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STEAM TURBINE

500 MW

CRITICAL ACTIVITIES
(ASSEMBLY OF BRG. AT SITE)

ERECTION

1.

ASSEMBLY OF BEARING AT SITE


1.1.

GENERAL DESCRIPTION

The KWU design machine are supplied with four bearings out of which three are
the journal bearing and one is combined thrust and journal bearing on H.P.
rear end of the shaft. All the turbine bearing are self aligning type and they
adjust themselves as per the catenary of the machine.
The function of a journal bearing is to support the turbine shaft , but the
thrust bearing support the shaft as well as work as a fix point for the turbine
shaft. The contact arrangements between bearing and bearing supports are of
two types i.e. sphere to sphere in HP front and HP rear bearing and torus to
cylindrical in other bearings.
The bearings are supplied to site after ensuring their contact at works. During
erection all the bearing are supplied to site in aligned and assemble condition
in their individual pedestal from the works. After alignment of the bearing in
their pedestal the seat of the bearing are doweled before dispatch to site.
In case of Thrust and Journal bearing the seat of the bearing neither doweled
from the works nor it is recommended to be doweled at site. The bearings
need preparation before placement of module in position at site. This can be
done even before the placement of pedestal in position for grouting.

1.2.

ASSEMBLY PROCEDURE

1.2.1. After opening the pedestal remove and clean the bearing including its spherical/
cylindrical seat.
1.2.2. Remove oil guard ring and its duct and keep them in proper place for their
storage at site.

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited


Rev 00, 7-98

T1-08-0801G
Page No. 1of 40

STEAM TURBINE
500 MW

CRITICAL ACTIVITIES
(ASSEMBLY OF BRG. AT SITE)

ERECTION
1.2.3. Handle bearing carefully to avoid any damage to the babbit and
its
torus/spherical piece. During storage at site avoid direct loading of bearing on
its torus. A thick rubber seat may be used during handling of bearing at site on
its torus.
1.2.4. Ensure 0.03 feeler tightness on bearing parting plane. In case of any
variation the matter may be referred to designers.
1.2.5. Measure bore dia of the bearing and journal dia at site and ensure the oil
clearances. If any discrepancy is observed , designer may be referred.
1.2.6. Ensure torus/spherical contact with their seats at site. While checking the
contact the seat may be bolted with their pedestal. In case variation contact
from their specified diagrams are noticed then following may be carried out at
site:

In case of torus to cylindrical seats the line contact are recommended by


designers. If these lines are not straight and are in angle then the
bearing may be rejected straight way and sent to works for rectification. These
line contact may be in a width of about 20 mm throughout on its seat leaving
with area on both sides.
The contact may be wide in Center and then
gradually reducing on sides. In case there is no contact is achieved in the
center and only sides are having contact then a feeler gap may be recorded
in bottom. In case if the bottom is tight to a feeler of 0.03 mm the bearing
may be accepted at site without doing any rectification.

In a reverse case the contact are achieved in center only though the 0.03
feeler is not going in the side. The bearing may be still accepted at site. In
case if the feeler is going in the bottom or in sides by 0.03 mm. the bearing are
not accepted at site and can be sent back for the rectification to the works.
Similarly if the contact are intermittent on its seat but in a straight line and
no feeler is going the bearing may be accepted. In case of very wide contact
also the bearing may be sent back for the rectification. While checking these
contact very light color may be put on torus of the bearing. Before sending back
the bearing to the works the matter may be referred to designers and their
concurrence is to be obtained.
No scrapping/lapping is recommended in
these bearing for improvement of the contact.

In case of spherical to spherical bearing the contacts are called in the center
like a moon shape. In these bearings even full contact may be accepted.
But in case if there are contact on sides and a feeler gap is noticed on center
then the bearing may not be accepted.
In such cases if the gap
is upto 0.03 mm then
the
matching/lapping may be carried out at site. But in case of higher
gap the matter may be referred to designers. In case of reverse
case if the feeler gap of 0.03 is noticed on both sides of the

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited


Rev 00, 7-98

T1-08-0801G
Page No. 2of 40

STEAM TURBINE
500 MW

CRITICAL ACTIVITIES
(ASSEMBLY OF BRG. AT SITE)

ERECTION
bearing the bearing may not accepted at site and matter may be
referred to designers.

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited


Rev 00, 7-98

T1-08-0801G
Page No. 3of 40

STEAM TURBINE
500 MW

CRITICAL ACTIVITIES
(ASSEMBLY OF BRG. AT SITE)

ERECTION
1.2.7. Before checking the contact between torus and its seat ensure that the seat is
feeler tight to 0.03 mm without tightening of any bolts with the pedestal. If
necessary this may be corrected with consultation of designers. Similarly
ensure contact between torus\ spherical piece with bearing and in case of
variation the matter be referred to designers and no correction is to be carried
out at site without the approval of manufacturing unit.
1.2.8. Before checking the contact between torus/spherical piece with bearing and in
case of variation the matter may be referred to designers and no correction
is to be carried out at site without their recommendations.
1.2.9. The sizes of all the shims may be punched in bearing body and spherical/torus
piece of the bearing. The number of shims are to be limited to 3-4 numbers
only even after complete alignment of machine. A protocol for number of shims
may be prepared.
1.2.10.
Torus/spherical should not have any radial movement over its bearing.
This can be seen after opening the torus from the bearing.
1.2.11.
Check jacking oil lines of the bearing and clean them thoroughly.
Ensure jacking oil lines fittings also for their male female threads etc
otherwise this may create the oil leakage through these lines during operation
of the machine. The jacking oil pocket in the bearing may be checked if
necessary they may be corrected at site as per the drawings.
1.2.12.
When ever JOP is not available, use always thick oil during rotation of
shaft over bearing.The type of oil may be used as servo cylinder 1000 grade of
IOC.
1.2.13.
After installation of bearing in position the oil clearances may be
checked after few rotation of the shaft. But the final oil clearances are to be
checked after final coupling of the shaft. In case of variation in side oil
clearances no cutting of babbitt metal is permitted at site. Any variation in
clearances may be counter checked by measuring journal / bearing bore dia.
Bearing bore dia is to be measured by assembling and tightening of top &
bottom halves of bearing.
1.2.14.
In case of skew side oil clearances, the investigation may be carried out,
if necessary consult manufacturing unit.
1.2.15.
Ensure good contact between journal and babbitt metal of the bearing in
the center. Any minor high spot may be removed from the babbitt metal
while checking with blue color. Ensure full contact of shaft over the jacking oil
pocket also.
1.2.16.
Always cover rotor journal with the upper half bearing to avoid entry of
any sand particles etc. in the bearing . During pouring of oil the upper
bearing may be removed and replaced back after the pouring of oil.

