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Laying of various layers of

Flexible and Rigid pavement

Summer Training Report


On
DELHI AGRA ROAD PROJECT
SIX LANING OF EXISTING FOUR LANE DELHI - AGRA
SECTION OF NH-2 FROM KM
20.500 TO KM 200.000 (LENGTH - KM 179.500) IN THE
STATE OF
HARYANA UTTAR PRADESH

Acknowledgement

I have taken efforts in this project, however it would not have


been possible with the kind support and help of many individuals
of this organization. I would like to extend my sincere thanks to all
of them. I am highly grateful to all the employees of L&T for their
guidance and constant supervision as well as for providing
necessary information regarding the project.

I would like to thank Mr.Sarveshwar, Mr. Nikhil Rao, Mr.


Shrinivasarao Vaskuri, Mr. M. Karthi, Mr. Kalyan Chowdary and also
to L&T constructions for giving me such an aspiring opportunity to
learn and grow in the civil engineering field.

I would also like to express my special gratitude to Mr. Himanshu


kamboj, Mr. Nagarajan, Mr. Vaibhav dixit, Mr. Anand, Mr. Ajeet
kumar singh, Mr. Gourav ghambir, Mr. Methew john and my fellow
trainees.

It was a great learning and working experience to see and work


with Indias leading construction firm in the field I always wanted
to.

INDEX

INTRODUCTION

QUALITY

HIGHWAY DEPARTMENT

STRUCTURE DEPARTMENT

FORMWORK

PC YARD

PLANNING

EHS DEPARTMENT

ISSUES RELATED TO SITE EXECUTION

10

CONCLUSION

INTRODUCTION
Six Lanning of Delhi Agra Section of NH-2
THE PROJECT ROAD IS A SECTION OF THE NATIONAL HIGHWAY-2,
STARTING FROM KM 20.5 TO 200 ON NH-2 IN THE STATES OF HARYANA
AND UTTER PRADESH ON DBFO PATTERN UNDER NHDP PHASE-V.
TOTAL LENGTH OF THE PROJECT ROAD IS 179.5 KM.
HARYANA SECTION START FROM Km 20.500 TO Km 94.000.
THESE SECTION IS FURTHER DIVIDED INTO 2 PARTS
1. PALWAL (PKG 54)
2. BANCHARI (PKG 82)
UP SECTION START FROM KM 94.000 TO KM 200.000.
TOTAL ROAD LENGTH IS 106.000 KM IN STATE OF UP
UP SECTION IS FURTHER DIVIDED IN 2 PARTS
1. KOSI (PKG 106)
2. AGRA (PKG 170)
OUR PROJECT IS STARTING FROM KM 58.000 TO KM 94.000
THE EXISTING 4-LANE DIVIDED CARRIGEWAY 3.50 M WIDE PAVEMENT
WILL BE ADDED ON BOTH SIDE.EACH CARRIGEWAY WIDTH WILL BE
10.50M AND INCLUDED IN 1.50 M WITH PAVED SHOULDER AND
INCLUDED IN 0.25 M KERB & EARTHEN SHOULDER BEEN VARIES .
PROJECT DETAILS:
OWNER(PRINCIPLE EMPLOYER)
INDEPENDENT ENGINEER
CONCESSIONAIRE
CONTRACTOR
DESIGN CONSULTANT HARYANA
COST OF PROJECT
EPC-CONTRACTOR

NHAI
URS SCOTT WILSON IND.PVT LTD
DA TOLL ROAD PRIVATE LTD
LARSEN & TOUBRO LIMITED
SAI CONSULTING ENGINEERS
PVT LTD
2040 CRORES
RELIANCE UTILITY ENGINEERS
PVT LTD

SALIENT FEATURES OF PROJECT.


Concession period including
construction Duration

26 years
30th July 2012

LOA Received on

21st Aug.2012

Agreement Signed On

1st Oct 2012

Notice to Proceed

27 months

Contractual Construction Duration

2040 Crores

Contract Value

31st Dec.2014

Contractual Completion Date

18th May 2018

Expected Completion date

PROJECT FACILITIES:SL
No

Description

Scope
203

UOM

Culverts

Widening of Major Bridge 1

Nos.

New Minor Bridge

Nos.

Widening of Minor Bridge 14

Nos.

PUP

10

Nos.

VUPs

16

Nos.

Flyovers

16

Nos.

ROB/RUB

Nos.

Nos.

QUALITY
Quality is the key component which drives performance. At
L&T Construction, Quality Standards have been adopted
and documented in Quality Assurance manuals. L&T
Construction recognizes the crucial significance of the
human element in ensuring quality. Structured training
programmes ensure that every L&T employee is conscious
of his/her role and responsibility in extending L&T
Constructions tradition of leadership through quality. A
commitment to safety springs from a concern for the
individual worker every one of the thousands braving the
rigours of construction at numerous project sites. L&T,
Buildings & Factories IC has a well-established and
documented Quality Management System (QMS) and is
taking appropriate steps to improve its effectiveness in
accordance with the requirements of ISO 9001:2008.
Relevant procedures established clearly specify the
criteria and methods for effective operation control
and necessary resources and information to support
the operation and monitoring of these processes.

Various aspects taken under consideration in QA/QC:1. Quality Plan.


2. Various test carried out on site.
3. Successfully carry out mix designs for various Grade of
concrete.
4. To study the Working/calibration of batching plant.

Quality Plan:The quality plan for any given site has certain components
General- It includes the Scope & purpose of the project,
Various definitions and Glossary of terms
Quality Management system- It includes General
requirements of
Process flow and mapping, Documentation (its
needs and control)
Management Responsibility- It deals with the
commitment of
Company, Customer focus, Quality Policy,
Planning, objectives, Responsibility, Authority and
communication..
Resource management It includes Resource Provision,
o Human resource (Competence, Awareness &
training)
Various Test Carried Out on Site
The quality lab was well equipped with various
instruments to carry out all necessary tests on site.
The following tests were carried out:o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o

Sampling of sand, aggregate, cement.


