of an obstacle. It may have additional tasks to
perform on the objective such as demolition of fixed facilities.
Fundamentals of the raid include- Surprise and speed. Infiltrate and surprise the enemy without being detected.
Coordinated fires. Seal off the objective with well-synchronized direct and indirect fires.
Violence of action. Overwhelm the enemy with fire and maneuver.
Planned withdrawal. Withdraw from the objective in an organized manner, maintaining security.
(2) Actions on the Objective (Raid).
(a) The patrol moves to and occupies the ORP. The patrol prepares for the leaders recon.
(b) The PL, squad leaders, and selected personnel conduct a leaders recon.
PL leaves a five point contingency plan with the APL. The APL preps men, weapons, and
equipment.
PL establishes the RP, pinpoints the objective, and emplaces the surveillance team to observe the
objective.
Leaders recon verifies location of routes to and from the objective and the security, support, and
assault positions.
Leaders conduct the recon without compromising the patrol.
Leaders normally recon support by fire position first, then the assault position.
(c) The PL confirms, denies, or modifies his plan and issues instructions to his squad leaders.
Assigns positions and withdrawal routes to all elements.
Designates control measures on the objective (element objectives, lanes, limits of advance, target
reference points, and assault line).
Allows SLs time to disseminate information, and confirm that their elements are ready.
(d) Security elements occupy designated positions, moving undetected into positions that provide
early warning and can seal off the objective from outside support or reinforcement.
(e) The support element leader moves the support element to designated positions. The support
element leader ensures his element can place well-aimed fire on the objective.
(f) The PL moves with the assault element into the assault position. The assault position is normally
the last covered and concealed position before reaching the objective. As it passes through the
assault position the platoon deploys into its assault formation; that is, its squads and fire teams
deploy to place the bulk of their firepower to the front as they assault the objective.
Makes contact with the surveillance team to confirm any enemy activity on the objective.
Ensures that the assault position is close enough for immediate assault if the assault element is
detected early.
Moves into position undetected, and establish local security and fire control measures.
(g) Element leaders inform the PL when their elements are in position and ready.
(h) The PL directs the support element to fire.
(i) Upon gaining fire superiority, the PL directs the assault element to move towards the objective.
Assault element holds fire until engaged, or until ready to penetrate the objective.
PL signals the support element to lift or shift fires. The support element lifts or shifts fires as
directed, shifting fire to the flanks of targets or areas as directed in the FRAGO.
(j) The assault element attacks and secures the objective. The assault element may be required to
breech a wire obstacle. As the platoon, or its assault element, moves onto the objective, it must
increase the volume and accuracy of fires. Squad leaders assign specific targets or objectives for
their fire teams. Only when these direct fires keep the enemy suppressed can the rest of the unit
maneuver. As the assault element gets closer to the enemy, there is more emphasis on suppression
and less on maneuver. Ultimately, all but one fire team may be suppressing to allow that one fire team
to break into the enemy position.
Throughout the assault, Soldiers use proper individual movement techniques, and fire teams retain
their basic shallow wedge formation. The platoon does not get "on-line" to sweep across the
objective.
Assault element assaults through the objective to the designated LOA.
Assault element leaders establish local security along the LOA, and consolidate and reorganize as
necessary.
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They provide ACE reports to the PL and APL. The platoon establishes security, operates key
weapons, provides first aid, and prepares wounded Soldiers for MEDEVAC. They redistribute
ammunition and supplies, and they relocate selected weapons to alternate positions if leaders believe
that the enemy may have pinpointed them during the attack. They adjust other positions for mutual
support. The squad and team leader provide ammunition, casualty, and equipment (ACE) reports to
the platoon leader. The PL/APL reorganizes the patrol based on the contact.
-- On order, special teams accomplish all assigned tasks under the supervision of the PL, who
positions himself where he can control the patrol.
-- Special team leaders report to PL when assigned tasks are complete.
(k) On order or signal of the PL, the assault element withdraws from the objective. Using prearranged
signals, the assault line begins an organized withdrawal from the objective site, maintaining control
and security throughout the withdrawal.
The assault element bounds back near the original assault line, and begins a single file withdrawal
through the APL's choke point.
All Soldiers must move through the choke point for an accurate count. Once the assault element is a
safe distance from the objective and the headcount is confirmed, the platoon can withdraw the
support element. If the support elements were a part of the assault line, they withdraw together, and
security is signaled to withdraw. Once the support is a safe distance off the objective, they notify the
platoon leader, who contacts the security element and signals them to withdraw. All security teams
link up at the release point and notify the platoon leader before moving to the ORP. Personnel
returning to the ORP immediately secure their equipment and establish all-round security. Once the
security element returns, the platoon moves out of the objective area as soon as possible, normally in
two to three minutes.
Before withdrawing, the demo team activates demo devices and charges.
Support element or designated personnel in the assault element maintain local security during the
withdrawal.
Leaders report updated accountability and status (ACE report) to the PL and APL.
(l) Squads withdraw from the objective in the order designated in the FRAGO to the ORP.
Account for personnel and equipment.
Disseminate information.
Redistribute ammunition and equipment as required.
(m) The PL reports mission accomplishment to higher and continues the mission.
Reports raid assessment to higher.
Informs higher of any IR/PIR gathered.
Figure 7-20 Raid Formation