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited


Rev 00, 7-98

T1-08-0801G
Page No. 4of 40

STEAM TURBINE
500 MW

CRITICAL ACTIVITIES
(ASSEMBLY OF BRG. AT SITE)

ERECTION
1.2.17.
After completing the reaming/honing and final tightening of coupling
bolts the work of bearing side pad, yoke keys and oil guard fitting may be taken
up.
1.2.18.
Before starting the side pad and top keys ensure that the bearing is
perfectly level on parting plane. Ensure that the gap for the side pads are
parallel otherwise these are to be made by cutting/scrapping.
1.2.19.
After fitting of the bearing cap if the gap for the radial top keys are in
taper a proper correction is to be made here. The bearing cap may also be
repositioned to achieve the parallelity of the key way. The cap may be redoweled after repositioning it but no taper are to be left on these area. If
repositioning of cap is not helping then the cutting may be carried out in
bearing cap.
1.2.20.
The gap for the top packer of bearing may also be checked. In case of
any taper the same is to be corrected by cutting on bearing cap. Sometime
the size of this packer comes to very low i.e. even below 5.00 mm. This may
be corrected by matching the cap and size for this packer may be kept around
6.00 mm.
1.2.21.
On all these bearing cap key a proper fitting and clearances are to be
maintained during assembly. These key of proper material are to be only used
and no welding deposits are permitted here. The new key may be made at site
by EN-24 material if correct key are not available at site.
1.2.22.
Use of local made shims in bearing may be avoided and shims supplied
from the works with proper cutting of holes are to be used. Ensure drawing
requirement of maximum adjustment at site by + 0.3mm in shim size from
manufactured condition.
1.2.23.
A proper care should be given during fitting of bearing oil guard ring
otherwise it causes the oil leakage during operation of the machine through
pedestals. Parting plane joint of oil guard ring and duct should be feeler tight
and no elongation of holes on these area may be permitted.
1.2.24.
The bearing parting plane bolt are to be tightened to required torque only
no other method of tightening of these bolts may be used.
1.2.25.
Adjustment of shims between spherical/torus and bearing body is limited
to +0.30 mm in up and down and left, right direction. this margin may be left
for emergency work during overhauling of the machine any adjustment during
erection and normal overhauling may be done by adjusting shims between
spherical/cylindrical seat and pedestal base only. For left and right adjustment
the complete pedestal of HP front and HP rear may be moved with the help of
their radial keys.
The above discussed points were common for Journal bearing
and combined thrust and journal bearing. Now some specific

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited


Rev 00, 7-98

T1-08-0801G
Page No. 5of 40

STEAM TURBINE
500 MW

CRITICAL ACTIVITIES
(ASSEMBLY OF BRG. AT SITE)

ERECTION
points are detailed here for the assembly of combined Thrust
and Journal bearing:

Remove all the thrust pads before placement of bearing in


position and store them in a proper place.

Pressure proper fitting of babbitt metal liner in the bearing body


including necessary pinch in the fitting of its liner.

During alignment of rotor along the bearing with respect to the


shaft

by moving

spherical

seat of

the

bearing radially and

axially.

No elongation of holes are to be carried out in spherical sat of


the bearing for the purpose of its alignment.
Before deciding axial position of the bearing the axial position of the
rotor is to be determined. If necessary the H.P. rear pedestal as a
whole may be shifted axially to ensure correct position of the
thrust bearing.

Align the thrust bearing in such a way that the thrust pad gap
achieved are prallel and no difference are noticed in front and
rear pad thicknesses.

Movement in the thrust pad should be ensured and a difference in


thickness of packers including shims should be with in + 0.10 mm
may be permitted on front and rear pad sizes in exceptional cases.

After ensuring the perfect alignment of the bearing the axial keys
are fitted after assembly of upper half bearing. These axial keys
are to be fitted in perfect parallel slots without any clearances.
The keys are to be fitted in such a way that there is no movement

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited


Rev 00, 7-98

T1-08-0801G
Page No. 6of 40

STEAM TURBINE
500 MW

CRITICAL ACTIVITIES
(ASSEMBLY OF BRG. AT SITE)

ERECTION
to the bearing during fitting of these axial keys. Necessary dial
gauges are to be installed on bearing during fitting of these keys.

After completion of axial key works of the bearing the thrust pads
may be fitted in the bearing with a clearance of about 0.10/0.15
mm.

Before fitting of pads in the bearing ensure that there dimension


are made parallel to suit the front and rear slot size of the bearing
(size between thrust collar and bearing body).

Ater fitting of pads in the bearing ensure their free movement


over the bearing.

Install lower half bearing in position along with their pads and put
very small quantity of oil on journal then rotate the rotor and put
blue color on the thrust collar of the rotor on both front and rear
side.

Install upper half bearing along with all pads and fix their axial
keys.

Rotate the rotor and move + direction axially with the help of
wooden planks. Remove both halves of the bearing and see the
blue contact on thrust pads. If necessary some cutting may be
carried out on

the pads to achieve

the

color contact. This

exercise may be repeated few times to achieve the blue contact

Ensure a float of 0.30 + 0.10mm during color matching of the


thrust pads. If necessary the minor adjustment of shims may be
carried out in the bearing pads.

Before installation of thrust bearing along

with thrust pads in

position the both halves may be bolted out side and their pads
may be checked for color contact over a surface plate also in
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited
Rev 00, 7-98

T1-08-0801G
Page No. 7of 40

STEAM TURBINE
500 MW

CRITICAL ACTIVITIES
(ASSEMBLY OF BRG. AT SITE)

ERECTION
front and rear both sides.

This will reduce the time cycle while

carrying out the color contact of the bearing with the rotor.

During overhauling of the unit

the bearing contact are to be

rechecked and need correction. In case of torus to cylindrical


type of bearing if

the contact are not satisfactory then the

bearing and its seat may be remachined at works.

In spherical

to spherical bearing the variation in contact if noticed


be

corrected

can

by matching/lapping at site. Sometimes the

heavy pitting marks are also noticed on same of the bearing and
these need correction by machining it.

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited


Rev 00, 7-98

T1-08-0801G
Page No. 8of 40

STEAM TURBINE
500 MW

CRITICAL ACTIVITIES
(ASSEMBLY OF BRG. AT SITE)

ERECTION

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited


Rev 00, 7-98

T1-08-0801G
Page No. 9of 40

STEAM TURBINE
500 MW

CRITICAL ACTIVITIES
(ASSEMBLY OF BRG. AT SITE)

ERECTION

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited


Rev 00, 7-98

T1-08-0801G
Page No. 10of 40

STEAM TURBINE
500 MW

CRITICAL ACTIVITIES
(ASSEMBLY OF BRG. AT SITE)

ERECTION

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited


Rev 00, 7-98

T1-08-0801G
Page No. 11of 40

STEAM TURBINE
500 MW

CRITICAL ACTIVITIES
(BUMP CHECK)

ERECTION

2.