Moisture content and density of soil.
Free swell index.
Compressive strength of concrete cubes.
Marshall test of DBM.
Vicats apparatus test for testing setting time of cement.
Core cutter for testing soil compaction and in situ moisture content.
Impact value test on aggregates.
Sieve analysis.
Slump test.
FDD(Field Dry Density)
CBR
Flexural strength test
Direct shear test

10

11

SIEVE ANALYSIS AND COMPACTION


TESt
1. GRAIN SIZE ANALYSIS:
This test is done to found the percentage of gravel, sand, silt and
clay in soil sample. Gravel (75mm- 4.75mm), sand (4.75mm
0.075 mm) and silt and clay (0.075mm passing).
PROCEDURE:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Take soil sample and wash it to remove dust.


Sieve it with 0.075 mm sieve.
Dry the sand and weight it W gm.
Do sieve analysis.

FORMAT OF SIEVE ANALYSIS


I.S.
SIEVE

WT.RETAINED %
(gm) W1
RETAINED
W1/W*100

CUMMULATIVE
%AGE
RETAINED

CUMMULAT
%AGE
PASSING

100
mm
75
mm
50
mm
19
mm
10
mm
4.75
mm
2.36
mm
0.425
mm
0.075
mm

12

pan

2. COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF CONCRETE CUBES:


This test is conducted to check the compressive strength of
concrete cube after 3rd day, 7th day and 28th day of casting.

PQC(Pavement Quality Concrete)


Drain chamber
VUP casting(35 grade)
Minor bridge
Culverts
Sewer pipe Casting
Kerb

PROCEDURE:
Cast the cube of 150 mm*150mm*150mm dimension mould by
using fresh concrete which is mixed according to design.
Remove the cube from mould after 24 hours and put it in water
tank for curing.
Take out the cubes after 3rd day, 7th day and 28th day of casting.
Put the cube immediately in the CTM machine and applied the
load, record the load at failure.

13

3. CORE CUTTING (FIELD TEST): The test is conducted to check the compaction and also the water absorption.
Thickness of DBM layer can also be checked.
It is performed at site and further information is find out at lab.
Core cutting machine has drill bit which cuts the core of DBM.
Generally the core is cut out from 500 inside the pavement kerb.
4-5 samples are collected.
Test is carried out in the morning at higher temperature core get distorted.
Core taken out from site has a dia. Of 75mm.

Core cutting at site


4. MOISTURE DENSITY RELATION (IS-2720(PART 8)):

14

PROCEDURE
1 Dry the soil sample by exposing it to air or sun light.
2 Sieve the air dried soil through 19 mm sieve.
3 Add suitable amount of water with the soil and mix it
thoroughly. For sandy and gravelly soil add 3% to 5% of
water. For cohesive soil the amount of water to be added
should be 12% to 16% below the plastic limit.
4 Weigh the mould with base plate attached to the nearest 1g.
Record this weight as W1.
5 Attach the extension collar with the mould.
6 Compact the moist soil into the mould in five layers of
approximately equal mass, each layer being given 25 blows,
with the help of 4.9 kg rammer, dropped from a height of 450
mm above the soil. The blows must be distributed uniformly
over the surface of each layer.
7 After completion of the compaction operation, remove the
extension collar and level carefully the top of the mould by
means of straightedge.
8 Weigh the mould with the compacted soil to the nearest 1 g.
Record this weight as W2.
9 After weighing remove the compacted soil from the mould and
place it on the mixing tray. Determine the water content of a
representative sample of the specimen. Record the moisture
content as M.
10Broken up the remainder of the specimen and repeat step 5 to
step 9 by adding suitable increment of water to the soil.
For sandy and gravelly soils the increment in general is 1%
to 2%. For cohesive soils the increment in general is 2% to
4%.
11The total no. of determinations made shall be at least five, and
the moisture contents should be such that the optimum
moisture content, at which the maximum dry density occurs, is
within that range.
6. FREE SWELL INDEX (IS-2720(PART XL))

15

PROCEDURE
1 Two no. of 10 g oven dried soil specimens passing through 425
micron IS sieve is taken.
2 Each soil specimen is poured in each of the two glass
graduated cylinders of 100 ml. capacity.
3 Then one cylinder is filled with kerosene oil and the other with
distilled water up to the 100 ml. mark.
4 It is to be stirred with a glass rod to remove entrapped air and
allowed to settle for 24 hours.
5 After completion of 24 hours the final volume of soils in each
of the cylinder is read out.
CALCULATION
The free swell index of the soil is to be calculated as follows:
Free swell index, percent = ((Vd-Vk) / Vk)*100
Where
Vd = The volume of soil specimen read from the graduated
cylinder containing distilled water.
Vk = the volume of soil specimen read from the graduated
cylinder containing kerosene
CBR DETERMINATION (IS-2720(PART16)):

16

PROCEDURE
1 The mould containing the specimen with the base plate in
position but the top face exposed is placed on the lower plate
of the testing machine.
2 Surcharge weights, sufficient to produce an intensity of loading
equal to the weight of the base material and pavement is
placed on the specimen.
3 To prevent upheaval of soil into the hole of the surcharge
weights, 2.5 kg annular weight is placed on the soil surface
prior to seating the penetration plunger after which the
remainder of the surcharge weight is placed.
4 The plunger is to be seated under a load of 4 kg so that full
contact is established between the surface of the specimen
and the plunger.
5 The stress and strain gauges are then set to zero. Load is
applied to the penetration plunger so that the penetration is
approximately 1.25 mm per minute.
6 Readings of the load are taken at penetrations of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0,
1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 4.0, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 and 12.5 mm.
7 The plunger is then raised and the mould detached from the
loading equipment.

CALCULATION
17

Load-Penetration curve:
The load penetration curve is plotted taking penetration value on
x-axis and Load values on Y-axis. Corresponding to the
penetration value at which the CBR is desired, corrected load
value is taken from the load-penetration curve and the CBR
calculated as follows
California bearing ratio = (PT/PS)x100
Where
PT = Corrected unit (or total) test load corresponding to the
chosen penetration curve, and
PS = Unit (or total) standard load for the same depth of
penetration as for PS taken from standard code.

