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3, Auguslt 1998

1063

**INTEGRATED GENERATION AND TRANSMISSION MAINTENANCE SCHEDULING
**

WITH NETWORK CONSTRAINTS

M.K.C. Marwali

S.M. Shahidehpour

Department of Electr ical and Computer Engineering

Illinois Institute of Technology

Chicago, Illinois 606 16

Abstract- Most unit maintenance scheduling packages consider

preventive maintenance schedule of generating units over a on(: or

two year operational planning period in order to minimize the t3tal

operating cost while satisfying system energy requirements and

maintenance constraints. In a global maintenance scheduiing

problem, we propose to consider transmission line maintenance

scheduling and line capacity limits along with generation and line

outages. The inclusion of transmission and network constraint:; in

generating unit maintenance will increase the complexity of the

problem, so we propose

to decompose

the global

generator/transmission scheduling problem into a master problem

and sub-problems using Benders decomposition. In the first stage, a

master problem is solved to determine a solution for maintenance

schedule decision variables. In the second stage, sub-problems are

solved to minimize operating costs while satisfying the network

constraints. Benders cuts based on the solution of the sub-problem

are introduced to the master problem for improving the existing

solution. The iterative procedure continues until an optimal or near

optimal solution is found.

Keywords: Generation maintenance scheduling, transmission

maintenance scheduling, Benders decomposition.

1. INTRODUCTION

Additional competition and growing complexity in power

generating systems, as well as a need for high service reliability and

low production costs, are provoking additional interests in automatic

scheduling techniques for maintenance of generators, transmission

and related equipment, capable of providing least cost maintenance

schedules.

In earlier works of thermal generator maintenance scheduling, most

techniques were based on heuristic approaches. These approaches

consider generating unit separately in selecting its optimal outage

interval subject to constraints and an objective criterion for

equalizing or leveling reserves throughout the planning interval [I],

minimizing expected total production costs [6, IO] or leveling the

risk of failure to meet demand [2]. An example of an heuristic

approach would be to schedule one unit at a time beginning with the

largest and ending with the smallest. Most methods, mainly those

based on heuristics, represent only the generation system and do not

take into account the networks constraint effects on generation and

transmission maintenance. Recently [I 31 represented transmission

constraints, but did not recognize interconnection failures and

maintenance, [ 141 recognized the composite generation and

transmission reliability but did not consider transmission

maintenance.

Because of the discrete nature of maintenance schedu,ing,

mathematical programming approaches have fallen into two b-oad

categories: integer programming (branch and bound) [4-51 and

dynamic programming [3]. More recently, Benders decomposition

has been applied to decompose the problem into a master problem

and a series of sub-problems. The coordination of master and :SubPE-185-PWRS-I 6-09-1997 A paper recommended and approved by

the IEEE Power System Engineering Committee of the IEEE Power

Engineering Society for publication in the IEEE Transactions on Power

Systems. Manuscript submitted May 27, 1997; made available for

printing September 30, 1997.

**problems results in the solution of generator maintenance scheduling
**

as reported in [10,14].

This paper extends the Benders decomposition to include

transmission maintenance and network constraints in the

maintenance scheduling problem. The network is modeled as a

probabilistic problem to include the effect of generation and

transmission outages. Section 2 describes the formulation of

maintenance scheduling with network constraints. Section 3

describes the approach of the maintenance problem using Benders

decomposition. The network model used in the proposed method,

the maintenance sub-problem and operation sub-problem are also

discussed in section 3. A detailed example and the result of the

application of the proposed method to IEEE-RTS [1 I] are presented

in sections 4 and 5.

2. PROBLEM DESCRIPTION

The maintenance scheduling problem is to determine the period for

which generating units of an electric power utility should be taken

off line for planned preventive maintenance over the course of a one

or two year planning horizon in order to minimize the total

operating cost while system energy, reliability requirements and a

number of other constraints are satisfied.

Generating units are distributed in different regions and

interconnected by transmission lines. This may lead to different

composite reliability levels for a given amount of maintenance

capacity outage. Furthermore, generating unit maintenance should

consider transmission forced and planned outages. When

transmission maintenance and other network constraints are

included, the problem becomes considerably more complex and will

be referred to as an integrated maintenance scheduler (IMS) which

represents a network constrained generation and transmission

maintenance scheduling problem. The methodology for the solution

of this problem is discussed in this paper.