BUMP TEST
The axial clearance check

is determined after

radial clearance

measurement has been completed.


In this case the shaft is shifted in the + and - directions from its
operating position and the dimensions with the shaft in limit position are
measured using a depth gauge.

Note: Enter the measured values ( actual dimensions ) on the record sheet
and compare them with the specified dimensions.

If the deviations from the specified dimensions is greater then the


permitted tolerances, the manufacturer must be consulted.

Note : Based on the readings of bump check, axial position of the shaft
wrt casing is not to be altered.

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited


Rev 00,
7-98

T1-08-0802G
Page No. 12of 40

STEAM TURBINE
500 MW

CRITICAL ACTIVITIES
(ROLL CHECK)

ERECTION

3.

ROLL CHECK
3.1.

GENERAL DESCRIPTION

In KWU machine the minimum radial clearances HP, IP and LP casing are
measured by actually by moving the casing radially at site while rotor is rotated
by hand. This is a very accurate and fast method of measuring the minimum
radial clearance of any of the casing.
The major variation in these reading may cause vibration in the machine
and obstruction in barring gear operation etc. Such facilities are not available
in many other designs of machine and causes longer duration in erection and
overhauling of the units.
After completing the alignment of rotors the casing alignments are carried out by
roll check method but equal importance should also be given to the centering of
HP and IP casing.
The centering of casing may not be fully sacrificed in comparison of rolling
test readings and a compromise between these two readings should be made.
The rolling test should be carried out in cold machine only.

3.2. PROCEDURE
ROLL CHECK OF HP AND IP CASING
3.2.1. Alignment and coupling of HP-IP and LP rotors are to be completed before
starting the rolling test of the casing in normal case but this can be done
without coupling of LP rotor also.

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited


Rev 00, 7-98

T1-08-0803G
Page No. 13of 40

STEAM TURBINE
500 MW

CRITICAL ACTIVITIES
(ROLL CHECK)

ERECTION
3.2.2. Centering of the casing on HP front, HP rear IP front and IP rear spigot are also
to be completed before starting of the rolling test. These readings can be
compared as per the factory protocol also. Fix temporary radial and axial
keys of the casing before rolling test of casing. During dialing on spigot a
proper care should be taken that the dials are properly mounted over the
fixture and the fixture fabricated at site is strong enough to give the correct
readings. The point dial indicator may be used here for the better results of the
dial readings.
3.2.3. All the four jacking screw of HP and IP casing are to installed along with dial
gauges for monitoring of up and down, and left and right movement of the
casing.
3.2.4. One number hydraulic jack on each corner of the casing along with a spanner
on each corner for jacking screw are also to be made available.
3.2.5. During erection of machine the turbine rotor are generally rotated by hand with
the help of periphery holes on coupling. Two pipes of about 1250 mm long
along with a pin to suit the dia of periphery may be used for rotating the rotor
shaft. The initial jerk to the rotor is given by the help of crane and it is further
rotated by these pipes through periphery holes of the coupling. During
overhauling generally the jacking oil system is available and the rotation of
rotors are achieved with the hand barring of the machine.
3.2.6. Before starting the rolling check it should be ensured that the rotor shaft is
absolutely
free
on
manual rotation/hand barring as the case may be.
During manual rotation two persons are to be employed for this work and
during hand barring only one person is enough.
3.2.7. Always use thick oil for rotation of rotor over bearing in absence of jacking oil
system. The type oil may be servo cylinder 1000 grade (IOC) oil.
3.2.8. During the rolling test the temporary casing packers are to be fitted with about
1.00 mm shims.
3.2.9. During the rolling test of any one of the casing the same is lifted first on all four
corners in a step of 0.05 mm with the help of hydraulic jack and jacking
screw. The rotor is also rotated manually side by side with the lifting of casing.
The rotation of rotor and lifting of casing continued till it becomes little bit
tight on the seals of the casing
After this the casing is lowered by about 0.05mm and rotor is
rotated again if it is completely free. In case the rotor is still tight
on its manual rotation the casing is further lowered by 0.05 mm
on all four corners. After ensuring the freeness of rotor it is again
rotated and casing is lifted simultaneously on front end till the
rotor rotation becomes tight on seals portion of the casing.
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited
Rev 00, 7-98

T1-08-0803G
Page No. 14of 40

STEAM TURBINE
500 MW

CRITICAL ACTIVITIES
(ROLL CHECK)

ERECTION
As soon as the shaft becomes tight the lifting

of casing and

rotation of shaft is stopped and dial readings on front end are


recorded. The average lift on front end of the casing is the bottom
clearance on front end of the casing.
After this the casing on front end is lowered by 0.05 mm and
freeness of rotor is ensured. In case it is still tight the casing is
further lowered by 0.05 mm. On front end and the freeness of
rotor is achieved. Now the rear end of the casing are lifted similar
to front end and bottom clearance of rear end are recorded . After
recording the bottom clearance of front and rear end of
individual casing the casing is lowered with the help of hydraulic
jacks and jacking screws to its original zero-zero position.
Repeat similar operation of rotating the rotor

and lowering the

casing on front and rear end for deciding the top clearance in
front and rear end of the casing. Before starting the rolling test in
downward direction of the casing remove about 1.00 mm shims
from each packer

of the

casing,

but

kept

the

casing

on

hydraulic jacks and jacking screws on its original position. The


casing is again brought back to

its

original position by

installation of the shims back to the packers of the casing after


recording the top clearances of the casing.
After recording the up and down rolling test values the radial
keys of the casing are removed and again rolling test for left
and right direction are done similar to up and down. During this
process the radial dial on the casing are also installed. After
this check the casing is brought back to its zero position in radial
direction also.
After completing the rolling test readings of one of the HP/IP
casing

in up/downand

left/right

direction

the clearances are

readjusted as required at site in radial direction by moving the


Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited
Rev 00, 7-98

T1-08-0803G
Page No. 15of 40

STEAM TURBINE
500 MW

CRITICAL ACTIVITIES
(ROLL CHECK)

ERECTION
casing with the help of temporary radial key or shims on the casing
packers. The casing is then locked on four corners and
dial readings of spigot

final

are recorded on front and rear end.

Immediately after this the final radial key of the casing are fixed
and the locked of the casing are released for fitting of the final
casing packers. The final spigot dial reading are repeated and
confirmed with the earlier readings.
3.2.10.
After doing the full rolling test and fixing of a final radial keys and
packers of one of the casing the rolling test of another casing is done including
the fitting of final keys and packers.
3.2.11.
Necessary offset in the radial clear-ance is also kept before fitting of
final packers of the casing toward the lift of the shaft during operation of the
unit.
3.2.12.
No inlet and outlet pipes are to be welded with the casing till completion
of rolling test and installation of final keys and packer of the casing.

