Está en la página 1de 31

Transmission Fundamentals

Impedance is the opposition to the transfer of energy which is considered

the dominant characteristics of a cable or circuit that emanates from its
physical structure
When load impedance equals to Zo of the line, it means that the load
absorbs all the power

For an air dielectric two-wire line, the minimum characteristic impedance

value is 83 ohms
When a quarter-wave section transmission line is terminated by a short
circuit and is connected to an RF source at the other end, its input
impedance is equivalent to a parallel resonant LC circuit
The concept used to make one Smith chart universal is called

4:1 Impedance matching ratio of a coax balun

dBr stands for dB relative level

The basic elements of communication system are the transmitter,

receiver, and transmission channel

1000 Hz Standard test tone used for audio measurement

Facsimile is the transmission of printed material over telephone lines

When VSWR is equal to zero, this means that no power is applied

Call waiting tone is a continuous tone generated by the combination of two

frequencies of 350 Hz and 440 Hz used in telephone sets

Reflection coefficient is the ratio of reflected voltage to the forward

traveling voltage
Transmission line must be matched to the load to transfer maximum
power to the load

VF repeaters are unidirectional amplifiers having 20-25 decibel gain that

are placed about 75 km apart used to compensate for losses along the

Dissipation factor indicates the relative energy loss in a capacitor

Induction coil is a component in the telephone set that has the primary
function of interfacing the handset to the local loop

0 dBm is the standard test tone

Pulse dialing has 10 pulse/sec rate

Standing waves the energy that neither radiated into space nor
completely transmitted

Trunk line is a telephone wire that connects two central offices

1 Angstrom (A) is equal to 10^-10 m

It is impossible to use a waveguide at low radio frequencies because of the
size of the waveguide
Communications is the transmission and reception of information
Transmission lines are either balanced or unbalanced with respect to
The standing wave ratio is equal to 1 if the load is properly matched with the
transmission line
Low attenuation is the advantage of the balanced transmission line
compared to unbalanced line
Spectral analysis is the method of determining the bandwidth of any
processing system

MTSO the central switching office coordinating element for all cell sites
that has cellular processor and cellular switch. It interfaces with telephone
company zone offices, control call processing and handle billing activities
Base station in a cellular system performs radio-related functions for
cellular site.
Frequency re-use a technology used to increase the capacity of a mobile
phone system
If the grade of service of a telephone system indicated P = 0.05, it means
lost call of 5%
3700 Hz is the Out-of-band signaling between Toll Central Offices (Bell
System Standard)
If the SWR is infinite, the load transmission line is purely reactive
Not more than 12 digits make up an international telephone number as
recommended by CCITT REC. E. 161

Losses in the conducting walls of the guide causes the attenuation

present in a waveguide

One (1) Erlang is equal to 36 CCS

Balun a device that converts a balanced line to an unbalanced line of a

transmission line

WATS standard tariff for flat rate telephone service beyond the normal flat
rate in that area

The average power rating of RG-58 C/u is 50 W

The standard analog telephone channel bandwidth is 300-3400 Hz

RG-211A a coaxial cable used for high temperatures

Manual switching type of switching in which a pair of wire from the

telephone set terminates in a jack and the switch is supervised by an

The velocity factor of a transmission line depends on the dielectric

constant of the material used
Impedance inversion can be obtained by a quarter-wave line
Transmission lines when connected to antennas have resistive load at the
resonant frequency

Everytime when the telephone is idle, the handset is in the on-hook state.
Varistor is a component in the telephone set that has the primary function
of compensating for the local loop length
Electromagnetic receiver is used in conventional telephone handset

Characteristic impedance the impedance measured at the input of the

transmission line when its length is infinite

A voice-grade circuit using PTN has an ideal passband of 0 to 4 kHz

Complex propagation constant is not considered primary line constant

Basic voice grade (VG) is the minimum-quality circuit available using the

The dielectric constants of materials commonly used in transmission lines

range from about 1.2 to 2.8

Direct distance dialing (DDD) network is called Dial-up network

Typically, the velocity factor (Vf) of the materials used in transmission lines
rage from 0.6 to 0.9

The advantage of sidetone is it assures the customer that the telephone

is working

Tie trunk is a special service circuit connected two private branch

exchanges (PBX)
Tariff the published rates, regulations, and descriptions governing the
provision of communications service for public use
The power loss of a telephone hybrid is 3 dB
Telephone channel has a band-pass characteristic occupying the frequency
range of 300-3400 Hz

The frequency range over which a rectangular waveguide is excited in the

dominant mode is limited to the difference between the frequency at
which the cutoff wavelength is twice the narrow dimension
If a rectangular waveguide is to be excited in the dominant mode, the Eprobe should be inserted at a distance of one quarter-wavelength from
the sealed end
A quarter-wave line is connected to an RF generator and is shorted out at
the far end. The input impedance to the line generator is a high value of

The first strowger step-by-step switch was used in 1897

G.122 is the CCITT recommendation for a preparation of loss plan, a
variable loss plans and a fixed loss plan
Umbrella cells is appropriate for load management, fast moving mobiles
and low-usage areas

If the SWR on a transmission line has a high value, the reason could be an
impedance mismatch between the line and the load
If a quarter-wave transmission line is shorted at one end the line behaves
as a parallel-tuned circuit in relation to the generator

In cellular networks, standard base station antennas are replaced by

adaptive array

A 50-ohm transmission line is feeding an antenna which represents a 50

ohm resistive load. To shorten the line, the length must be any convenient

Analogue cellular technology is the basis of the first generation wireless

local loop

The outer conductor of the coaxial cable is usually grounded at the

beginning and at the end of the cable

When the calling party hears a busy tone on his telephone, the call is
considered completed

A feature of an infinite transmission line is that its input impedance at the

generator is equal to the lines surge impedance

Short-circuited stubs are preferred to open circuited stubs because the latter
are liable to radiate

When the surge impedance of a line is matched to a load, the line will
transfer maximum power to the load

Coefficient of reflection is the ratio of the reflected voltage to the incident


SWR - ratio of the mismatch between the antenna and the transmitter power
F3C and A3E emission designation for a facsimile

Quarter-wave matching - one method of determining antenna impedance

AWG #19 commonly used telephone wire
Single-wire line is a single conductor running from the transmitter to the
Coaxial cable impedance is typically 50 to 75 ohms

Wavelength is the distance traveled by a wave in the time of one cycle

The velocity factor is inversely proportional with respect to the square root
of the dielectric constant

Waveguide becomes compulsory above 3 GHz

Balun circuit connects a balanced line to an unbalanced line
Normal voice channel bandwidth is 4 kHz
To connect a coaxial line to a parallel wire line, balun is used
Echo suppressors are used on all communications system when the round
trip propagation time exceeds 50 ms

Waveguides are transmission lines which can convey electromagnetic

waves only in higher order modes

Quarter-wavelength line is used as impedance transformer

The amount of uncertainly in a system of symbols is also called entropy
The transmission lines which can convey electromagnetic waves only in
higher modes is usually called waveguide

The twists in twisted wire pairs reduced electromagnetic interference

Nitrogen gas is sometimes used in waveguide to keep the waveguide dry

Loading means to the addition of inductance

It is impossible to use a waveguide at low radio frequencies because of the

size of the waveguide

Coaxial is the most commonly used transmission line for high frequency

To couple in and out of a waveguide, insertion of an E-probe into the

waveguide and insertion of an H-loop into the waveguide is done

The characteristic impedance of a transmission does not depend upon its


A rectangular waveguide is operating in the dominant TE10 mode. The

associated flux lines are established transversely across the narrow
dimension of the waveguide

For maximum absorption of power at the antenna, the relationship between

the characteristic impedance of the line Zo and the load impedance Zl
should be Zo = Zl

For dominant mode of a rectangular waveguide, the distance between two

instantaneous consecutive positions of maximum field intensity is referred to
as half of the guide wavelength

The mismatch between antenna and transmission line impedance cannot be

corrected for by adjusting the length of transmission line

The guide wavelength, in a rectangular waveguide is greater than the freespace wavelength at the same signal frequency

Standing waves is a pattern of voltage and current variations along a

transmission line not terminated in its characteristic impedance
The desirable SWR on a transmission line is 1

Using the TE10 mode, microwave power can only be transmitted in free
rectangular guide provided the wide dimension is greater than one-half
of the wavelength in free space
If the signal frequency applied to a rectangular guide is increased and the
dominant mode is employed, the group velocity is increased

The most desirable reflection coefficient is 0

Reflection coefficient is the ratio expressing the percentage of incident
voltage reflected on a transmission line
At very high frequencies, transmission lines act as tuned circuits

Reflectance ratio of reflected power to incident power

A shorted quarter-wave line at the operating frequency acts like a parallel
resonant circuit
A shorted half-wave line at the operating frequency acts like a series
resonant circuit
Coaxial medium is least susceptible to noise
Twisted pair medium is most widely used in LANs
Coaxial cable is the most commonly used transmission line in television
DC blocks are used in coaxial transmission line for the purpose of
preventing AC power supply voltage from being shorted by a balun or
band splitter
Adjacent channel interference is a type of interference caused by off-air
TV channels 2 and 4, plus a satellite dish operating on channel 3
Dithering (in TVRO communications) is a process for reducing the effect
of noise on the TVRO video signal
Frequency and voltage are important useful quantities describing
Halving the power means 3-dB loss
One neper (Np) is 8.686 decibels
Reflectometer is used to measure SWR
214-056 twin lead which is commonly used for TV lead-in has
characteristics impedance of 300 ohm
A coaxial cable is a good example of a bounded medium
dNp is known as one-tenth of a neper
The input impedance of a quarterwave short-circuited transmission line at its
resonant frequency is infinite or an open circuit
The ratio of the largest rms value to the smallest rms value of the voltage in
the line is called VSWR
The characteristic impedance of a transmission line does not depend upon
its length
A power difference of -3 dB means a loss of one half of the power
Low attenuation is an advantage of the balance transmission line
Waveguides are used mainly for microwave transmission because no
generators are powerful enough to excite them
The ratio of the smallest to the largest rms current value is called ISWR
A ten times power change in transmission system is equivalent to 10 dB
Parallel-wire line type transmission line is employed where balanced
properties are required
To be properly matched the ratio of a maximum voltage along a
transmission line should be equal to 1
Absorption coefficient the ratio between the energy absorbed by a
surface to the total energy received by the surface
When the diameter of the conductors of a 2 wire transmission line is held
constant, the effect of decreasing the distance between the conductors is
decrease the impedance
The higher the gauge number of a conductor the higher the resistance or
the smaller the diameter
/4 transformer a short length of transmission line used to
reduce/eliminate standing wave in the main transmission line

The SWR when a transmission line is terminated in a short circuit is infinite

Sound level meter an instrument designed to measure a frequencyweighted value of the sound pressure level
Noy a unit of noisiness related to the perceived noise level

Crystal microphone will be damaged if exposed to high temperature above

Spider a thin springy sheet of bakelite or metal that permits the voice coil
in a dynamic loudspeaker to move back and forth along the core of its

Noise rating curves an agreed set of empirical curves relating octaveband sound pressure level to the center frequency of the octave bands.