In general there are two approaches which can be employed to

achieve one or more aspects of generation maintenance. These

approaches are fictitious cost and maintenance window. Due to

difficulties in obtaining “field proven” maintenance costs, fictitious

costs are often used to penalize deviations from an ideal

maintenance schedule representing the preferred schedule from the

power plant point of view. In maintenance window, the preferred

schedule is represented by time interval (windows) and the objective

is to minimize the real maintenance cost instead of fictitious cost. In

this paper, we use maintenance window approach.

In order to design an IMS for a practically implementable schedule,

numerous and complex constraints which limit the choice of

scheduling times are incorporated into the solution method. The

constraints which are independent of each other at each time period

are categorized as decoupling constraints and those which are

dependent of each other across the time period are categorized as

coupling constraints.

2.A. Coupling Constraints

The first IMS requirement is that units and lines be overhauled

regularly. This is necessary to keep their efficiency at a reasonable

level, keep the incidence of forced outages low, and prolong the life

of units and lines. This procedure is incorporated periodically by

specifying minimax times that a generating unit may run without

maintenance.

0885-8950/98/$10.00 0 1997 I E E E

~ ~ be the amount of resource m available in area A for each time t and c m k would be a percentage of this resource required per-line for maintenance of line k.’ and l. for example that lines 1. ~ .1064 The time required for overhaul is generally known. z ~ would . the second is transmission line maintenance cost. peak load balance equation. and other operational constraints such as generation and transmission capacity limits in each state.ek) and their latest period of maintenance (e.k {cjt(l-xifj+chf (Nk . 2. Furthermore. only a limited number of machines may be serviced at once due to limited manpower. The objective of ( 1 ) is to minimize total maintenance and production costs over the operational planning period. . operational constraints are not completely decoupled since the hydrothermal schedule usually is based on chronological simulation of the generation system. N ~ ) for 1 crew availability 2. In hydro plants.B. the set of constraints be formed as follows: Nli+N2/+N3/ =3 or Nli+N2r+N3t = 0 If we consider that in each maintenance area we have limited resources and crew. . The production cost itself is a probabilistic optimization which takes into account the derated capacity of each generating unit. The number of crews in each type required at each stage of overhaul of each machine. seasonal limitation. 0 if unit is off-line for maintenance maximum number of lines in right-of-away k time period in which maintenance of generating unit i start earliest period for maintenance of generating unit i to begin latest period for maintenance of generating unit i to begin duration of maintenance for generating unit i time period in which maintenance of line k start earliest period for maintenance of line k to begin latest period for maintenance of line k to begin duration of maintenance for line k vector of dummy generators which corresponds to energy not served at time period t maximum line flow capacity in matrix term active power flow in vector term maximum generation capacity in vector term vector of (git) power generation for each unit at time t power generation of unit I at time t - Nkt) Zmt In the case of resource constraints. or t for Yk E ( o .s6 ). Mathematically. Constraints (iii)-(vi) represent peak load balance. seasonal limitations 4. is specified. desirable schedule d S p (vii) (1) expected value transmission maintenance cost per-line in right-away k at time t generation maintenance cost for unit i at time t generation cost of unit i at time t number of lines available in right-of-way k