7. FIELD DRY DENSITY BY SAND REPLACEMENT METHOD:Stage-1 (calibration of sand density)


1 Measure the internal dimensions (diameter, d and height, h) of
the calibrating cylinder and compute its internal volume, Vc =
d2h/4.
2 Fill the sand pouring cylinder (SPC) with sand with 1 cm top
clearance (to avoid any spill over during operation) and find its
weight (W1)
3 Place the SPC on a glass plate, open the slit above the cone by
operating the valve and allow the sand to run down. The sand
will freely run down till it fills the conical portion. When there is
no further downward movement of sand in the SPC, close the
slit. Measure the weight of the sand required to fill the cone.
Let it be W2.

18

4 Place back this W2 amount of sand into the SPC, so that its
weight becomes equal to W1 (As mentioned in point-2). Place
the SPC concentrically on top of the calibrating can. Open the
slit to allow the sand to run down until the sand flow stops by
itself. This operation will fill the calibrating can and the conical
portion of the SPC. Now close the slit and find the weight of
the SPC with the remaining sand (W3)
Stage-2 (measurement of soil density)
1 Clean and level the ground surface where the field density is
to be determined
2 Place the tray with a central hole over the portion of the soil to
be tested.
3 Excavate a pit into the ground, through the hole in the plate,
approximately 12 cm deep (same as the height of the
calibrating can). The hole in the tray will guide the diameter of
the pit to be made in the ground.
4 Collect the excavated soil into the tray and weigh the soil (W)
5 Determine the moisture content of the excavated soil.
6 Place the SPC, with sand having the latest weight of W1, over
the pit so that the base of the cylinder covers the pit
concentrically.
7 Op*en the slit of the SPC and allow the sand to run into the pit
freely, till there is no downward movement of sand level in the
SPC and then close the slit.
Find the weight of the SPC with the remaining sand (W4)
19

8. FLAKINENESS INDEX (IS: 2386-PART 1-1963)


PROCEDURE
1 The sample is sieved through IS sieve 63-50, 50-40, 40-25, 2520, 20-16, 16-12.5, 12.5-10, 10-6.3 (mm).
2 A minimum of 200 pieces of each fraction is taken and
weighed.
3 In order to separate flaky materials, each fraction is then
gauged individually for thickness on a thickness gauge.
4 The total amount of flaky material retained by the thickness
gauge is weighed to an accuracy of 0.1% of the weight of
sample.
CALCULATION
In order to calculate the flakiness index of the entire sample of
aggregates, first the weight of each fraction of aggregate passing
and retained on the specified set of sieves is noted (Y1, Y2, Y3,
Y4..etc). Each piece of these are tried to be passed through the
slot of the specified thickness of the thickness gauge are found
and weighed (y1, y2, y3, y4etc). Then the flakiness index is the
total weight of the material retained on the various thickness
gauges, expressed as a percentage of the total weight of the
sample gauged.

9. ELONGATION INDEX VALUE (IS: 2386-PART 1-1963)

20

PROCEDURE
5 The sample is sieved through IS sieve 63-50, 50-40, 40-25, 2520, 20-16, 16-12.5, 12.5-10, 10-6.3 (mm).
1 A minimum of 200 pieces of each fraction is taken and
weighed.
2 In order to separate elongated materials, each fraction is then
gauged individually for length in the length gauge.
3 The pieces of aggregate from each fraction tested which could
not pass through the specified gauge length with its long sides
elongated are collected separately to find the total weight of
aggregate retained on the length gauge from each fraction.
4 The total amount of elongated material retained by the length
gauge is weighed to an accuracy of 0.1% of the weight of
sample.

CALCULATION
In order to calculate the elongation index of the entire sample of
aggregates, first the weight of each fraction of aggregate passing
and retained on the specified set of sieves is noted (Y1, Y2, Y3,
Y4..etc.). Each piece of these are tried to be passed through
specified length of the gauge length with its longest side and
those elongated pieces which do not pass the gauge are
separated and weighed (y1, y2, y3, y4etc.). Then the elongated
index is the total weight of the material retained on the various
length gauges, expressed as a percentage of the total weight of
the sample gauged.

10. FLEXURAL TEST (IS-516): 21

PROCEDURE
1 Prepare the test specimen by filling the concrete into the
mould in 3 layers of approximately equal thickness. Tamp each
layer 35 times using the tamping bar as specified above.
Tamping should be distributed uniformly over the entire cross
section of the beam mould and throughout the depth of each
layer.
2 Clean the bearing surfaces of the supporting and loading
rollers, and remove any loose sand or other material from the
surfaces of the specimen where they are to make contact with
the rollers.
3 Circular rollers manufactured out of steel having cross section
with diameter 38 mm will be used for providing support and
loading points to the specimens. The length of the rollers shall
be at least 10 mm more than the width of the test specimen. A
total of four rollers shall be used, three out of which shall be
capable of rotating along their own axes. The distance
between the outer rollers (i.e. span) shall be 3d and the
distance between the inner rollers shall be d. The inner rollers
shall be equally spaced between the outer rollers, such that
the entire system is systematic.
22

4 The specimen stored in water shall be tested immediately on


removal from water; whilst they are still wet. The test
specimen shall be placed in the machine correctly cantered
with the longitudinal axis of the specimen at right angles to
the rollers. For moulded specimens, the mould filling direction
shall be normal to the direction of loading.
5 The load shall be applied at a rate of loading of 400 kg/min for
the 15.0 cm specimens and at a rate of 180 kg/min for the
10.0 cm specimens.
CALCULATION
The Flexural Strength or modulus of rupture (fb) is given by
fb = pl/bd2 (when a > 20.0cm for 15.0cm specimen or > 13.0cm
for 10cm specimen)
or
fb = 3pa/bd2 (when a < 20.0cm but > 17.0 for 15.0cm specimen
or < 13.3 cm but > 11.0cm for 10.0cm specimen.)
Where,
a = the distance between the line of fracture and the nearer
support, measured on the centre line of the tensile side of the
specimen
b = width of specimen (cm)
d = failure point depth (cm)
l = supported length (cm)
p = max. Load (kg)

23

HIGHWAY DEPARTMENT
The branch of engineering which deals with the art of design, construction and
maintenance of road of different kind is termed as highway
Types of Pavements:1. Flexible Pavement
2. Rigid Pavement
Difference between flexible and rigid pavement:-

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Flexible Pavement

Rigid Pavement

Initial cost is low


No effect of temp variation
Less durable
Easy to maintain
Unskilled labour can use

Initial cost is high


Effect of temp variation
Highly durable
Maintenance is difficult
Skilled labour is required

BC
DBM
WMM
GSB
SUBGRADE
EARTHWOR
K
Steps involved
pavements:-

PQC
DLC
GSB
SUBGRA
DE
EARTHW
ORK

in construction of highway

1. PCL (Pre-existing Centre Line):- we have to decide the project centre line
before starting the execution. PCL is the central alignment of the road, PCL
show what we have land acquired.

