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f2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 Relevancy; collateral
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t3 Evidence must have such a relation to the fact in issue as to induce belief i
n its existence or non-existence. Evidence on collateral matters shall not be al
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mult1\sa150{\*\bkmkstart PRO78479}{\*\bkmkend PRO78479}{\*\bkmkstart PRO78480}{\
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\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 "Bar Matter No. 411. \u8211\
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964 Rules of Court.}\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\qc\sl342\slmult0\sb300\sa300{\*\bkmks
tart PRO20893}{\*\bkmkend PRO20893}{\f1\fs53\cf2\chcbpat3 Rule 129}\f1\fs53\cf2\
par\pard\plain\qc\sl342\slmult0\sb300\sa300{\f1\fs48\cf2\chcbpat3 What Need Not
Be Proved}\f1\fs48\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\*\bkmkstart PRO209
03}{\*\bkmkend PRO20903}{\b\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 Section 1}\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\
sl384\slmult1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 Judicial notice, when mandatory. \u8211\'96
}\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 A court shall ta
ke judicial notice, without the introduction of evidence, of the existence and t
erritorial extent of states, their political history, forms of government and sy
mbols of nationality, the law of nations, the admiralty and maritime courts of t
he world and their seals, the political constitution and history of the Philippi
nes, the official acts of the legislative, executive and judicial departments of
the Philippines, the laws of nature, the measure of time, and the geographical
divisions. }\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\*\bkmkstart PRO20904}
{\*\bkmkend PRO20904}{\b\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 Section 2}\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl3
84\slmult1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 Judicial notice, when discretionary. \u8211\'9
6}\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 A court may tak
e judicial notice of matters which are of public knowledge, or are capable of un
questionable demonstration, or ought to be known to judges because of their judi
cial functions. }\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\*\bkmkstart PRO2
0905}{\*\bkmkend PRO20905}{\b\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 Section 3}\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\q
l\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 Judicial notice, when hearing necessary.
\u8211\'96}\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 During
the trial, the court, on its own initiative, or on request of a party, may anno
unce its intention to take judicial notice of any matter and allow the parties t
o be heard thereon.}\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpa
t3 After the trial, and before judgment or on appeal, the proper court, on its o
wn initiative or on request of a party, may take judicial notice of any matter a
nd allow the parties to be heard thereon if such matter is decisive of a materia
l issue in the case. }\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\*\bkmkstart
PRO20906}{\*\bkmkend PRO20906}{\b\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 Section 4}\f2\cf2\par\pard\pl
ain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 Judicial admissions. \u8211\'96}\f2\
cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 An admission, verbal
or written, made by a party in the course of the proceedings in the same case, d
oes not require proof. The admission may be contradicted only by showing that it
was made through palpable mistake or that no such admission was made. }\f2\cf2\
par\pard\plain\qc\sl342\slmult0\sb300\sa300{\*\bkmkstart PRO20894}{\*\bkmkend PR
O20894}{\f1\fs53\cf2\chcbpat3 Rule 130}\f1\fs53\cf2\par\pard\plain\qc\sl342\slmu
lt0\sb300\sa300{\f1\fs48\cf2\chcbpat3 Rules of Admissibility}\f1\fs48\cf2\par\pa
rd\plain\qc\sl342\slmult0\sb300\sa300{\*\bkmkstart PRO20907}{\*\bkmkend PRO20907
}{\f1\fs48\cf2\chcbpat3 A. Object (Real) Evidence}\f1\fs48\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql
\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\*\bkmkstart PRO20931}{\*\bkmkend PRO20931}{\b\f2\cf2\chcbp
at3 Section 1}\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 Obj
ect as evidence. \u8211\'96}\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\f2\cf
2\chcbpat3 Objects as evidence are those addressed to the senses of the court. W
hen an object is relevant to the fact in issue, it may be exhibited to, examined
or viewed by the court. }\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\qc\sl342\slmult0\sb300\sa300{\*
\bkmkstart PRO20908}{\*\bkmkend PRO20908}{\f1\fs48\cf2\chcbpat3 B. Documentary E
vidence}\f1\fs48\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\*\bkmkstart PRO20932
}{\*\bkmkend PRO20932}{\*\bkmkstart PRO20985}{\*\bkmkend PRO20985}{\b\f2\cf2\chc
bpat3 Section 2}\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 D
ocumentary evidence. \u8211\'96}\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\f
2\cf2\chcbpat3 Documents as evidence consists of writings or any material contai
ning letters, words, numbers, figures, symbols or other modes of written express
ions offered as proof of their contents. }\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\qc\sl342\slmult
0\sb300\sa300{\*\bkmkstart PRO20933}{\*\bkmkend PRO20933}{\f1\fs43\cf2\chcbpat3
1. Best Evidence Rule}\f1\fs43\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\*\bkmk
start PRO20986}{\*\bkmkend PRO20986}{\b\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 Section 3}\f2\cf2\par\pa
rd\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 Original document must be produ

ced; exceptions. \u8211\'96}\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\f2\cf