at time t . T maintenance constraints: =1 for t < ei or t 2 I. 2 and 3 are to be maintained simultaneously. The problem is decomposed into a master problem and operation sub-problems. Once xit or Nkt variables are fixed. and hence the number of weeks that a machine is “down” is predetermined. We use transportation model to represent system operation limits. generating and line capacity limits. This master problem is a relaxation of the original problem in that it contains only a subset of constraints. If we consider. For this case. 3. is solved to generate a trial solution for maintenance schedule decision variables. The available crews can be split into geographical and organizational types. Therefore (1) corresponds to a mixed-integer programming problem. Its optimal value is a lower bound on the optimal value of original problem. Decoupling Constraints Network constraints in each time period are considered as decoupling constraints. Constraints (i) represent the maintenance window stated in terms of the start of maintenance variables (s.1} Nk - N& Nkt = N k ~k~ + di < si + d. The set of operation sub-problems are then solved using the fixed . desirable schedule. (9 < t 5 “i. The master problem.. + d k (ii) system constraints: { E Cr. since there is no constraint across time periods.’ values of constraint (i). the resulting operation subproblem can be treated as a set of independent sub-problems. the corresponding zt would be the number of maintenance crews in area A and a would be a percentage of this crew required per-line for maintenance of lines k. resources availability > ~ i+dk . These constraints also can be applied to generation maintenance. the set of constraints may be formed as Omk(’k ekstsi.+d. and other constraints such as environmental and fuel constraints. of the system.. ] i E I ~ ~ c j t ~ j t / S. The first term of the objective function (1) is the maintenance cost of generators. In the case of crew constraint. and the third is the energy production cost. SOLUTION METHODOLOGY We employ the Benders decomposition. one for each time period t. On the other hand constraints (i)-(ii) may be seen as a deterministic problem. In order to avoid over-optimistic planning.g. on the other hand. Constraints (iii)-(vii) may be seen as a probabilistic problem. i t vt E vector of the demand in every bus at time t node-branch incidence matrix probabilistic vector that defines the state of the system acceptable level of expected energy not served The unknown variables x j t and N k f in ( 1 ) are restricted to integer values. Constraint (vii) represents the reliability requirement which takes into account all states of the system. one can determine additional constraints in (1) namely the energy production constraint. or line maintenance. the network can be modeled as either the transportation model or a linearized power flow model. Problem (1) has a natural structure that enables it to be decomposed into a maintenance master problem which is a deterministic integer problem and a set of operation sub-problems which are probabilistic linear programs. l. This constraint can be constructed using hydrothermal simulation program I1 41. in the vector form is N unit maintenance status.N k t . It is assumed here that there is little flexibility in manpower usage that varies the time required for maintenance. f o r t s e i . The unit and the line must be available both before their earliest period of maintenance (e. 3. Set of constraints (ii) consists of crew and resource availability. Xit =o for si < t xit E XIt for ei 5 t 5 ii {0. which is an integer programming problem. The seasonal limitation can be incorporated into e. cp. the INS can be formulated as follows: I Mn t i. This constraint specifies the minimum number of units necessary to produce a certain amount of energy or to avoid spillage in a hydro plant.. giI has continuous value. lk ‘+dk’).. generation and transmission outages should also be taken into account (composite reliability evaluation).

