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Azim Marwan B Mohamed

Welding and Brazing

1. Explain the difference between Fusion and Non-Fusion welding?

Fusion welding
Join metal together when they are in molten state.
Non fusion welding
Joining of metal by adhesion of one metal to another.
2. Explain the following fusion welding methods?.
i. Oxyacetylene/ Gas Welding
Are processes that use fuel gases and oxygen to weld and cut metals. Pure oxygen,
instead of air, is used to increase the flame temperature to allow localized melting of
the workpiece material
ii. SMAW(Shielded Metal Arc Welding)
Uses a consumable electrode clamped in the jaws of a hand held jaw.
Mainly for low carbon/low alloy steels.Electrode coated with flux is to creates an
inert gas that helps to floats out the impurities and form air tight seal over the weld
( slag ).The slag must chipped away. Using low voltage/high current AC/DC.
The temperature is approximately 100000F.
iii. GMAW(Gas Metal Welding)
Formally called MIG (Metal Inert gas ).Uncoated filler rod as an electrode that is fed
through a handle, when trigger is depressed with inert gas flow out to protect the
weld from oxidation forms.The consumable electrode of the same material as the
base metal being used normally.Inert gas used such as argon / helium / carbon
iv. TIG/Gas Tungsten Arc Welding ( GTAW )
Commonly called TIG ( tungsten Inert Gas) or trademarks as Heliarc / Heliweld.
Non consumable electrode with straight / reverse polarity DC/AC.Filler rod is fed
into molten metal that cause by the arc between electrode and the work. Enert gas
flows around the weld to prevent the formation of oxide in the puddle. TIG/GTAW
normally preferred over oxyacetylene as can stabilize the temperature of the welded
area/heat concentrate at the weld area only.
3. What is electric resistance welding?
Electric resistance welding refers to a group of welding process such as spot and
seam welding that produce coalescence of faying surfaces where heat to form the
weld is generated by the electrical resistance of material combined with the time and
the force used to hold the materials together during welding. Some factors
influencing heat or welding temperatures are the proportions of the work pieces, the
metal coating or the lack of coating, the electrode materials, electrode geometry,

electrode pressing force, electrical current and length of welding time. Small pools of
molten metal are formed at the point of most electrical resistance as an electrical
current (100100,000 A) is passed through the metal. In general, resistance welding
methods are efficient and cause little pollution,
4. Describe the resistance welding types.
There are 2 types of resistance welding with are Spot Welding and Seam Welding.
Spot Welding
Use two cooper electrodes held in jaws and the work clamp between them. Current
flow through electrode and metal. Resistance of metal is higher than electrode than
the metal melts and welding itself.
Seam Welding
Metals is rolled between two copper wheels as the electrode. Normally used on fuel
tank to provide continues air tight. Lap weld is a welded seam in which two pieces of
metal overlap and are welded together.
5. Describe the following types of welded joints?
i. Butt
Used to join metal forms such as sheet, bar, plate, tube and pipe. In aircraft
application,generally are not used for joining tubing because they are too weak for
aircraft structure. A typical butt weld should penetrate 100% of thickness of the base
ii. Tee
Quite common in aircraft work, particularly in tubular structure. The plain tee joint is
suitable for most aircraft metal thickness. Thicker metal require the vertical member
to be either single or double beveled to permit the heat to penetrate deeply enough
iii. Lap
Seldom used in aircraft structures when welding with gas, but commonly used spot
welding.Single lap has very little resistance to bending and will not withstand
shearing stresses.Double lap joint is stronger, but require twice the welding of the
simpler, more efficient.
iv. Corner
When two pieces of metal are brought together so their edges forms a corner of a box
or rectangle.Used where load stresses are not significant.
v. Edge
Where load stresses are not significant, edge joints may be used to joint two pieces of
sheet metal.To form, bend the edges of one or both part upward, place the two ends
parallel to each other and weld along outside of the seam form by two edges.
6. Explain a properly completed weld?
The bead should be smooth and uniform on thickness. The weld should be built up to
provide extra thickness at the seam.The bead should taper off smoothly into the base
metal. No oxide should be formed on the base metal further than -inch form the
weld.There should be no sign of pitting, cracking, burning or warping.

7. Name the features of a welded joint?

Bead: The metal that is deposited as the weld is made.
Face: The exposed surface of the weld.
Root: The depth that fusion penetrates into the base metal.
Throat: The distance through the center from the root to the face.
Toe: The edges formed where the face of the weld meets the base metal.
Reinforcement: The quantity of weld metal added above the surface of the base metal.

8. Describe Brazing and soldering?

Is a metal-joining process in which two or more metal items are joined together by
melting and flowing a filler metal into the joint, the filler metal having a lower
melting point than the adjoining metal. Brazing differs from welding in that it does
not involve melting the work pieces and from soldering in using higher temperatures
for a similar process, while also requiring much more closely fitted parts than when
soldering. Filler material melts above 8000F but below base metal to be joined. Non
structured repairs. The advantage is joining dissimilar metals with material melting
point above 8000F.
Is a process in which two or more items (usually metal) are joined together by
melting and putting a filler metal (solder) into the joint, the filler metal having a
lower melting point than the adjoining metal. Soldering differs from welding in that
soldering does not involve melting the work pieces Filler material melts above 8000F
and also below base metal to be joined.
9. Explain the correct procedure how to perform an evaluation of a welding.
The weld should be of consistent width throughout. The two edges should form
straight parallel lines. The face of the weld should be slightly convex with a
reinforcement of not more than 1/16 in. (1.6 mm) above the plate surface. The
convexity should be even along the entire length of the weld. It should not be high in
one place and low in another. The face of the weld should have fine, evenly spaced
ripples. It should be free of excessive spatter, scale, and pitting. The edges of the
weld should be free of undercut or overlap. Starts and stops should blend together so
that it is difficult where they have taken place. The crater at the end of the weld
should be filled and show no holes, or cracks.
10. Describe the procedure to perform Arc Welding on a part.
The ability using AC to keep the oxides off the heated metal. Clean with stainless
steel brush to removed oxides ten uses MEK or other recommended solvent. Use
electrodes specified by manufacturer. Starts arc with High Frequency Signal
( superimposed stabilization ) without touching the electrode to the work. When
looks frosty lift little and be ready to add filler rod.

11. Describe the procedure to perform Gas Welding on a part

Most aluminium welding done with SMAW but there are times when
aluminium is welded with either acetylene or hydrogen gas. Preferred
hydrogen gas because of its cleaner flame and less risk of oxidizing the
joint. Prepared the metal by cleaning the with aluminium brush.Heat the
metal and apply flux to the pieces and rod that will joined. Use light blue
welding goggle. Flame should be neutral or slightly carburizing to reduce
possibility of the metal oxidized during welding. Proper form bead will be
uniform in width ,height and also bright shinny surface. If oxidized, have
powdery white appearance and rough surface.