2\chcbpat3 When the subject of inquiry is the contents of a document, no evidenc
e shall be admissible other than the original document itself, except in the fol
lowing cases:}\f2\cf2\par{\listtext\pard a.\tab }\pard\plain\ilvl0\ls2\ql\fi-360
\li720\lin720\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 When the original has been lo
st or destroyed, or cannot be produced in court, without bad faith on the part o
f the offeror;}\f2\cf2\par{\listtext\pard b.\tab }\pard\plain\ilvl0\ls2\ql\fi-36
0\li720\lin720\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 When the original is in the
custody or under the control of the party against whom the evidence is offered,
and the latter fails to produce it after reasonable notice;}\f2\cf2\par{\listtex
t\pard c.\tab }\pard\plain\ilvl0\ls2\ql\fi-360\li720\lin720\sl384\slmult1\sa150{
\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 When the original consists of numerous accounts or other docume
nts which cannot be examined in court without great loss of time and the fact so
ught to be established from them is only the general result of the whole; and}\f
2\cf2\par{\listtext\pard d.\tab }\pard\plain\ilvl0\ls2\ql\fi-360\li720\lin720\sl
384\slmult1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 When the original is a public record in the c
ustody of a public officer or is recorded in a public office. }\f2\cf2\par\pard\
plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\*\bkmkstart PRO20987}{\*\bkmkend PRO20987}{\b\f2\c
f2\chcbpat3 Section 4}\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcb
pat3 Original of document. \u8211\'96}\f2\cf2\par{\listtext\pard a.\tab }\pard\p
lain\ilvl0\ls3\ql\fi-360\li720\lin720\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 The o
riginal of a document is one the contents of which are the subject of inquiry.}\
f2\cf2\par{\listtext\pard b.\tab }\pard\plain\ilvl0\ls3\ql\fi-360\li720\lin720\s
l384\slmult1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 When a document is in two or more copies exe
cuted at or about the same time, with identical contents, all such copies are eq
ually regarded as originals.}\f2\cf2\par{\listtext\pard c.\tab }\pard\plain\ilvl
0\ls3\ql\fi-360\li720\lin720\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 When an entry
is repeated in the regular course of business, one being copied from another at
or near the time of the transaction, all the entries are likewise equally regard
ed as originals. }\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\qc\sl342\slmult0\sb300\sa300{\*\bkmksta
rt PRO20934}{\*\bkmkend PRO20934}{\f1\fs43\cf2\chcbpat3 2. Secondary Evidence}\f
1\fs43\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\*\bkmkstart PRO20988}{\*\bkmke
nd PRO20988}{\b\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 Section 5}\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult
1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 When original document is unavailable. \u8211\'96}\f2\c
f2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 When the original docu
ment has been lost or destroyed, or cannot be produced in court, the offeror, up
on proof of its execution or existence and the cause of its unavailability witho
ut bad faith on his part, may prove its contents by a copy, or by a recital of i
ts contents in some authentic document, or by the testimony of witnesses in the
order stated. }\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\*\bkmkstart PRO209
89}{\*\bkmkend PRO20989}{\b\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 Section 6}\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\
sl384\slmult1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 When original document is in adverse party\
u8217\'92s custody or control. \u8211\'96}\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult
1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 If the document is in the custody of under the control
of the adverse party, he must have reasonable notice to produce it. If after suc
h notice and after satisfactory proof of its existence, he fails to produce the
document, secondary evidence may be presented as in the case of its loss.}\f2\cf
2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\*\bkmkstart PRO20990}{\*\bkmkend PRO209
90}{\b\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 Section 7}\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\
f2\cf2\chcbpat3 Evidence admissible when original document is a public record. \
u8211\'96}\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 When th
e original of a document is in the custody of a public officer or is recorded in
a public office, its contents may be proved by a certified copy issued by the p
ublic officer in custody thereof.}\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{
\*\bkmkstart PRO20991}{\*\bkmkend PRO20991}{\b\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 Section 8}\f2\cf2
\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 Party who calls for docu
ment not bound to offer it. \u8211\'96}\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\s
a150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 A party who calls for the production of a document and ins
pects the same is not obliged to offer it as evidence. }\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\q
c\sl342\slmult0\sb300\sa300{\*\bkmkstart PRO20935}{\*\bkmkend PRO20935}{\f1\fs43