N k ) f O r e .T S f + g + r = d ( p ) +oN p~ The solution of the sub-problem is not complicated. At each iteration the solution of sub-problems generates dual multipliers. 3. seasonal limitations 4. If one or more of operation sub-problems are infeasible then for each infeasible sub-problem an infeasibility cut is generated. then the fuel cost for period t. since knowing which generator and transmissions are available during period t allows us to minimize the expected operation cost. +di. Le.. If all of operation sub-problems are feasible then their solution yield a set of dual multipliers from which a feasibility cut is constructed.! - Nkt E(O. 4 and .xn (dual variable is A) d(9) r 1 If 5 f(p). etc. we check the feasibility of the sub-problem as Min S. Le. The calculation of (3) and (5) involve the reliability evaluation of a composite system. If all sub-problems are feasible. Select a system state cp. The infeasibility cuts (4) will eliminate maintenance values. In order to allow a fast algorithm and efficient calculations. 3. These dual multipliers are used to form one or more constraints (known as cuts) which are added to the master problem for the next iteration. 4. ‘The IMS must ensure that sufficient reserve exists to provide a secure supply while minimizing the cost of operation. or I > li. Update the estimated production cost or load shedding expectation. Return to step 1 if the accuracy is unacceptable... crew availability 2.I . The cost cuts (6) will tend to increase lower bounds obtained from successive maintenance sub-problem solutions. is the solution of feasibility check in its associated state space. which measure the change in either production cost or reliability resulting from marginal changes in the maintenance schedule. we use simultaneous decomposition simulation for all generator and transmission states and intervals [12]. 1 may be interpreted as the marginal The multiplier decrease in energy not supplied with a 1 MW increase in either generators or transmission lines available capacity..1065 maintenance schedule obtained from the solution of the maiiter problem. depends on the utilization of available units to satisfy load constraints in each time period subject to maintaining reliability above a certain level. If one or more of sub-problems are infeasible. - = (2) for ei 5 t 2 1. xit or Nkt. For each infeasible sub-problem resulting from the nthsolution of the master problem. define load levels.B Maintenance Master Problem The maintenance master problem is the minimization of maintenance cost subject to maintenance constraints as well as feasibility and infeasibility cuts from the operation sub-problems. ~ ( c p ) . . The reliability level. operating conditions. given the nthtrial maintenance schedule. The multiplier z. Sf+ g+ r = d ( p ) g <g(q). then an infeasibility cut is generated.. < f < $ 1. as shown in Figure 1. which are not possible to be scheduled. Nkt < ‘k Nkt where w: is the expected fuel cost for period t associated with the n* for t < e i or t > l i + d i for si Nk < t 5 4 + d. the cut is associated with a deterministic instead of probabilistic operation sub-problem.yand zkymay be interpreted as expected marginal costs associated with 1 MW decrease in the power capacity.A Operation Sub-problems The operation cost is the direct cost associated with load supply. w. N n (dual variable is A’) where x*and Nnrepresent the trial solution of the master problem at iteration n. Thus.. equipment availability. The infeasibility cut is SOLVE THE MAINTENANCE MASTER PROBLEM I ’FEASIBLE ~ 7 S. verify whether that specific configuration of generators and transmission lines is able to supply that specific load without violating system limits. trial solution. resources availability 3. The process continues until a feasible solution is found whose cost is sufficiently close to lower bound.1) fort s e i . The feasible cut is of the form Figure 1. The procedure is as follows: 1. 2.. Maintenance Scheduling Decomposition The initial maintenance master problem is formulated as follow: z Min maintenance constraints X-t =1 Xit Xit for si 5 t 5 si + di =o E {0. the generation cost in period t can be expressed as SET UP INITIAL MAINTENANCE MASTER PROBLEM 4 The sub-problems may be infeasible due to the fact that the reliability constraints cannot be met. desirable schedule 3. T. Calculate (3) or (5) for the selected state. given the n* iteration of maintenance schedule. Before minimizing the operation cost..