3.2.13.
Radial clearance of the casing are to be ensured with reference to the
factory supplied protocol also.
3.2.14.
After fitting of final keys and packers of the casing the final spigot dial
values of HP front, HP rear, IP front and IP rear casing are to be recorded
for future reference in the protocol.
3.2.15.
The horn drop readings are also to be checked after the fitting of final
packer of the casing.
3.2.16.
In case of IP casing the roll test readings are to be taken with the IP
front end rear shaft scales. The spigot dial readings are also to be taken over
the spigot of shaft seales.
3.2.17.
During rolling test of the HP and IP casing if the rotor is rotated over the
jacking oil then the adjustment of readings are to adjusted for the lift of the
rotor also.
3.2.18.
Four numbers 1.00 mm undersize packers for HP & IP casing may be
made during erection and supplied to customers as T&P items for further roll
test during overhauling of the unit. If any taper is left on final packers of the
casing then these four packers may be made to similar taper also.

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited


Rev 00, 7-98

T1-08-0803G
Page No. 16of 40

STEAM TURBINE
500 MW

CRITICAL ACTIVITIES
(ROLL CHECK)

ERECTION
3.3.

ROLLING TEST OF L.P. INNER CASING

3.3.1. The rolling test of L.P. inner casing is done similar to the HP or IP casing but
both side joints of L.P. inlet bellows are kept free or bellow itself are not
positioned at all, till completion of rolling test. But during overhauling the
rolling test is done with already welded bellows.
3.3.2. Rolling test of L.P. inner casing is done after the neck welding of condenser
andstiffener pipes inside the condenser. This include the welding of stiffener
pipes of L.P. casing and gusset plates also.
3.3.3. After rolling test of the casing the final radial keys of the Gusset block and
casing packers on all four corners are installed.
3.3.4. Necessary offset in the radial clearances of the casing is also kept before
fitting of final L.,P. inner casing packers.
3.3.5. Radial clearances of the casing are to be ensured to the design values. In case
of any variation the matter may be referred to the designers.
3.3.6. If the rotor is rotated on jacking oil then the rolling test readings are to be
adjuted for the lift of the rotor also.

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited


Rev 00, 7-98

T1-08-0803G
Page No. 17of 40

STEAM TURBINE
500 MW
CRITICAL ACTIVITIES
(CATENARY AND ALIGNMENTS)

ERECTION

4.

CATENARY AND ALIGNMENTS


4.1.

General Description

The catenary of the machine is very important for a turbine and Generator
assembly to achieve proper alignment of various rotors and loading on their
bearing. Any

deviation may

lead to various operational

machine like high shaft vibration,

problem

in the

high bearing vibration, high babbitt metal

temperature of the bearing etc. To avoid these problems it is necessary to


maintain

the catenary

of the machine during erection

and subsequent

realignment/overhaul of the unit. Many times it is observed that though the


alignment of rotors are within limit but the catenary as a whole get deviated
from the prescribed design value of the machine. In order to avoid such
derivation a need is felt to devise a procedure which shall ensure rotors
alignment alongwith proper catenary of the machine.

During first few years of the operation of the unit the possibility to the
disturbance of the catenary are much more due to settlement of the foundation
frame.
In each overhaul of the unit the catenary of the machine is to be corrected.
The L.P. front and L.P. rear pedestal are directly grouted

here without any

separate base plate. As such any correction on lifting or lowering. These


pedestals are not very convenient

so if necessary the rotor may be lifted or

lowered with respect to pedestal seal bore and required catenary may be
achieved. In extreme cases these pedestals may be

even regrouted during

major overhauls of the unit to correct the catenary of the machine.


4.2.

Procedure

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited


Rev 00, 7-98

T1-08-0804G
Page No. 18of 40

STEAM TURBINE
500 MW
ERECTION

CRITICAL ACTIVITIES
(CATENARY AND ALIGNMENTS)

4.2.1. Install a bench mark plate near L.P. rear pedestal as height of the machine
center line with the consultation of civil Engrs at site. A plate of 200 m.m x
300 m.m size with 20 m.m thickness machined/ground on top side may be
welded over a I Beam or a channel in level condition. This plate is to be
installed very carefully as this will be a future reference for setting up the all
elevation of the machine.
4.2.2. Record half bore error of all the four pedestals and confirm the readings with
the factory records also. The half bore error may be checked in both upper half
and lower half of the pedestal and same may be punched on both halves in
left and right side for all future references of the machine.
4.2.3. During alignment of pedestal at the time of grouting with conbextra cement
set the height of the pedestals as per required catenary of the machine
considering +value for the half bore error of the pedestals. While setting the
height of the pedestals it should be kept in mind that the height for the center
of the pedestal bore are to be kept as per the catenary of the machine not
the parting plane of the pedestal.
4.2.4. For better results four water level jar connected to each other with a
polythene pipe may be installed on each pedestal. The D.M., water may be
used here and leakage through polythene tubes should be avoided fully while
making the connections. These jars may be fabricated at site by about 125 mm.
dia pipe with a plate welded in bottom and then machined for better seating on
pedestal base. The height of the jar may be kept as about 175 mm. A depth
micrometer installed and clamped over a magnetic base is also required for
measurement of the water level in the jar. The micrometer point is to be made
very sharp by grinding it. Here the magnetic base of the 0-10mm dial gauge
may be used.
4.2.5. .During measurement of water level in the jar the micrometer is to be kept
approximately in center of the jar. The micrometer along with the magnetic base
to be transferred from one pedestal to another pedestal very carefully so there
is no disturbance to the height of the micrometer. All the necessary care are to
be taken during this measurement i.e. there should not be any air bubble in the
polythene pipe and the polythene pipe should be kept as stationary.
4.2.6. While finalizing the catenary of the machine these measurements are to be
repeated 3-4 times in a day at different intervals to avoid any possibility of the
error.
4.2.7. The height of the L.P. rear pedestal is the reference point for setting the height
of all other pedestal and L.P. base plates. The L.P. rear pedestal height is to
be first made with the benchmark plate as per the center line of the machine
with the help of water level jar.
4.2.8. The benchmark plate is to be preserved for all future references.

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited


Rev 00, 7-98

T1-08-0804G
Page No. 19of 40

STEAM TURBINE
500 MW
ERECTION

CRITICAL ACTIVITIES
(CATENARY AND ALIGNMENTS)

4.2.9. The catenary is to be counter checked after grouting all the pedestals as well
as after final alignment of the rotors. The final value of the catenary may be
worked out as center of the shaft on each pedestal bore after taking the final
seal bore readings. The final catenary should match with the design value of
the catenary otherwise a necessary correction may be carried out.
4.2.10.
After ensuring the required catenary of
alignments are to be made as parallel coupling.

the machine the coupling

4.2.11.
The value of the catenary given over the drawing are theoretical value
calculated by the designers but due to the human error in site measurements
some time the correct coupling alignment are not achieved then an alternate
method for checking of catenary may also be used i.e. optical measurement
method or a method by which direct journal heights are taken on each bearing
in place of pedestal height.
4.2.12.
For measurements of direct journal height a special fixture is to be
fabricated and necessary information about it can be separately given by PS-TS
if such necessity arises.