One hundred twenty bars of pressure variation is equal to 115.56 dBSPL

Natural frequency the frequency of a free vibration

Proximity effect is a microphone characteristic that results in a boost in

bass frequencies for close microphone spacing

Flanking transmission the transmission of sound from one room to an

adjacent room, via common walls, floors or ceilings

20 Hz to 20 kHz is the audio frequency range

Hearing level a measure of threshold of hearing, expressed in decibels

relative to a specified standard of normal hearing

10 Hz to 20 kHz is the bass frequency range

5,000 Hz to 10 kHz high frequency range of audio signals

330 m/s velocity of sound in air

65 is the dB SPL of a voice paging in an office

Speaker is a device that converts current variations into sound waves

90 100 is the db SPL of an auditorium with contemporary music

Carbon type of microphone operates on the principle that the electrical

resistance of carbon granules varies as the pressure on the granules vary

80 85 is the church db SPL with speech reinforcement only

Bass response is bypassing high audio frequencies

Pure tone of sound used as standard on testing is 1000 Hz
Echo is early reflection of sound

Intensity can also be called as loudness

The loudness of a sound depends upon the energy of motion imparted to
vibrating molecules of the medium transmitting the sound

Dolby noise reduction system used for film sound in movie

Loudness is affected by the distance between the listener and the source
of the sound and its intensity varies inversely with the square of this

Sound intensity is the sound energy per unit area at right angles to the
propagation direction per unit time

If the distance between the listener and the source of the sound is doubled,
the intensity is reduced to

Phon is the unit of loudness level of a sound

If the distance between the listener and the source of the sound is
decreased to the original amount, the intensity of the sound would be 4
times as great

Sound intensity is the average rate of transmission of sound energy in a

given direction through a cross-section area of 1 sq. m. at right angles to the
Mel is the unit of pitch
Decibel a measure of the intensity of sound in comparison to another
sound intensity
Sound wave has two main characteristics which are pitch and loudness
Dynamic type of microphone operated by electromagnetic induction that
generates an output signal voltage
Supersonic speed that is faster than speed of sound
Sound waves travel in water at a 5000 ft/sec speed
Wavelength crest-to-crest distance along the direction of wave travel
Sound intensity level is 10 log I/Iref

At a sensation level of 40dB, 1000 Hz tone is 1000 mels

If the sound waves are converted to electrical waves by a microphone, the
frequency of the electric current will be 25 to 8000 Hz
For a music lover concert A is 440 Hz. If a musical note one octave higher
0were played, it would be double that frequency
In a 220 Hz, if a note was played one octave lower it would be 110 Hz
Much of music generally referred to in octaves
Distortion is an undesired change in wave form as the signal passes
through a device
Distortion enhances intelligibility when an exciter is added
Exciters a class of signal processors

Sound pressure level is 20 log P/Pref

Hall construction and internal finishes affect the final sound quality

The most important specification of loudspeakers and microphones is

frequency response

Positioning a loudspeaker near a wall can dramatically alter its frequency

response in two distinct ways namely hump and notch

Fundamental lowest frequency produced by a musical instrument

The acoustics of most auditoria are very different when the room is full
compared to the empty condition

Diffraction tendency of a sound energy to spread

When waves bend away from straight lines of travel, it is called refraction
Reverberation time required time for any sound to decay to 60 dB
The intensity needed to produce an audible sound varies with frequency
Ultrasonic sound that vibrates at frequency too high for the human ear to
hear (over 20 kHz)

A microphone transducer converts acoustical energy

All microphone have two basic components namely, diaphragm and
generating element
When the average absorption is greater than 0.2, Norris-Eyring formula is
used to compute the actual reverberation time
At room temperature, the velocity of sound in meters/seconds is 341.8 m/s
The ratio of frequencies is termed as interval

6 dB is the increase in sound pressure level in dB, if the pressure is doubled

Pitch a term which is subjective but dependent mainly on frequency and
also affected by intensity
Masking an effect that occurs in the ear where a louder sound can reduce
or even stop the nerve voltage generated by a weaker sound
For computation of ideal reverberation time, Stephen and Bate is
The loudness of sound is a subjective effect which is a function of the ear
and brain
Reverberation time defined as the time taken for the intensity of sound
energy in the room to drop to one millionth of its initial value
Sound intensity is the sound energy per unit area at right angles of the
propagation direction, per unit time
Phon the unit of loudness level
Flutter echo consists of a rapid succession of noticeable echoes
W.C Sabine laid the foundations of acoustic theory of buildings
Sound an aural sensation by pressure variation in the air which are
always produced by some source of vibrations
10^-12 W/m^2 is considered to be as the threshold of hearing
The average absorption for a person is 4.7 units
Frequency the number of vibration or pressure fluctuations per second
Sound intensity defined as the average rate of transmission of sound
energy in a given direction through a cross-sectional area of 1 m^2 at right
angles to the direction
The minimum sound intensity that can be heard is termed as threshold of
Mel the unit of pitch
3 dB is the increase in sound pressure level in dB, if the intensity is doubled
The velocity of sound is considered to be constant at 330 m/s for the
purpose of building acoustics


Selectivity of a radio receiver refers to its ability to reject an unwanted


50 dB is the maximum sideband suppression value using filter system

F3E emission is frequency modulation
Modulation index determines the number of sideband components in FM
AM transmission power increase with modulation
H3E transmit only one sideband
Capture effect locks the FM receiver to a stronger signal
Baseband frequency produces sidebands on FM
The highest percentage of modulation for AM is 100%
Spectrum analyzer displays the carrier and the sidebands amplitude with
frequency to frequency

In FM, the Carsons Rule states that the bandwidth is equal to twice the sum
of the modulating frequency and frequency deviation

Mixer is also known as converter

A3H emission transmit the lower sideband and half of the upper sideband
An FM receive signal vary in frequency with modulation

The carrier swing of an FM transmitter when modulated by 75% is 112.5

Frequency modulation the modulation system inherently more resistant to

The process of impressing intelligence on the carrier is called modulation

Spectrum analyzer is an electronic instrument used to show both the
carrier and the sidebands of a modulated signal in the frequency domain

Subcarriers that are arranged so that the channels occupying adjacent

frequency bands with some frequency space between them is known as
guard bands

Amplitude is varied at the carrier by the intelligence during modulation in an

AM system

Modulation of an RF carrier results in multiple channels, smaller

antennas, and directional propagation

The difference between the RF carrier and the modulating signal

frequencies is called the LSB

Modulation is a process which occurs in the transmitter

Demodulation is a process which occurs in the receiver

Buffer stage in a radio transmitter isolates the oscillator from the load
The frequency of the unmodulated carrier in FM system is center
The ratio of maximum deviation to the maximum modulating frequency is
called deviation ratio
A carrier signal has a frequency of 20 kHz and above
In a FM system, if modulation index is doubled by halving the modulating
frequency, there will be no effect on the maximum deviation
Armstrong system is considered as an indirect method of generating FM
To generate an SSB or DSB signal one must use a circuit known as
balanced modulator

Buffer amplifier part of the transmitter that protects the crystal oscillator
from pulling
The amplitude of a sine wave which is modulated by a musical program will
be complex, contain fundamental frequencies, and contain harmonic
The result of the gain level being too high for signals entering the modulator
is distortion and splatter
Amplitude modulation causes the amount of transmitter power to increase
When the amplitude of the modulating voltage is increased for AM, the
antenna current will increase

Crystal radio receiver is the first radio receiver

A second modulating tone having the same amplitude but a different

frequency is added to the first at the input to the modulator. The modulation
index will be increased by a factor of sqr(2)

An interfering signal with a frequency equal to the received signal plus twice
the IF is called image frequency

Unwanted sidebands in SSB equipment can be suppressed by phasing

method and filter method

A3E double sideband full carrier emission type

Envelope detection is concerned with the process of rectification

R3E single sideband reduced carrier emission type

Diagonal clipping in envelope detection will result in distortion

J3E a single sideband suppressed carrier emission type

Product detection requires the process of heterodyning

B8E independent sideband emission type

A sine wave which is coherent with carrier has identical frequency and
phase angle

C3F vestigial sideband emission type

H3E single sideband full carrier emission type
G3E phase modulation emission type

Frequency modulation and phase modulation are collectively referred to as

angle modulation
In FM the change in carrier frequency is proportional to amplitude of the
modulating signal

Better fidelity is not an advantage of SSB over AM

The advantage of a high level modulated AM transmitter is higher value of
operating power
The advantage of a low-level modulated AM transmitter is less audio
power required

A louder sound, when generating the modulating waveform for FM, will
cause a greater frequency deviation
Varactor diode a device whose capacitance is deliberately made to be a
function of the applied voltage
A reactance modulator is one method of obtaining direct FM

Interference to other radio services is the bad effect caused by

overmodulation in AM transmission

VCO a device, now available in IC form, is useful for direct FM and as one
element in the phase-locked loop

Multiplication is a frequency change process, whereby the phase deviation

and frequency deviation are multiplied by some fixed constant

The advantage of phase modulation over direct FM frequency modulation is

that the oscillator is crystal-controlled

Foster-Seeley discriminator a circuit that has the function of

demodulating the frequency-modulated signal

If the spectrum is shifted in frequency with no other changes, this is known

as frequency translation

The ratio detector is superior to the slope detector because it is less

sensitive to noise spikes and interference causing AM

Balanced modulator a device which is capable of causing frequency


One implementation of a pulse-averaging discriminator is a triggered


If the frequency of each component in a signal spectrum is increased by the

same fixed amount, this is known as frequency translation and up

Two different signals can be coherent if they have the same frequency
Any device to be used as a frequency multiplier must be nonlinear
A quadrature detector requires that the inputs are coherent
Push-push a particular amplifier circuit used for frequency doubling
In a phase-locked loop, the VCO is the abbreviation for Voltage-controlled

Frequency division is useful in the implementation of a frequency


LSB and USB the output of a balanced modulator

Balanced modulator can be used as a phase detector
If the modulation index of an AM wave is changed from 0 to 1, the
transmitted power is increased by 50%

A particular frequency synthesizer contains only a single crystal. This

synthesizer is known as indirect

RF carrier is not a baseband signal of modulation

If the unmodulated level peak carrier amplitude is doubled in an AM signal,
the percent modulation is 100
Balanced modulator circuit when inserted in the equipment suppressed the
The carrier of a 100% modulated AM wave is suppressed, the percentage
power saving is 66.66%

A recognizable feature of a CW transmitter is keyed transmitter, power

amplification, and frequency generation
The term pulling refers to the change of the crystal oscillator frequency
by loading
When frequency modulation is achieved by initial phase modulation, this is
called indirect FM
A disadvantage of direct FM is the need for AFC

If the modulation index of an AM wave is doubled, the antenna current is

also doubled, the AM system being used is J3E
100% modulation in AM means a corresponding increase in total power by

Direct FM can be achieved by a reactance tube modulator and a

varactor diode
A receiver in which all RF amplifier stages require manual tuning to the
desired RF is called TRF

A single-tone amplitude modulated wave has 3 components

A carrier signal has constant peak amplitude
The modulating system is frequency modulation if the modulating
frequency is doubled, the modulation index is halved, and the modulating
voltage remains constant

It is often necessary to precede the demodulator by amplifier stages in a

receiver because of weak antenna signals
A serious disadvantage of the TRF receiver is the bandwidth variations
over the tuning range
Modulator is not part of a superheterodyne receiver

The modulation index of an FM signal if its modulating frequency is doubled

is one-half the original index

R-F amplifier element will not be found in every superheterodyne receiver

A3E standard way of designating AM

Mixer element of a superheterodyne receiver must be nonlinear

Discriminator is the circuit used to detect frequency modulated signal

The change of the modulated carrier frequency from the original RF to the IF of the superheterodyne receiver is known as frequency translation

Baseband is an information signal that is sent directly without modulating

any carrier
Both frequency and phase modulation utilize angle modulation
Bandwidth it is the width of frequencies within the spectrum occupied by
signal and used by the signal for conveying information

The key to achieving receiver sensitivity is the reduction of internal noise

In comparing the S/N ratio for the input to the receiver with the S/N ratio for
the output, the latter is smaller
Noise figure the characteristic of a receiver that specifies the selfgenerated noise

H3E transmit only one sideband

Continuous modulation is a kind of modulation in which the modulated
wave is always present.

The ratio of the superheterodyne receiver response at the desired carrier

frequency to that at the image frequency is called the image rejection ratio
The core of an IF transformer usually contains powered iron

Pulse modulation a type of modulation in which no signal is present

between pulses

Shape factor is a measure of skirt steepness

Coefficient of modulation is the amount of amplitude change present in an

AM waveform

AGC is the function which tends to maintain the sound volume level of a
voice receiver nearly constant for a large signal strength range

Carrier shift is a form of amplitude distortion introduced when the positive

and negative alternations in the AM modulated signals are not equal

Squelch the function which tends to silence the receiver in the absence of
transmitter carrier

Noise blanker device is incorporated in a communications receiver to

reduce impulse noise
If the input to a detector stage is an amplitude-modulated (A3E) IF signal
then the output from the stage is the audio voice information

An RF stage precedes the mixer stage in a superheat receiver. One

advantage of including this RF stage is letter rejection ratio
Bandwidth and noise figure are two factors that determine the sensitivity
of a receiver

In a capacitive type, reactance-tube modulator connected across an

oscillator tune circuit, a more negative voltage on the grid of the reactance
tube will cause an increase of the oscillator frequency

An undesirable effect of using too-wide a filter bandwidth in the IF section of

a receiver is that the undesired signals will reach the audio stage

The limiting condition for sensitivity in a communications receiver is the

noise floor of the receiver

FM receiver a system containing a limiter stage, a discriminator, and a

de-emphasis circuit

When a communications receiver is tuned to a strong signal, the AGC bias

is measured and found to be zero. The fault cannot be caused by an open
circuit in the AGCs filter capacitor

The limiter stage of an FM receiver prevents any amplitude modulation

of the IF signal

Cross-modulation interference the term used to refer to the condition

where the signals from a very strong station are superimposed on other
signals being received
The limiter stage of an FM receiver limits the amplitude of the IF signal
to the required level
Motorboating (low-frequency oscillations) in an amplifier can be stopped by
connecting a capacitor between the B+ and lead ground

High selectivity occurs when the degree of coupling between a receivers

RF stage is loose
A carrier is phase modulated by a test tone. If the amplitude and the
frequency of the tone are both doubled, the amount of deviation is
multiplied by four
2.4 kHz is the degree of selectivity desirable in the IF circuitry of a singlesideband receiver
The component most apt to break down in the radio circuit is the resistor

Crossmodulation an effect in which, the modulation of an unwanted

signal is transferred to the desired carrier
Leads should be kept as short as possible in radio circuit so that stray
coupling is minimized

The base in an RF amplifier is grounded in order to avoid the requirement

of neutralizing the stage
The AM detector performs two basic functions in the receiver. It rectifies
and filters

4 voice transmissions can be packed into a given frequency band for

amplitude-compandored single-sideband systems over conventional FMphone systems

A varactor diode can be used in direct FM modulator circuit, AFC circuit

in a direct FM transmitter and in phase-modulator circuit

Neutralization of an RF amplifier stage can be necessary in order to

prevent the generation of spurious oscillations

Receiver interference is not reduced by including an insulating enclosure

around the receiver

The ability of a communications receiver to perform well in the presence of

strong signals outside the band of interest is indicated by blocking
dynamic range

Television is the emission C3F

RF amplifier, mixer, IF amplifier, and AF amplifier are stages that are

common to both AM and FM receivers
Filter ringing occurs during CW reception if too narrow a filter bandwidth is
used in the IF stage of a receiver

Limiter stage in an FM receiver is responsible for drastically reducing the

effect of static noise during the reception of a signal
The letter SSSC stand for single sideband, suppressed carrier
For many types of voices, the ratio of PEP-to-average power during a
modulation peak in a single-sideband phone signal is approximately 2.5 to

IF amplifier stage mainly determines a communication receivers sensitivity

The main advantage of FM over AM is better signal-to-noise-ratio

In most mixers, the oscillator frequency is higher than the carrier frequency
of the input signal.