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7.3

03 OCT 2016

Ambush
7.3.1

Overview

An ambush is a surprise attack from a concealed position on a moving or temporarily halted target.
Ambushes are classified by category--hasty or deliberate; type--point or area; and formation--linear or
L-shaped. The leader uses a combination of category, type, and formation in developing his ambush
plan. The key planning considerations include-(a) Coverage of entire kill zone by fire.
(b) METT-TC.
(c) Use of existing or reinforcing obstacles, including Claymores, to keep the enemy in the kill zone.
(d) Security teams (typically equipped with hand-held antitank weapons such as AT-4 or LAW;
Claymores; and various means of communication.
(e) Protect the assault and support elements with claymores or explosives.
(f) Use security elements or teams to isolate the kill zone.
(g) Assault through the kill zone to the limit of advance (LOA). (The assault element must be able to
move quickly through its own protective obstacles.)
(h) Time the actions of all elements of the platoon to preclude loss of surprise. In the event any
member of the ambush is compromised, he may immediately initiate the ambush.
(i) When the ambush must be manned for a long time, use only one squad to conduct the entire
ambush and determining movement time of rotating squads from the ORP to the ambush site.
7.3.2

Categories

(a) Hasty Ambush. A unit conducts a hasty ambush when it makes visual contact with an enemy force
and has time to establish an ambush without being detected. The actions for a hasty ambush must be
well rehearsed so that Soldiers know what to do on the leader's signal. They must also know what
action to take if the unit is detected before it is ready to initiate the ambush.
(b) Deliberate Ambush. A deliberate ambush is conducted at a predetermined location against any
enemy element that meets the commanders engagement criteria. The leader requires the following
detailed information in planning a deliberate ambush: size and composition of the targeted enemy,
and weapons and equipment available to the enemy.
7.3.3

Types

(a) Point ambush. In a point ambush, Soldiers deploy to attack an enemy in a single kill zone.
(b) Area ambush. In an area, Soldiers deploy in two or more related point ambushes.
7.3.4

Formations

(a) Linear Ambush. In an ambush using a linear formation, the assault and support elements deploy
parallel to the enemy's route. This positions both elements on the long axis of the kill zone and
subjects the enemy to flanking fire. This formation can be used in close terrain that restricts the
enemy's ability to maneuver against the platoon, or in open terrain provided a means of keeping the
enemy in the kill zone can be effected.
(b) L-Shaped Ambush. In an L-shaped ambush, the assault element forms the long leg parallel to the
enemy's direction of movement along the kill zone. The support element forms the short leg at one
end of and at right angles to the assault element. This provides both flanking (long leg) and enfilading
fires (short leg) against the enemy. The L-shaped ambush can be used at a sharp bend in a trail, road,
or stream. It should not be used where the short leg would have to cross a straight road or trail.

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Figure 7-21 Ambush Formations

7.3.5

Organization.

A typical ambush organizes into a Security Element, Support Element, and Assault Element. Section
sized ambushes task organize into a Security Element, a Support Element, and an Assault Element.
7.3.6

Security

TASK The Security Elements primary TASK during actions on the objective is to secure the
Support and Assault Elements. The tactical mission task secure means preventing a unit from being
damaged or destroyed as a result of enemy action (FM 1-02). This means the primary focus of the
Security Element is to prevent enemy reinforcements from affecting the Support/Assaults mission of
destroy.
7.3.7

Fundamentals

During a deliberate attack, you will expect to establish an ORP for final preparation prior to reaching
your objective, conducting a leaders reconnaissance to determine the exact location of your
objective, plan your support by fire location, assault lane, and security positions. See leaders
reconnaissance (Section 5.2.9) for more information.
Note: Since you will be splitting your force, a technique that is often used is making sure to keep your
teams organic. Your support by fire should have good overwatch over as much of the objective as
possible. Since this is the case, your S&O during your leaders reconnaissance also needs to be in a
good overwatch position. It is suggested that your S&O be from your support element. This will allow
them to easily rejoin their element as you are emplacing your forces.
7.3.7.1 Departing the ORP to the OBJ
a. Your first goal is to make it to the release point. The lead should be taken by an individual who
went on the leaders reconnaissance and knows exactly where the release point is. The order of
march out of the ORP is not critical but should be well distributed for fire power, and could go support,
assault. This will make it easier at the release point for splitting your forces.
b. Upon reaching the release point the squad leader will drop off the squad and take one person with
him for security. The squad leader will then move to check with the S&O team, who kept eyes on the
OBJ while the squad leader was bringing the rest of the squad forward, to confirm, change, or abort
the mission. (Confirm nothing has changed, identify that there has been a change on the objective
that affects the plan, or abort that something serious has changed and it may no longer be wise to
attack.)
c. If there are any changes, the squad leader will brief them to his squad at the release point.
d. If there is a reason to abort (at LDAC there will not be a reason to abort, all objectives only have 23 OPFOR), the squad leader will assess the situation and call higher with a SITREP.
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7.3.8 Hasty Ambush

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(1) Task Standards. The patrol moves quickly to concealed positions. The ambush is not initiated
until the majority of the enemy is in the kill zone. The unit does not become decisively engaged. The
patrol surprises the enemy. The patrol captures, kills, or forces the withdrawal of all of the enemy
within the kill zone. On order, the patrol withdraws all personnel and equipment in the kill zone from
observation and direct fire. The unit does not become decisively engaged by follow-on elements. The
patrol continues follow-on operations.
(2) Actions on the Objective (Hasty Ambush).
(a) Using visual signals, any Soldier alerts the unit that an enemy force is in sight. The Soldier
continues to monitor the location and activities of the enemy force until his team or squad leader
relieves him, and gives the enemy location and direction of movement.
(b) The patrol and remains motionless.
The PL gives the signal to conduct a hasty ambush, taking care not to alert the enemy of the patrols
presence.
The leader determines the best nearby location for a hasty ambush. He uses arm-and-hand signals
to direct the unit members to covered and concealed positions.
(c) The leader designates the location and extent of the kill zone.
d) Teams and squads move silently to covered and concealed positions, ensuring positions are
undetected and have good observation and fields of fire into the kill zone.
(e) Security elements move out to cover each flank and the rear of the unit. The leader directs the
security elements to move a given distance, set up, and then rejoin the unit on order or, after the
ambush (the sound of firing ceases). At squad level, the two outside buddy teams normally provide
flank security as well as fires into the kill zone. At platoon level, fire teams make up the security
elements.
(f) The PL assigns sectors of fire and issues any other commands necessary such as control
measures.
(g) The PL initiates the ambush, using the greatest casualty-producing weapon available, when the
largest percentage of enemy is in the kill zone. The PL- Controls the rate and distribution of fire.
Employs indirect fire to support the ambush.
Orders cease fire.
(If the situation dictates) Orders the patrol to assault through the kill zone.
(h) The PL designates personnel to conduct a hasty search of enemy personnel and process enemy
prisoners
and equipment.
(i) The PL orders the platoon to withdraw from the ambush site along a covered and concealed route.
(j) The PL gains accountability, reorganizes as necessary, disseminates information, reports the
situation, and continues the mission as directed.

