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The culture of a society is constantly evolving to

fit new situations.


Evolution - a gradual development from simpler
forms of life, art, technology, social organizations
to a more complex form.
Social evolution - the long , complex process of
change and interaction by which cultures gradually
develop.

A.

Discovery and Invention

Discovery learning something about


the physical or social environment
that was not known before
Explorer: discovery of islands or continents;
Scientists: discovery of the laws of motion and
gravity;
Anthropologists: discovery of differences
between cultures among preliterate people

Invention a new way of doing something; or a


new object or mechanical device developed to
serve some specific purpose.
Material invention: lawn mower, airplane, vacuum

cleaner, etc.
Non-material: crop rotation, credit practice,
alphabet and the system of writing, etc.
Note: An invention is also a special kind of discovery;
hence, no sharp line can be drawn between the two.

A. Discovery and Invention


1. Unconscious invention
2. Intentional innovation
3. Who adopts innovations?
4. How fast do cultures innovate?
5. Cost and benefits

B. Diffusion
Spread of cultural traits from one social
group to another
Not all elements found in the culture

of a
given group were invented or developed
within that group. In most cases, the
greater part of the content of any culture
has been borrowed/assimilated from
other cultures.

Cultural diffusion is an extremely important


factor in social change. Societies that are isolated
from outside contacts tend to be static, while
those that can readily communicate with other
groups constantly acquire new cultural elements.

Note: Contact does not always lead to cultural


diffusion. (Ex. Amish society has maintained its
separate cultural identity despite significant
contact with mainstream US culture)

Social change may also be initiated by


new and practical ideas that may result to
discovery and inventions; and which
eventually become accepted and
recognized as part of the cultural pattern.
A new type of dance,
A new mechanical gadget
A new line/field of business

Some ideas represent important changes in


social attitudes and basic social values that may
in time gain powerful holds on minds of the
people.
Concepts of liberty, fraternity, equality, etc.

Once these ideas become established in the


society, they become a powerful force for
continuing social change in directions that are
thought to lead toward their realization or
what we call as Ideology.
Karl Marx and his concepts and theory

Ideology an organized system of ideas for


remodeling society so as to bring it closer to
attaining its ideals and aspirations.
May be regarded as a composite of ideas, values

and emotions
Every ideology has its system of values, and a
proposition to organize society according to a
somewhat different pattern.
Something difficult if not totally impossible to
achieve.
Fascism, socialism, communism, democracy

B. Diffusion
1. Direct contact
2. Intermediate contact
3. Stimulus diffusion
C. Acculturation

D. Revolution
1. Loss of prestige of established authority
2. Threat to recent economic improvement
3. Indecisiveness of government
4. Loss of support of the intellectual class

A. Commercialization
1. Migratory labor
2. Non-agricultural commercial production
3. Supplementary cash crops
4. Introduction of commercial & industrial
agriculture

B. Religious Change
eg. Christianity in Tikopia

C. Political and Social Change


1. Increasing reach of democracy
due to information tech.
2. increase in social stratification
3. Spread of dress, music, art, and
attitudes

from the aftermath of violent


events: depopulation, relocation,
enslavement, genocide, etc.