Low-level modulation an amplitude modulation created in an amplifier

before the final RF stage

Features of a transmitters buffer stage include improvement in frequency

stability of the oscillator

Receiver desensitizing can be reduced by ensuring good RF shielding

between the transmitter

A3F type of emission produced when an amplitude modulated transmitter

is modulated by a television signal

In a narrow-band FM system, the deviation ratio is commonly one and the

highest audio frequency is generally limited to 3,000 Hz

A pi network is a network consisting of one inductor and two capacitors

A3C a type of emission is produced when an amplitude modulated

transmitter is modulated by a facsimile signal
The noise generated which primarily determines the signal to noise ratio in a
VHF (150 MHz) marine band receiver is in the receiver front end
Cross-modulation in a receiver can be reduced by installing a filter at the

A G3E FM-phone signals is produced with a reactance modulator on the

Installing resistive spark plugs is a way of eliminating auto interference to
radio reception
The carrier in an AM transmitter is the transmitters output signal when
the modulation is present

F3E is the emission designation for FM telephony

Final IF amplifier, which also acts as a limiter stage, feeds the

discriminator of an FM receiver

The cause of receiver desensitizing is the presence of a strong signal on

a nearby frequency

In an FM receiver, the discriminator stage has the IF signal as input and

the audio signal as output

In a phase-modulated signal (indirect FM), the frequency deviation is

directly proportional to the carrier amplitude only

Capture effect - the loudest signal received is the only demodulated signal

A double-sideband phone signal can be generated by modulating the

plate voltage of a class-C amplifier

Demodulator circuit recovers the original modulating information from an

AM signal

Pre-emphasis is used in FM transmitters to improve the signal-to-noise ratio

of high modulating frequencies

Envelope detector is the most commonly used amplitude demodulator

The result of cross-modulation is that the modulation of an unwanted

signal is heard on the desired signal

Balanced modulator circuit generates the upper and lower sidebands and
suppresses the carrier

FM receiver contains de-emphasis circuit

Lattice modulator is a widely used balanced modulator

Television is emission F3F

In a diode ring modulator, the diode act like switches

F3C emission is produced when a frequency modulated transmitter is

modulated by a facsimile signal

The output of a balanced modulator is DSB

Two AM transmitting antennas are close tighter. As a result the two

modulated signals are mixed in the final RF stage of both transmitters. The
resultant effect on the other station is intermodulation interference
Desensitizing the term used to refer to the reduction of receiver gain
caused by the signal of a nearby station transmitter in the same frequency
Bandwidth of emission and occupied bandwidth is the bandwidth
occupied by the carrier, both sidebands and harmonics

The principal circuit in the popular 1496/1596 IC balanced modulator is a

differential amplifier
The most commonly used filter in SSB generators uses crystals
In the phasing method of SSB generation, one sideband is canceled out due
to phase shifting
A balanced modulator used to demodulate a SSB signal is called a product
Frequency translation is done with a circuit called a mixer

A class-C RF amplifier is collector amplitude modulated and its average dc

level collector current does not change. This means a normal condition
Amplitude of the modulating signal determines the percentage
modulation of an FM transmitter

Mixing for frequency conversion is the same as linear summing

Lower complexity and cost is not a major disadvantage of FM over AM
The primary disadvantage of FM is its excessive use of spectrum space

Deviation ratio of an FM transmitter is the ratio of the maximum frequency

swing to the highest modulating frequency
The main purpose of the beat frequency oscillator (BFO) is to generate an
output, whose frequency differs from the IF by 1 kHz
Normally, a linear class B RF power amplifier operates with a bias
approximately equal to projected cut-off

Noise is primarily high-frequency spikes

The receiver circuit that rids FM of noise is the limiter
The Am signals generated at a low level may only be amplified by Class C
SSB means Single sideband with suppressed carrier

The purpose why an RF amplifier is operated under linear class-B

conditions (as opposed to class-C) is to amplify an AM signal

Filter a circuit used to select the desired output from a mixer

Cross-modulation interference the term used to refer to the condition

where the signal from a very strong station are superimposed on other
signal being received

DSB is the output of a balanced modulator

Peak negative voltage is the amplitude of the maximum negative excursion

of a signal as viewed on an oscilloscope

Demodulation process occurs in the receiver

The acronym SSSC refer to Single sideband, suppressed carrier

BFO is usually used to demodulate SSB or CW signal

FM and double sideband AM type of emission that suffer most from
selective fading
In an FM-phone signal, percentage of modulation is the ratio between the
actual frequency deviation to the maximum frequency deviation
Capture effect is used to refer to the reception blockage of one FM-phone
signal by another FM-phone signal
A receiver selectivity of 10 kHz in the IF circuitry is optimum for doublesideband AM type of signal
If the envelope of modulation is constant in amplitude this means zeromodulation
Amplitude modulation is the same as linear mixing
The negative half of the AM wave is supplied by the tuned circuit in a
diode modulator
Having the carrier vary a resistance can produce AM
Amplitude modulators that vary the carrier amplitude with the modulating
signal by passing it through an attenuator network is the principle of
variable resistance
PIN diode is used to produce AM at very high frequencies

Diode detector is the most widely used amplitude modulator

Lattice modulator is the most widely used balanced modulator

Jitter is a non-continuous noise of irregular pulses or spikes of short
duration with high amplitudes
Shannon-Hartley theorem sets a limit on the maximum capacity of a
channel with a given noise level
Quantizing noise occurs in PCM
Noise always affects the signal in a communications system at the channel
Noise is the random and unpredictable electric signals from natural causes,
both internal and external to the system
Gaussian noise/White noise/Thermal noise Noise from random
acoustic or electric noise that has equal energy per cycle over a specified
total frequency band

De-emphasis in the receiver in effect attenuates modulating signal

components and noise in high frequency range
Atmospheric noise or static is not a great problem at frequencies above 30
Is the proper procedure for suppressing electrical noise in a mobile station is
to apply shielding and filtering where necessary
The noise generated that primarily determines the signal-to-noise ratio in a
VHF (150 MHz) marine-band receiver is in the receiver front end
The difference between signal strength at a given point and a reference
level is level
Interfering effect of noise, C message weighted, is dBrnc
F1A weighting refers to F1A handset

The approximation of the quantized signal causes a quantization noise in

PCM system
Limiter a particular circuit that rids FM of noise

Power is definite amount of energy per time period

290 K is the reference noise temperature

Reference noise is a noise that creates the same interfering effect as a

1000 Hz, -90 dBm tone, a noise than creates zero dBrn in a voice

Noise unwanted radio signal on assigned frequency

A practical dBrn measurement will almost always in a positive number

Noise factor is the reliable measurement for comparing amplifier noise


-85 dBm is the reference level for noise measurement, F1A weighted
-90 dBm is the reference tone level for dBm

White noise is measured on a circuit when it is correctly terminated but

does not have any traffic

-85 dBm is the reference tone level for dBa

CCITT G. 151 standard recommends crosstalk limits

Atmospheric noise becomes less severe at frequencies above 30 MHz

CCITT Rec. G. 172 standard is utilized in the intermodulation noise rates on

PCM audio channels

The value of the resistor creating thermal noise is doubled. The noise power
generated is therefore unchanged

800 Hz is the reference frequency of CCITT phosphometric noise


Input noise voltage is not a useful quantity for comparing the noise
performance of receivers

290 K reference temperature used in noise analysis

Most internal noise comes from thermal agitation

Atmospheric noise is produced by lightning discharge in thunderstorms

Thermal agitation is not a source of external noise

Man-made noise is usually from transmission over power lines and by

ground wave

Noise can be reduced by narrowing the bandwidth

Noise at the input to a receiver can be as high as several microvolts

Nif stands for Noise improvement factor

Mixer circuit contributes most of the noise in a receiver
Industrial noise frequency is between 15 to 160 MHz
External noise fields are measured in terms of peak values

The transistor with the lowest noise figure in the microwave region is a

Precipitation static - form of interference caused by rain or dust storms

Transmit-time noise becomes of great importance at high frequencies

Thermal noise is an electric noise produced by thermal agitation of

electrons in conductor and semiconductor

The solar cycle repeats the period of great electrical disturbance

approximately every 11 years

Crosstalk is the interference coming from other communications channels

The square of the thermal noise voltage generated by a resistor is

proportional to its resistance, its temperature and the bandwidth over
which it is measured

-90 dBm is the reference noise level

pWp is the unit of noise power of psophometer
Solar flare a large emission of hydrogen from the sun that affects

Quantizing noise noise occurring in the presence of signal resulting from

a mismatch between the exact value of an analog signal and the closest
available quantizing step in a digital coder

Atmospheric noise is known as static noise

Impulse noise Noise consisting of irregular pulses of short duration and

relatively high amplitude

290 K standard design reference for environmental noise temperature

Crosstalk noise the occurs via capacitive or inductive coupling in a cable

C + 273 absolute temperature in Kelvin

Sources of impulse noise induced in communication channels: Erroneous

digital coding bit caused by an error on a transmission facility,
transients due to relay operation and crosstalk from dc signaling

If bandwidth is doubled, the signal power is not changed

Galaxies and internal combustion engines are sources of noise bearing
on electronic communications

Crosstalk due to incomplete suppression of sidebands or to intermodulation

of two or more frequency-multiplexed channels which are unintelligible is
classified as miscellaneous noise
Psophometer is a device that measures the internal open circuit voltage of
an equivalent noise generator having an impedance of 600 ohm and
delivering noise power to a 600 ohm load
Cosmic noise external noise originating outside the solar system
Solar noise a noise whose source is within the solar system
Noise density the total noise power present in a 1-Hz bandwidth
Lightning is the primary cause of atmospheric noise
Space noise noise coming from the sun and stars
The major cause of atmospheric or static noise is thunderstorms
MESFET is a low noise transistor commonly used at microwave frequencies

Radiation and Wave Propagation

Field strength is the amount of voltage induced in a wave by an
electromagnetic wave

Most of the effects an electromagnetic wave produces when it interacts with

matter are due to its electric field
A mobile receiver experiences dead areas of reception as a result of
shading of the RF signal by hills and trees

An electromagnetic wave consists of both electric and magnetic fields

D is the lowest layer of the ionosphere
James Clerk Maxwell profounded electromagnetic radiation theory

When the electric field is perpendicular to the surface of the earth, vertical
is the polarization of the TEM wave
When the magnetic field is perpendicular to the surface of the earth,
horizontal is the polarization of the TEM wave

The D, E and F layers are known as Kennely-Heaviside layers

Band different grouping of the electromagnetic spectrum

When the magnetic field is parallel to the surface of the earth, vertical is the
polarization of the TEM wave

90 is the relation in degrees of the electric and magnetic fields in an

electromagnetic wave

The two interrelated fields considered to make up an electromagnetic wave

are an electric field and a magnetic field

A changing electric field gives rise to a magnetic field

The bandwidth of the transmitted signal affect selective fading because it is

more pronounced at wide bandwidths

Frequencies in the UHF range propagate by means of space waves

In electromagnetic waves, polarization is due to the transverse nature of
the waves
Electromagnetic waves are refracted when they pass into a medium of
different dielectric constants
Ionosphere is the highest layer of the atmosphere
F2 is the thickest layer of the ionosphere
K factor Effective earth radius to true earth radius ratio
Reflection-multipath fading due to interference between direct and
reflected rays
D layer reflects very low frequency waves and absorbs medium frequency
E layer is used for high-frequency daytime propagation
Critical frequency is the highest frequency that can be sent straight
upward and be returned to earth