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Figure 7-22 Actions on the Objective -- Hasty Ambush

7.3.9

Deliberate (Point/Area) Ambush.

(1) Task Standards. The ambush is emplaced NLT the time specified in the order. The patrol
surprises the enemy and engages the enemy main body. The patrol kills or captures all enemy in the
kill zone and destroys equipment based on the commanders intent. The patrol withdraws all
personnel and equipment from the objective, on order, within the time specified in the order. The
patrol obtains all available PIR from the ambush and continues follow-on operations.
(2) Actions on the Objective (Deliberate Ambush).
(a) The PL prepares the patrol for the ambush in the ORP.
(b) The PL prepares to conduct a leaders reconnaissance. He- Designates the members of the leaders recon party (typically includes squad leaders, surveillance
team, FO, and possibly the security element.
Issues a contingency plan to the PSG.
(c) The PL conducts his leaders reconnaissance. He- Ensures the leaders recon party moves undetected.
Confirms the objective location and suitability for the ambush.
Selects a kill zone.
Posts the surveillance team at the site and issues a contingency plan.
Confirms suitability of assault and support positions, and routes from them to the ORP.
Selects the position of each weapon system in the support-by-fire position, and then designates
sectors of fire.
Identifies all offensive control measures to be used. Identifies the PLD, the assault position, LOA,
any boundaries or other control measures. If available, the PL can use infrared aiming devices to
identify these positions on the ground.
(d) The PL adjusts his plan based on info from the reconnaissance. He- Assigns positions.
Designates withdrawal routes.
(e) The PL confirms the ambush formation.
(f) The security team(s) occupy first, securing the flanks of the ambush site, and providing early
warning. The security element must be in position before the support and assault elements move
forward of the release point. A security team remains in the ORP if the patrol plans to return to the
ORP after actions on the objective. If the ORP is abandoned, a rear security team should be
emplaced.
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(g) Support element leader assigns sectors of fire. He- Emplaces claymores and obstacles as designated.
Identifies sectors of fire and emplaces limiting stakes to prevent friendly fires from hitting other
elements.
Overwatches the movement of the assault element into position.
(h) Once the support element is in position, or on the PLs order, the assault element- Departs the ORP and moves into position.
Upon reaching the PLD, the assault element transitions from the movement formation to the battle
formation.
Identifies individual sectors of fire as assigned by the PL. Emplaces aiming stakes or uses metal-tometal contact with the machine gun tripods to prevent fratricide on the objective.
Emplaces claymores to help destroy the enemy in the kill zone.
Camouflages positions.
(i) The security element spots the enemy and notifies the PL, and reports the direction of movement,
size of the target, and any special weapons or equipment carried. The security element also keeps
the platoon leader informed if any enemy forces are following the lead force.
(j) The PL alerts other elements, and determines if the enemy force is too large, or if the ambush can
engage the enemy successfully.
(k) The PL initiates the ambush using the highest casualty-producing device. He may use a
command-detonated claymore. He must also plan a backup method for initiating the ambush, in case
his primary means fails. This should also be a casualty-producing device such as his individual
weapon. He passes this information to all Cadets, and practices it during rehearsals.
(l) The PL ensures that the assault and support elements deliver fire with the heaviest, most accurate
volume possible on the enemy in the kill zone. In limited visibility, the PL may use infrared lasers to
further define specific targets in the kill zone.
(m) Before assaulting the target, the PL gives the signal to lift or shift fires.
(n) The assault element- Assaults before the remaining enemy can react.
Kills or captures enemy in the kill zone.
Uses individual movement techniques or bounds by fire teams to move.
Upon reaching the limit of advance, halts and establishes security. If needed, it reestablishes the
chain of command and remains key weapon systems. All Soldiers will load a fresh magazine or drum
of ammunition using the buddy system. ACE reports will be submitted through the chain of command.
The PL will submit an initial contact report to higher.
(o) The PL directs special teams (EPW search, aid and litter, demo) to accomplish their assigned task
once the assault element has established its LOA.
Once the kill zone had been cleared, collect and secure all EPWs and move them out of the kill zone
before searching bodies. Coordinate for an EPW exchange point to link up with higher to extract all
EPWs and treat them IAW the five S's.
Search from one side to the other and mark bodies that have been searched to ensure the area is
thoroughly covered. Units should use the clear out, search in technique, clear from the center of the
objective out ensuring the area is clear of all enemy combatants; then search all enemy personnel
towards the center of the objective. Search all dead enemy personnel using two-man search
techniques.
-- As the search team approaches a dead enemy Soldier, one-man guards while the other man
searches.
First, he kicks the enemy weapon away.
-- Second, he rolls the body over (if on the stomach) by lying on top and when given the go ahead by
the guard (who is positioned at the enemy's head), the searcher rolls the body over on him. This is
done for protection in case the enemy Soldier has a grenade with the pin pulled underneath him.
-- The searchers then conduct a systematic search of the dead Soldier from head to toe removing all
papers and anything new (different type rank, shoulder boards, different unit patch, pistol, weapon, or
NVD). They note if the enemy has a fresh or shabby haircut and the condition of his uniform and
boots. They note the radio frequency, and then they secure the SOI, maps, documents, and overlays.
-- Once the body has been thoroughly searched, the search team will continue in this manner until all
enemy personnel in and near the kill zone have been searched.
Identify, collect, and prepare all equipment to be carried back or destroyed.
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Evacuate and treat friendly wounded first, then enemy wounded, time permitting.
The demolition team prepares dual-primed explosives or incendiary grenades and awaits the signal
to initiate.
This is normally the last action performed before the unit departs the objective and may signal the
security elements to return to the ORP.
Actions on the objective with stationary assault line; all actions are the same with the exception of
the search teams. To provide security within the teams to the far side of the kill zone during the
search, they work in three-Cadet teams. Before the search begins, the Cadet move all KIAs to the
near side of the kill zone.
(p) If enemy reinforcements try to penetrate the kill zone, the flank security will engage to prevent the
assault element from being compromised.
(q) The platoon leader directs the units withdrawal from the ambush site:
Elements normally withdraw in the reverse order that they established their positions.
The elements may return to the RP or directly to the ORP, depending on the distance between
elements.
The security element of the ORP must be alert to assist the platoons return to the ORP. It maintains
security for the ORP while the rest of the platoon prepares to leave.
If possible, all elements should return to the location at which they separated from the main body.
This location should usually be the RP.
(r) The PL and PSG direct actions at the ORP, to include accountability of personnel and equipment
and recovery of rucksacks and other equipment left at the ORP during the ambush.
(s) The platoon leader disseminates information, or moves the platoon to a safe location (no less than
one kilometer or one terrain feature away from the objective) and disseminates information.
(t) As required, the PL and FO execute indirect fires to cover the platoons withdrawal.
Figure 7-23 Actions on the Objective -- Deliberate Ambush