\cf2\chcbpat3 3. Parol Evidence Rule}\f1\fs43\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult


1\sa150{\*\bkmkstart PRO20992}{\*\bkmkend PRO20992}{\b\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 Section 9
}\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 Evidence of writ
ten agreements. \u8211\'96}\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\f2\cf2
\chcbpat3 When the terms of an agreement have been reduced to writing, it is con
sidered as containing all the terms agreed upon and there can be, between the pa
rties and their successors in interest, no evidence of such terms other than the
contents of the written agreement.}\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa15
0{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 However, a party may present evidence to modify, explain or a
dd to the terms of the written agreement if he puts in issue in his pleading:}\f
2\cf2\par{\listtext\pard a.\tab }\pard\plain\ilvl0\ls4\ql\fi-360\li720\lin720\sl
384\slmult1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 An intrinsic ambiguity, mistake or imperfecti
on in the written agreement;}\f2\cf2\par{\listtext\pard b.\tab }\pard\plain\ilvl
0\ls4\ql\fi-360\li720\lin720\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 The failure of
the written agreement to express the true intent and agreement of the parties t
hereto;}\f2\cf2\par{\listtext\pard c.\tab }\pard\plain\ilvl0\ls4\ql\fi-360\li720
\lin720\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 The validity of the written agreeme
nt; or}\f2\cf2\par{\listtext\pard d.\tab }\pard\plain\ilvl0\ls4\ql\fi-360\li720\
lin720\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 The existence of other terms agreed
to by the parties or their successors in interest after the execution of the wri
tten agreement.}\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 T
he term \u8220\'93agreement\u8221\'94 includes wills. }\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\qc
\sl342\slmult0\sb300\sa300{\*\bkmkstart PRO20936}{\*\bkmkend PRO20936}{\f1\fs43\
cf2\chcbpat3 4. Interpretation of Documents}\f1\fs43\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384
\slmult1\sa150{\*\bkmkstart PRO20993}{\*\bkmkend PRO20993}{\b\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 Se
ction 10}\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 Interpre
tation of a writing according to its legal meaning. \u8211\'96}\f2\cf2\par\pard\
plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 The language of a writing is to be
interpreted according to the legal meaning it bears in the place of its executi
on, unless the parties intended otherwise. }\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmu
lt1\sa150{\*\bkmkstart PRO20994}{\*\bkmkend PRO20994}{\b\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 Section
11}\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 Instrument co
nstrued so as to give effect to all provisions. \u8211\'96}\f2\cf2\par\pard\plai
n\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 In the construction of an instrument w
here there are several provisions or particulars, such a constructions is, if po
ssible, to be adopted as will give effect to all.}\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl38
4\slmult1\sa150{\*\bkmkstart PRO20995}{\*\bkmkend PRO20995}{\b\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 S
ection 12}\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 Interpr
etation according to intention; general and particular provisions. \u8211\'96}\f
2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 In the construction
if an instrument, the intention of the parties is to be pursued; and when a gen
eral and a particular provision are inconsistent, the latter is paramount to the
former. So a particular intent will control a general one that is inconsistent
with it. }\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\*\bkmkstart PRO20996}{\
*\bkmkend PRO20996}{\b\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 Section 13}\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl38
4\slmult1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 Interpretation according to circumstances. \u82
11\'96}\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 For the pr
oper construction of an instrument, the circumstances under which it was made, i
ncluding the situation of the subject thereof and of the parties to it, may be s
hown, so that the judge may be placed in the position of those whose language he
is to interpret. }\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\*\bkmkstart PR
O20997}{\*\bkmkend PRO20997}{\b\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 Section 14}\f2\cf2\par\pard\plai
n\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 Peculiar signification of terms. \u821
1\'96}\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 The terms o
f a writing are presumed to have been used in their primary and general acceptat
ion, but evidence is admissible to show that they have a local, technical, or ot
herwise peculiar signification, and were so used and understood in the particula
r instance, in which case the agreement must be construed accordingly. }\f2\cf2\
par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\*\bkmkstart PRO20998}{\*\bkmkend PRO20998
}{\b\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 Section 15}\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\f

2\cf2\chcbpat3 Written words control printed. \u8211\'96}\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\


ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 When an instrument consists partly of wr
itten words and partly of a printed form, and the two are inconsistent, the form
er controls the latter. }\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\*\bkmkst
art PRO20999}{\*\bkmkend PRO20999}{\b\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 Section 16}\f2\cf2\par\par
d\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 Experts and interpreters to be u
sed in explaining certain writings. \u8211\'96}\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\s
lmult1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 When the characters in which an instrument is writ
ten are difficult to be deciphered, or the language is not understood by the cou
rt, the evidence of persons skilled in deciphering the characters, or who unders
tand the language, is admissible to declare the characters or the meaning of the
language.}\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\*\bkmkstart PRO21000}{
\*\bkmkend PRO21000}{\b\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 Section 17}\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl3
84\slmult1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 Of two constructions, which preferred. \u8211\
'96}\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 When the term
s of an agreement have been intended in a different sense by the different parti
es to it, that sense is to prevail against either partly in which he supposed th
e other understood it, and when different constructions of a provision are other
wise equally proper, that is to be taken which is the most favorable to the part
y in whose favor the provision was made. }\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult
1\sa150{\*\bkmkstart PRO21001}{\*\bkmkend PRO21001}{\b\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 Section 1
8}\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 Construction in
favor of natural right. \u8211\'96}\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa15
0{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 When an instrument is equally susceptible of two interpretati
ons, one in favor of natural right and the other against it, the former is to be
adopted. }\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\*\bkmkstart PRO21002}{
\*\bkmkend PRO21002}{\b\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 Section 19}\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl3
84\slmult1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 Interpretation according to usage. \u8211\'96}
\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 An instrument may
be construed according to usage, in order to determine its true character. }\f2
\cf2\par\pard\plain\qc\sl342\slmult0\sb300\sa300{\*\bkmkstart PRO20909}{\*\bkmke
nd PRO20909}{\f1\fs48\cf2\chcbpat3 C. Testimonial Evidence}\f1\fs48\cf2\par\pard
\plain\qc\sl342\slmult0\sb300\sa300{\*\bkmkstart PRO20937}{\*\bkmkend PRO20937}{
\f1\fs43\cf2\chcbpat3 1. Qualification of Witnesses}\f1\fs43\cf2\par\pard\plain\
ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\*\bkmkstart PRO21003}{\*\bkmkend PRO21003}{\b\f2\cf2\chc
bpat3 Section 20}\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3
Witnesses; their qualifications. \u8211\'96}\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmu
lt1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 Except as provided in the next succeeding section, al
l persons who can perceive, and perceiving, can make known their perception to o
thers, may be witnesses. Religious or political belief, interest in the outcome
of the case, or conviction of a crime unless otherwise provided by law, shall no
t be a ground for disqualification. }\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa1
50{\*\bkmkstart PRO21004}{\*\bkmkend PRO21004}{\b\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 Section 21}\f2
\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 Disqualification by
reason of mental incapacity or immaturity. \u8211\'96}\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\
sl384\slmult1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 The following persons cannot be witnesses:}
\f2\cf2\par{\listtext\pard a.\tab }\pard\plain\ilvl0\ls5\ql\fi-360\li720\lin720\
sl384\slmult1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 Those whose mental condition, at the time o
f their production for examination, is such that they are incapable of intellige
ntly making known their perception to others;}\f2\cf2\par{\listtext\pard b.\tab
}\pard\plain\ilvl0\ls5\ql\fi-360\li720\lin720\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpa
t3 Children whose mental maturity is such as to render them incapable of perceiv
ing the facts respecting which they are examined and of relating them truthfully
. }\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\*\bkmkstart PRO21005}{\*\bkmke
nd PRO21005}{\b\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 Section 22}\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmul
t1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 Disqualification by reason of marriage. \u8211\'96}\f2
\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 During their marriag
e, neither the husband nor the wife may testify for or against the other without
the consent of the affected spouse, except in a civil case by one against the o
ther, or in a criminal case for a crime committed by one against the other or th

e latter\u8217\'92s direct descendants or ascendants. }\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql


\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\*\bkmkstart PRO21006}{\*\bkmkend PRO21006}{\b\f2\cf2\chcbp
at3 Section 23}\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 Di
squalification by reason of death or insanity of adverse party. \u8211\'96}\f2\c
f2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 Parties or assignors o
f parties to a case, or persons in whose behalf a case if prosecuted, against an
executor or administrator or other representative of a deceased person, or agai
nst a person of unsound mind, upon a claim or demand against the estate of such
deceased person or against such person of unsound mind, cannot testify as to any
matter of fact occurring before the death of such deceased person or before suc
h person became of unsound mind. }\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{
\*\bkmkstart PRO21007}{\*\bkmkend PRO21007}{\b\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 Section 24}\f2\cf
2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 Disqualification by rea
son of privileged communication. \u8211\'96}\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmu
lt1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 The following persons cannot testify as to matters le
arned in confidence in the following cases:}\f2\cf2\par{\listtext\pard a.\tab }\
pard\plain\ilvl0\ls6\ql\fi-360\li720\lin720\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3
The husband or the wife, during or after the marriage, cannot be examined witho
ut the consent of the other as to any communication received in confidence by on
e from the other during the marriage except in a civil case by one against the o
ther, or in a criminal case for a crime committed by one against the other or th
e latter\u8217\'92s direct descendants or ascendants;}\f2\cf2\par{\listtext\pard
b.\tab }\pard\plain\ilvl0\ls6\ql\fi-360\li720\lin720\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\f2\cf
2\chcbpat3 An attorney cannot, without the consent of his client, be examined as
to any communication made by the client to him, or his advice given thereon in
the course of, or with a view to, professional employment, nor can an attorney\u
8217\'92s secretary, stenographer, or clerk be examined, without the consent of
the client and his employer, concerning any fact the knowledge of which has been
acquired in such capacity;}\f2\cf2\par{\listtext\pard c.\tab }\pard\plain\ilvl0
\ls6\ql\fi-360\li720\lin720\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 A person author
ized to practice medicine, surgery or obstetrics cannot in a civil case, without
the consent of the patient, be examined as to any advice or treatment given by
him or any information which he may have acquired in attending such patient in a
professional capacity, which information was necessary to enable him to act in
that capacity, and which would blacken the reputation of the patient;}\f2\cf2\pa
r{\listtext\pard d.\tab }\pard\plain\ilvl0\ls6\ql\fi-360\li720\lin720\sl384\slmu
lt1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 A minister or priest cannot, without the consent of t
he person making the confession, be examined as to any confession made to or any
advice given by him in his professional character in the course of discipline e
njoined by the church to which the minister or priest belongs;}\f2\cf2\par{\list
text\pard e.\tab }\pard\plain\ilvl0\ls6\ql\fi-360\li720\lin720\sl384\slmult1\sa1
50{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 A public officer cannot be examined during his term of offic
e or afterwards, as to communications made to him in official confidence, when t
he court finds that the public interest would suffer by the disclosure. }\f2\cf2
\par\pard\plain\qc\sl342\slmult0\sb300\sa300{\*\bkmkstart PRO20938}{\*\bkmkend P
RO20938}{\f1\fs43\cf2\chcbpat3 2. Testimonial Privilege}\f1\fs43\cf2\par\pard\pl
ain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\*\bkmkstart PRO21008}{\*\bkmkend PRO21008}{\b\f2\cf2
\chcbpat3 Section 25}\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbp
at3 Parental and filial privilege. \u8211\'96}\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\sl
mult1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 No person may be compelled to testify against his p
arents, other direct ascendants, children or other direct descendants. }\f2\cf2\
par\pard\plain\qc\sl342\slmult0\sb300\sa300{\*\bkmkstart PRO20939}{\*\bkmkend PR
O20939}{\f1\fs43\cf2\chcbpat3 3. Admissions and Confessions}\f1\fs43\cf2\par\par
d\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\*\bkmkstart PRO21009}{\*\bkmkend PRO21009}{\b\f2
\cf2\chcbpat3 Section 26}\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\f2\cf2\c
hcbpat3 Admissions of a party. \u8211\'96}\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult
1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 The act, declaration or omission of a party as to a rel
evant fact may be given in evidence against him. }\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl38
4\slmult1\sa150{\*\bkmkstart PRO21010}{\*\bkmkend PRO21010}{\b\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 S
ection 27}\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 Offer o

f compromise not admissible. \u8211\'96}\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\


sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 In civil cases, an offer of compromise is not an admissio
n of any liability, and is not admissible in evidence against the offerror.}\f2\
cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 In criminal cases, ex
cept those involving quasi-offenses (criminal negligence) or those allowed by la
w to be compromised, an offer of compromise by the accused may be received in ev
idence as an implied admission of guilt. A plea of guilty later withdrawn, or an
unaccepted offer of a plea of guilty to a lesser offense, is not admissible in
evidence against the accused who made the plea or offer.}\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\
ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 An offer to pay or the payment of medica
l, hospital or other expenses occasioned by an injury is not admissible in evide
nce as proof of civil or criminal liability for the injury. }\f2\cf2\par\pard\pl
ain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\*\bkmkstart PRO21011}{\*\bkmkend PRO21011}{\b\f2\cf2
\chcbpat3 Section 28}\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbp
at3 Admission by third party. \u8211\'96}\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1
\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 The rights of a party cannot be prejudiced by an act, de
claration, or omission of another, except as hereinafter provided. }\f2\cf2\par\
pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\*\bkmkstart PRO21012}{\*\bkmkend PRO21012}{\b
\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 Section 29}\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\f2\cf
2\chcbpat3 Admission by co-partner or agent. \u8211\'96}\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\q
l\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 The act or declaration of a partner or ag
ent of the party within the scope of his authority and during the existence of t
he partnership or agency, may be given in evidence against such party after the
partnership or agency is shown by evidence other than such act or declaration. T
he same rule applies to the act or declaration of a joint owner, joint debtor, o
r other person jointly interested with the party. }\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl3
84\slmult1\sa150{\*\bkmkstart PRO21013}{\*\bkmkend PRO21013}{\b\f2\cf2\chcbpat3
Section 30}\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 Admiss
ion by conspirator. \u8211\'96}\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\f2
\cf2\chcbpat3 The act or declaration of a conspirator relating to the conspiracy
and during its existence, may be given in evidence against the co-conspirator a
fter the conspiracy is shown by evidence other than such act or declaration. }\f
2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\*\bkmkstart PRO21014}{\*\bkmkend PR
O21014}{\b\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 Section 31}\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa
150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 Admission by privies. \u8211\'96}\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\
sl384\slmult1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 Where one derives title to property from an
other, the act, declaration, or omission of the latter, while holding the title,
in relation to the property, is evidence against the former. }\f2\cf2\par\pard\
plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\*\bkmkstart PRO21015}{\*\bkmkend PRO21015}{\b\f2\c
f2\chcbpat3 Section 32}\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chc
bpat3 Admission by silence. \u8211\'96}\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\s
a150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 An act or declaration made in the presence and within the
hearing or observation of a party who does or says nothing when the act or decla
ration is such as naturally to call for action or comment if not true, and when
proper and possible for him to do so, may be given in evidence against him. }\f2
\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\*\bkmkstart PRO21016}{\*\bkmkend PRO
21016}{\b\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 Section 33}\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa1
50{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 Confession. \u8211\'96}\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmul
t1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 The declaration of an accused acknowledging his guilt
of the offense charged, or of any offense necessarily included therein, may be g
iven in evidence against him. }\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\qc\sl342\slmult0\sb300\sa3
00{\*\bkmkstart PRO20940}{\*\bkmkend PRO20940}{\f1\fs43\cf2\chcbpat3 4. Previous
Conduct As Evidence}\f1\fs43\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\*\bkmks
tart PRO21017}{\*\bkmkend PRO21017}{\b\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 Section 34}\f2\cf2\par\pa
rd\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 Similar acts as evidence. \u821
1\'96}\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 Evidence th
at one did or did not do a certain thing at one time is not admissible to prove
that he did or did not do the same or a similar thing at another time; but it ma
y be received to prove a specific intent or knowledge, identity, plan, system, s
cheme, habit, custom or usage, and the like.}\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slm

ult1\sa150{\*\bkmkstart PRO21018}{\*\bkmkend PRO21018}{\b\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 Sectio