Spread spectrum communication a wide bandwidth communications

system in which the RF carrier varies according to some predetermined
A changing magnetic field gives rise to electric field
When a space-wave signal passes over a mountain ridge, a small part of
the signal is diffracted down the far side of the mountain. This phenomenon
is called knife-edge diffraction
The index of refraction of a material medium is greater than 1
Electromagnetic waves travel in free space approximately 300 million
meters per second
Vertical polarization electric field that lies in a plane perpendicular to the
earths surface
Horizontal polarization - electric field that lies in a plane parallel to the
earths surface
Fading applies to troposcatter propagation

High frequency range is from 3 to 30 MHz

VLF waves are used for some types of service because they are very

Medium frequency range is from 0.3 to 3 MHz

High-frequency waves are affected by the solar cycle

In tropospheric scatter propagation, the attenuation is dependent on scatter


Distances near the skip distance should be used for sky-wave propagation
to prevent sky-wave and upper ray interference

If the transmitter power remains constant, an increase in the frequency of

the sky wave will lengthen the skip distance

A ship-to-ship communications system is plagued by fading. The best

solution seems to be the use of frequency diversity

The unit of electric field strength is volts per meter

A range of microwave frequencies more easily passed by the atmosphere

than are the other is called a window

Polarization refers to the direction of the electric field vector space

Circularly polarized a TEM wave whose polarization rotates

Frequencies in the UHF range normally propagate by means of space


300 x 10^6 m/s velocity of light in free spaces

Tropospheric scatter is used with frequencies in the UHF range

Radiowave that is far from its sources is called plane wave

The ground wave eventually disappears as one moves away from the
transmitter, because of tilting

Light goes from medium A to medium B at angle of incidence of 40. The

angle of refraction is 30. The speed of light in B is less than that in A
In a vacuum the speed of an electromagnetic wave is a universal constant
The depth of an object submerged in a transparent liquid always seems
less than its actual depth
Wavefront a fixed point in an electromagnetic wave
VHF ship station transmitters must have the capability of reducing carrier
power to 1 W

In electromagnetic waves, polarization means the physical orientation of

electric field in space
As electromagnetic waves travel in free space, attenuation happens
The absorption of a radio waves by the atmosphere depends on their
Diffraction of electromagnetic waves may occur around the edge of a
sharp obstacle
In an electromagnetic wave the electric field is perpendicular to both the
magnetic field and the wave direction

F2 layers does not disappear at night

The highest frequencies are found in x-rays
ELF, VLF and MF use surface wave propagation
Electromagnetic waves transport energy
The ionosphere is a region of ionized gas in the upper atmosphere. The
ionosphere is responsible for long-distance radio communications
Blue light of which has the shortest wavelength
The quality in sound that corresponds to color in light is pitch

The ability of the ionosphere to reflect a radio wave back to the earth is
determined by operating frequency, ion density and angle of incidence
MUF highest frequency that can be used for skywave propagation
between two given points on earth
Skip distance the shortest distance measured along the earths surface
that a skywave is returned to earth

All real images can appear on a screen

Fading fluctuations in the signal strength at the receiver
When a beam of light enters on medium from another, a quality that never
changes is its frequency
Relative to the angle of incidence, the angle of refraction is smaller or is
A light ray enters one medium from another along the normal. The angle of
refraction is dependent on the indexes of refraction of the two media
E layer aids MF surface-wave propagation a little and reflects some HF
waves in daytime

Space diversity two or more antennas are used separated by several

Frequency diversity two or more receivers are used using a single
Diversity is not a cause of fading
Solar flares the gigantic emission of hydrogen from the sun
SIDs Suddent Ionospheric Disturbance

Dispersion is the term used to describe the splitting of white light into its
component colors in refraction
The depth of an objects submerged in a transparent liquid always seems
less than its actual depth
Total internal reflection can occur when light passes from one medium to
another that has a lower index of refraction
When a light ray approaches a glass-air interface from the glass side at the
critical angle, the angle of refraction is 90

Troposcatter propagation a means of beyond the line of sight

propagation of UHF signals
Troposcatter two directional antennas are pointed so that their beams
intersect in the troposhere
Ducting super refraction
Duct a layer of warm air trapped above cooler air
Electric field corresponds to voltage

The brightness of light source is called its luminous intensity, whose unit is

Shadow zone absence of reception

Luminous efficiency is least for a low-wattage light bulb

Huygens principle each point on a spherical waveform maybe a source

of a secondary spherical wavefront

The minimum illumination recommended for reading is 8000 lx

The solid angle subtended by a hemisphere about its center is 2 sr
Microwave signals propagate by way of the direct wave
The ionosphere causes radio signals to be refracted
Groundwave communications is most effective in 300 kHz to 3 MHz
frequency range
The ionosphere has its greatest effect on signals in 3 to 30 MHz frequency
The type of radio wave responsible for long-distance communication by
multiple skips is the sky wave
Line-of-sight communications is not a factor in HF frequency range
A microwave-transmitting antenna is 550 ft. high. The receiving antenna is
200 ft high. The minimum transmission distance is 53.3 mi
To increase the transmission distance of UHF signal, increase antenna
height should be done
Inverse Square Law states that power density is inversely proportional to
the distance from its source
Sky wave gets in contact with the ionosphere and reflected by it
F2 is the highest layer in the ionosphere
E is the next lowest layer in the ionosphere
Ultraviolet radiation is the primary cause of ionization in the atmosphere

Ducting occurs in Troposphere

E region is most ionized at midday
Transequatorial propagation is best during afternoon or early evening
Very high and ultra high frequencies is most affected by knife-edge
F2 layer has an average height of 225 km at night

The minimum number of turns a helix antenna must have is 3
The polarization of a discone antenna is vertical
The gain of isotropic antenna is 1
When speaking of antenna, bay is a section which would be a complete
antenna by itself

Parasitic element improves antenna directivity

VHF and UHF range of frequencies are most omnidirectional horizontally

polarized antennas used

The antenna radiates horizontally polarized waves when the transmitter

antenna is horizontally installed

If the current ratios of the two or more elements must be held 5% and the
phase angle to 3, the antenna is called a critical phased array

Front-to-back ratio comparing the signal strength arriving at the driven

element from the desired direction to the signal strength reaching the driver
from the opposite direction

Antenna a device that converts high frequency current into

electromagnetic wave
Rhombic antenna non-resonant antenna

Gain of an antenna is a measure of how the antenna concentrates its

radiated power in a given direction

Gain of a half-wave dipole antenna over isotropic 2.15 dB

End effect shortening effect of an antenna that makes it appear as if it

were 5% longer

Null very low signal strength in antenna

Low-pass filter harmonic suppressor connected to an antenna

The gain of the Hertzian dipole over isotropic antenna 1.76 dB

A simple half-wavelength antenna radiates the strongest signal at right

angles to its axis

Beamwidth is the measurement of unilateral antenna properties of

In testing transmitter to prevent interfering with other stations, dummy type
of antenna must be used
The best solution to fading is space diversity

The current maximum in a Marconi antenna is found at the base of the

If an antenna is too short for the wavelength being used, the effective length
can be increased by adding inductance in series

Entropy is the amount of uncertainly in a system of symbols

Dummy antenna is used for testing and adjusting a transmitter for proper
modulation, amplifier operation and frequency accuracy

If an antenna has a gain of 30 dB, it increases the output of the transmitter

by 1000 times

It is possible to lower the resonant frequency of Hertz dipole antenna by

connecting an inductor in series with the antenna

Top loading is used in an antenna in order to increase its effective height

A vertical antenna which is a quarter-wavelength long receive signals in

the horizontal plane equally well from all direction

A horizontal antenna is horizontally polarized

All elements in a beam collinear antenna are in line
FM broadcasting does not use vertical polarization antenna
Lightning rods must be mounted a top structure not less than 30 cm above
the highest point
Antenna array is an antenna with a number of half-wave antenna on it
Marconi antenna radiates an omnidirectional pattern in the horizontal plane
with vertical polarization
Parabolic dish antenna an antenna with very high gain and very narrow
The direction of the electric field vector determines antenna polarization
Azimuth is the horizontal pointing angle of an antenna
The estimated medium wind loading in the Philippines for antenna tower
design is 200 kph
Discone radiation pattern is omnidirectional
Notch antenna is an open-ended slot antenna
Rhombic antenna is properly terminated
The radiation characteristic of a dipole antenna is bidirectional
The theoretical gain of Hertzian dipole is 1.76 dB
Isotropic an antenna with unity gain
You can increase the gain of an antenna by focusing the radiated energy
in one desired direction
Elementary doublet an antenna which is one-tenth wavelength long

If the length of a Hertz dipole is decreased its resonant frequency will be

A one-quarter wavelength shunt-fed vertical Marconi antenna must have a
vertical receiving antenna for the best reception
A shunt-fed quarter-wavelength Marconi antenna has zero DC resistance
to ground
The parasitic element of an antenna system will increase its directivity
and give the antenna unidirectional properties
If the length of an antenna is changed from 2.5 meters to 2.8 meters, its
resonant frequency will decrease
The effect of adding a capacitor in series with an antenna is that the
antennas resonant frequency will increase
The electrical field strength of a standard broadcast station vary with the
distance from the antenna by the field strength varies inversely as the
distance from the antenna
Stacking element in a transmitting antenna system increases the field
strength at the receiving antenna and increases the directivity of the
transmitter antenna
A vertical loop antenna has a bidirectional radiation pattern in the
horizontal plane
In order to get maximum radiation to all the surrounding points in the
horizontal plane, the antenna used is a vertical quarter-wavelength rod
If the antenna current is doubled, the field strength at a particular position is
The rhombic antenna is primarily used for sky wave propagation
Isotropic antenna radiates equally in all directions

Actual height of antennas should be at least quarter wavelength

An antenna efficiency is computed by using Efficiency = (radiation

resistance / total resistance) x 100%

Resonant antenna is not properly terminated

Broadcast array is an antenna array which is highly directional at right
angles to the plane of the array

Increasing the resonant frequency of an end-fed Marconi antenna can be

done by adding a capacitor in series and reducing the physical length

The directivity pattern of an isotropic radiator is a sphere

Factor that determines the radiation resistance of an antenna: the location

of the antenna with respect to nearby objects

An isotropic radiator is a hypothetical, omnidirectional antenna

Beamwidth is the angle between the half-power radiation points

The purpose of stacking elements on an antenna sharper directional

pattern, increased gain, and improved bandpass

Directivity gain is the ratio of the maximum radiation intensity to the

average radiation intensity

The advantage of using top loading in a shortened HF vertical antenna is

improved radiation efficiency

Good grounding is important for vertical antennas

An ungrounded antenna near the ground acts as antenna array

The voltage nodes in a half-wave antenna is at the feed point

Log-periodic is very useful as a multiband HF receiving antenna
Isotropic radiator a theoretical reference antenna that provides a
comparison for antenna measurements
In horizontal-dipole antenna, the polarization is in the horizontal direction
Increasing the electrical length of an antenna means adding an inductor in
Stacking antennas at various angles results in a more omnidirectional
Driven element the element fed by the transmission line
Antenna bandwidth the frequency range over which an antenna can
be expected to operate satisfactorily

Horn antennas is best excited from a waveguide

The following reasons for using metal counterpoise with antenna are
impossibility of a good ground connection, provision of an earth for
the antenna and rockiness of the ground itself
Protection of personnel working underneath is not a reason for using
metal counterpoise with antennas
Reason for the use of an antenna coupler: to make the antenna look
resistive, to provide the output amplifier with the correct load
impedance and to discriminate against harmonics
To prevent reradiation of the local oscillator is not a reason for the use
of an antenna coupler

To lengthen an antenna electrically, add a coil

Marconi antenna is not a wideband
The usual electrical length of a driven element in an HF beam antenna is

Adding C in series makes an antenna physically long but electrically short

The bandwidth of an antenna increases as it is shortened through the use

of loading coils

When antennas are closed to the ground, vertical polarized polarization is


To electrically decrease the length of an antenna, add a capacitor in


Long wire is an antenna made up of a number of full wavelengths

Strong interference from one particular station can be eliminated by the use
of wave traps in the antenna circuitry

Electromagnetic any energy which radiates in the form or radio waves,

infrared waves, light waves, x-rays, etc
Diplexer is an antenna coupling unit

It is useful to refer to an isotropic radiator when comparing the gains of

directional antennas

Vertical polarization is employed in AM broadcasting

A disadvantage of using a trap antenna is it will radiate harmonics

Horizontal polarization is employed in FM broadcasting

The input terminal impedance at the center of a folded dipole antenna is

300 ohm

Dipole antenna is not grounded at one end

Yagi antenna does not use the ground

When a capacitor is connected in series with a Marconi antenna the

antenna resonant frequency increases
The current nodes in a half-wave antenna is at the ends
For a shortened vertical antenna, loading coil should be placed near the
center of the vertical radiator to minimize losses and produce the most
effective performance
The effect of adding parasitic elements of a Hertz dipole is to increase the
antennas power gain
Stacking antenna elements increases sensitivity to weak signals
In the case of Marconi antenna, the actual length of the radiating element is
one-quarter wavelength
The antenna efficiency of an HF grounded vertical antenna can be made
comparable to that of a half-wave antenna by installing a good ground
radial system

