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Chapter 1
Man's Primordial Need

and the Art of Music
by Dane Rudhyar

1.Communication: Man's
Primordial Need
2. Sound as Carrier-Wave for Tone
3. The Magical and the Sacred
4. Number and the Quantification of
Tone Relationship
5. The Spatialization of the ToneExperience: Musical Notation and
6. Descending and Ascending Musical
7. The Harmonic Series
8. The Septenary Tone Cycle and the
Psychoactive Modes issued from Its
9. The European Spirit in Music:
Pluralism, Tonality and Equal
10. Music in Transformation: Avantgarde Music and the Deconditioning
11. Dissonant Harmony, Pleromas of
Sound, and the Principle of Holistic
12. The Rhythms of Civilization and

Organic life in the Earth's biosphere requires organisms to
relate to other organisms. Human beings are particularly
dependent on establishing enduring relationships with other
human beings, and thus on their highly developed ability to
communicate with them. The ability to communicate also exists
in animals, many of which use some kind of language for
communicating within their own species and genera.
When we think of language we tend to have in mind
communication based on the emission of sounds, specifically
vocal sounds. The word language etymologically refers to the
tongue (la langue in French, lingua in Latin). But sounds used
to communicate may also be produced by other parts of the
body, and there are languages of gestures (for example the
sign language used by some tribes and by deaf people).
The education of young animals, human infants, and adults
depends upon the imitation of gestures and complex modes of
behavior (for instance, playing musical instruments or sewing).
The term education, however, is not accurate here. Animal
young and human babies are not led out (e-ducere) in the nowfashionable sense of the term. If they are led out, it is out of
the psychic womb of the family to eventually take their places
in an open environment. This is very different from learning.
What occurs in childhood learning is that adults demonstrate
the effective use of the nervous system controlling the muscles
and sense organs. The adult's demonstration provides the
young child with an image to reproduce exactly. Learning is
thus primarily based on imitation, on images the learner
observes and either is made or spontaneously wants and tries
to imitate. These images and forms of behavior are memorized
when the young are repeatedly exposed to the examples of
parents or teachers.
Language, however, is meaningful speech and in order to
understand the kind of information it conveys, more than mere

Concerning My Musical Works The All-Seeing Eye knows if you haven't made a voluntary donation to to view this online book. It is a mind able to follow. subjective (as in "a man of culture") and objective (as in the development of a particular culture).psychism being for a culture-whole what the lifeforce (prana) is for physical bodies. who are presented as mythic personifications of different aspects of the all-encompassing and ceaselessly active power. and the Godhead in the terminology of the medieval mystic. Arnold Toynbee) a society. understand. a culture-whole is an organism. often spoken of as "the One Life" or the unfathomable "Mystery" (Brahman in India. united by a common psychism . and the level of activity. The development of what I call the "cultural mind" is required. in which a number of human beings participate. As culture has a twofold meaning. Psychism is a word I use to refer to the unifying force holding together the members of a community within a psychoactive field in which they experience their unity.Culture APPENDIX I. Their value is conveyed to every member of the social community (and at first perhaps of the family unit) by rites in which words give an objective kind of information concerning the significant activity depicted in the myth (the events of the story). The suggested contribution is $12. The cultural mind is the mind of relatedness. In the broadest sense of the term. react. Information is to be memorized and constantly held in mind. It is a mind able to integrate nouns (names) and verbs into sentences through the use of connective words or modifiers. (1) Activity needs to be cooperative and based on a close and constant attunement to the seasonal biorhythms of nature. and memorize "stories" in which different types of persons or entities act. and ritualistic gestures underline and convey the symbolic nature of the personages and their actions in the mythic story. Meister Eckart). sounds transmit a collective subjective psychodynamism acting directly upon the nerve centers of the people involved in the rite. or at least an organic system of activities. The Origin and Early Development of the European Approach to Music APPENDIX IV. and interact according to significant kinds of behavior. These stories are myths. but you may offer as little as $3 or as much as $50.com Honor System make's it safe and easy. A culture-whole is thus a complex web of interpersonal and intergroup relationships which operate at the biological. Myths thus communicated convey to the members of the primordial human community events of the most fundamental importance to successful living and feeling together. I use the term culture-whole when referring to what has been called (especially by the English historian. These rhythms are said to reflect various phases of the creative activity of the gods. The Pythagorean and Chinese Approaches to Music APPENDIX II. This communication operates at three levels: the level of information. learning is required. psychic. the level of psychism. it deals with how to respond effectively to external physical occurrences or internal biological drives and feelings. The Amazon. and eventually mental levels. (2) Toynbee distinguishes between primitive societies and . Without these three levels of communication there could be no culture. They transmit to the young mind the feeling-realization that certain types of activity are of primary significance and are worthy of imitation. wakinya skan in American Indian tribes. Notes on the Music of India APPENDIX III.