NL2)+ 100*(1-x.5 ij 2 . A. For some cases the problem may not converge if the A is too small.. Feasible Sub-txoblem State Soaces I Table 1. and 3.Cost/Unit IFOR z t i. 4 x. known as Benders cut. +h3+g3+ r?=I z .=O N. This constraint.5 < g .The primal solution for all state spaces of feasible sub-problem can be seen in Table 5..= 0. 0.5 The primal solution for all state spaces in the feasibility check are given in Table 4.025 E{r)=O.) +0.95*0.11 Nkt < '-k Nkt N k 0.i ) 3.<o 05f.The cost is set arbitrarily to w=1000 because the solution is infeasible.U.5 (2.5 p.<t<l..9*2.U. setting A to 1% is good enough..5 (0. These multipliers are used to form a linear constraint.. seasonal iimitations 4 desirable schedule 2 resources availability N~~ E(o. all lines are assumed to be perfectly reliable..u. 100*(2.~ z + ) 0.25 0. +A2+ g2 + r2 = 3 n 100 200 300 Max Capacity/line (P.<2 N. we solve the initial maintenance master problem: Min z 200*(2-N2.. < 2.<l feasibility and infeasibility cuts from previous iterations Vl E 100 0. Bus data g3 w =546.Cost ($/line) First. Feasibility Check State Spaces There is a trade-off between A and number of iteration.5 <Ai< 2*0.<2 x. A"'.1066 Min Table 2. = 0.98*3* ( 0 .1125 0.=l x.2 0..5. The infeasible cut is as follows: 0.5 The solution of the maintenance master problem for the second iteration is: N.+x2+x.=O ~ 3 0 0 Then..5 0. 5 .095 0.=O z=500 Given the trial maintenance schedule from iteration 2. since E{r]+r2+r3}>0..=2 xI= 1 x. The system reliability requirement ( E ) is 0.. =O h.I 1 crew availability e Line Wline # of lines 1-2 2-3 1-3 (P. N ~ fore.)+ 300*(2-N.=2 N.k cit (1 .85 The dual price of the operation sub-problem: generator: h.2.4225 which is less than ~ = 0 . = 0. zr .4 2 2 2 f o r t S e i or t 2 l i + d i - if all subproblems are feasible then the feasibilty cut is: (7) if one or more subproblems are infeasible then the infeasiblity cut is: infeasible subproblem Min S. + g.i 0 -2*0. we check the feasibility of operation sub-problem given the first trial of maintenance schedule.=O N. From our experience. 4.=2 N.5 o<g. + d.= 1 x. Table 5.1 0. < 2*0. The forced outrage rate (FOR) of each generator is given in Table 2. An are multiplier vectors at the nth iteration The important feature of the Bender decomposition is the availability of upper and lower bounds to the optimal solution at each iteration.= 0..98 power flow: hf.9 I.5 0.Xjt) + c i t ( z k - Nki)] 11 maintenance constraints : for t < ei or t t li + di for si < t < si + di Xjt = 1 Xit = 0 zit E for ei 5 t 5 li {0. Table 4.T Yl+r2+r3 xg E 0.+N. Loads are assumed constant during the study period.1 0. Generator Data h i t I Min Canacitv IMax Caoacitv I Operation I Maint. .)+ 300*(1.6 for s.285 0. < t < s.5 0.. We assume the study period has only one time interval.. The problem is defined as: We are to perform maintenance on at least 2 lines and one generator within the study period. These bounds can be used as an effective convergence criterion.6 < g.. the feasibility check gives E{r}=0.x?)< 0.005 0.5 The solution is: N. EXAMPLE We use a three-bus system as an example. The generator.. 5 2 N.T.. The first state soace formulation of feasibility check is as follows N<N .25 .) < z N.. For convenience.=2 x..<I x.~..045 0.. written in terms of maintenance variable x.5 -2*0.95 The above LP solution is infeasible. The smaller the A the larger the number of iteration.85 + 0. < 2.95 I. The convergence criterion is 2(W-Z) (8) (W+Z) Load balance at bus 1 Load balance at bus 2 Load balance at bus 3 Generator 1 limit Generator 2 limit Generator 3 limit Line 1-2 flow limit Line 1-3 flow limit Line 2-3 flow limit -&-A.Nl. is returned to the maintenance problem which is modified and solved again to determine a new trial maintenance plan. line and load input data in per unit are given in Tables 1.<2 N. Associated with the solution of the operation sub-problem is a set of dual multipliers which measure changes in system operating costs caused by marginal changes in the trial maintenance.< 1 x.= 0 I..95*0. in this sample study.n Maint. The critical point in the decomposition is the modification of objective function based on the solution of operation sub-problem. 1 where: n is the current number of iterations.)+200*(1-~2)+ S.NIJ +0..+N. + r I =I -h..5* ( l .=l x..