n 35}\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 Unaccepted o
ffer. \u8211\'96}\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3
An offer in writing to pay a particular sum of money or to deliver a written ins
trument or specific personal property is, if rejected without valid cause, equiv
alent to the actual production and tender of the money, instrument, or property.
}\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\qc\sl342\slmult0\sb300\sa300{\*\bkmkstart PRO20941}{\*\
bkmkend PRO20941}{\f1\fs43\cf2\chcbpat3 5. Testimonial Knowledge}\f1\fs43\cf2\pa
r\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\*\bkmkstart PRO21019}{\*\bkmkend PRO21019}{
\b\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 Section 36}\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\f2\
cf2\chcbpat3 Testimony generally confined to personal knowledge; hearsay exclude
d. \u8211\'96}\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 A w
itnesses can testify only to those facts which he knows of his personal knowledg
e; that is, which are derived from his own perception, except as otherwise provi
ded in these rules. }\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\qc\sl342\slmult0\sb300\sa300{\*\bkmk
start PRO20942}{\*\bkmkend PRO20942}{\f1\fs43\cf2\chcbpat3 6. Exceptions to the
Hearsay Rule}\f1\fs43\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\*\bkmkstart PRO
21020}{\*\bkmkend PRO21020}{\b\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 Section 37}\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain
\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 Dying declaration. \u8211\'96}\f2\cf2\p
ar\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 The declaration of a dying
person, made under the consciousness of an impending death, may be received in
any case wherein his death is the subject of inquiry, as evidence of the cause a
nd surrounding circumstances of such death. }\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slm
ult1\sa150{\*\bkmkstart PRO21021}{\*\bkmkend PRO21021}{\b\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 Sectio
n 38}\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 Declaration
against interest. \u8211\'96}\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\f2\c
f2\chcbpat3 The declaration made by a person deceased, or unable to testify, aga
inst the interest of the declarant, if the fact asserted in the declaration was
at the time it was made so far contrary to declarant\u8217\'92s own interest, th
at a reasonable man in his position would not have made the declaration unless h
e believed it to be true, may be received in evidence against himself or his suc
cessors in interest and against third persons. }\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\
slmult1\sa150{\*\bkmkstart PRO21022}{\*\bkmkend PRO21022}{\b\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 Sec
tion 39}\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 Act or de
claration about pedigree. \u8211\'96}\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa1
50{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 The act or declaration of a person deceased, or unable to te
stify, in respect to the pedigree of another person related to him by birth or m
arriage, may be received in evidence where it occurred before the controversy, a
nd the relationship between the two persons is shown by evidence other than such
act or declaration. The word \u8220\'93pedigree\u8221\'94 includes relationship
, family genealogy, birth, marriage, death, the dates when the places where thes
e facts occurred, and the names of the relatives. It embraces also facts of fami
ly history intimately connected with pedigree. }\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\
slmult1\sa150{\*\bkmkstart PRO21023}{\*\bkmkend PRO21023}{\b\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 Sec
tion 40}\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 Family re
putation or tradition regarding pedigree. \u8211\'96}\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\s
l384\slmult1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 The reputation of tradition existing in a fa
mily previous to the controversy, in respect to the pedigree of any one of its m
embers, may be received in evidence if the witness testifying thereon be also a
member of the family, either by consanguinity or affinity. Entries in family bib
les or other family books or charts, engravings on rings, family portraits and t
he like, may be received as evidence of pedigree. }\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl3
84\slmult1\sa150{\*\bkmkstart PRO21024}{\*\bkmkend PRO21024}{\b\f2\cf2\chcbpat3
Section 41}\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 Common
reputation. \u8211\'96}\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\f2\cf2\ch
cbpat3 Common reputation existing previous to the controversy, respecting facts
of public or general interest more than thirty years old, or respecting marriage
or moral character, may be given in evidence. Monuments and inscriptions in pub
lic places may be received as evidence of common reputation. }\f2\cf2\par\pard\p
lain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\*\bkmkstart PRO21025}{\*\bkmkend PRO21025}{\b\f2\cf

