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Chapter2MatterandChange

Chapter2.1

KeyQuestions
Whydoallsamplesofasubstancehavethesameintensiveproperties?
Everysampleofagivensubstancehasidenticalintensivepropertiesbecauseevery
samplehasthesamecomposition.
Whatarethreestatesofmatter?
Solid,liquid,gas.
Howcanphysicalchangesbeclassified?
Physicalchangescanbeclassifiedasreversibleorirreversible.

Vocabulary
Mass:ameasureoftheamountofmatterthatanobjectcontains
Volume:ameasureofthespaceoccupiedbyasampleofmatter
Extensiveproperty:apropertythatdependsontheamountofmatterinasample
Intensiveproperty:apropertythatdependsonthetypeofmatterinasample
Substance:matterthathasauniformanddefinitecomposition:alsocalledpuresubstance
Physicalproperty:aqualityorconditionofasubstancethatcanbeobservedormeasured
withoutchangingthesubstancescomposition.
Solid:aformofmatterthathasadefiniteshapeandvolume
Liquid:aformofmatterthatflows,hasafixedvolume,andanindefiniteshape.
Gas:aformofmatterthattakestheshapeandvolumeofitscontaineragashasnodefinite
shapeorvolume.
Vapor:describesthegaseousstateofasubstancethatisgenerallyaliquidorsolidatroom
temperature.
Physicalchange:achangeduringwhichsomepropertiesofamaterialchange,butthe
compositionofthematerialchangedoesnotchange.

ImportantFacts
Aluminumandcopperareexamplesofsubstances,whicharealsoreferredtoaspure
substances.
Everysampleofagivensubstancehasidenticalintensivepropertiesbecause
everysamplehasthesamecomposition.
Thestatesofthesubstancesaregivenatroomtemperature.
Physicalpropertiescanhelpchemistsidentifysubstances.
Theshapeofasoliddoesntdependontheshapeofitscontainer.Theparticlesina
solidarepackedtightlytogether.
Solidsarealmostincompressible,thatisitdifficulttosqueezeasolidintoasmaller
volume.Solidsexpandonlyslightlywhenheated.
Inaliquid,theparticlesareclosetogether,buttheyarefreetoflowpastoneanother.
Thevolumeoftheliquiddoesntchangeasitsshapechanges.
Liquidsarealmostincompressible,buttheytendtoexpandslightlywhenheated.

Inagas,theparticlesarerelativelyfarapartandmovefreely.
Thetermgasisusedforsubstances,likeoxygen,thatexistinthegaseousstateatroom
temperature.
Meltingisaphysicalchange.Wordssuchasboil,freeze,meltandcondenseareusedto
describephysicalchanges.Soarewordssuchasbreak,split,grind,cutandcrush.Each
setdescribesadifferenttypeofphysicalchange.
Meltingisanexampleofareversiblephysicalchange.Allphysicalchangesthatinvolve
achangefromonestatetoanotherarereversible.Cuttinghair,filingnails,andcracking
aneggareexamplesofirreversiblephysicalchanges.

Chapter2.2Mixtures
KeyQuestions
Howcanmixturesbeclassified?
Basedonthedistributionoftheircomponents,mixturescanbeclassifiedas
heterogeneousmixturesorashomogeneousmixtures.
Howcanmixturesbeseparated?
Differencesinphysicalpropertiescanbeusedtoseparatemixtures.

Vocabulary
Mixtureaphysicalblendoftwoormoresubstancesthatarenotchemicallycombined.
Heterogenousmixtureamixturethatisnotuniformincompositioncomponentsarenot
evenlydistributethroughoutthemixture
Homogenousmixtureamixturethatisuniformincompositioncomponentsareevenly
distributedandnoteasilydistinguished.
Solutionahomogeneousmixtureconsistsofsolutesdissolvedinasolvent.
Phaseanypartofasamplewithuniformcompositionandproperties.
Filtration:aprocessthatseparatesasolidfromtheliquidinaheterogeneousmixture.
Distillation:aprocessusedtoseparatecomponentsofamixtureusingdifferencesinboiling
points.

Importantfacts
Anothernameforhomogeneousmixtureissolution.
Manysolutionsareliquidsbutsomearegases,likeairandsomearesolidslikestainless
steel.
Ahomogenousmixtureconsistsofasinglephase
Aheterogeneousmixtureconsistsoftwoormorepases.