Wire and Wireless Communications

Each DECT system can support 12 simultaneous calls

10 to 100 W typical speech power

A DECT radio transceiver can assess 120 simultaneous calls at any given

The maximum intelligibility for voice frequency is located between 1000 and
3000 Hz

The AGC voltage of a radio receiver is always DC, but may have either

The maximum voice energy is located between 250 and 500 Hz

Volume unit meter a device used to measure speech volume

Concentrator a switching system that lets a large number of

telephone or data processing subscribers use a lesser number of
transmission lines or a narrower bandwidth

By definition, for a sine wave 0 dBm = 0 V.U

Presently, 300 to 3400 Hz is the standard frequency bandwidth for voice
AWG # 19 is commonly used wire for subscriber loop design
The resistance limit for No.2 Crossbar Exchange (US) is 1300

If you find that an SAW filter output is 6 dB down from the input of a receiver
during test, this is normal
A triple conversion superheterodyne receiver, diode mixer stages are
operated in the nonlinear region
Leased line a permanent circuit for private use within a
communication network

AWG # 26 has typical loss of 0.51 dB/1000 ft

4 kHz is the standard voice channel spacing

If two FM signals of different strengths are received on the same frequency

only the stronger will appear in the AF output

Reflectometer is used to measure SWR

Cellular mobile system was first operated in 1983

Singing an undesired self-sustained oscillation in a system, generally

caused by excessive positive feedback

TACS is a cellular system with 1000 channels

Supervisory Audio Tone (SAT) has 6000 Hz frequency

IF stage increases the selectivity of the circuit in an AM receiver

GSM uses GMSK digital modulation technique
The sensitivity of radio receiver amplify weak signal and produce a
desirable intelligence at the output speaker
Full-duplex transmission means two-way simultaneous transmission

The power output of Personal Communications System (PCS) is 10 mW

RG-58 cable has a loss of about 3 dB at cellular frequencies up to 15 feet

Multi drop line a line or circuit interconnecting several stations

A passive attenuator is an electronic device which reduce signal strength
by a specified amount in dB

Pilot carrier signals the signals designed to keep the receivers and
transmitters aligned
When a line and a load are match, the reflection coefficient is zero

Roaming the signal quality of the cells is constantly monitored by the

base station, when the quality of the calls drops below a certain specified
level, the base request the MTSO to try and find a better cell site.
MIN a digital identification associated with a cellular system

When line is terminated in an open circuit load, the reflection coefficient is

The telephone set is powered by the central office on the ring side at -42 to
-52 Vdc

Facsimile transmit a standard page of 25 seconds

The telephone voice band frequency is from 300 to 3400 Hz
Electrolytic recording a kind of recording is used in facsimile
Green wire is used to transmit the signal
Skewing a type of distortion a facsimile produces when it becomes out of
Acoustic coupler a device that converts electric signal signals into
audio signals, enabling data to be transmitted over the public
telephone network via a conventional telephone handset
Crosstalk causes a herringbone pattern in facsimile
The capture effect in an FM receiver causes a stronger signal to dominate
over a weaker signal on the same frequency

The corresponding frequencies for digit 7 in the touch tone telephone is 852
& 1209 Hz
The physical connection between the telephone set and the switching
equipment is called the subscriber loop
The local loop of a telephone system is a two-wire or four-wire
communication circuit between the customers premise and the
central office

Hybrid circuit a device that converts a 2-wire circuit to a 4-wire circuit

Dial long lines, voice repeater, and loop range extender are used in long
loop design

Decision theory is deciding between a set of hypotheses when given a

collection of imperfect measurement

A two-wire circuit is a circuit usually in the subscriber loop, between the

telephone set and the local central office

Jaynes maximum entropy principle of a data reduction says that when

reducing a set of data into the form of a underlying mode, one should be
maximally non-committal with respect to missing data

1 mW is equal to 90 dBm

Estimation is selecting the best value of a parameter from a continuum of

possible values when given a collection of imperfect measurements

First selector responds to the request of a subscriber by sending a dial

Section the other name of Class 2 office in the North American Switching

Discrete channel combination of modulator, channel, and detector

A cell in the cellular telephone system means small area
The frequency band of DECT is 1.88 1.90 GHz
MTSO is the linking point between cell phone and regular telephone

The typical power output of a cellular phone is 3 W

When a single cell is subdivided into smaller cells the process is called cell

When human voice and music are transmitted, the type of communication
employed is known as radiotelephony
Printed documents to be transmitted by fax are converted into a baseband
electric signal by the process of scanning

The first cell shape is a circle

In order to provide 100% coverage without overlap, cellular telephone
system can use hexagon cell shape, triangle, or rectangular
The beamwidth of the reflector of the receiving antenna in the base station
is 60 degrees

Charge couple device is the most commonly used light sensor in a modern
fax machine
In FM fax, the frequencies for black and white are 1500 and 2300 Hz
Group 2 fax uses vestigial sideband AM

A cellular phone operates on full duplex

The most widely used fax standard is Group 3
Cellular phone transmit in the band from 825 to 845 MHz
Group 3 fax uses QAM modulation
Cell phone receives in the band from 870 to 890 MHz
Most fax printers are of thermal type
The frequency separation between the transmit and the receive channels
45 MHz

Facsimile standards are set by the CCITT

For channel 1, transmit/receive frequency is 825.015/870.015 MHz

Satellite weather photos are commonly transmitted by radio fax

The number of transmit/receive channels in the cellular system is 666

The transmission speed of group 4 fax is 56 kbits/s

The transmission range of cellular telephony is generally about 80 km

Mobile telephone switching office is the master control center for cellular
telephone system

Large service area is not an advantage of a cellular telephone system

Each cell site contain a repeater
When the message is transferred from one cell site transmitter to another
cell site transmitter as the caller crosses a boundary hand off process take

Trunk a telephone line connecting two central offices

Cellular telephones use full-duplex type of operation

The sensitivity of a cellular receiver is 50 dB

The maximum frequency deviation of an FM cellular transmitter is 12 kHz
The frequency deviation of the cellular telephone system is +-12 kHz
The output power of a cellular radio is controlled by the MTSO
Hailing channel is otherwise known as calling channel
Erlang is equal to the number of simultaneous calls originated during a
specific hourly period

When the signal from a mobile cellular unit drops below a certain level, the
unit is handed off to a closer cell
In a cellular radio, the duplexer is a pair of sharp bandpass filters

All of the cell base stations are linked together by MTSO which serves as
the central office and management node for the group

On a telephone system, the loop is open during on-hook condition

Cell site provides interface between the mobile telephone switching office
and the mobile units

For every button pressed on a touch-tone telephone, two audio-frequency

tones are transmitted to the C.O.

A phone call over the cellular network actually requires full duplex

Erlang B is the traffic model about blocked calls clear condition specified
blocking probability

Volume a method of expressing the amplitudes of complex non-periodic

signals such as speech

A touch-tone telephone generates 8 audible tone frequencies

Echo is a signal returned to the talker after making one or more round trips
between the talker and the listener
Echo suppressor is a voice operated device that inserts a high loss in the
opposite direction of transmission of the talking party

935 960 MHz the base-to-mobile frequency assignment of a GSM

A voice-grade channel is suitable for transmission of signals with a
frequency ranging from 300 to 3400 Hz
The bandwidth of cellular CDMA system is 1.23 MHz

Double spotting is picking up of the same station at two nearby points on

the receiver dial
Crosstalk when one channel picks up the signal carried by another
TPS type of connector arrangement wherein a customer may move to
another location and still retain the same telephone number
An advantage of sidetone is that is assures the customer that the
telephone is working
Half-duplex radio communications between points using a single share
TDM the transmission of information from multiple sources occurring on
the same facility but not at the same time

A communication link is a channel or circuit intended to connect other

channels or circuits
Poisson block calls held condition specified the held probability at a time
period equal to an average holding time
Echo a wave which has been reflected or otherwise returned with
sufficient magnitude and delay for it to be perceptible in some manner
as a wave distinct from that directly transmitted
The system used by Personal Communication Network (PCN) is modified
Termination refers to load connected to the output end of a
transmission line

The multiple access used by Digital European Cordless Telephone (DECT)

Erlang C blocked calls delay condition specified delay probability
GFSK the modulation technique used by DECT
A four-wire circuit is used between serving central offices for longdistance connections, with one pair being used for each direction of
Cellular CDMA system uses BPSK modulation
PABX means Private Automatic Branch Exchange
The voted cellular digital standard at TIA is Digital AMPS
The number for channels for Band A and for Band B in Digital AMPS is 416
The mobile-to-base frequency assignment for GSM system is 890 915
The range of a cellular CDMA system is 13 miles
In a cellular system, radio capacity is used to measure the spectrum
Singing echo is completely out of control
Loop extender increase the battery voltage on a loop and extends its
signaling range
Under ordinary circumstances, the CCITT recommends that the number of
circuits in tandem must not exceed 12
The system capacity of AMPS is 100,000
NAM means Numeric Assignment Module

Digital and Data Communications

Topology or architecture identifies how the stations are interconnected in

a network

Redundancy means the symbol are to be repeated

Optical fiber transmission media is not suitable to CSMA operation
Transducer is a device used to convert a time varying electrical quantity to
an appropriate form
The bandwidth of U600 mastergroup is 2520 kHz
Hybrid data refers to the combined digitally encoded signals transmitted
with FDM signals as one composite baseband signal
L carrier systems transmit frequency-division-multiplexed voice band
signals over a coaxial cable for distances up to 4000 miles
Level 5 of Japanese PCM multiplex hierarchy has a channel capacity of
5760 VB channels

Local Area Network is a data communications network designed to provide

two-way communications between a large variety of data communications
terminal equipment within a relatively small geographic area
Start/stop mode is the mode of transmission in public data network in
which data are transferred from source to the network then to the
destination in an asynchronous data format
A seven-bit character can represent one of 128 possibilities
Channel capacity is defined to be the maximum rate at which information
can be transmitted through a channel
Source coding circuit that performs the inverse mapping and delivers to
the user destination, a reproduction of the original digital source output
PSK digital modulation technique used in modems

The line data rate (in Mbps) for level 4 of CEPT 30 + 2 PCM multiplex
hierarchy is 139.264
The guardband between supergroup 18 and supergroup D25 is 56 kHz

Emile Baudot developed the fixed-length binary code for telegraphy

Alex Reeves inventor of pulse-code modulation for the digital encoding of
the speech signals

Supergroup 17 has a carrier frequency (in kHz) of 2108

A radio channel is composed of 1800 VB channels

In 1950s, computers and terminals start communicating with each other

over long distance

The guardband between supergroup 1 and supergroup 2 is 12 kHz

PRNET store-and-forward multiple-access network

CCITTs supermastergroup has 900 voice band channels

Huffman code a source code whose average world length approaches

the fundamental limit set by the entropy of a discrete memoryless source

The transparency mechanism used with SDLC is called zero-bit insertion

DCA promulgate communications-related military standards (MIL-STD)
2B + D defines the composition of an ISDN basic access line
Synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH) a digital network where voice,
video, text and data are multiplexed into a single network for processing and
are transmitted prior to use

P2 is the class of probability in error detection techniques that is known as

residual error rate
RS 232 is normally an interface between DTE and DCE. The signal rate 20

T-1 carrier service has 1.544 Mbps digital bit rate

TMS digital switching concepts that can handle more channels
Non-ISDN equivalent can be connected to ISDN line by the use of terminal
The baseband frequency of standard FDM basic supergroup is 312 to 552

The most significant advantage of modular switch than time-and-space

switch is flexible size
The biggest disadvantage of PCM systems is the larger bandwidth

The transmission signal coding for T1 carrier is Bipolar

The primary purpose of the data modem is to interface digital terminal
equipment to analog communications channel
Data terminal equipment (DTE) the line control unit (LCU) operates on
the data in digital form
32 H SYN character of EBCDIC code
Bit or clock synchronization ensures that the transmitter and receiver
agree on prescribed time slot for the occurrence of a bit
2^n >= m + n + 1 used to determine the number of Hamming bits in the
Hamming code
Data means digital information
Network layer determines which network configuration is most appropriate

The reason why companding is employed in PCM systems is to protect

small signals in PCM from quantizing distortion
Folding frequency the highest frequency that can be processed at a
sampling rate (fs) without aliasing
The overlapping of the original spectrum and the first translated component
is known as aliasing
Full duplex transmission sent in both directions simultaneously
Multiplexing in a time division multiplexer occurs based upon the position
of data within a frame
Multiplexing a technique that enables more than one data source to
share the use of a common line
One of the reasons whey FDM is being replaced by TDM is because noise
is amplified with voice when an FDM system is used