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7.4
Reconnaissance
7.4.1

Overview

Reconnaissance operations are those operations undertaken to obtain, by visual observation


or other detection methods, information about the activities and resources of an enemy or
potential enemy, or to secure data concerning the meteorological, hydrographical or
geographical characteristics and the indigenous population of a particular area.
Reconnaissance primarily relies on the human dynamic rather than technical means.
Reconnaissance is performed before, during, and after other operations to provide information
used in the intelligence preparation of the battlefield (IPB) process, as well as by the
commander in order to formulate, confirm, or modify his course of action (COA). As a Cadet in
Army ROTC, you will be expected to conduct reconnaissance of enemy positions, to include,
communications nodes and cache sites.
Recon patrols provide timely and accurate information on the enemy and terrain. They confirm
the leaders plan before it is executed. Units on reconnaissance operations collect specific
information (priority intelligence requirements [PIR]) or general information (information
requirements [IR]) based on the instructions from their higher commander.
7.4.2

Fundamentals

In order to have a successful area reconnaissance, the leader must apply the fundamentals of the
reconnaissance to his plan during the conduct of the operation.
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)

Ensure continuous reconnaissance


Do not keep reconnaissance assets in reserve
Orient on the reconnaissance objective
Report information rapidly and accurately
Retain freedom of maneuver
Gain and maintain enemy contact
Develop the situation rapidly

7.4.2.1 Gain all required information.


In coordinating instructions of your higher operations order is Commanders Critical Intelligence
Requirements (CCIR). CCIRs comprise information requirements identified by the commander as
being critical in facilitating timely information management and the decision-making process that affect
successful mission accomplishment. The two subcomponents are friendly force information
requirements (FFIR) and priority intelligence requirements (PIR).
Priority intelligence requirements are things that the commander has identified as being critical
information about the terrain or the enemy that will affect future operations. During the entire patrol,
members must continuously gain and exchange all PIR gathered, but cannot consider the mission
accomplished unless all PIR has been confirmed or denied, or the allowed time has expired.
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A patrol must not let the enemy know that it is in the objective area. If the enemy knows he is being
observed, he may move, change his plans, or increase his security measures. Methods of avoiding
detection are-(a) Minimize movement in the objective area (area reconnaissance).
(b) Move no closer to the enemy than necessary.
(c) If possible, use long-range surveillance or night vision devices.
(d) Camouflage, stealth, noise, and light discipline.
(e) Minimize radio traffic.
7.4.2.3 Employ security measures in the form of a Surveillance and Overwatch Team
A patrol must be able to break contact and return to the friendly unit with what information is gathered.
If necessary, break contact and continue the mission. Security elements are emplaced so that they
can overwatch the reconnaissance elements and suppress the enemy so the reconnaissance element
can break contact.
7.4.2.4 Task organization.
When the leader receives the order, he analyzes his mission to ensure he understands what must be
done. Then he task organizes his patrol to best accomplish the mission IAW METT-TC. Recons are
typically squad-sized missions.
7.4.2.5 Task Standards.
The recon patrol collects all available information on PIR and other intelligence not specified in the
order for the area. The patrol completes the recon and reports all information by the time specified in
the order. The patrol is not compromised.
7.4.3

Actions on the Objective, Area Reconnaissance (Figure 5-1).