5.

HORN DROP TEST


5.1.

General description

By horn drop test the loading of the casing on each corner is determined. The
horn drop test is repeated at various stages in individual casing i.e. first
without connection of any pipe lines the horn drop readings are recorded then it
is compared after welding of inlet, outlet and extraction pipe lines etc. The horn
drop readings are very important in HP & IP casing. First the proper horn drop
readings are made without connection of any pipe lines and then the reading
are taken after welding of all pipe lines on HP & IP casing. As such the
influence of these major pipe lines are notices on each corner of HP/IP
casing by comparing the horn drop test readings. The horn drop test will
indicate the quality of work during assembly/welding of pipe lines with the HP &
IP casing.

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited


Rev 00, 7-98

T1-08-0804G
Page No. 20of 40

STEAM TURBINE
500 MW
ERECTION

CRITICAL ACTIVITIES
(CATENARY AND ALIGNMENTS)

This is a very important check and may cause serious problem in operation of
the machine like high vibration in the machine failure of barring gear in hot/cold
machine, obstruction during expansion of machine etc. In horn drop test a drop
is measured on an individual corner of the casing with the help of a dial
indicator by removing the support of individual corner and then it is compared
with the opposite corner. As such this gives an indication of indifferent loading
of the casing.

In Russian design machine the value of direct dynoxmetre

loadings are recorded in place of this horn drop test.

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited


Rev 00, 7-98

T1-08-0804G
Page No. 21of 40

STEAM TURBINE
500 MW
ERECTION

CRITICAL ACTIVITIES
(CATENARY AND ALIGNMENTS)

5.1.1. Procedure
5.1.2. After placement of HP and IP casing on four temporary packers ensure that the
each corner of the casing is loaded on temporary packer and if necessary the
shims may be given on packer for loading of the casing. The load of shaft is also
taken on transport device during this stage.
5.1.3. After transferring the load of the rotor on bearing and ensuring the casing
centering with respect to shaft the horn drop check may be carried out.
5.1.4. Before taking the horn drop reading ensure that the enough clearance is
available on front & rear portion of the shaft with their seals in the casing
inside. After completing the centering of the casing the some may be lifted by
0. 20 mm on all four corners by providing shims. This will help in avoiding the
touching of seals with the rotor during the horn drop test readings.
5.1.5. No adjustment on packer of the HP front and HP rear pedestals are to be
carried out after taking the horn drop test of the casing In case if any
adjustment is carried out on these pedestal packers then horn drop test are to
be repeated again.
5.1.6. No piping may be connected to HP & IP casing till initial horn drop readings
are over. The piping work should not be postponed for want of horn drop the
only thing the last joint with HP/IP casing may be left free till completion of horn
drop check.
5.1.7. While recording the horn drop readings the casing must be absolutely free and
even the radial and axial key of front and rear portion of the casing are either
to be removed fully or these are to be made completely free by removing their
shims etc. Actually during this stage of erection only temporary axial and
radial keys are fitted in the casing and even they carry some shims also.
Before making the casings free on axial and radial key portion the dial
gauges are to be installed to monitor the movement of the casing on radial
and axial direction. Immediately after the completion of the horn drop test
these keys/shims may be installed back and centering of casing may be
rechecked before further works.
5.1.8. In HP casing the initial horn drop test may be done even after fitting of breach
nut assembly and HP exhaust elbow of both sides.
5.1.9. In IP casing the initial horn drop test may also be done after fitting of IP inlet
pipe lower half assembly but this pipe of upper half casing should not be
fitted till completion of the horn drop test.
5.1.10.
All the four Jacking screw and hydraulic jack on each corner of the
casing are to be installed for the horn drop test readings. A dial indicator is also
to be installed on each corner of the casing for measuring the drop of the
casing.
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited
Rev 00, 7-98

T1-08-0804G
Page No. 22of 40

STEAM TURBINE
500 MW
ERECTION

CRITICAL ACTIVITIES
(CATENARY AND ALIGNMENTS)

5.1.11.
After initial centering of the casing the each corner packer may be
fitted with a shim of about 1 mm. for further adjustment during the horn drop
test.
5.1.12.
During the horn drop test the individual packer of the casing is
removed and the load of that corner is supported over the jacking screw of the
casing. Now gradually the jacking screw is also relieved with the help of
hydraulic jack on that corner and drop reading is recorded. This is repeated
for each corner of the casing. In case of variation in left and right side
reading the drop is adjusted by + adjustment of shims from left to right side
or vise-versa. No subtraction / addition in shim sizes from outside is done
here and only the shims are adjusted from left to right or vise versa till equal
loading are achieved in left/right side of individual casing. The sizes of these
casing packers are recorded after completion of horn drop to avoid any
confusion at a later date while fitting the final packers.
5.1.13.
While recording the horn drop readings the drop on each individual
corner may be controlled with the help of Jacking screw so that during this
test the casing is not touching with the shaft in gland portion of the seals at all
and enough clearance is left there to avoid damage to the seals inside the
casing.
5.1.14.
During the initial horn drop the best reading within 0.05/0.06 may be
achieved by fine adjustment of the packer shims. The comparison in horn
drop value should always be made in left and right side only of an individual
casing.
5.1.15.
In case of HP casing the drop on rear end is so high that unless the
casing is locked on diagonally opposite end the horn drop check is not possible.
Therefore while recording drop on HP rear end the front end of the casing
diagonally opposite to it should be locked with casing clamp. The pedestal is
also required to be locked on all four side with its sole plate with the help of
the clamps. In case of IP casing no locking of any corner of the casing is
necessary during the horn drop test.
5.1.16.
The final packers on HP & Ip casing are installed only after completing
the rolling test of these casing., The horn drop reading for an individual casing
may be recorded after the fixing of final packers also. If necessary a fine
adjustment may be carried out at this stage to achieve correct value of the
horn drop reading.
5.1.17.
After completing the welding of all pipe lines with the casing , the horn
drop readings are repeated again for comparison with the earlier readings.
These readings are taken along with its radial and axial keys of the casing.