24

2. C&G (cleaning and grabbing):- Delhi-Agra Project of six lanning consists


of widening the road, taking one lane from each side means RHS & LHS. As
NH-2 already is a four lane highway. To make it six lane, clearing and
grubbing construction process is required. In clearing and grubbing process
it involve clearing of trees from both side and removal of inorganic floating,
to dispose them of the ROW (Right of Way).
At the site as I seen for the service road Clearing and grubbing process
involve removal of waste soil up to depth of 1.5m and in width of 14.5m.
Machines used: excavator, dumper
3. Earthwork in excavation: -After clearing and grubbing process, earth work
excavation is required to excavate the top loose soil up to the hard bed level,
if a solid bed level not found then there is a soil stabilization is required.
In soil stabilization process we required to mix soil of the site/prepared soil
from the plant is mixed with fly ash or white lime in a specified, 10% of the
soil quantity in 1 cubic metre surface area is required to stabilize soil.
Machines used: excavator, dumper

Earthwork
Procedure:OGL is taken and sample pits of required size are made to facilitate random
sampling of soil.
Samples suitability is checked as per specification and certified by lab.
25

Before starting excavation it is ensured that the site is clear of hindrances


and land acquisition is over.
Excavation limits are set out at every 50m interval.
Area for disposal of unsuitable soil is finalized.
Trim and level the surface to final level.At least 2 tests of OMC/MDD are carried for every 3000
cum and one test of
FDD for every 1000 cum.
Small mould is used to find the dry density. 100mm dia mould is used.

4. Earthwork in filling: - It consists of preparation of embankment to final


level and thickness. The thickness of embankment is calculated by deducting
the crust depth from depth of original ground level. (FRL-OGL-CRUST
DEPTH)
Machines used: excavator dumper, grader, vibratory roller,
water tanker, wheel
Loader, loader cum backhoe.
Procedure:-

Required quantity of earth is calculated and informed to borrow area.


Material is spread mechanically in uniform layers such that the compacted
thickness not exceeding 200 mm.
For preparation of embankment top layer control pegs at every 10 m interval
along c/l is fixed on both sides of bed in a manner that they are not disturbed
by the grader movement.
Each grader run shall overlap by at least1/3rd of its blade length.
Moisture content is determined to check OMC and if it found less than
moisture is added by sprinkling water.
After spreading mechanical compaction is done using soil compactor of 80100 KN static weight. The roller shall commence from lower edge and move
towards upper edge. Rolling is done with 1/3rd overlapping.
Test of earthwork excavation and filling:26

Gradation
Sieve analysis
Liquid limit
Plastic limit
Modified Procter test
Free soil index
Sand replacement method
Moisture content
Swell index is not more than 50
Liquid limit not more than 70
Plasticity index not more than 45(sub grade and embankment filling and
excavation)
Generally CBR is not less than 4.95%.

5. Sub-Grade: - The granular material provided between the soil sub grade
and base course layer to increase the thickness pavement at a low cost is
termed as sub base. It consists of preparation of subgrade to final level .the
thickness of subgrade is 500 mm, which is laid in three layers.

150mm
27

150mm
200mm
Machines used: dumper, grader, water tank, roller.
Function:
To provide uniform support pavement.
To distribute the load on the pavement on layer below it
To provide good drainage for this purpose, subgrade should be given a
proper camber may constructed.
CBR should not less than 8%.
Rolling pattern:
1. One Plain Roller Pass.
2. Two or three Low Vibrator Roller Pass.
3. One High Vibrator Roller Pass.
4. Finally One Plain Roller Pass.
Procedure:

28

6. Granular Sub-base (GSB):- the granular material provide in between soil


sub grade and base coarse layer to increase the thickness at low cost is
termed as sub base.
Requirements: liquid limit
=
25%
Plasticity index
=
06
CBR
= 30%
Flakiness index or elongation =
30%
Machines used: excavator dumper, grader, vibratory roller, water tanker,
wheel loader, loader cum backhoe.
Procedure:
First toe width of SB is marked.
For widening of existing pavement approved material is spreaded
above the subgrade layer in uniform thickness not exceeding 200mm.
Calculated quantities of GSB are placed on the entire bed. If
segregation is observed the same is rectified by processing with the
help of grader blade.
Required quantity of water shall be sprinkled from a truck mounted
water tanker to maintain OMC.
The graded material shall be compacted to the specified densities by a
soil compactor having 8-10tons weight.
The roller movement is from lower to upper edge for areas of camber
and super-elevation and from edge towards centre for areas having
cross fall on both sides.
Function: - To act as filler material and increase the
thickness of
Pavement at a low cost that is to provide economy.
To increase the pavement condition.
29

Important note: - clays should not use in GSB and liquid


limit is calculate by Pycnometer test

Grading of GSB Layer

7.

WMM (Wet Mix Macadam):The portion of the road pavement consist of sand dust ,
broken stone, large size gravel which lies immediately below
the base coat.

30

Compaction of WMM Layer


Procedure: Thickness of base course is 250mm.
First layer spread over the sub base and thickness is 125mm.
Layer is spread by paver. At first layer level is not required.
Compaction is done by soil compotators
Weight of soil compotators is 8-10 ton.
Second layer of 125mm is layer after first layer and here level is required.
Sensor is put at 10m interval for levelling.