Ethernet is a baseband system using CSMA/CD operating at 10 Mbps

In pulse modulation the carrier is a periodic train of pulses
Channel accessing mechanism used by a station to gain access to local
area network
TDM multiplexing scheme is used by baseband transmission
Use of coaxial cables in interconnecting networks is limited to an overall
length of 1500 m

The process that uses the orthogonality of sines and cosines that makes
possible to transmit and receive to different signals simultaneously on the
same carrier frequency is Quadrature multiplexing
Pulse code modulation technique is a digital transmission system
Bandwidth utilization is not an advantage of digital transmission

Dynamic range is the ratio of the largest possible magnitude to the smalles
possible magnitude that can be decoded by the DAC

Master the computer that initiates information transfer

Message switching a store and forward switching

Companding a process where the higher amplitude analog signals are

compressed prior to transmission then expanded at the receiver
Delta Modulation (DM) uses a single bit PCM code to achieve a digital
transmission of analog signal
The line speed of Bell System T1 carrier system is 1.544 Mbps
T2 lines carry 96 channels
A super group has 60 channels
The output frequency at the channel combiner of channel 7 is 80 84 kHz
The carrier frequency of the supergroup D25 is 2652 kHz
Data in video is not a hybrid data
Baudot Code was the first fixed-length 5-bit character code
CCITT V.26 modem has a modulation rate of 1200 bauds

LAN is used to connect computers in the same building or in same area

WAN two or more LAN linked together over a wide geographical area
OSI system allows different types of network to be linked together
OSI consist of 7 layers of interconnection
Session layer determines if the user can send or receive based on whether
they can send and receive simultaneously or alternately
A bridge that interconnects LAN having identical protocols at the physical
and data link layers
A router interconnects LAN having identical protocols at the physical data
link and network layers
A gateway interconnects LAN that have totally different protocols and
Parallel data all bits in a character can be sent/received simultaneously

A smart modem accepts commands from the terminal via RS232


Serial data the bits in a character which are sent/received one at a time

An advantage of PTM over PAM is much better noise immunity

DTE a system that performs parallel-to-serial and serial-to-parallel

conversion of a data link

ISO adapted the seven-layer OSI model in 1983

Amplitude shift keying is also known as ON/OFF keying
FSK modulation system is used in telephony
FSK modulation used by asynchronous data
PCM systems require large bandwidth
Shanon-Hartley theorem sets the limit on the maximum capacity of a
channel with a given noise level
Quantizing noise is present in PCM system
Quantizing noise is the difference between the original and reconstructed
The reason why companding is employed in PCM system is to protect
small signals in PCM from quantizing distortion
FDM band of frequencies in a transmission medium allotted to each
communication channel on a continuous time basis
ARQ error control used in high frequency radio data transmission
Sampling, quantizing and coding are the steps to follow to produce a
PCM signal
Network topology identifies how the difference stations in a multipoint
system are interconnected
Baseband a transmission where data are inputted directly on the cable
Broadband a transmission where data are inputted inside the carrier
Polling a transmission system for a multidrop network
CSMA/CD before attempting to transmit data, each station has to listen to
the channel
Synchronous modems cost more than asynchronous modems because
they must contain clock recovery circuits
When one station is designated as master and the rest of the stations are
considered slaves, massage handling is polling

EIA stands for Electronic Industry Association

An acoustic modem converts a computer digital signal into audio tones
Echoplex mode of transmission achieves less than full-duplex but more
than half-duplex
Line protocol rules governing the transmission of digital information
Codes must be agreed upon in advance between sender and receiver
The standard ASCII has 132 characters including 32 control characters
The Baudot code requires shift characters to provide sufficient
The corrections and accuracy of the transmitted message content is
determined by the sender and the receiver
Framing is concerned with the boundaries between characters
Asynchronous transmission is less efficient but simpler
Digital transmission provides a higher level of signal quality than analog
transmission because repeaters regenerate digital pulses and remove
Digital to analog converter in synchronous modems send signals to the
Binary codes are transformed in modem into Gray code
Synchronous modems cost more than asynchronous modem because they
must contain clock recovery circuits
The best type of data communications test equipment is a protocol
The data rate of the ISDN Basic access B channel is 64 kbps
The data rate of the ISDN Basic access D channel is 16 kbps
Baudot code uses 5 bits per symbol
3 bits are there to present 8 combinations
Intelligent terminal can be programmed to perform new functions

Channel capacity is directly proportional to bandwidth

EBCDIC character code is used without parity bit
Quantizing level does not affect noise in a channel
Modem is used when the host computer and the terminal are in separate
Front end processor is a data communications hardware that assists the
host computer in handling input and output tasks

Bisync is a character oriented protocol

STX character signifies the start of the test for Bisync

ASCII means terminals using asynchronous transmission in ASCII

In synchronous data the clock pulse is used to time the sending and
receiving of the characters

Bit a unit of information used in data communications

All bits in a character are sent and received in one at a time in serial port

Transmission of binary signals requires more bandwidth than analog

Bridge can only interconnect LANs having identical protocols at the

physical and data link layers

The modulation rate of the CCITT V.26 modem is 1200 bauds

OSI stands for Open System Interconnection
The digital-to-analog converter in a synchronous modem sends signal to the
Unknown the number of bits that are zeros in each symbol when one is
transmitting odd parity coded symbols

ISO stands for International Standardization Organization

Message switching is store and forward network
Packet switching is hold and forward network

FSK a digital modulation technique that results in two different frequencies

representing binary 1 and 0

Polling is an invitation by the primary to a secondary equipment to transmit

a message

The input to the Digital-to-Analog Converter of a PCM decoder circuit is a

series of bits

Bit rate is the rate of change at the input of the modulator

The output of the DAC at a PCM decoder circuit is a parallel output of

binary-coded digits

Morse code a code that uses three unequal length symbols, dot, dash
and space to encode a character

Serial printer prints one character at a time

BAUDOT - A 5-bit character code

Delta modulation is a 1-bit differential PCM system

EBCDIC an 8-bit character code

Delta modulation alternative way of digitizing analog signals

Modem an equipment that interfaces the data terminal equipment to the

analog transmission line

One dit is equal to 3.32 bits

Protocol set of rules governing the orderly exchange of data information
Information theory was developed by Shannon
A quadratic signaling has 4 possible states
Bit is the smallest unit of information in binary transmission system

Public data network (PDN) a communication network designed for

transferring data from one point to another
Half-duplex radio communications between points using a single share

Physical layer is the lowest layer in the ISO protocol hierarchy

RS232C interface had 25 numbers of pins
64 kbps is the basic speed rate of digital system
A modem is sometimes referred to as Data Communication Equipment
Protocol a formal set of conventions governing the formatting and relative
timing of message exchange between two communications system
Null modem a device that connects 2 data terminal equipment (DTE)
directly by emulating the physical connections of a data communications
equipment (DCE)
Impact printer strikes a ribbon against the paper to produce character

Adaptive equalizers provide post equalization to the received analog

The receive equalizer in a synchronous modem is called an adaptive
Compromise equalizer settings typically affect amplitude delay

Modem is referred to as data communications equipment

Training sequence (a bit pattern used to synchronize the receive modem)

accomplishes activate RLSD

Common channel signaling a signaling method relating to a multiplicity

of circuits is conveyed over a single channel by labeled messages

When asynchronous data are used with synchronous modems this is called
isochronous transmission

Ring a data highway in LAN, this type of topology allows workstations to

be connected to a common line where all messages pass stations on the
way to their destination

H factor is defined as a figure of merit used to express the degree of

modulation achieved in an FSK modulator

A packet format has an error detecting code at the end of packet framing

Low-band channel in the 103 modem occupies a passband from 300 to

1650 Hz

X.75 it is a protocol used to connect the other packet switching network

Low speed modems generally have bit rates of 2400 bps

Novel Netware is a network operating system within several buildings in


Medium speed modems have bit rates of 2400 4800 bps

High speed modems have bit rates of 9600 bps

FSK used by Bell 103/113 series for full duplex, 2 transmission speed of 0
to 300 bps

Line conditioning a means of improving the quality of a private-line

circuit by adding amplifiers and equalizers to it

A voice-grade circuit using the PTN has an ideal passband from 0 to 4 kHz

communications terminal equipment within a relatively small geographic


The digital-to-analog converter in a synchronous modem is called an

adaptive equalizer

2B1Q encoding the type of encoding used in the transmission of data on

an ISDN line between a customers premises and a carriers central office

The minimum-quality circuit available using the PTN is called basic voice
channel (VC)

Start/stop mode a mode of transmission in public data network in which

data are transferred from source to the network to the destination in an
asynchronous data format

Direct distance dialing (DDD) network is commonly called dial-up network

IEEE 802.3 standard is CSMA/CD
The line control unit (LCU) operates on the data when it is in digital form and
is therefore called data terminal equipment (DTE)
With asynchronous data, each character is framed between a start and a
stop bit
With synchronous data, rather than frame each character independently
with start and stop bits, a unique synchronizing character called a SYN
character is transmitted at the beginning of each message
A logic 0 is used for the start bit
All stop bits are logic 1
Bit or clock synchronization ensures that the transmitter and receiver
agree on a prescribed time slot for the occurrence of a bit
Characters that must be transmitted other than data are called overhead
In the United States, the most common CRC code is CRC 16
Parallel transmission is also called parallel-by-bit and serial-by-character
Data means digital information
Go-ahead sequence 01111111
Flag field are used to achieve character synchronization in SDLC
DISC a command that places a secondary station in the normal
disconnect mode
Asynchronous character oriented protocol
Network layer determines which network configuration is most appropriate
ISO 7809 a standard that combines previous standards 6159 (E)
(unbalanced) and 6256 (E) (balanced) and outlines the class of operation
necessary to establish the link-level protocol
Ethernet is a baseband system using CSMA/CD operating at 10 Mbps
Manchester a type of digital encoding technique used to detect collision
With CSMA/CD, a station monitors the line to determine if the line is busy
Channel accessing describes the mechanism used by a station to gain
access to local area network
Broadband uses FDM
TDM a typical multiplexing scheme used by baseband transmission
Baseband transmission uses the connecting medium as a single-channel
Broadband transmission uses the connecting medium as a multi-channel
The use of coaxial cables in interconnecting networks is limited to an overall
length of approximately 1500 m
Topology or architecture identifies how the stations are interconnected in
a network
Local Area Network a data communications network that is designed to
provide two-way communications between a large variety of data

IEEE 802.4 standard is Token passing for bus topology

IEEE 802.5 standard is Token passing for ring topology
The data rate of the ISDN Basic access B channel is 64 kbps
The data rate of the ISDN basic access D channel is 16 kbps
2B + D equation defines the composition of an ISDN Basic access line
The number of channels on which different operations can occur
simultaneously on one ISDN Basic access line is 3
Digital telephones and integrated voice-data workstations are examples of
TE type of ISDN equipment
X.25 standard have 3 OSI layers covered
Physical layer an Open System Interconnection (OSI) layer which has
the responsibility for the physical transportation of the bits of data from one
end of a point-to-point link to the other
Handshaking a technique involving signaling by both ends of a link to
ensure correct data transfer
XON/XOFF is a method of flow control
V.14 a recommendation which allows a synchronous modem to be used to
transmit asynchronous characters, without error control
The scrambler in a synchronous modem is found in the modular section
V.24 A CCITT recommendation which gives the definition for the
interchange circuits between DTEs and DCEs
Binary codes are sometimes transformed in modems into Gray code
A Western Electric 2911 modem operates with a carrier frequency of 1800
Flag a special bit pattern used to denote the start and end of a data link
layer frame
A bipolar violation occurs when two successive pulses have the same
polarity and are separated by a zero level
Flow control the process of starting and stopping the terminal output
to avoid loss of characters by the receiving device
Buffering refers to temporarily storing data to allow for small variations
in device speeds
The reason why many cables have RS-232 connectors with some wires
crossed is because asynchronous modems reverse the direction of
transmitted and received data from the standard
RS-232, RS-530, RS-449, V.21 and V.24 are examples of standards for
interfaces between terminals and modems
Request To Send (RTS) / Clear To Send (CTS) is the way the DTE
indicates that is ready to transmit data, or the way the DCE indicates
that it is ready to accept data
Extended command sets supported by modern modems use different
commands to control many advance modem features

A smart modem accepts commands from the terminal via the RS-232

Balanced modulators is the basic modulator / demodulator circuit in PSK

Communications protocols always have a set of symbols

The main reason why serial transmission is preferred over parallel

transmission is because it requires only a single channel

The Baudot code uses 5 bits per symbol

30 stations per segment limitation of 10base-2 network

ZMODEM protocol adjusts its block size based on the line error rate

Optical fiber transmission media is not readily suitable to CSMA operation

DEREP-RB is not a common DNA repeater

Entropy refers to the measurement of an uncertainty

Unknown is the number of bits that are zeros when transmitting odd-parity
coded symbols