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited


Rev 00, 7-98

T1-08-0804G
Page No. 23of 40

STEAM TURBINE
500 MW
ERECTION

CRITICAL ACTIVITIES
(CATENARY AND ALIGNMENTS)

5.1.18.
During this stage exactly this can not be defined that how much
variation is permitted on these values of horn drop readings., But this
variation will indicate the influence of the piping load on the HP/IP casing
caused due to welding/connection of various pipe lines with the casing. The
variation in horn drop readings are permitted as long as sufficient positive
loading is there on each corner of the casing. But if any corner of the
casing is fully unloaded/heavily loaded then there is no choice left and pipe
lines are to be corrected by dismantling it and making again a free joint with
the casing.
5.1.19.
During variation of horn drop reading no correction is to be made on
casing packers by adjustment of shims etc. The variation at this stage is
caused due to the piping pull/push only so if any correction is required then
the same may be carried out in piping joints and support etc. And any
adjustment in piping supports can be carried out only after disconnecting the
pipe line with the casing. Even some time it is necessary to cut the individual
or more piping joint for correction of horn drop readings.
5.1.20.
The variation in horn drop reading of left and right side of a casing may
be permitted upto a difference of 50%.
5.1.21.
The horn drop readings are not taken for L.P. inner outer casing due to
its fabricated structure and the parting plane of the casing are leveled on
four corner with the help of water level jar arrangements.

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited


Rev 00, 7-98

T1-08-0804G
Page No. 24of 40

STEAM TURBINE
500 MW

CRITICAL ACTIVITIES
(SWING CHECK)

ERECTION

6.

SWING CHECK
6.1.

GENERAL DESCRIPTION

The swing

check is the measurement

of radial throw caused due to

coupling face geometric form of the two rotor coupled together. This is
measured on opposite end of the coupling and at the free end of the rotor. The
higher swing check value

may cause higher shaft vibration, higher bearing

shell temperature etc. The value of swing check depends on axial runout of
coupling faces, the diameter of the coupling and the length of the rotor. During
the machining of

rotors in the works some tolerances are permitted by

Designer's on the coupling faces of the rotor resulting to some swing check
values. The maximum swing
above tolerance

check values permitted caused due to the

for different diameter and length of the rotor

can be

worked out from the enclosed graph. However it is recommended to keep the
minimum swing check values for better results during operation of the machine.

In a multi rotor Turbine-Generator system it is essential to measure the swing


check value in both extreme end and where the weight of the rotors are light.
For example 200/210 M.W. KWU machine with Russian

Generator and

static excitation system the swing check values are measured on HP rotor front
end only. In 500 M.W. machine the swing check values are measured in H.P.
front end and on exciter rear end. After having general experience of number of
200 MW & 500 MW units, a necessity is felt to measure swing check value on
IP rotor front end also for better results during operation of the units. This can
be done initially during

erection with temporary

coupling before reaming/honing of coupling. Any

coupling bolts on LP-IP

variation in swing

check

values may be corrected without any hesitation during erection of machine.


Any compromise at

erection

stage may cause serious problem

during

operation of the unit and any correction becomes much more tedious a later

STEAM TURBINE
500 MW

CRITICAL ACTIVITIES
(SWING CHECK)

ERECTION
stage. The correction

may be

coupling position

by correcting

or

carried

out
the

either

by interchanging

coupling

faces

the
by

scrapping/cutting in consultation of Designers.

6.2.

PROCEDURE

6.2.1. Before placement of Module/Rotor in position the coupling faces of all the
rotors are to be measured for concavity/convexity of their coupling faces. This
can be checked with the help of a thin rectangular light weight straight edge.
No convexity is permitted on these coupling faces however a concavity of about
0.03/0.04 mm is permitted. In case of any variation the matter may be
referred to manufacturing units.
6.2.2. After placement of individual Module/Rotor the coupling faces are to be
measured for axial runout before taking up alignment of various rotors. The
HP rotor rear coupling face can be measured after placing it on both of its
bearing. The IP rotor faces are to be measured after placing IP rear end on
bearing and front end on lifting tackle. Similarly L.P. rotor, may be placed on
bearing on its rear end and front end supported on lifting tackle. Any variation
on axial runout on coupling faces for more then the 0.02 mm. may be referred
to Designer's before taking up further works.
6.2.3. After completing final alignment of various rotor they are to be coupled
with temporary bolts, considering their axial runout/geometric form of the
coupling faces.

STEAM TURBINE
500 MW

CRITICAL ACTIVITIES
(SWING CHECK)

ERECTION
6.2.4. During coupling with temporary bolts the higher plane of one of the rotor
face is to be coupled with lower plane of another coupling face of the rotor.
6.2.5. During coupling on temporary bolts the uniform tightening on all the four
temporary bolts are to be ensured otherwise it will disturb the swing check
value of the rotor.
6.2.6. First IP-LP coupling is to be made with temporary bolts and swing check on IP
rotor front end is recorded. After this only HP-IP rotor is to be coupled with
temporary bolts and the swing check value on HP front rotor is recorded.
6.2.7. During swing check of IP rotor its front end is to be supported on lifting
tackle without making any connection between HP-IP rotor.
6.2.8. While recording swing check of HP rotor the front end of the rotor is to be
supported on lifting tackle.
6.2.9. During swing check the lifting tackle are to be fitted properly. The tie rod of
lifting tackle should be ensured for correct fitting of its spherical bearing and
Molykote should be applied on these spherical bearing for their free
movement. These spherical bearing should not obstruct the movement of
shaft radially during checking of its swing check value.
6.2.10.
After taking the load of the rotor on lifting tackle ensure that the rotor is
not disturb radially due to fitting of lifting tackle.
6.2.11.
During checking of swing check measure radial movement of rotor on
parting plane and rotate the rotor either on jacking oil with hand barring or with
the help of E.O.T crane with thick oil on bearings. Avoid jerk during rotation of
rotor while recording the swing check values.
6.2.12.
After ensuring the swing check values as per the graph with on
temporary coupling bolts, the HP-IP and LP-IP coupling may be cleared for
reaming / honing of the coupling holes. Any variation need correction of the
coupling before reaming/honing of the holes.
6.2.13.
The final swing check value of HP front rotor is to be recorded after
fitting/ elongation of all the coupling bolts of HP-IP & LP-IP rotors. Any variation
in readings may be referred to the Designer's. For improvement of the swing
check values, the indifferent tightening and non-sequential
6.2.14.
During checking of swing check readings, the initial few rotations are to
be given to the rotor to avoid initial sag and then only the readings are to be
recorded.
6.2.15.
Similar method is to be adopted while checking the swing check value
of the exciter except the rotor is hanged on the suitable size of sling in place of
the lifting tackle.
6.2.16.
While recording the swing check initially with temporary bolts for HP
& IP rotor, the fitting of eight number temporary bolts are preferred in place of
four bolts on the coupling.

STEAM TURBINE
500 MW
ERECTION

CRITICAL ACTIVITIES
(SWING CHECK)

STEAM TURBINE
500 MW

CRITICAL ACTIVITIES
(COUPLINGS & ALIGNMENTS
OF ROTORS)

ERECTION

7.

COUPLINGS & ALIGNMENTS OF ROTORS


7.1.