2\chcbpat3 Section 42}\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcb


pat3 Part of the res gestae. \u8211\'96}\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\
sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 Statements made by a person while a startling occurrence
is taking place or immediately prior or subsequent thereto with respect to the c
ircumstances thereof, may be given in evidence as part of the res gestae. So, al
so, statements accompanying an equivocal act material to the issue, and giving i
t a legal significance, may be received as part of the res gestae. }\f2\cf2\par\
pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\*\bkmkstart PRO21026}{\*\bkmkend PRO21026}{\b
\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 Section 43}\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\f2\cf
2\chcbpat3 Entries in the course of business. \u8211\'96}\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\
ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 Entries made at, or near the time of the
transactions to which they refer, by a person deceased, or unable to testify, w
ho was in a position to know the facts therein stated, may be received as prima
facie evidence, if such person made the entries in his professional capacity or
in the performance of duty and in the ordinary or regular course of business or
duty. }\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\*\bkmkstart PRO21027}{\*\b
kmkend PRO21027}{\b\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 Section 44}\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\s
lmult1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 Entries in official records. \u8211\'96}\f2\cf2\pa
r\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 Entries in official records
made in the performance of his duty by a public officer of the Philippines, or
by a person in the performance of a duty specially enjoined by law, are prima fa
cie evidence of the facts therein stated. }\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmul
t1\sa150{\*\bkmkstart PRO21028}{\*\bkmkend PRO21028}{\b\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 Section
45}\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 Commercial lis
ts and the like. \u8211\'96}\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\f2\cf
2\chcbpat3 Evidence of statements of matters of interest to persons engaged in a
n occupation contained in a list, register, periodical, or other published compi
lation is admissible as tending to prove the truth of any relevant matter so sta
ted if that compilation is published for use by persons engaged in that occupati
on and is generally used and relied upon by them therein. }\f2\cf2\par\pard\plai
n\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\*\bkmkstart PRO21029}{\*\bkmkend PRO21029}{\b\f2\cf2\c
hcbpat3 Section 46}\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat
3 Learned treatises. \u8211\'96}\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\f
2\cf2\chcbpat3 A published treatise, periodical or pamphlet on a subject of hist
ory, law, science or art is admissible as tending to prove the truth of a matter
stated therein if the court takes judicial notice, or a witness expert in the s
ubject testifies, that the writer of the statement in the treatise, periodical o
r pamphlet is recognized in his profession or calling as expert in the subject.
}\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\*\bkmkstart PRO21030}{\*\bkmkend
PRO21030}{\b\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 Section 47}\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1
\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 Testimony or deposition at a former proceeding. \u8211\'
96}\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 The testimony
or deposition of a witnesses deceased or unable to testify, given in a former ca
se or proceeding, judicial or administrative, involving the same parties and sub
ject matter, may be given in evidence against the adverse party who had the oppo
rtunity to cross-examine him. }\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\qc\sl342\slmult0\sb300\sa3
00{\*\bkmkstart PRO20943}{\*\bkmkend PRO20943}{\f1\fs43\cf2\chcbpat3 7. Opinion
Rule}\f1\fs43\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\*\bkmkstart PRO21031}{\
*\bkmkend PRO21031}{\b\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 Section 48}\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl38
4\slmult1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 General rule. \u8211\'96}\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain
\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 The opinion of a witness is not admissi
ble, except as indicated in the following sections. }\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\s
l384\slmult1\sa150{\*\bkmkstart PRO21032}{\*\bkmkend PRO21032}{\b\f2\cf2\chcbpat
3 Section 49}\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 Opin
ion of expert witness. \u8211\'96}\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{
\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 The opinion of a witness on a matter requiring special knowledg
e, skill, experience or training which he is shown to possess, may be received i
n evidence. }\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\*\bkmkstart PRO21033
}{\*\bkmkend PRO21033}{\b\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 Section 50}\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\s
l384\slmult1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 Opinion of ordinary witnesses. \u8211\'96}\f

2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 The opinion of a wi


tness for which proper basis is given, may be received in evidence regarding\u82
11\'96}\f2\cf2\par{\listtext\pard a.\tab }\pard\plain\ilvl0\ls7\ql\fi-360\li720\
lin720\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 the identity of a person about whom
he has adequate knowledge;}\f2\cf2\par{\listtext\pard b.\tab }\pard\plain\ilvl0\
ls7\ql\fi-360\li720\lin720\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 A handwriting wi
th which he has sufficient familiarity; and}\f2\cf2\par{\listtext\pard c.\tab }\
pard\plain\ilvl0\ls7\ql\fi-360\li720\lin720\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3
The mental sanity of a person with whom he is sufficiently acquainted.}\f2\cf2\
par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 The witness may also test
ify on his impressions of the emotion, behavior, condition or appearance of a pe
rson. }\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\qc\sl342\slmult0\sb300\sa300{\*\bkmkstart PRO20944
}{\*\bkmkend PRO20944}{\f1\fs43\cf2\chcbpat3 8. Character Evidence}\f1\fs43\cf2\
par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\*\bkmkstart PRO21034}{\*\bkmkend PRO21034
}{\b\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 Section 51}\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\f
2\cf2\chcbpat3 Character evidence not generally admissible; exceptions: -}\f2\cf
2\par\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 (a) In Criminal Cases:}
\f2\cf2\par{\listtext\pard 1.\tab }\pard\plain\ilvl0\ls8\ql\fi-360\li720\lin720\
sl384\slmult1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 The accused may prove his hood moral charac
ter which is pertinent to the moral trait involved in the offense charged.}\f2\c
f2\par{\listtext\pard 2.\tab }\pard\plain\ilvl0\ls8\ql\fi-360\li720\lin720\sl384
\slmult1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 Unless in rebuttal, the prosecution may not prov
e his bad moral character which is pertinent to the moral trait involved in the
offense charged.}\f2\cf2\par{\listtext\pard 3.\tab }\pard\plain\ilvl0\ls8\ql\fi360\li720\lin720\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 The good or bad moral char
acter of the offended party may be proved if it tends to establish in any reason
able degree the probability or improbability of the offense charged.}\f2\cf2\par
\pard\plain\ql\sl384\slmult1\sa150{\f2\cf2\chcbpat3 (b) In Civil Cases: Evidence
of the moral character of a party in a civil case is admissible only when perti
nent to the issue of character involved in the case.}\f2\cf2\par\pard\plain\ql{\
f2\cf2\chcbpat3 (c) In the case provided for in Rule 132, Section 14. }\f3\fs32\
par}