Function: -To provide structure stability of road pavement.


To distribute the heavy wheel load to sub base.
To resist consolidation.
Impact value not more than 30.
Prime coat: - application of the low viscosity liquid bitumen
material over
And existence untreated previous foundation layer
31

Procedure: Road surface is properly levelled and re-compacted to reduce the


bump etc.
The surface is properly clean before applying the prime coat.
Prime coat is spread by bitumen spreader.
SS1 (slow setting) emulsion is used.

Tack coat: - application of a medium viscosity an existing


impervious Pavement or non-absorbent surface, like bitumen
surface.

Tack coat over prime coat


Procedure: Surface is properly prepared.
Tack coat is spread after 24hr of prime coat.
RS1(rapid setting)

Uses of prime coat: It act as impervious layer


Use of tack coat: It act as an adhesive material.

32

8. DBM (dense bitumen macadam):DBM transfer the load upper to lower layer
Procedure:

The thickness of DBM is 115mm.


The first layer spread over the DBM of thickness 60mm.
This layer is spread by paver.
After the first layer spread second layer of 55mm
Before second layer SS1 is spread.
Laying temperature of DBM is between 100-160.
For levelling sensor is put in every 10m interval.
The density of DBM is 2.333
DBM is manufactured by hot mix plant.
VG-30 bitumen is used.
The penetration should be between 50 to 70.
Minimum Absolute viscosity should be 2400 poise.
Kinematic viscosity should be 350 cst.
% bitumen content should not less than 4.5%.
% air void not less than 6%.
Impact valve of DBM not more than 27%.
Los Angeles should not more than 30%
Anti-stripping value is not less than 95%
Water absorption not more than 2%.
Plasticity index should not more than 5%.
Flakiness index or elongation is 30%
Compaction 98%.
Tandem roller & PTR (Pneumatic tyre roller) roller both used in DBM.

Rolling pattern:1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

One Plain Pass


One Low Vibrator Roller Pass
Two High Vibrator Roller Pass
Two Pneumatic Tyre Roller Pass
Finally one Plain Pass
33

DBM Laying
10. Bituminous Concrete: The thickness of BC is 40 mm. BC is laid to full width of
pavement including
existing pavement.
Machines used: paver, tandem roller, pneumatic tyre roller,
dumper, hot mix
Plant.
Procedure:
BC mix is prepared in batch in hot mix plant having twin shaft mixing pug
mill.
Minimum bitumen contain is not less than 5%.
Impact value not more than 24%.
Flakiness index is 30%.

34

Immediately after mixing mix is transported to site and discharge the mix in
paver hopper. While both the tipper and paver move forward steadily and
slowly. The sensor ensured that the mix is being laid to proper level and
grade.
The temperature at the time of laying shall be between 1300 to 1600 C
After laying compaction is done with the help of a set of rollers (tandem and
pneumatic tyre).
First rolling is done with tandem roller and then pneumatic tyre roller is
used.
2.

Rigid pavement:-

500mm subgrade of CBR 10% shall be provide.


Top 100mm of subgrade shall comprise granular material with
good drain
ability. Sub grade should have k value min 5.5kg/cm 2
1. DLC (dry lean concrete):The thickness of DLC is 150 mm.
Grade of concrete M10
At toll plaza thickness is 100mm.
Machines used: paver, batching plant, dumper

DLC Laying
35

Procedure:
Before laying DLC loose patches on top of sub base layer shall be watered
and compacted to achieve firm surface as and when felt necessary.
Immediately after mixing mix is transported to site and discharge the mix in
paver hopper. While both the tipper and paver move forward steadily and
slowly. The sensor ensured that the mix is being laid to proper level and
grade.
Admixture used BASF polyhead
Slump value at plant is 105mm, slump value at site is 30mm after 90min.
After laying compaction is done with tandem roller.
Immediately after compaction approved curing compound shall be sprayed.
(0.2 litre per m2)
Function: better support for the concrete paver.
The BBD (Benkelman beam deflection) technique is used to
find the pavement deflection. The deflection not more than 5mm.
2. Pavement quality concrete (PQC): Before placing the separation member sub base shall be clean, all the waste
material clean by air compressor and overlap of plastic sheet.
Then PQC is laid, the temp of PQC should not more than 30degree Celsius
The size of one panel is 5x5.25m.

Manually PQC Laying


The PQC is laid by the paver machine.
Thickness of PQC is 300mm.
36

Before laying the PQC separation member shall be impermeable plastic


sheeting of 125micron thick laid flat without any crease.
The flexural strength of PQC is 4.427N/sqmm.
17 dowel bar is laid in one panel, the length of dowel bar is 500mm.
Spacing 300mm and dia is 38mm.
Tie bar dia 12mm, length is 640mm and spacing is 400mm.
Chemical admixture used is superplasticizer.
Compressive strength of cube 7day 27.5N/sqmm, 28day 40N/sqmm.
Slump after 30min is 45 to 55mm and after 60min is 30to 45mm.after
90min is 20 to 30mm.
Polysulphide sealant used in joint to make it impermeable and length of
sealant is 15mm.
With of the longitudinal joint is 6-8mm.
DE bonding strip is used in joint, thickness is 1 to 2 mm.
Camber for earthen shoulder shall be 0.5% steeper than that of
carriageway subject to a min of 3%. The rate of change between
pavement cross slope and outside shoulder should not exceed 5%.
Gradient should be used 1/30. Use underpass approach is 1/50.
Minimum width of footpath is 1.5 m.
Minimum width of the separation island between main carriageway and
service road is 1.5m.
Cattle underpass width 4.0m minimum.
Vertical clearance is 2.5m minimum.
Pavement design of service road:
BC 25mm.
DBM 50mm
WMM 250mm
GSB 150mm
Kerb capping and concreting:
Kerb height is 225 mm above BC and top width is 150mm.
Machines used: kerb casting machine, transit mixer
Procedure:
37

The areas where capping is required is identified w.r.t. to pavement design


and finished road level.
The top surface of existing kerb is hacked and cleaned with compressor.
Polymer base bonding agent is applied on cleaned surface.
Pegs and string are fixed to provide required levels.
M20 grade of concrete is used.
The required quantity of concrete is transported with transit mixer and
discharged into kerb laying machine.
After laying of kerb finishing is done.
Grooves are cut at every 5m interval.