(1) The element occupies the ORP as discussed in the section on occupation of the ORP. The RTO
calls in spare for occupation of ORP. The leader confirms his location on map while subordinate leaders
make necessary perimeter adjustments.
(2) The leader organizes the patrol in one of two ways: separate recon and security elements, or
combined recon and security elements.
(3) The leader takes subordinates leaders and key personnel on a leaders recon to confirm the
objective and plan.
(a) Issues a 5-point contingency plan before departure.
(b) Establishes a suitable release point that is beyond sight and sound of the objective if possible, but
that is definitely out of sight. The RP should also have good rally point characteristics.
(c) Allow all personnel to become familiar with the release point and surrounding area.
(d) Identifies the objective and emplaces surveillance. Designates a surveillance team to keep the
objective under surveillance. Issues a contingency plan to the senior man remaining with the
surveillance team. The surveillance team is positioned with one Soldier facing the objective, and one
facing back in the direction of the release point.
(e) Takes subordinate leaders forward to pinpoint the objective, emplace surveillance, establish a limit
of advance, and choose vantage points.
(f) Maintains commo with the platoon throughout the leaders recon.
(4) The leader at the ORP maintains security and supervises priorities of work.
(a) Reestablishes security at the ORP.
(b) Disseminates the leaders contingency plan.
(c) Oversees preparation of recon personnel (personnel re-camouflaged, NVDs and binos prepared,
weapons on safe with a round in the chamber).
(5) The leader and his recon party return to the ORP.
(a) Confirms the plan or issues a FRAGO.
(b) Allows subordinate leaders time to disseminate the plan.
(6) The patrol conducts the recon by long-range observation and surveillance if possible.
(a) R&S elements move to observation points that offer cover and concealment and that are outside of
small-arms range.
(b) Establishes a series of observation posts (OP) if information cannot be gathered from one location.
(c) Gathers all PIR using the SALUTE format.
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(7) If necessary, the patrol conducts its recon by short-range observation and surveillance.
(a) Moves to an OP near the objective.
(b) Passes close enough to the objective to gain information.
(c) Gathers all PIR using the SALUTE format.
(8) R&S teams move using a technique such as the cloverleaf method to move to successive OPs. In
this method, R&S teams avoid paralleling the objective site, maintain extreme stealth, do not cross the
limit of advance, and maximize the use of available cover and concealment.
(9) During the conduct of the recon, each R&S team will return to the release point when any of the
following occurs:
They have gathered all their PIR.
They have reached the limit of advance.
The allocated time to conduct the recon has elapsed.
Contact has been made.
(10) At the release point, the leader will analyze what information has been gathered and determine if
he has met the PIR requirements.
(11) If the leader determines that he has not gathered sufficient information to meet the PIR
requirements, or if the information he and the subordinate leader gathered differs drastically, he may
have to send R&S teams back to the objective site. In this case, R&S teams will alternate areas of
responsibilities. For example, if one team reconnoitered from the 6 3 12, then that team will now
recon from the 6 9 12.
(12) The R&S element returns undetected to the ORP by the specified time.
(a) Disseminates information to all patrol members through key leaders at the ORP, or moves to a
position at least one terrain feature or one kilometer away to disseminate. To disseminate, the leader
has the RTO prepare three sketches of the objective site based on the leader's sketch and provides the
copies to the subordinate leaders to assist in dissemination.
(b) Reports any information requirements and/or any information requiring immediate attention to higher
headquarters, and departs for the designated area.
(13) If contact is made, move to the release point. The recon element tries to break contact and return
to the ORP, secure rucksacks, and quickly move out of the area. Once they have moved a safe
distance away, the leader will inform higher HQ of the situation and take further instructions from them.
(a) While emplacing surveillance, the recon element withdraws through the release point to the ORP,
and follows the same procedures as above.
(b) While conducting the reconnaissance, the compromised element returns a sufficient volume of fire
to allow them to break contact. Surveillance can fire an AT-4 at the largest weapon on the objective. All
elements will pull off the objective and move to the release point. The senior man will quickly account
for all personnel and return to the ORP. Once in the ORP, follow the procedures previously described.

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7.5

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Cordon and Search


Searches are an important aspect of population and resource control. The need to conduct search
operations or to employ search procedures may become an ongoing requirement in certain stability
situations. A search can orient on people, materiel, buildings, or terrain. A company team may be
required to perform a search as part of a battalion task force operation or independently.
7.5.1

Planning

Prior to conducting the search, patrol leaders must understand the limits of their search authority and
the ROE, which can be found in Appendix Ab. Misuse of search authority can adversely affect the
outcome of the command's mission. Therefore, the seizure of contraband, evidence, intelligence
material, supplies, or other items during searches must be conducted and recorded lawfully to be of
future value. Proper use of authority during searches gains the respect and support of the people.
(1) Authority. Authority for search operations should be carefully reviewed. Military personnel must
know that they may perform searches only in areas within military jurisdiction or where otherwise lawful.
Searches may be conducted only to apprehend suspects or to secure evidence proving an offense has
been committed.
(2) Instructions. Search teams should be given lists of prohibited or controlled-distribution items
should be widely disseminated and on hand during searches. The military or civil police who work with
the populace and the resource control program are contacted before the search operations, or
periodically if search operations are a continuing activity. This is normally coordinated by the battalion
task force staff. Units must consider the effect of early warning on the effectiveness of their operation.
(3) Interpreters. Language difficulties can interfere when US forces interface with the local populace.
Therefore, units given a search mission should be provided with interpreters as required.
(4) Tempo. Search operations are conducted slowly enough to allow for an effective search but rapidly
enough to prevent the threat from reacting to the search.
(5) Use of Force. Under normal search conditions, minimum essential force is used to eliminate any
active resistance encountered. Some situations may require the full shock effect of speed and surprise
and limited violence of action. Patrols should be prepared to clear rooms under precision or high
intensity conditions.
(6) Surprise. Searches may be conducted during limited visibility, early morning hours or multiple times
to achieve surprise. Searchers should return to a searched area after the initial search to surprise and
eliminate targeted individuals, groups, or their leaders who might have either returned or remained
undetected during the search.
(7) Establishing a Cordon. Plans should be developed for securing the search area (establishing a
cordon) and for handling detained personnel. Checkpoints can be employed to canalize traffic.
7.5.2

Procedures.