Here. weeks 18-29. sub-problems are feasible and the final cost is given in Table 8. the 12-week horizon is between 18-29.0 I 5. This system is made o f 32 generating units.21-24 18-22.22 18.25-29 18-27 20-29 18.22-29 I 18-22. A three-month study period of summer weeks.23-29 20-29 18. The corresponding line maintenance schedule and generator loading points of the weekly load are shown in Tables 10 and 11 respectively..)-9*2.5*(1-~2) The solution of the maintenance master problem for the third iteration is: Ni2=2 N2?=0 N. (Unit 5 in Case 2. the sub-problems are infeasible in all peiiods.25-29 18-22.00/MBtu for Oil #2.1067 The dual price of the operation subproblem is: generator: ngi= -9.)+ 300*(1. $/kWNr. Overflow on Transmission Lines (12-week horizon.24 2 1.27 20.69147 In Case 0 with no network constraints. 23 buses and 38 transmission lines. Table 6 gives the generating units which are to be maintained.)+546.25 27. Table 9. During the tkreemonth period.0 Oil#6 Cases 1 and 2 study the effect of transmission limits on maintenance schedule.ion facilities in a particular area need maintenance within the study period.28 .19 26..29 18.29 .21 27. weeks up and down in Table I O refer to periods in which units are used for supplying the load.23 23. In the first iteration.=O ~ 5 4 25 6 We stop here since FW which means the cost is equal to the lower bound. In Case 2. The maximum transmission flow over the three-month study period is shown in Table 9.( (week) Oil #2 14500 I 6.Z/MBtu for coal and $2. and the scheduling of inefficient unit for on-line duty.19.19 20. &=I% of load ) 2 1 36.24. Table 8 shows the change in operating cost over the study period. Table 10).25. at least 4 transmission lines in this area. In these tables.24 Maintenance 4-9 6-10 2-4 5-10 4-9 3 -9 Weeks Down 28 23 29 19 18-21.29 18. transmission limits are imposed on the optimization problem.28 I buses 1-2 5-10 Weeks Up 18-23. Table 6. Some generation and transmis:.=2 x!= I n2=l x. The average fuel price is $3. the problem is the classical unit maintenance scheduling.0 I 18-29 I 2 Coal 12000 760. Generating Units Operating Cost Data O&M Cost I Maintenan<= Btu/kWh Fixed I Variable\ Window I D u r z a I 103$/Yr.19. is considered.26. indicating a shift from units that use inexpensive fuel to those with more expensive fuels and inefficient units.28.0 0.23.5*2. Transmission limits also affect the maintenance schedule (Unit 2 starting on the week of maintenance. The coverage of area includes buses 1 through 10.CASE STUDY We apply the proposed method to the IEEE-RTS [I I]. For Case 0. ~ = l % of load ) 5.E$ 22.21 23.19.19.68846 36. Case 1 does not impose any transmission limits. In iteration two.5 ICg2 = -9 xg3 =0 power flow: nfi2=0 xns= 0 =fii= 0 The feasible cut for the second iteration is: z >100*(2. Weeks on Maintenance 24. [r Size 1 Fuel I Heat Ratel 1 MW I 1 I 20 76 100 1 I I I 1 I I I Case I I 1 I Ia I I O Unit l l 1 1 5 1 I l l 1 34 2 5 Table 8.xi)+ 200*(1-~2)+ 100*(1-~. 20 demand sides.25-9.24-29 I 20.25-29 18-20. The imposed transmission limits increase the cost of operation.5*( 1-~.29 18.26-29 18-26.25.24 28. Cases 1 and 2).9 18-29 0. Case 0 is converged in two iterations.22-29 22. Unit 5 is not used in all time periods.3/MBtu for Oil #6. Generating Units Considered Table 7 gives the operating characteristics of the generating uni'ts in this area.8 18-29 10000 850.28. Details of transmission line characteristics can be found in [I 11. $I. Table 7.N12)+200*(2-N23)+ 300*(2-N. power flow in each line except for lines 1-3 and 11-14 is within limits for most periods. are expected to be maintained. O&M Cost of Generating Unit (12-week horizon.29 23.