Chapter2.3ElementsandCompounds
KeyQuestions
Howareelementsandcompoundsdifferent?
Compoundscanbebrokendownintosimplersubstancesbychemicalmeans,but
elementcannot.
Howcansubstancesandmixturesbedistinguished?

Ifthecompositionofamaterialisfixed,thematerialisasubstance.Ifthecompositionof
amaterialmayvary,thematerialisamixture.

Whatdochemistsusetorepresentelementsandcompounds?
Chemistsusechemicalsymbolstorepresentelements,andchemicalformulasto
representcompounds.
Whyisaperiodictableuseful?
Theperiodictableallowsyoutoeasilycomparethepropertiesofoneelement(oragroup
ofelements)toanotherelement(orgroupofelements).

Vocabulary
Element:thesimplestformofmatterthathasauniquesetofpropertiesanelementcannotbe
brokendownintosimplersubstancesbychemicalmeans.
Compound:asubstancethatcontainstwoormoreelementschemicallycombinedinafixed
proportion.
Chemicalchange:achangethatproducesmatterwithadifferentcompositionthantheoriginal
matter.
Chemicalsymbol:aoneortwoletterrepresentationofanelement.
Periodictable:anarrangementofelementsinwhichtheelementsareseparatedintogroups
basedonasetofrepeatingproperties.
Period:ahorizontalrowofelementsintheperiodictable.
Group:averticalcolumnofelementsintheperiodictabletheconstituentelementsofagroup
havesimilarchemicalandphysicalproperties.

Chapter2.4ChemicalReactions
Keyquestions
Whatalwayshappensduringachemicalchange?
Thecompositionofmatteralwayschanges.
Whatarefourpossiblecluesthatachemicalchangehastakenplace?
Transferofenergy
Changeincolor
Productionofgas
Formationofprecipitate
Howarethemassofthereactantsandthemassoftheproductsofachemicalreaction
related?
Themassoftheproductsisalwaysequaltothemassofthereactants

Vocabulary
Chemicalproperty:theabilityofasubstancetoundergoaspecificchemicalchange
Chemicalreaction:achangeinwhichoneormorereactantschangeintooneormore
productscharacterizedbythebreakingofbondsinreactantsandtheformationofbondsin
products
Reactant:asubstancepresentatthestartofareaction

Product:asubstanceproducedinachemicalreaction
Precipitate:asolidthatformsandsettlesoutofaliquidmixture
Lawofconservationofmass:inaphysicalchangeorchemicalreaction,massisconserved
masscanbeneithercreatednordestroyed.

Chapter15.2HomogeneousAqueousSystems
KeyQuestions
Whattypesofsubstancesdissolvemostreadilyinwater?
Substancesthatdissolvemostreadilyinwaterincludeioniccompoundsandpolar
covalentcompounds.
Whyareallioniccompoundselectrolytes?
Allioniccompoundsareelectrolytesbecausetheydissociateintoions.
Whydohydrateseasilyloseandregainwater?
Theforcesholdingthewatermoleculesinhydratesarenotverystrong.Soinwateris
easilylostandregained.
Vocabulary:
Aqueoussolution:waterthatcontainsdissolvedsubstances.
Solvent:thedissolvingmediuminasolution.
Solute:dissolvedparticlesinasolution
Solvation:aprocessthatoccurswhenanionicsolutedissolvesinsolution,solventmolecules
surroundthepositiveandnegativeions.

Chapter15.3HeterogeneousAqueousSystems
KeyQuestions:
Whatisthedifferencebetweenasuspensionandasolution?
Asuspensiondiffersfromasolutionbecausetheparticlesofasuspensionaremuch
largeranddonotstaysuspendedindefinitely.
Whatdistinguishesacolloidfromasuspensionandasolution?
Colloidshaveparticlessmallerthanthoseinsuspensionsandlargerthanthosein
solutions.

Vocabulary
Suspension:amixturefromwhichsomeparticlessettleoutslowlyuponstanding
Colloid:amixturewhoseparticlesareintermediateinsizebetweenthoseofasuspensionand
asolution.
Tyndalleffect:scatteringoflightbyparticlesinacolloidorsuspension,whichcausesabeam
oflighttobecomevisible.
Brownianmotion:thechaoticmovementofacolloidalparticles,causedbycollisionwith
particlesofthesolventinwhichtheyaredispersed.
Emulsion:thecolloidaldispersionofoneliquidinanother
Electrolyte:isacompoundthatconductsanelectriccurrent