38

STRUCTURAL DEPARTMENT
Structure is the important part in highway.
Types Of structure
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Major bridge
Minor bridge
Fly over
VUP (vehicular under pass)
PUP (pedestal under pass)
Box culvert or Pipe culvert
Toll plaza box tunnel

FLY OVER :( Ch. 88+825)


Fly over is important part in structure.M45 grade is used in
flyover slabs
Two type in structure:1 Sub structure
2 Super structure
Sub structure: Those part in fly over below the pier cap is
called sub Structure.
Parts in sub structure
1 Pile
2. Pier
3. Pier cap
Foundation: Deep foundation use in heavy structure.
Deep foundation divided in three types
1. Pile foundation
2. Pier foundation
3. Well foundation
39

Superstructure of flyover:1. Girder


2. Pedestal
3. Elastomeric cap
4. Cross girder
5. Deck slab
6. Crash barrier
VUP (vehicular under pass):-

Length of vup is 21.6m


Height of vup is 5.5m
Width of slab including crash barrier is 25m
2.5% slope is given.
Foundation is raft foundation.
Dimension of raft is 6.3mX12.6m
Grade of concrete at footing level is M15 PCC.
Grade of concrete above foundation is M35 RCC.
3.5m Approach slab is provided.
Drainage pipe is at 500mm above the ground level.
Cover in reinforcement
Top slab is 40mm.
Wall earth face is 75mm & non earth face is 50mm.
40

Footing 75mm.
Toll Plaza Box Tunnel:

Vertical clearance is 2.55 mtr.


Horizontal clearance is 3 mtr.
.075mtr thick PCC (Plain Cement Concrete) below raft.
Raft and slab are formed by PQC grade M-40 having thickness of .35 and .3
respectively.
Walls are of thickness .3mtr formed by PQC grade M-40.
Expansion joint of 20mm*25mm is filled with sealant under which a
debonding strip of 1 to 2 mm thick which act as binder between sealant and
compressible filler board (polyethylene).
2.0% camber is provided from the mid of the tunnel
Two drains are provide of size 1.2*3*1deep on both end.
15 opening of size 1.5*1.5 are provided for 15 tollbooth which have access
through underground tunnel which connect them to admin building.

BBS (bar bending schedule):


Bar bending schedule is prepared for every structure to know the
no of reinforced bars, their diameter, quantity and shape.
S
.

B S
a h

Dia
me

Ded Sp Ele
ucti aci me

N T
o o

c T U Qu Re
/ c nit ant ma
41

n
o

r a
m p
a e
r
k

ter

on
ng
for
ben
d

nts

s t l /l w ity
al
ei
n
gh
o
t
s

rks

c/l is determined by calculating length of bar and deducting the bend


length(2*dia)
no of bars is calculated as (length/spacing of bars)
unit weight of steel= d2L*7850/4 or d2/162
Lap length 48*1.8*D
where D is dia of bar

42

FORMWORK
Formwork is a mould or die used to shape and support the
concrete
Until it attains sufficient strength to carry its own weight.
SIGNIFICANCE
Formwork constitutes 30% of the cost and 60% of the time in
concrete
Construction.
Quality of concrete finish and soundness of concrete depends
very
Much on the formwork system.
Formwork should be properly designed, fabricated, and erected
to
receive fresh concrete.
When concrete is compacted, it exerts pressure and the
formwork
must be strong and stable to take this pressure. The form should
be
leak proof to retain the concrete & slurry.
SAFETY IN USING FORMWORK
Safety is ensured if
Components are light in weight for manual handling.
Loose or dangling / hanging components are minimal.
Individual components are self-standing.
System facilitates fixing and removal at each location without
the use
Of sophisticated tools and tackles.

43

Erection and dismantling is done as per the procedure or


methodology
FORMWORK COMPONENTS
Sheathing Plywood
Secondary supporting members H-16 Beam
Primary supporting members H-16 / H20 Beam / Waller
CT Props / Short Props / HDT Frames
Ties
Fasteners (Bolts, nails, etc.)
Hangers or brackets
Spacers
MATERIALS USED FOR FORMWORK
TIMBER & PLYWOOD As a sheathing member and for
primary supporting. Highly flexible but limited reuse. No
scrap value.

STEEL As a supporting member. Heavy weight, high


reusability but corrosive.

ALUMINIUM Light weight, corrosion free, higher initial


investment cost, excellent reusability

REQUIREMENTS OF A GOOD FORMWORK SYSTEM


How formwork can be erected and de-shuttered fast.
How good concrete quality and surface finish can be
achieved.
What is the optimum stock of formwork required for the size
of work force, the specified time schedule and flow of
materials?
How safety can be improved for the site personnel.
What is the overall cost savings that can be achieved using
the right type of formwork
L & T FORMWORK SYSTEM:44

CLIMBING
Climbing formwork is a special type of formwork for
vertical concrete structures that rises with the building process.
While relatively complicated and costly, it can be an effective
solution for buildings that are either very repetitive in form (such
as towers or skyscrapers) or that require a seamless wall
structure.
FLEX SYSTEMS FOR SLAB
Ideal for roofs and floors, the Flex system consists of freestanding floor props with tripods, four-way heads and H-beams.
This versatile system can be used for practically any combination
of heights and thicknesses, as the telescopic props can be
adjusted to any height up to 4.10 m, and the beams can be
placed continuously or overlapped depending on the load and
span.
COLUMN AND WALL FORM WORK SYSTEM
The column/wall formwork systems now available are normally
modular in nature and allow quick assembly and erection
on-site while minimising labour and crane time. They are
available in steel, aluminium and even cardboard (not reusable
but recycled) and have a variety of internal face surfaces
depending on the concrete finish required. Innovations have led
to adjustable, reusable column forms which can be clamped onsite to give different column sizes.
Benefits
Increased speed and efficiency in construction
The requirement of skilled labour is reduced due to the
simplicity of assembly and disassembly.
Metal column forms can be assembled and erected more easily
than traditional formwork. Disposable forms come ready
assembled to
High quality surface finishes are possible.