Logical is not an important characteristic of the physical layer

The bit rate of B-channel is 64 kbps

X.200 standard for the 7-layer model for Open System Interconnection
Application-independent interfaces option is a characteristic of a LAN

V.26bis defines a 2400-bps, PSK, half-duplex modem operating at 1200


Twin lead is not a common LAN medium

V.100 describe the interconnection techniques between PDNs and PSTNs

Cable TV system is not a local area network (LAN)

V-series CCITT standard concentrating on data communications over the
telephone network
Fiber optic transmission cannot be provided in a broadband LAN
PBX a small telephone switching system that can be used as a LAN
Digital PBX a LAN architecture that can be expanded to the greatest total
system bandwidth
Bus is considered as the fastest LAN topology
Data communications refers to the transmission of computer data
Protocol is a procedure or rule that defines how data is to be transmitted
XMODEM is a popular PC protocol
ASCII is the most widely used data communications code
The ASCII code has 7 bits
Both analog and digital method are used in data communications
Telephone is not a primarily a type of data communications
Mark and space refer respectively to binary 1 and binary 0
A modem converts both analog signals to digital and digital signals to
I.120 an I-series recommendation which describe what an ISDN is
Slow speed modems use FSK digital modulation method
When the data signal is transmitted directly over the medium, this is called
baseband transmission
Broadband is the technique of using modulation and FDM to transmit
multiple data channels of a common medium
Noise cause bit errors in data transmission
The other name for parity is VRC
QAM is the combination of ASK and QPSK
I-series a CCITT standard that refers to various aspects of Integrated
Service Digital Network (ISDN)
XNOR is not a part of a QAM modulator
Redundancy is not a commonly used method of error detection
Block check character (BCC) is produced by a longitudinal redundancy
check (LRC)

Microwave Communications
In a radar-set receiver, the usual mixer stage is a silicon crystal
Attenuation is the progressive decrease of signal strength with increasing

Klystron oscillators are most often used in the frequency range of 3000 to
30000 MHz

If K-factor is greater than 1, the array beam is bent towards the earth
The antenna separations (in meters) required for optimum operation of a
space diversity system can be calculated from: S = 3R/L

Oscillations of a klystron tube are maintained by bunches of electrons

passing the cavity grids
Ferrite emitter allows microwave to pass in only one direction

Rainfall is an important factor for fading of radio waves at frequencies above

10 GHz
Theoretically electromagnetic radiation field strength varies in inverse
proportion to the square of the distance, but when atmospheric attenuation
effects and the absorption of the terrain are taken into account the
attenuation can be as high as the inverse sixth power of the distance
Slow fading an attenuation that occurs over many different wavelengths
of the carrier
Slow fading is not due to multipath
Large reflector causes multipath or frequency-selective fading
In microwave transmission using digital radio, delayed spreading causes
most intersymbol interference
SONAR a shipboard equipment which measures the distance between
the ships bottom and the ocean floor

In an SHF pulsed radar set, a reflex klystron can be used as a local

A PPI cathode-ray tube as used on a radar set indicates both the range
and azimuth of a target
The resonant frequency of a cavity resonator depends upon its physical
The maximum usable range of the usual radar set (on any particular range
setting) is determined by the interval between transmitted pulses
A reflex klystron is oscillating at the frequency of its resonant cavity. If the
reflector voltage is made slightly less negative, the frequency will
The coarse frequency adjustment of a reflex klystron is accomplished by
adjusting the flexible wall of the resonant cavity

The cavity resonator is equivalent to an LC resonant circuit

In a pulsed radar set, the STC circuit is used to reduce interference from
the effects of sea return

The input signal of a traveling-wave tube is inserted at the cathode end of

the helix

In a pulsed radar set, the function of the duplexer is to allow the

transmitter and the receiver to operate from a common antenna

Coupling into and out of a traveling-wave tube can be accompanied by a

waveguide match, cavity match and direct coax-helix match

The aquadag coating on the inside of a PPI tube is used as a second

anode and to prevent the build-up of secondary field

A high-power microwave pulse of the order of megawatts can be generated

by a magnetron

If the duration of the radar transmitted pulse, on a particular range of

operation is increased, the required bandwidth of the receivers IF amplifiers
may be decreased

A traveling-wave tube (TWT) amplifies by virtue of the absorption of

energy by the signal from an electron stream
The purpose of the electromagnetic field which surrounds a traveling-wave
tube is to keep the electrons form spreading out
Tunnel diode and klystron tube are used as an oscillator device in the
SHF band
Microwave frequencies are normally regarded as those in the range of 1 to
100 GHz
The highest frequency which a conventional vacuum-tube oscillator can
generate is not limited by the degree of emission from the cathode
As the electron beam moves through a klystrons intercavity drift space the
velocity modulation at the input cavity creates density modulation at
the output cavity
The frequency of the oscillation generated by a magnetron, is mainly
determined by the dimension of each cavity resonator
If the instantaneous RF potentials on the two sides of a magnetron cavity
are of opposite polarity, the operation is in the mode

The main frequency determining element of a klystron is its resonant

A thin layer of dirt and grime covers the reflecting surface of the parabolic
dish of a radar set. The practical effect on the performance of the radar will
have no noticeable effect
Isolator permits a microwave signals to travel in one direction with virtually
no loss, but severely attenuates any signal attempting to travel in the
reverse direction
It is possible to increase the maximum range of a radar equipment by lower
the pulse frequency, raising the peak power of the transmitter, and
narrowing the beam width and increasing the pulse duration
When it is desired that short-range targets be clearly seen on a pulsed-radar
set, it is important that the receiver and display system have the shortest
possible time
Magnetron is used as a high-power microwave oscillator
Modern loran navigational system operates at loran C: 100 kHz

The Gunn diode oscillator depends on the formation of charge domain

Circulator ferrite device can be used instead of a duplexer to isolate a

microwave transmitter and receiver when both are connected to the same

Circular ferrite device can be used instead of duplexer to isolate a

microwave transmitter and receiver when both are connected to the same

The pulse frequency is equal to duty cycle/pulse width

To achieve good bearing resolution when using a pulsed-radar set, an

important requirement is a narrow, antenna-beam width in the horizontal
When used in conjunction with a radar set, the purpose of an echo box is to
provide an artificial target which may be used to tune the radar receiver

In a radar set, a blocking oscillator can be used to produce a trigger pulse

for the transmitter
The intensity of the echoes (target definition) on a PPI display is determined
by the pulse frequency and antenna rotation rate

A duplexer circuit allows a transmitter and a receiver to operate from the

same antenna with virtually no interaction. This circuit may be replaced by a
156.76 MHz and 156.8 MHz frequencies are used by a class-C Emergency
Position-Indicating Radio Beacon
The repetition rate of a pulsed radar system indicates the frequencies of
the duty cycle

A reflex klystron is used as an oscillator

For proper operation, a magnetron must be accompanies by a permanent
The operating frequency of klystrons and magnetrons is set by the cavity
A magnetron is used only as an oscillator

The radar set, sensitivity-time control circuit can reduce sea-return

Isolator is a ferrite device that buffers a microwave source from the effects
of a varying load, and thereby prevents the formation of standing waves
Pulsed radar sets are primarily used to find the targets range and bearing
Radio frequency is mainly concerned in the design of an antenna system
for pulsed radar set

A common application for magnetron is in radar

In a TWT, the electron beam is density-modulated by a helix
The main advantage of a TWT over a klystron for microwave amplification is
wider bandwidth
High-power TWTs are replacing Klystrons
Horn the most widely used microwave antenna

In a radar set receivers, an ac AFC system may be used to maintain the

desired klystron frequency
The input signal is introduced into the traveling-wave tube at the cathode
end of the helix
The display on the PPI scope of a radar set will have greater intensity at
lower antenna rotation speeds and higher pulse repetition

MTBF is a measure of reliability expressed as the average number of hours

between successive failures
Baseband repeater an active microwave radio repeater that can provide
drops and inserts
If the correction factor k equals 4/3 of the earths curvature, the microwave
beam would have a curvature that is more than that of the earth

The operating frequency of loran C lies within the LF band

The PPI tubes have an aquadag coating on the inside of the tube. The
purpose of this coating is to act as the second anode
A traveling-wave tube is used at frequencies in the order of 8000 MHz
The main benefit of using microwave is more spectrum space for signals

The optimum clearance from an obstacle in a microwave system is

accepted as 0.6 of the first freshel zone radius
The microwave beam curves the same than that of the earth when the value
of the correction factor k equals infinity
The ability of a radar to determine the bearing to a target depends upon the
antenna directivity

Radio communications are regulated in the Philippines by the NTC

The Doppler effect allows speed of a target to be measured
Mobile radio is not a common microwave application
Coaxial cable is not widely used for long microwave transmission lines
because of its high loss

The Doppler effect is a change in frequency produced by relative motion

between the radar set and a target
The most widely used radar transmitter component is a magnetron

Stripline and microstrip transmission lines are usually made with PCBs
Low-power radar transmitters and receivers use gunn diode
The most common cross section of a waveguide is a rectangle
Signal propagation in a waveguide is by electric and magnetic fields
When the electric field in a waveguide is perpendicular to the direction of
wave propagation, the mode is said to be transverse electric

Spark gap in a duplexer protects the receiver from the higher transmitter
Most radar antennas use a horn and parabolic reflector
The most common radar display is the PPI

The dominant mode in most rectangular waveguide is TE1,2

A magnetic field is introduced into waveguide by a probe
A half-wavelength, close section of a waveguide that acts as a parallel
resonant circuit is known as cavity resonator
Decreasing the volume of a cavity causes its resonant frequency to

A radar antenna using multiple dipoles or slot antennas in a matrix with

variable phase shifters is called a phased array
10 GHz is a typical radar operating frequency
A microwave system requires the use of repeaters when the distances
involve are greater

Hot carrier is a popular microwave mixer diode

Waveguides are transmission line which convey electromagnetic waves in

highest frequencies

Varactor and step-recovery diodes are widely used in frequency multiplier

A microwave band of 10.9 to 36 GHz is considered as K-band

Gunn diode is a popular microwave oscillator

92.4 + 20 log F + 20 log D a microwave communications system space

loss calculation formula

Tunnel diode does not ordinarily operate with reverse bias

A waveguide is also a high pass filter
Low-power Gunn diodes are replacing reflex klystrons
Cathode-ray tube is not a microwave tube
In a klystron amplifier, velocity modulation of the electron beam is produced
by the catcher cavity

Frequency diversity a method of diversity reception where the signal is

transmitted on two different frequencies over the same path
Litz wire a wire used to reduce the skin effect

Space diversity transmission means transmitting and receiving on two or

more antennas operating on the same frequencies
Frequency diversity the best system configuration to overcome multipath
fading of microwave system over the water
When the value of k increases, the effective result is flattening of the
equivalent curvature
A traveling wave tube consists of electron gun, helix and collector
Advantage of periscope antenna in microwave: shorten waveguide length
The cut-off frequency of a waveguide is the lowest frequency the
waveguide operates
When the clearance above the obstruction is equal to the radii of even
fresnel zones at the point of reflection, the RSL is decreased
The wavelength of a wave in a waveguide is greater than in free space
Water causes more attenuation particularly on 183 GHz frequency
Oxygen cause excessive attenuation at 60 GHz frequency
Terrestrial is a microwave link between the down-town terminal and
another out of town terminal
Attenuator is used in the traveling wave tube to prevent oscillation
Space diversity is a method of diversity reception applied to reflective path
to reduce fading
K X 4000 miles is the effective earths radius used in communications
IF bandwidth of a radar system is inversely proportional to pulse width
EADI stands for Electronic Altitude and Director Indicator
DME aircraft navigational system determines the time to station (TTS) or
time to go (TTG)
A radio altimeter operate at 43500 MHz frequency
Terrestrial Flight Telephone System allows passengers to make
telephone calls, send faxes, and computer data shop and play computer
games, etc
ADF stands for Automatic Direction Finder
RF carrier of the middle marker is modulated at 1300 Hz
The major advantage of using a helix traveling wave tube is its wide
RADAR stands for Radio Detection and Ranging

Satellite Communications

14/11 GHz the frequency of Ku band for satellite communications

Sputnik 1 is the first active satellite

A satellite cross-link means Satellite-to-satellite link

Early Bird is the first commercial satellite

Earth station uses Cassegrain antenna

Moon is the first passive satellite transponder

0.5 s is the delay time for satellite transmissions from earth transmitter to
earth receiver