Also units 2. Indonesia.S. The extension of the generation maintenance scheduling to include transmission maintenance and network constraints is applicable to the problem of maintenance with probabilistic data. PAS-98./Dec. N. ” IEEE Trans. available units in one time period may become less attractive as compared to those in some other time periods when availability is even more crucial.” IEEE Trans.Vemuri. Hara. on Power Apparatus and Systems. New York. Nov. 2.L. IO.” IEEE Trans.5. he has been with The Ministry o f Research and Technology Republic of Indonesia. 726-733. Singh.R. “A Technique for the automated Scheduling of the Maintenance of Generating Facilities. 1979. No. W. H.M. Jan. 1168-1 174. CONCLUSIONS This paper presents a decomposition approach based on the duality theory for generationitransmission maintenance scheduling with network constraints. Using the proposed decomposition method..T. No. 5 . additional complex constraints are imposed on the maintenance scheduling problem. resulting in an increase in the overall cost of operation. 5. 6. pp. Jan. H. in 1989 and MS from IIT in 1994. V. No. BIOGRAPHIES M. 1. 1975. maintenance of unit 1 is shifted from weeks 23-24 to weeks 34-35. Pereira et al.” Operation Research. 1991. Limiting lines 1-3. and Cybernetics. Sept. 2057-2063. ~ = l % of load ) Maintenance 5. “Transmission Constrained Maintenance Scheduling of Generating Units: A Stochastic Programming Approach.H. Lasdon. Sept.. K. Vol. on Power Apparatus and Systems. on Power Apparatus and Systems. 1983. PAS-94.427-436.12 1 3. on Power Apparatus and Systems. Quintana. With transmission limitations. Nov.” IEEE Trans. 1972. AI-Khamis. Vol.1068 In practice. weeks 20-21 to 12-13. loading of all units is affected and the inefficient unit 5 has to be brought on-line for weeks 23 and 24 to supply generation deficit. 36 Table 14. May 1966. on Power Systems. No. 4 and 5 are shifted from weeks 27-28 to weeks 38-39. 11. on Power Apparatus and Systems. “Adjusting Maintenance Schedules to Levelize Risk. PAS-104. Zurn. J. 8. pp. K. 1.C. Honda. Vol. Generating Unit Maintenance in Case 2 (52-week horizon. L. 2./Feb. 665-671. 1-2 and 1-5 affects the output of units. No. No. Vol 10. 12. 734-743. Le. “Solving an Electricity Generating Capacity Expansion Planning Problem by Generalized Benders Decomposition. G. 1537-1545. on Man. Presently.Kimura. Morsztyn. Palmer. &=I% of load Table 13. S. Transmission Maintenance Schedule in Case 2 (52-week horizon. 31. Marwali received his BS degrees in electrical engineering from Bandung Institute of Technology. Dr.K. on Power Systems. L. pp.” IEEE Trans. S. pp. “Generator Maintenance Scheduling via Successive Approximation Dynamic Programming. 8 J. Lemonidis. 2047-2054. Vol.69147 52-week 36. “A New Approach to Reliability Evaluation of Interconnected Power Systems Including Planned Outage and Frequency Calculations. the cost can be reduced as seen in Table 14 and a better distribution of risk can be achieved. Bloom. Merrill.L.” IEEE Trans. on Power Apparatus and Systems. 30743080. Vol. Optimization Theory for Large Systems.H. Vol.H. “An Experimental Method of Determination of Optimal Maintenance Schedules in Power systems Using the Branch and Bound Techniques. Dopazo. No. he is completing his Ph. 1970. E. Vol. Vol.2./Feb. 7. . 38./Oct./Oct. May 1992. May 1992. 84100. on Power System. pp. No. J. MacMillan. weeks 18-19 to 11-12. “A Method for Planning Economic Unit Commitment and Maintenance of Thermal Power Systems. pp. Garver. at Illinois Institute of Technology. T.V.” IEEE Trans. Vol. C. which in turn affects the loading of unit 2. No. “Optimal Generator Maintenance Scheduling Using Integer Programming. Aug. 1972. “IEEE Reliability Test System. The test results demonstrate that the limits on transmission line capacity affect the loading of units and increase the generation by expensive and inefficient units. “Optimal Generating Unit Maintenance Scheduling for Multi-area System with Network Constraints.M. SMC-6. This in turn increases the unit operating cost affecting the loading of units as shown in Table 10. “Decomposition Approach to Automated Generation /Transmission Expansion Planning.” IEEE Trans.D. 7. Z. 538-547. Table 12. A.67934 I 4.” IEEE Trans. and weeks 27-28 to 38-39 respectively. M. et al. on Power Apparatus and Systems. Yellen. Since 1989. pp. Vol.” IEEE Trans. Chen. on Power Systems. T. PAS-94. and the Agency for the Assessment & Application of Technology (BPPT). Egan. Since units and lines are not forced to be maintained within 12 weeks. Christiaanse. ” IEEE Trans. No.PAS-85. Deng. pp. No. Shahidehpour is a professor in the ECE Department and Dean of Graduate College at Illinois Institute of Technology. pp. 1976. The units and lines maintenance schedule are shifted to lower peak loads. Dillon.695-701. J. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors would like to appreciate the financial support provided by the Power Systems Laboratory at Illinois Institute of ’Technology. Vol. 6.M.F. With transmission limits. Maintenance 4-9 3-9 2. units are loaded in decreasing order of operating costs. PAS-91. 11. Shahidehpour is a member of the Technical Committee of PICA and serves on the Board of Directors of HKN. May 1995. 9 M. No. pp. Reliability Test System Task Force of the Application of Probability Methods Subcommittee. “A Decomposition Approach to Unit Maintenance Scheduling. PAS-91. The test system was applied over a year-long horizon of 52 weeks Tables 12 and 13 show the maintenance schedule for generating units and transmission lines respectively. Toyoda. Silva. Indonesia. 1. 6. REFERENCES 1. 137-144.” IEEE Trans. Vol. 1985. L. 13 L.39 11.F. O&M Cost of Generating Unit Case I Cost (IO6$) 12-week I 36. 1 6. 14. 7. pp. March/April 1975.. pp. pp. 3.

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