The procedures for conducting a cordon and search are:


(1) Search of Individuals. The fact that anyone in an area to be searched could be an enemy or a
sympathizer is stressed in all search operations. However, to avoid making an enemy out of a suspect,
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searchers must be tactful. The greatest caution is required during the initial handling of a person about
to be searched. One member of the search team provides security while another member makes the
actual search. Where appropriate, checkpoints are placed which allow controlling individuals with
minimum force with maximum security.
(2) Search of Females. The threat may use females for all types of tasks when they think searches
might be a threat. To counter this, female searchers should be used. (This should be coordinated by the
battalion staff.) If male soldiers must search females, all possible measures must be taken to prevent
any inference of sexual molestation or assault. Cultural differences may make this a particular problem,
especially in Muslim communities.
(3) Search of Vehicles. Searching of vehicles may require that equipment such as detection devices,
mirrors, and tools be made available. Occupants may need to be moved away from vehicles and
individually searched, before the vehicle itself is searched. Specially trained dogs may be used to
locate drugs or explosives. A thorough search of a vehicle is a time-consuming process. Effect on the
population must be considered. A separate vehicle search area should be established to avoid
unnecessary delays. These will most likely not be seen during patrolling lanes.
7.5.3

Conduct of Cordon and Search.

When intelligence identifies and locates targeted individuals and groups, an operation is mounted to
neutralize them. This should be done by local police, acting on the warrant of a disinterested magistrate
(such as a judiciary), and based on probable cause. Patrols will provide security and assist in this effort.
In some cases, infantry units may have to conduct the actual search and apprehension. When the
situation requires more aggressive action, emergency laws and regulations may dispense temporarily
with some of these legal protections. The method used should be the least severe method that is
adequate to accomplish the mission. Care should be taken to preserve evidence for future legal action.
A search party consists of a security element to encircle the area, to prevent entrance and exit, and to
secure open areas; a search element to conduct the search; and a reserve element to help as required.
Figure 7-24 Urban Cordon

You will not conduct an urban cordon and search at LDAC.


7.5.4

Task Organization.

Cordon and searches are done with a company size element or larger. The specific company team task
organization will be determined by the factors of METT-TC. A sample company task organization for a
cordon and search mission is shown below:
(a) Security Element. This element establishes the checkpoints and conducts security patrols around
the cordon preventing exit and entry. Depending on the enemy situation, hasty defensive positions can
be assumed in buildings. Army Cadets are typically provided a notional outer cordon.
(b) Search Element. The search element is made up of the immediate security and the search element.
Your immediate security, approximately a squad sized element, can be manned by your machine guns
and watch for people trying to escape from the objective. Standard ROE applies, if they are civilians
you may have to secure those individuals to search them. The search element made up of a squad, will
conduct the hard knock (aggressive) or soft knock (more passive allowing the occupants to let you in).

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Figure 7-25 Cordon and Search Building Cluster

(c) Reserve Element. The reserve element is one platoon minus a squad. Part of the reserve may be
located inside the cordon to be prepared to assist the search element; part may be located outside the
cordon to assist the security element. This is dependent on the company level operations order you
receive from your TAC.
7.5.5

Establishing a Cordon.

An effective cordon is critical to the success of the search effort. Cordons are designed to prevent the
escape of individuals to be searched, and to protect the forces conducting the operation. In remote
areas, the cordon may be established without being detected. Limited visibility aids can be used in the
establishment and security of the cordon.
(a) Plans should be developed to handle detained personnel. The outer cordons will provide security
and accompany police and intelligence forces who will identify, question, and detain suspects. Outer
cordons may also conduct searches and assist in detaining suspects, under police supervision; but,
their principal role is to reduce any resistance that may develop and to provide security for the
operation. Use of force is kept to a minimum.
(b) Deployment for the search should be rapid, especially if the threat is still in the area to be searched.
Ideally, the entire area should be surrounded at once; observed fire covers any gaps. Special
consideration should be used to prevent locals from escaping along covered or concealed trails.
(c) The security element surrounds the area while the search element moves in. Members of the
security element orient mainly on people evading the search in the populated area; however, the
security element can also cut off any belligerents trying to reinforce others within the area. Checkpoints
and roadblocks may need to be established.
(d) Subsurface routes of escape in urban areas, such as subways and sewers, may also need to be
cordoned and searched. The procedures below should be considered when preparing for the search of
a urban area. Subsurface routes will not be used with Army ROTC Cadets.
7.5.6

Conducting the Search.

A search of an urban area must be conducted with limited inconvenience to the populace. However, the
populace should be inconvenienced enough to discourage targeted individuals and groups and their
sympathizers from remaining in the locale, but not enough to drive the rest of the populace to
collaborate with belligerents as a result of the search. A large-scale search of the urban area is a
combined civil police and military operation. If this occurs, it is normally conducted at battalion task
force level or higher. Such a search should be planned in detail and rehearsed. Physical
reconnaissance of the area just before a search is avoided. Information needed about the terrain can
be obtained from aerial photographs. In larger towns or cities, the local police might have detailed maps
showing relative sizes and locations of buildings. For success, the search plan must be simple and the
search must be conducted swiftly. The search element conducts the mission assigned for the operation.
The element is organized into special teams. These teams can include personnel and special
equipment as previously discussed. Three basic methods are used to search the populated area.
(a) Central Location. Assemble inhabitants in a central location if they appear to be hostile. This method
provides the most control; simplifies a thorough search; denies the belligerents an opportunity to
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conceal evidence; and allows for detailed interrogation. It has the disadvantage of taking the inhabitants
away from their dwellings, thus encouraging looting, which, in turn, engenders ill feelings.
(b) Home Restriction. Restrict the inhabitants to their homes. This prohibits movement of civilians,
allows them to stay in their dwellings, and discourages looting. The disadvantages of this method are
that it makes control and interrogation difficult and gives inhabitants time to conceal evidence in their
homes.
(c) Control Heads of Households. The head of each household is told to remain in the front of the
house while everyone else in the house is brought to a central location. During the search, the head of
the household can see that the search team will steal nothing. Often, this is the best method for
controlling the populace during a search. This person can be used to open doors and containers to
facilitate the search.
7.5.7

Searching a House.