GENERAL DESCRIPTION

The coupling on turbine shaft are generally rigid coupling but in case of L.P.
rotor sometime the coupling head are shrunk fit and remachined. The basic
function of any coupling is to connect two or more shaft together to form a
shaft assembly. The number of shaft mainly depend upon the rating of the
machine.
A very high accuracy is required during manufacturing of these rotor shaft
at works. The axial runout on the coupling face may not exceed 0.02 mm.
and an additional check is also made at works/site to ensure that the geometry
of the entire coupling surface does not deviate by more then the 0.02 mm.
except the concavity on the coupling face which is permitted upto 0.03/0.04
mm.
The radial and axial alignment of the various shafts are to be completed
before their coupling and alignments are to be done in such a way that the
entire shaft assembly follow the continuous deflection curve given over the
drgs. for a particular machine. The coupling checks determines both the radial
and axial position of the two adjacent coupling flanges relative to one another.
The radial

measurement

are

performed

on

the circumference of the

couplings and the axial measurement are performed on outer most diameter
of the coupling. During coupling of the two shafts it should be ensured that the
no stresses are exerted as a results of the coupling each other shaft.
After completion of the alignment and coupling of the shaft the casings are
aligned radially and axially. Here equal importance is given to the radial & axial
alignment

of stationary parts to avoid any rubbing

during operation of the

machine due to expansion of stationary and rotary parts.

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited


Rev 00,
7-98

T1-08-0807G
Page No. 29of 40

STEAM TURBINE
500 MW
ERECTION

CRITICAL ACTIVITIES
(COUPLINGS & ALIGNMENTS
OF ROTORS)

During the alignment of two coupling both are to


and

by

be turned in same direction

the same amount when the measurement are taken to avoid

the

influence of the axial & radial runout present in the shaft caused due to the
machining.

7.2.

PROCEDURE

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited


Rev 00,
7-98

T1-08-0807G
Page No. 30of 40

STEAM TURBINE
500 MW
ERECTION

CRITICAL ACTIVITIES
(COUPLINGS & ALIGNMENTS
OF ROTORS)

7.2.1. Before placement of module/rotor in position check and record the coupling
hole and journal dia of the shaft.
7.2.2. Check coupling faces
for the concavity/convexity with the help of a
thin rectangular straight edge before placement of module/rotor in position.
7.2.3. Check spigot and recess of the
placement in position.

coupling and

ensure their

fitting

before

7.2.4. Place the module/rotor in position and check the radial runout of journal and
axial runout of the coupling faces
independently of each shaft. During
checking of radial and axial runout of the shaft place H.P. rotor on both of its
bearing and IP/LP rotor one end on its bearing and another end on the lifting
tackle. The radial and axial face runout on the shaft should be within 0.02 mm
accuracy. Any variation may not be permitted here and matter may be referred
to the designer's.
7.2.5. The HP,IP & LP rotor are aligned together and then their couplings are made.
After fully completion of HP/IP & IP/LP coupling with tightening of their final
bolts the complete shaft is cleared for Generator rotor alignment.
7.2.6. During initial alignment of HP/IP & IP/LP rotor the radial checks are generally
done with the help of depth micrometer and axial gap are measured with
the slip gauges. After completion of the radial alignment the rotor are inserted
in their spigot even with some minor variation in their axial gap values.
7.2.7. During final alignment only the axial gap values are checked at 90o on four
places by rotating both the rotor together and average of these four reading
are taken. The radial alignment reading along with axial gaps are necessary
wherever the effective spigot are not existing in two couplings i.e. in case of LP
- Gen coupling the radial dial reading are also taken.
7.2.8. Avoid rotation of two shaft in their spigot. If necessary these may be rotated
after taking out from their spigot.
7.2.9. During alignment of shafts the adjustment of shims in bearing torus may be
fully avoided. The margin of + 0.30 mm. in height & left/right direction may be
kept for emergency works only. Any adjustment during erection and normal
overhauling may be done by adjusting shims between spherical/cylindrical seat
and pedestal base only. For left and right adjustment the complete H.P. front
and HP rear pedestal may be moved with the help of their radial keys.
7.2.10.
The final packers of the pedestal and base plates are fitted before the
grouting of the pedestal itself and here no adjustment is necessary during
erection of the machine. But during overhauling of the machine the adjustment
may be carried out in these packers for correction of catenary of the machine.

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited


Rev 00,
7-98

T1-08-0807G
Page No. 31of 40

STEAM TURBINE
500 MW
ERECTION

CRITICAL ACTIVITIES
(COUPLINGS & ALIGNMENTS
OF ROTORS)

7.2.11.
During alignment of rotor make HP/IP and IP/LP coupling gap parallel.
After completion of final alignment no adjustment of packers and keys etc are
permitted on pedestals and bearing the final alignment of HP/IP & IP/LP rotors
should be checked after fitting of all the final keys and packers of the pedestals.
7.2.12.
After alignment couple the HP-IP & IP-LP rotors on temporary bolts.
Record coupled runout of the rotor and ensure that the coupled runout is
not more then 0.03 mm. in any where in the journal as well as in coupling
area. Before coupling of rotor on temporary bolts record their spigot
clearances by actually moving the rotor radially.
7.2.13.
During erection IP-LP swing check on IP front and HP-IP swing check
on HP front are to be recorded on temporary bolts. These reading are to be
ensured within the design limit.
7.2.14.
Before alignment/coupling position the two shaft adjustment to each other
depending upon the higher and lower point of the shaft with respect to their
axial face measurement values.
7.2.15.
The HP-IP & IP-IP coupling may be cleared for reaming/honing after
ensuring the runout and swing check values of the rotors. In case of variation
the cause of the error may be identified and corrected before further work of
reaming and honing of the coupling.
7.2.16.
During coupling of rotors two taper pins may be used for proper
alignment of coupling holes so that there is minimum enlargement of holes
are done at site during reaming/honing. Unnecessary enlargement of holes
may be fully avoided during reaming/honing at site as this may cause serious
problem at a later date during overhauling of the unit.
7.2.17.
As for as possible ream/hone all the coupling bolts holes to
same size. In exceptional cases only the variation in hole sizes are
permitted. Each hole during honing should be checked for bananas shape with
the help of a parallel ground straight pin of 0.02/0.03 undersize. No banana
shape is permitted in any of the hole. The hole should be made to 0.005 mm
accuracy.
7.2.18.
All the coupling bolts are to be machined and ground by 0.02/0.03 mm
undersize then the hole dia. These bolts are to be fitted with thumb pressure
only and no additional force is recommended while fitting these bolts.
7.2.19.
A very thin layer of molykote may be applied on all the coupling
bolts during their fitting. The molykote should not be applied on seating
face of the coupling bolts. This may cause in breaking of their locking pin
during elongation of coupling bolts.