45

HEAVY DUTY TOWER (HDT) & STAIRCASE FORMWORK


L&Ts heavy duty towers provide staging for low and high
structures, whether simple or complex. The staging system can be
converted, with a few components, into a stair tower for access.
With the same components, it can also be used as scaffolding units
or as table forms. The towers are sturdy, capable of carrying heavy
loads, and adjustable in height.

46

PRECASTING Yard
Structural component casted at yard:

I-girder
re panels
precast drainage pipes
friction slabs
crash barrier
drainage chamber

Girder: it is the longitudinal load carrying member over which slab rests.
it is prestressed with steel wires (after how many days it is done depends on
design)
firstly prestressing of upper most wire is done (after 4 days then for bottom
two there is 21 days provision)
at mid of span prestressing wires are at the bottom of the section of gardar as
the bending is maximum there.
section at the ends is enlarged for protection against shear
curing is done for 14 days.
high tensile strength steel wires are used for prestressing
it rests over pier cap with elastomeric bearing

47

reinforcement for garder

prestressing

wires

RE PANELS:

Used in re wall.
Single mesh of reinforcement is used in re panels.
Different shapes of panels are formed as per use.
Geo-grid is used for holding by soil contained in the re wall.
Coping beam is used over re panel to make them a single member
Curing for 7 days is done .

48

Re panel mould

Re

panel
PIPE CASTING:

6 mm and 4 mm hard drawn steel wires are used for cage formation.
Cage making machine is used for cage formation.
M35 zero slump mix is used for casting.
Impermo is sprayed over casted pipe and raped with plastic sheet.

Drainage cage reinforcement

Drainage

pipe
DRAIN CHAMBER:

Single mesh reinforcement is used.


M35 grade is used.
A circular opening on both faces is there for drainage pipe.
Curing for days is done for 7 days.

49

FRICTION SLAB:

used at flyovers
m grad is used.
over re panel it is used
clear cover of mm is used
curing for days is done.

Precast friction slab

50

CRASH BARRIER:

used over slabs of structures( bridge, vup, pup)


m grad is used.
clear cover of mm is used
curing for 7 days is done

PLANNING DEPARTMENT
Some important terms and definitions:
RFQ (request for qualification): For short listing of bidder.
LOA (letter of award): After acceptance of bid LOA is issued to the
selected bidder.
MOSRTH: ministry of shipping road transport and highway.
Performance security: an irrevocable and unconditional
guarantee from a bank.
Force majeure: occurrence of a non-political event, political
event, or indirect political event.
Planning department is an important department. Planning
department deals with the following.

DPR(daily progress report)


RFI(requisition for inspection)
Programming
Client billing
Monitoring

51

Daily progress report:


Daily progress report is made my site engineers showing the
amount of work done, rain fall, and schedule for next day work.
This DPR is submitted to planning department where it is
recorded. This is also send to headquarters as well as client.
Requisition/request for inspection:
After laying of every layer in highway and each step in structures
RFI is submitted for checking.it is raised daily, weekly or within 34 days.
Programming:
Programming involves the program for next month, 3 months.it is
done in advance according to current status of work.
Monitoring:
Monitoring of work is also done by planning department. For
monitoring following are prepared.
Strip chart
Present status of work
Client billing and Sub Contractor billing:
The work of acquiring payments from the client, for the work
done, also lies with the planning department.
It is the duty of the planning department to check the claims
made by the subcontractor for the works they have done and also
provide provisions to pay them by clearing those bills to the
account department.
Planning department also engaged in authorization of bills of purchase,
indents and cross section drawings.
Scope of work:52

Carryout detailed survey of site to establish the existing right of way.


Traffic management during construction, temporary boards and markings.
Submit environmental management plan related to construction.
Identification/shifting of utility services and/or any works related to utilities
are not in the scope of contractor.
rectification of all the damage metal crash barrier and signage boards during
the entire contract period
Fundamentals of Contract:
There is a concession agreement between NHAI & RELIANCE.
Type of contract: LUMP SUMTURNKYE Basis
Effective date: 21st august, 2012
Special condition of contract:Price adjustment: a base price is set and from actual and base
price.
Liquidated damage: due to delay in completion (rate of 0.1% of
performance security money/day or max. of 5%of the contract
value).
Organizational chart: organizational chart should be provided to
EPC Contractor by contractor.
Security money: A security of 250 lakh is to be submitted as
security money.
Bank guarantee: Bank guarantee is not actual money, but owner
can convert it into money.
CPBG (Contract performance bank guarantee)
PBG (Performance bank guarantee )
AVG (Advance bank guarantee)
Retention money: retention money be deducted @5% of gross
certified value.
Taxes and duties: Information regarding taxes and duties on
various items due to different causes.

53

Equipment list: List of all the equipment and their uses in the
project work should be provided by contractor to the EPC
contractor.
General condition:Mobilization advance: 5% of the total value as 1 st advance, 2nd
advance will be 5%, but after the completion of 10% of total
physical progress on utilization of 1 st advance fully.
Payment schedule:
Contractor set max. price for each item.
Within 7 days of every month the contractor shall raise the payment
application of the work executed in the previous month as per payment
schedule.
Interim payment: payment released under periodical invoices.
Different type of copies:
1. Master copy: Original/first copy generated at site.
2. Controlled copy: Latest copy issued to user by master copy
holder with control.
3. Uncontrolled copy: one time copy issued for reference or any
other purpose without control.
Various schedules:
Schedule A: site work (from this chain age to this chain age which
work and quantity of work require)
Schedule B: related to development work required (this no. of
culvert are required to be formed, paved carriageway 25m wide
including 1.5m paved shoulder on both side and extended
medians)
Schedule D: related to specification of work
Schedule G: related to milestones
54