Escort parties and transportation must be arranged before the search of a house. The object of a house
search is to screen residents to determine if there are any targeted individuals and groups and their
sympathizers, and to look for controlled items. A search party assigned to search an occupied building
should consist of at least one local policeman, a protective escort (usually infantry), and a female
searcher. Forced entry may be necessary if a house is vacant or if an occupant refuses to allow
searchers to enter. If a house containing property is searched while its occupants are away, it should be
secured to prevent looting. Before US forces depart, the commander should arrange for the community
to protect such houses until the occupants return.
7.5.8

Other Considerations.

Other considerations for conducting a cordon and search are:


(1) The reserve element is a mobile force positioned in a nearby area. Its mission is to help the other
two elements if they meet resistance beyond their ability to handle. The reserve element can replace or
reinforce either of the two elements if the need arises.
(2) Any objectionable material found, including propaganda signs and leaflets, should be treated as if it
were booby-trapped until inspection proves it safe.
(3) Underground and underwater areas should be searched thoroughly. Any freshly excavated ground
could be a hiding place. Mine detectors can be used to locate metal objects underground and
underwater.
(4) Depending on the factors of METT-TC, a graduated response technique can be employed. This
technique uses warnings and progressive amounts of force to obtain compliance. For example,
warnings in the native language can be given announcing that some type of force, lethal or nonlethal,
will be used in a given amount of time if the occupants do not exit the building.
(5) Before entering the area, psychological operations announcements can be made to encourage
inhabitants to leave peacefully. While this technique minimizes collateral damage, it also gives the
enemy time to react. Providing a cordial request for the occupants to come out sometimes is enough to
facilitate a successful cordon and search.

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Section 8 Consolidation and Reorganization on the Objective


8.1

Consolidation and Reorganization Overview


Consolidation and reorganization on the objective is a critical juncture which is often overlooked during
planning. Units must accomplish the following tasks:

Establish security on the objective


Secure Enemy Prisoners of War (EPW)
Administer first aid (enemy and friendly)
Consolidate/redistribute water and ammunition
Conduct site exploitation/gather intelligence
Furnish reports to their higher headquarters.
Since many of these actions are completed concurrently, it is important for leaders to clearly delineate
priorities of work for their subordinate units/leaders. A way to do this is to clearly delineate the
composition of each team and each teams priorities of work.

Figure 8-26 Cartoon Order (Example Phase 4)

8.2

Security
Security is always the first priority. A unit cannot accomplish any mission/task without first securing
itself. Security during consolidation and reorganization starts with security during actions on the
objective

8.3

LACE
LACE report is the most basic Soldier report.

Liquid how much water the Soldier has


Ammunition how much ammunition a Soldier has
Casualties Whether or not the Soldier is injured/wounded
Equipment Whether or not the Soldier has all of his assigned equipment

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Because this is where the rubber meets the road they are not given with any kind of code (i.e. red,
amber, green). Reporting should be I have 1 full canteen of water and 4 magazines of 5.56mm
ammunition. I am uninjured and I have all of my equipment.

8.4

SITREP
The very basic form of a situation report (SITREP) is the SALUTE report. This is the report you will use
in ROTC:

8.5

Size what is the size of the enemy unit you are in contact with
Activity what is the enemy unit currently doing
Location where is the enemy unit
Uniform description of identifiable uniform/clothing
Time time you made contact with the enemy
Equipment what kind of equipment the enemy was using

Special Teams
8.5.1

Aid and Litter

Aid and litter teams are responsible for buddy aid and evacuation of casualties. Aid and litter will drag
all friendly wounded back to the casualty collection point.
8.5.2

Enemy Prisoner of War (EPW) Search

The assault element may provide two-Soldier (buddy teams) or four-Soldier (fire team) search teams to
search bunkers or buildings on the objective. These teams will search the objective or kill zone for any
PIR that may give the leader an idea of the enemy concept for future operations. Primary and alternate
teams may be assigned to ensure enough prepared personnel are available on the objective. EPW
teams control enemy prisoners using the five Ss and the leaders guidance. Search, Silence,
Segregate, Safeguard, Speed.
Technique: As the EPW team is collecting all the items found on the objective they can drop them in
front of the RTO to help in his recording of the information.
8.5.3

Demolition

You will not receive demolitions as a Cadet. The demo team may also be the EPW team.

8.6

Tactical Site Exploitation


The action taken to ensure that documents, material, and personnel are identified, collected, protected,
and evaluated in order to facilitate follow-on actions. TSE focuses on the actions taken by soldiers and
leaders at the point of initial contact.

8.7

Movement Off of the Objective


The majority of operations you will conduct as a Cadet will require you to leave the objective after you
have accomplished your mission. Your movement off the objective should have the same level of
detailed planning and focused execution as the mission.
8.7.1

Actions to be taken

(1) On order or signal of the PL, the assault element withdraws from the objective. Using prearranged
signals, the assault line begins an organized withdrawal from the objective site, maintaining control
and security throughout the withdrawal.
(2) The assault element bounds back near the original assault line, and begins a single file withdrawal
through the APL's choke point.
(3) All Soldiers must move through the choke point for an accurate count. Once the assault element is
a safe distance from the objective and the headcount is confirmed, the platoon can withdraw the
support element. If the support elements were a part of the assault line, they withdraw together, and
security is signaled to withdraw. Once the support is a safe distance off the objective, they notify the
platoon leader, who contacts the security element and signals them to withdraw. All security teams
link up at the release point and notify the platoon leader before moving to the ORP. Personnel
returning to the ORP immediately secure their equipment and establish all-round security. Once the
security element returns, the platoon moves out of the objective area as soon as possible, normally
in two to three minutes.
Before withdrawing, the demo team activates demo devices and charges.
Support element or designated personnel in the assault element maintain local security during the
withdrawal.
Leaders report updated accountability and status (ACE report) to the PL and APL.
(4) Squads withdraw from the objective in the order designated.
Account for personnel and equipment.
Disseminate information.
Redistribute ammunition and equipment as required.
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(5) The PL reports mission accomplishment to higher and continues the mission.
Reports raid assessment to higher.
Informs higher of any IR/PIR gathered.