tones. This communication requires the use of symbols — symbolic gestures. religious and esoteric traditions claim that these culture-wholes were ruled by quasi-divine kings or were taught by divine teachers who were remnants of previous kinds of humanity which lived on continents that have now disappeared. While hardly any trace of the earliest societies remains. symbolic sounds. The psychism that had created a basic unanimity in the primitive community largely surrenders its integrative power to the intellect and reason. geometric forms. science. and pre-Colombian America. and nonbiological relationships — communication spreads beyond the closed field of a tribal culture-whole and acquires an intercultural character. or that they were beings who came to our planet from more advanced spheres. The latter have been very few in number. Historians assume they were once primitive societies that either contained the germ of dynamic growth or were spurred by special environmental challenges. Primitive societies. Although they have been studied by many anthropologists and ethnologists. between a relatively long series of generations. On the other hand. From the point of view I am taking in this book. The earliest societies which produced lasting records of their achievements in the form of architecture. With the development of the abstract mind — the mind making use of numbers. and they have appeared only within the last few millennia. on the other hand.societies in the process of developing what is generally called civilization. symbols become concepts. only members of the same culture-whole can totally experience what the gestures. and manuscripts about religion. presumably have been extremely numerous since the totally unknown beginning of the type of humanity still in the process of development today. some relatively primitive societies are still operating. and the operation of various social-political institutions are those of Sumeria. India. artistic objects of great beauty. sacromagical words of its rites communicate. it seems best to think of the development of a culture-whole as a process of natural growth. it is nevertheless questionable whether these studies have truly grasped the psychic character and special quality of the stage in human development primitive societies manifest. In any case. which may have been guided by the progeny of a previous culture-whole. musical instruments. As this occurs. as far as modern historical records indicate. China. The beginnings of these culture-wholes (which Toynbee calls civilizations) are still practically unknown. most significantly. myths that established a spiritual-psychic . philosophy. In primitive culturewholes communication remains intracultural. Egypt. and mythic. what most specifically distinguishes the societies that have left records of their achievements from the ones that have not is the development of the kind of mind that established systems of communication not only between human beings living at the same time but. symbolic activity (myths) — operating at the level of the culture-whole's psychism.

eventually becomes fashionable. and formal arrangement and development. At first only a few members of the culture-whole are affected. Mental activity operates at the most valued . One can interpret such a basic yet gradual transformation in the consciousness and activities of the participants in a culture-whole in several ways. usually in socioeconomic circumstances favoring its spread. political. statistics. The mass of the people cling to the familiar biopsychic manner of living together and feeling together. Such a change of consciousness and activity within a culture-whole eventually radically transforms it. the mathematical ratios between the frequencies (the number of vibrations per second) of sounds in rigidly defined series (or scale) — tends to become a substitute for the direct experience of tones charged with psychoactive energy and used for sacromagical purposes. they continue to think in terms of the traditional meanings given to words they had learned in childhood. To accept it. Sooner or later the new mental approach becomes socially and culturally organized. Then also the study of exact musical intervals — that is. It then operates at three levels. even planetary and "cosmic" (or spiritual). In the plastic arts (painting and sculpture). When its collective abstract mind develops sufficiently. Yet the transformation which a few inspired pioneers initiate . integrated in terms of more or less new concepts loaded with new feelings — at first mainly feelings of rebellion against authority. whose predecessors had been concerned only with sacromagical forms revealing not merely the ephemeral personality of people but their functional identity as participants in ritualistic and mythic activity. at least intellectually. the exact reproduction of the appearance of objects and persons becomes the goal of artists. a culture-whole reaches the stage of civilization. then institutionalized. Although many human experiences always have to be communicated at the more primitive biopsychic and feeling level. then the belief that one is very special and part of an elite. The abstract mind operates most significantly on the basis of number and form — thus. but also in the level at which human beings are expected to communicate when they transmit the experiences the culture considers most valuable and significant. It has successive and simultaneous causes at several levels — biological. in terms of quantitative measurements. intellectual. economic. It is formulated in new words. our intellectually developed Western culture-whole collectively and officially values communications requiring the specialized use of the highly developed abstract mind.communication are replaced by an event-oriented history providing mental information.as semi-conscious agents of some mysterious evolutionary power rather than as individuals — displays an energy of its own. Here I wish to stress that the transformation involves a change not only in consciousness. yet the transformation takes a long time to become entirely effective. and religious.

In order to understand what tone-magic means. and we may be quite wrong in thinking that cells are deprived of consciousness and of some degree of independence. I say "sound" rather than "music" because the term music should be used only to refer to communication at the level of a culture's collective psychism.level as it leads to the perception of what is called truth. The Rhythm of Wholeness (1980). Psychism operates at the level at which emotional responses are communicated. He sees society only as a "network of relations. we have to try to develop an empathetic kind of psychic resonance to the consciousness of primitive human beings and their instinctual responses to sound as a power of communication and creation. Everything stated so far can be applied to music. Toynbee insists that a "society" should not be called an organism. Return For easily understandable reasons. considering the academic mentality of the Western world. and the drive for expansion in space (conquest) and in time (progeny). See my recent book. All are rituals performed to keep the culture-whole functioning as an organized system. These gestures include office work. mind is essentially the servant of life. or rather to the purposeful use culture-wholes make of sound. and sports. Return 2. movements employed on assembly lines. nevertheless. government activity. This system is rooted in a particular type or level of consciousness. The music of primitive societies is not music in our sense of the term. all traditional and legalized modes of business. the drive for reaching optimum conditions of existence making possible the maintenance of the essential characteristics of the species. In primitive culture-wholes. Mind stabilizes life-energy and increases the effectiveness of life's basic drives: the drive for survival. it is tone-magic. which it also seeks to perpetuate and export. As the stage of civilization is reached. but sterile." But a physical body is also a network of relations between cells. Even then the word music does not usually mean what it does for at least relatively educated musicians and music lovers of our Euro-American society. But when a one-pointed and exclusive concentration on the development of the quantitative and analytical mind emphasizes measurements and form over the contents of the form. Ritualized gestures serving specific collective purposes operate at the level of physical activity. mind increasingly draws energy from the life-force and psychism. 1. the results can be sterile — "elegant" perhaps in their simplicity and apparent universality (the ideal of modern science). .

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