Telstar 1 is the first satellite to receive and transmit simultaneously

500 MHz the bandwidth of C-band satellite frequency band in U.S.
A helical antenna is used for satellite tracking because of circular
Repeaters inside communication satellites are known as transponders
Privacy is considered as the unsolved problem in satellite system
Nonsynchronous satellite is a satellite that rotates around the earth in a
low-altitude elliptical or circular pattern
Footprint is the geographical representation of a satellite antenna radiation
Spot beam the smallest beam of a satellite antenna radiation pattern
Global beam a satellite beam that covers almost 42.4% of the earths

The most common device used as an LNA is tunnel diode

The radiation pattern of earth coverage antennas have a beamwidth of
approximately 17
A mobile satellite array usually has 14 elements
Radial divider is responsible in activating and deactivating adjacent
antenna elements in a mobile satellite array
Most mobile satellite array uses quarter-wavelength transformer in
transforming 50 ohm to 150 ohm impedance
Shunt the switching from one element to the other element in a typical
mobile satellite array

The frequency range of C-band is 3.4 to 6.425 GHz

FDMA a method of multiple accessing where a given RF channel

bandwidth is divided into smaller frequency band

Downlink a satellite signal transmitted from a satellite transponder to

earths station

0.5 s is the delay time for satellite transmissions from earth transmitter to
earth receiver

Satellite dish collects very weak signals from a broadcast satellite

As the height of a satellite orbits gets lower, the speed of the satellite

Orthomode transducer is a device that detects both vertically and

horizontally polarized signals simultaneously

The main function of a communication satellite is as a repeater

LNA detects the satellite signal relayed from the feed and converts it to an
electric current, amplifies and lower its frequency

The key electronic component in a communications satellite is the


Path loss is a loss of power of a satellite downlink signal due to earths


A circular orbit around the equator with a 24-h period is called a

geostationary orbit

Perigee point on the satellite orbit closest to the earth

A satellite stays in orbit because the gravitational force and centrifugal

force are balanced

Footprint the earth covered by a satellite radio beam

The local oscillator (mixer) frequency of the satellite with an uplink
frequency in GHz band is 2225 MHz

The height of a satellite in a synchronous equatorial orbit is about 22,300 mi

Most satellite operate in 3 GHz to 30 GHz

Gallium Arsenide solar panel array are used in some advance satellites

The main power sources for a satellite are solar cells

Satellite engine uses ion propulsion system

The maximum height of an elliptical orbit is called the Apogee

Lithium a satellite battery that has more power but lighter

Batteries are used to power all satellite subsystems during eclipse


Hydrogen battery used by older satellites

VSAT was made available in 1979

The satellite subsystem that monitors and controls the satellite is the
telemetry, tracking and command subsystem

VSAT first operate at C-band

Spin is the basic technique used to stabilize a satellite

The first Philippine Mabuhay satellite have 30 channels

The jet thrusters are usually fired to maintain altitude

The first Philippine Agila 1 will have 36 transponders

Most commercial satellite activity occurs in C and Ku band

The Philippine Government request 6 satellite orbital slots

Multiple earth stations share a satellite on the same frequency by

frequency reuse

105.5 East the location of AsiaSat 1

The typical bandwidth of a satellite band is about 500 MHz

AsiaSat 1 covers 38 countries in Asia
Modulator is not usually a part of a transponder
The owner of AsiaSat is China Great Wall Industry Corporation
200 dB is the approximate path loss from satellite-to-earth station

The satellite communications channels in a transponder are defined by the

bandpass filter

INTELSAT stands for International Telecommunications Satellite

The HPAs in most satellite are TWTs

The physical location of a satellite is determined by its latitude and

The receive GCE system in an earth station performs demodulation and
Magnetron is not used in earth stations
The common up-converter and down-converter IF is 70 MHz
FM modulation is used on voice and video signals
QPSk modulation is normally used with digital data
Speed is not a typical output from a GPS receiver
Passive satellite a satellite which simply reflects the signal without further
Essentially a satellite transponder is a radio repeater in the sky
Geostationary satellite that orbits in a circular pattern with an angular
velocity equal to that of the earth
Domsat satellite that provide services within a single country
The round-trip propagation delay between two earth stations through a
geosynchronous satellite is 500 to 600 ms
Uplink signal the signal path from earth station satellite
Communication satellite - designed to receive a signal from a transmitting
station on the ground an retransmit it to a receiving station located
Downlink signal the signal path from satellite to earth-based receiver
A satellite position is measured by its elevation angle with respect to the
The azimuth angle measures the satellite position clockwise from the
direction of true north
Arthur Clarke incidentally propose the geostationary scheme or orbit of the
satellite in 1940s
The control routine necessary to keep the satellite in position is referred to
as station keeping
Satellite altitude refers to the satellite orientation with respect to the earth
The first Intelsat satellite that was launched in 1965 was named Early Bird
Syncom 1 the first satellite launched for a geosynchronous orbit but
unfortunately lost during orbit injection
Communication is the most common application of satellite
Descending pass for a satellite means a pass from North to South
Geostationary stationary satellites are located 0 latitude with respect to
the equator

Fiber Optics

Step-index multimode type of fiber has the highest modal dispersion

Christian Huygens founded the wave theory of light

Laser light is coherent and stimulated emission

Bockham and Kao proposed the use of a clad glass fiber as a dielectric

Fiber optics a dielectric waveguide for the propagation of electromagnetic

energy at light frequencies

Theodore Maiman developed the first laser

LED is a non-coherent light source for optical communications system

Infrared the band of light wavelengths that are too long to be seen by the
human eye

Semiconductor type of laser is the simplest to modulate directly by

changing its excitation

Ultraviolet the band of light wavelengths that are too short to be seen by
the human eye

Argon-ion laser emits light in the visible range, 400 to 700 nm

Blue color has the shortest wavelength of light

The proper measurement of average power emitted by a pulsed laser is

pulsed energy times repetition rate

Laser generates a light beam at a specific visible frequency

Atmospheric absorption does not harm laser efficiency

Photoresist materials is sensitive to light

Doppler shift of moving atoms and molecules contributes to the

broadening of laser emission bandwidth

The core of an optical fiber has a higher refractive index than the
Modes is the different angle of entry of light into an optical fiber when the
diameter of the core is many times the wavelength of the light transmitted

The first laser emitted pulses of 694-nm red light

Molten is the stage of the sand becoming a silicon
LED is used as an optical transmitter in the Fiber Optical Communications

The loss in signal power as light travels down a fiber is called attenuation
APD is used as an optical receiver in fiber optics communications
The bandwidth of optical fiber is 900 THz
Then inner portion of the fiber cable is called core
If a mirror is used to reflect light, the reflected light angle is the same as the
incident angle

Semiconductor laser is the simplest to modulate directly by changing its


Mode is a specific path the light takes in an optical fiber, corresponding to a

certain angle and number of reflection

Consumer TV is not a common application of fiber-optic cable

Spectral width is the width of the range of wavelengths emitted by the light

Total internal reflection takes place if the light ray strikes the interface at a
greater than angle to the critical angle

Quantum theory states that light wave behaves as if it is consists of many

tiny particles

The operation of a fiber optic cable is based on the principle of reflection

Single-mode graded-index is not a common type of fiber-optic cable

Fiber optic cables operate at frequencies near 800 THz

Cable attenuation is usually expressed in terms of dB/km
When a beam of light enters one medium from another, frequency quantity
will not change

The upper pulse rate and information-carrying capacity of a cable is limited

by modal dispersion

Dispersion is used to describe the splitting of white light into its

component colors

The core of a fiber-optic cable is made of glass

Luminance efficiency is minimum for a low wattage light bulb

The core of a fiber optic is surrounded by cladding

An object farther from a converging lens than its focal point always has an
inverted image

The speed of light in a plastic compared to the speed of light in air is slower

An object nearer to a converging lens than its focal point always has a
virtual image

The main benefit of light-wave communications over microwaves or any

other communications media is wider bandwidth
X-ray is not part of the optical spectrum

The real image formed by a spherical mirror is larger relative to its object
The wavelength of visible light extends from 400 to 750 nm
The wavelength of light has no role in polarization
The speed of light is 300,000,000 m/s
Longitudinal waves do not exhibit polarization
Refraction is the bending of light waves
Modal dispersion is caused by the difference in the propagation times of
light rays that take different path down a fiber

The ratio of the speed of light in air to the speed of light in another
substance is called the index of refraction

The average insertion loss of fusion splice in fiber optics is 0.09 dB

A popular light wavelength in fiber-optic cable is 1.3 m
The insertion loss of connector-type splices for a single mode fiber optics is
0.38 dB
The lifetime of LEDs is about 200,000 hours

Single-mode step-index type of fiber-optic cable is the most widely used

Single-mode step-index type fiber-optic cable is best for very high speed

The lifetime of ILDs is about 50,000 hours

Photodiodes used as fiber optic detectors are reversed bias

Single mode step-index type fiber-optic cable has the least modal

Reflection is not a factor in cable light loss

Refractive index the ratio of the speed of light in a vacuum and the speed
of light in the material used

Laser is preferred for high-speed data in a fiber-optic system

Splicing fiber means both fusion and butt
Most fiber-optic light sources emit light in infrared spectrum
Both LEDs and ILDs operate correctly with forward bias

Optoisolator an IC that represents a short distance one-way optical

communications system

Single-frequency light is called monochromatic

When light strikes a flat polished end of a fiber, it produces a loss of 4%

Laser light is very bright because it is coherent

When light strikes a flat polished end of a fiber, the fiber loss produced can
be reduced by antireflection coating

Photovoltaic diode is NOT a common light detector

Avalanche photodiode is the fastest light sensor

In fiber optics, higher-order mode refers to cladding boundary at high


Photodiodes operate properly with reverse bias

Refraction is not a cause of light attenuation in fiber optics

An important requirement for successful transmission system using light:

Powerful, reliable light source

Visible-light LEDs are not used for fiber optics because it has high losses
Optical cable testers are used for light power out of a fiber

Interference filter is used to block light from a laser and let other light
Monochromatic and in-phase is a light that can be coherent

A function of an optical isolator cancels reflected waves

An increase in light intensity produces fast optic switching due to
amplification of optical signal

Coherence of laser light is important for holography

Light traveling in air optical fiber follows Snells law
The ultrapure glass used to manufacture optical fibers is approximately
99.9999% pure

Optical fibers for telecommunications are typically about 5 mils thick and
consists of a glass core, a glass cladding of lower index of refraction, and a
protective coating

In fiber optics, PCS stands for Plastic-clad-silica

Longitudinal modes has no fixed limit, dependent on bandwidth and
mode spacing
Infrared absorption is the result of photons of light that are absorbed by
the atoms of the glass core molecules

Material dispersion is caused by the wavelength dependence of the index

of refraction
The dominant loss mechanisms in silica fiber are absorption and Rayleigh
The bandwidth of a fiber is limited by dispersion

In fiber optics, SCS stands for Silica-clad-silica

Helium laser was developed by A. Javen at Bell Laboratory in 1960

Fiber bandwidth is generally specified as the product of the bandwidth

and distance

Spectral response of light detector determines the range of system length

that can be achieved for a given wavelength

The quantum efficiency of a detector is the fraction of incident photons

that produce a photoelectron or electron-hole pair

Dark current in light detectors is caused by thermally generated carriers

in the diode

In solid-state optical detectors, the excited charge is transported in the solid

by holes and electrons

Ampere/watt is the unit of responsitivity

PMT is not a solid-state optical detector

Dispersion is not a characteristic of light detectors

Optical detectors are square-law devices because they respond to

intensity rather than amplitude

The typical wavelength of light emitted from epitaxially grown LEDs is 940

The photocurrent is equal to the number of electrons emitted per second

times the electron charge

SONET stands for Synchronous Optical Network

Bend loss is an attenuation increase caused by bends radiating from
the side of the fiber

PMT optical detector is used when high sensitivity and bandwidth are
The average loss in fiber splice is about 0.15 dB

Infrared range of fiber optics is about 700 1200 nm

White color is not found in the visible light wave spectrum
Higher losses is a disadvantage for plastic fiber optics
The frequency limit of an optical fiber is about 40 GHz
OTDR stands for Optical Time Domain Reflectometer
The mechanical splice attenuation loss is 0.1 dB or less
Under normal condition, a single fiber should not be used for a two-way
communication mainly because of noise
A single mode optical fiber has a core diameter of 0.01 nm

Polymer jacket is applied to protect core and cladding of the fiber

The energy of the photon is directly proportional to the Plancks

A step-index multimode optical fiber has a core diameter of 0.02 nm

Refractive index of glass 1.5
The graded-index multimode optical fiber has a core diameter of 0.05 nm
Refractive index of diamond 2.0
Stepped index operation is not a possible cause of optical fiber loss
The unit of light wavelength is Angstroms

The power loss of the fusion splice is about 0.01 dB or less

Optical power meter is used to test a fiber optics splice
Beam-splitting coupler a coupler which consists of a series of lenses
and a partly reflective surface
Diffuse reflection Reflections in many directions
Lithium Niobate commonly used electro-optic crystal for polarization
Intensity modulation and polarization modulation are the most widely
used in optical systems