Billing analysis:
LOI: Letter of intent contains who is vendor and who is contractor
then rate of work and quantity of work that is going to be done by
vendor.
Work order (WO): Rate and quantity or item rate is fixed. In
work order there are number of running bills which are prepared
after every fix interval and measurement book is also used for
recording. At the end a final bill is prepared. For running bill
preparation one should have a knowledge of estimation.
MPCS (Management planning and control schedule):
The schedules contained in MPCS are: S0: - Construction program (contains duration of project, types of
work and hoe to execute the project).
S1: - Invoicing schedule (related to various type of payments)
S2: - Milestone (division of work and duration)
S3: - P&M (plant and machinery)
S4: - Staff (staff requirement, staff salary etc.)
S5: - workmen (related to amount of workmen required as per
need and time)
S6: - Material requirement (related to specification, requirement
of material)
S7: - Special agencies (Specification of special agencies hire for
doing special work)
S8: - Direct cost (includes information regarding direct expenses
of project)
S9: - Indirect cost (includes in direct cost information of project
work)

55

ENVIRONMENT, HEALTH & SAFETY POLICY


Accidents occurring at a construction site are usually due to a lack
of communication among the various departments involved, and
lack of proper inspections.
Safety and health pledge:
I solemnly affirm that I will do everything possible for the
prevention of accidents and occupational disease and protection
of the environment in the interest of self, my family, my
community and the nation at large.
56

Tool Box talk:


It is the responsibility of the site engineer and departments to
teach labours every morning before starting the days work.

TOOL BOX TALK


HIRA (hazard identification and risk assesment):
There are three steps used to manage health and safety at work:
1.

Spot the Hazard (Hazard Identification)

2.

Assess the Risk (Risk Assessment)

3.

Make the Changes (Risk Control)

Assess the Risk:Whenever you spot a hazard, assess the risk by asking yourself two questions:

How likely is it that the hazard could harm me or someone


else?
How badly could I or someone else be harmed?

57

Make the Changes:

Elimination - Sometimes hazards - equipment, substances


or work practices - can be avoided entirely.

Substitution - Sometimes a less hazardous thing,


substance or work practice can be used.

Using personal protective equipment and clothing


(PPE) - If risks remain after the options have been tried, it
may be necessary to use equipment such as safety glasses,
gloves, helmets and ear muffs. PPE can protect you from
hazards associated with jobs such as handling chemicals or
working in a noisy environment.

Accident causatives: Unsafe acts (88%)


Unsafe conditions (10%)
Beyond human control (2%)
Electrical safety: ELCB: An Earth Leakage Circuit Breaker (ELCB) is a safety device used
in electrical installations with high earth impedance to prevent shock. It
detects small stray voltages on the metal enclosures of electrical equipment,
and interrupts the circuit if a dangerous voltage is detected
RCCB: A residual-current circuit breaker (RCCB) is an electrical
wiring device that disconnects a circuit whenever it detects that the electric
current is not balanced between the energized (line) conductor(s) and the
return (neutral) conductor. if the leaking electric current passes through a
human being; a current of around 30 mA (0.030 Amps) is potentially
sufficient to cause cardiac arrest or serious harm if it persists for more than a
small fraction of a second. RCCBs are designed to disconnect the
conducting wires quickly enough to prevent serious injury from such shocks.
Permit to work system:58

It is required to get permit to work at height. A form for this is


filled by the site engineer.

Lock out and tag out:Lockout-tag out (LOTO) or lock and tag is a safety procedure
which is used in industry and research settings to ensure that
dangerous machines are properly shut off and not started up
again prior to the completion of maintenance or servicing work. It
requires that hazardous power sources be "isolated and rendered
inoperative" before any repair procedure is started.
SAFETY TOOLS USED ON SITE: Green Net , Catch Net , Fish Net
Perimeter Protection (after concreting)
Form catch Protection (after concreting) etc.

Safety signs

Safety

tools

59

Safety Net

Safety

Belt

ISSUES RELATED TO SITE EXECUTION

60

Some issues affect the productivity at the site & also overall cost
& time. If dealt, could give the profit of large amounts to the
company.
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o

Unskilled labour problem should be taken into account.


Labour Retention is a major issue for the pace of work.
Material Non- Availability causes delay.
Poor planning of shift work creates nuisance.
P & M Breakdown should be monitored.
Skilled supervision during installation & execution should be
improvised.
Clearance of Scope & Rate to the contractor should be prioritised.
For productivity, Right job should be handled by the Right person.
Structural complexity should be briefed to the executioners.
Design issues are the reason for delay but could be resolved fast.
Working hours, if more, creates boredom.
Labour allotment should be accurate for a task. Number problem
should be monitored.
Space constraint problems arises due to improper management of
Logistics.
Safety violations should be strictly administered.
Methodology should be proper for a specific task to avoid Time &
Cost Issues.
Non- availability of Tools & Tackles on time should be checked.
Lack of front (Man before Task) is a serious issue for productivity.
Labour Mobilisation leads to loss of time.
Supervisors should be allotted for their particular area i.e. Few/More
at a time on single area creates match mixing & delay at all round
progress.
Communication problems should not be the reason delay &
instructions passage.
Time loss due to Walking / Roaming on site could be checked.
Clearance approval from Client is not obtained before scheduled start
of work leads to delay in start time.
Lack of contingency plan for the absence of supervisor / Engineer.

61

CONCLUSION
During this internship in Delhi agar road project, I have learnt lots
of things especially in field and planning part. For a civil engineer
field exposure meant a lot. During the course of my internship
period, I face the real engineering that one encounters in the road
transportation, especially in India. It includes the study of
different aspects of construction practices as well as the project
management techniques both at the site and the planning office.
My stay, being for 45 days allowed me to have an insight about
the different departments of the industry and how they coordinate
with each other. It enhanced my practical knowledge and
imparted greater interest towards the construction field
L&T Constructions (Transportation-IC), as expected, welcomed
me very well to the professional world. The friendly welcome from
all the employees is appreciating. It was something really
amazing at times, sharing their experiences and having their
words of wisdom which they have gained in long journey. Along
with the technical aspects, it was a wonderful experience of
earning many things by experienced personalities during the stay.
I am sure that the internship with the L&T Constructions
(Transportation-IC) was a fruitful one for me and Im taking back
some great experiences that would back me throughout my
future.

62

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