8.8

Exfiltration
Depending on the type of operation, you may be expected to have a planned withdrawal from you
objective. The common missions that require a planned withdrawal are raid and reconnaissance. For
your withdrawal plan, you will need to determine a route back from your objective during your orders
process. You may be required to withdrawal from your ORP to return, Avoid taking the same route you
took to your objective. If the enemy has the capability to mass its force on your withdrawal, an alternate
exfiltration route should be planned.

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Cart oon Order Example

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a. MEDEVAC Request (9-Line MEDEVEC)


Line 1

____________________________________ Location of the pickup site. (8-digit coordinate)

Line 2

____________________________________ Radio frequency, call sign, and suffix. (your info)

Line 3

____________________________________ Number of patients by precedence:

Line 4

Line 5

Urgent

Routine

Urgent Surgical

Convenience

Priority

____________________________________ Special equipment required:


A

None

Extraction Equipment

Hoist

Ventilator

____________________________________ Number of patients by type:


L

Line 6

Line 7

Line 8

Line 9

Litter

Ambulatory

____________________________________ Security at the pickup site:


N

No enemy troops in area

Enemy troops in area (approach with caution)

Possible enemy troops in area

Enemy troops in area (escort required)

____________________________________ Method of marking the pickup site:


A

Panels

None

Pyrotechnic signal

Other

Smoke signal

____________________________________ Patient nationality and status:


A

US Military

Non-US Civilian

US Civilian

EPW

Non-US Military

____________________________________ NBC contamination:


N

Nuclear

Chemical

Biological

b. 9 Line IED/UXO Report


Line 1 ____________________________________

Date and Time Group Discovered:

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Line 2 ____________________________________
Reporting Activity. UIC/Unit Designation. Location
(8 Digit Grid):
Line 3 ____________________________________

Contact Method (Radio Freq. and Callsign):

Line 4 ____________________________________

Type of Ammunition:

Dropped
Placed

Projected
Thrown

Line 5 ____________________________________
Yes

NBC Contamination:

No

Line 6 ____________________________________

Resources Threatened:

Line 7 ____________________________________

Impact on Mission:

Line 8 ____________________________________

Protective Measures Taken:

Line 9 ____________________________________

Recommend Priority:

Immediate
Minor

Indirect
No Threat

c. WF 12 Rules of Engagement
NOTHING IN THE ROE LIMITS YOUR INHERENT AUTHORITY AND OBLIGATION TO TAKE ALL
NECESSARY AND APPROPRIATE ACTIONS TO DEFEND YOURSELF, YOUR UNIT, AND OTHER U.S.
FORCES.
1.

HOSTILE FORCES: SAPA/Arianan Forces are declared hostile.

2. HOSTILE ACTORS: You may engage persons who commit hostile acts or show
hostile intent with the minimum force necessary to counter the hostile act or
demonstrated hostile intent and to protect US Forces.
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Hostile act: Attack or other use of force against US Forces or use of force that
directly precludes or impedes the mission/duties of US Forces.
Hostile intent: Threat of imminent use of force against US Forces or threat of
force to preclude or impede the mission/duties of US Forces.
3.

You may use force, up to and including deadly force, against hostile actions:

a) In self-defense;
b) In defense of your unit, or other US Forces;
c) To prevent theft, damage, or destruction of firearms, ammunition, explosives,
or property designated by your Commander as vital to national security. Protect
other property with less than deadly force.
4. Personnel not in uniform with weapons are considered civilian, but treated
with great caution. If personnel with weapons are commingled with hostile
forces, they may be engaged without warning.
5. Personnel not in uniform with weapons may be engaged without warning if
threatening noncombatants or US forces.
6. Civilian vehicles with crew served weapons are declared hostile and may be
engaged without warning.
7. US forces will not endanger noncombatants to engage enemy forces unless in
self-defense, defense of unit or US Forces.

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Index
A

Actions on the Objective......................................22


Ambush......................................................4, 22, 23
Assembly Area Operations...................................18
Attack...............................................................4, 22

Patrol Security......................................................19
PURPOSE.....................................i, 1, 5, 6, 7, 9, 13

Commanders Intent...........................................1, 7

Raid.....................................................................22
Reconnaissance...............................................6, 22
Rehearsals.............................................7, 9, 13, 19

FRAGO......................................................1, 12, 13
Friction.............................................................2, 13

Squad Security.....................................................18

TASK...........................i, 1, 5, 6, 7, 9, 13, 18, 19, 22


Troop Leading Procedures...............................5, 18
Complete the Plan..............................................6
Conduct Reconnaissance...................................6
Initiate Movement...............................................6
Issue a Warning Order........................................5
Issue the Operations Order................................6
Make a Tentative Plan........................................5
Receive the Mission...........................................5
Supervise and Refine.........................................6

METT-TC.......................................................5, 6, 7
Military Aspects of the Terrain................................8
Mission Statement.................................................1
Movement to Contact...........................................22

O
Objective Rally Point (ORP).............................1, 20
OCOKA..............See Military Aspects of the Terrain
OPORD..............................5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13
Orders..............................................................9, 13

W
WARNO.........................................................5, 7, 9

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Index