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited


Rev 00,
7-98

T1-08-0807G
Page No. 32of 40

STEAM TURBINE
500 MW
ERECTION

CRITICAL ACTIVITIES
(COUPLINGS & ALIGNMENTS
OF ROTORS)

7.2.20.
All the coupling bolts are to be balanced before finally fitting/tightening
in position. These are to be balanced within an accuracy of 5 gms each along
with their nuts. In case all these bolts are of equal size then their weight must
be equal. In exceptional cases the 180o opposite bolts may be made of equal
weight.
7.2.21.
During tightening of coupling at any stage first tighten four bolts on 90o
location. Always tighten bolts in proper sequence with 180o opposite
bolts. These bolts are to be elongated to the value given over drgs.
7.2.22.
During tightening
of coupling
the radial runout on journal and
coupling may be checked at various stages during tightening of bolts. The
final coupled runout should not be more then 0.03 mm. on coupling and journal
of the shaft.
7.2.23.
After final tightening of LP-IP and HP-IP coupling the swing check
value on HP front rotor is to be rechecked. In case of variation in value a
proper correction is
to be made with consultation of designer's. The
indifferent or unsequential tightening for achieving the swing check value or
coupled runout value may be fully avoided. this may cause unnecessary
stresses on the coupling.
7.2.24.
After completing the coupling work
alignment may be done.

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited


Rev 00,
7-98

the casing

radial

and axial

T1-08-0807G
Page No. 33of 40

STEAM TURBINE
250 MW
ERECTION

CRITICAL ACTIVITIES
(Welding of steam inlet and exhaust
pipe lines with HP and IP casing)

Welding of steam inlet and exhaust pipe lines with HP


and IP casing
In 210 MW machine the HP Turbine is supplied with two inlet and two exhaust
flanges for connection of the pipe line.but in case of 500/250 MW HP Turbine
the casing is supplied with four inlet flanges also. As such in 200 MW machines,
only two ESV control valves are used in the system. Whereas in 500/250 MW
machines , It may be either two ESV oontrol valves or four ESV control valves to
cope with the design of the casing.
Similarly in 210 MW machines, the I.P. casing is supplied with two inlet flanges
and eight number exhaust branches or either two exhaust branches only along
with two inlet flanges. These eight number exhaust branches are distributed four
on each side of the casing and each four branches are joined together with one
common pipe while connected to L.P. casing. The 500 MW I.P. casing is similar
to the 210 MW I.P. casing but some time these are supplied with four numbers
of I.V. control valves also. The inlet lines from each two control valves are joined
together and make one connection with the I.P. casing in bottom. As such in 210
MW machines, only two I.V. control valves are used but in case of 500 MW
machines, there can be either two I.V. control valves or four I.V. control valves.
After completion of the rolling test the installation of final keys and packers of the
H.P. and I.P. casing, the same can be cleared for welding of inlet and outlet
pipelines. The main steam inlet line from main steam strainer to the control
valves and then from control valves to the H.P. casing need much more care
during erection / welding of the pipelines.

Similarly the Hot Reheat lines

between two Hot Reheat strainer to the control valves and from control valves to
the I.P. casing also need equal care during erection / welding of these pipelines.
These pipelines are directly affecting the performance of the turbine during
operation of the machine and a necessity is felt to fully involve the turbine
Erection Engineer in erection / welding of the pipelines at site along with the
Piping Engineers. The piping connection between I.P. casing to L.P. casing i.e.
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited
Rev 00,
7-98

T1-17-0808G
Page No. 34of 40

STEAM TURBINE
250 MW
ERECTION

CRITICAL ACTIVITIES
(Welding of steam inlet and exhaust
pipe lines with HP and IP casing)

cross around piping also need proper care but due to its construction with
number of bellows in the system. Present method of erection / welding much of
the problems are not faced during operation of the machine. However if proper
care is not taken here then that may cause the unnecessary loading on the
various bellows of the piping and reduction in their life. In case, if proper care is
not taken during erection / welding of MS inlet, CRH & HRH connections with HP
& IP casing, a load will be transfer from the pipe line to the casing. Which may
cause vibration in the machine, obstruction in expansion of the machine,
obstruction of barring gaer operation in hot / cold machine, higher babbit metal
temperature and failure of brg. babbit etc. during operation of the machine.

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited


Rev 00,
7-98

T1-17-0808G
Page No. 35of 40

STEAM TURBINE
250 MW
ERECTION

8.

CRITICAL ACTIVITIES
(Welding of steam inlet and exhaust
pipe lines with HP and IP casing)

PROCEDURE
8.1.

The following points are to be taken care while welding MS, CRH, HRH
pipelines with HP & IP casing and control valves / strainers.

8.1.1. The HP & IP casings are to be cleared in all respects after fitting of final packers
and axial / radial keys of the casing.
8.1.2. The ESV & IV valves are to be cleared after fitting of their servomotors and then
levelling including the correct elevation etc.
8.1.3. The equivalent insulation weight is to be given on each control valve befor
connection of any pipeline with the valve. The change in hanger value of the
control valve is to be adjusted back by lifting the valve with the help of hangers.
The control valve hanger reading should remain same as before and after
installation of equivalent insulation weight on the valve. After this all the three
hangers of each valve are to be locked to avoid any movement of the valve in
upward direction, in case the equivalent insulation weight is removed or any of
the servomotor is removed. Before starting of any welding with the control valve
the valves are to be locked for their movement.
8.1.4. Erection and welding of MS line upto MS strainer and HRH strainer are to be
completed first including either their insulation or equivalent weight is to be given
for their insulation weight in the lines. These lines should be in perfect floating
condition on their hangers before taking up the further work of MS & HRH lines
upto the ESV & IV control valves.
8.1.5. Install MS & HRH lines between strainer and control valves and weld all the
inbetween joins of the pipelines except the end joints with the valves and
strainers. These lines are to be erected in such a way that both the end joints
remain free and parallel with the strainer and control valve after taking their load
on hangers. The freeness of joints are to be ensured after giving the equivalent
insulation weight of the lines.
8.1.6. Weld MS & HRH lines with the strainers and again ensure the freeness /
paralalllity of MS & HRH lines with the ESV and IV control valves. Any minor
variation may be readjusted on hangers to obtain the freeness of the joints with
the control valve.
8.1.7. Install the MS and HRH lines between control valves and HP /IP casing . Now all
the in between joints may be keeping the end joints free with the valve and the
casing. The erection of these lines are to be done in such a way that freeness
and parallelity of end joints are achieved after fully floating the pipe lines on their
hangers. The equivalent insulation weights are also to be added during erection
of these pipe lines before welding the end joints.

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited


Rev 00,
7-98

T1-17-0808G
Page No. 36of 40

STEAM TURBINE
250 MW
ERECTION

CRITICAL ACTIVITIES
(Welding of steam inlet and exhaust
pipe lines with HP and IP casing)

8.1.8. After ensuring the freeness and parallelity of the end joints between ESV control
valve and HP casing , the same may be welded together. But the stress
relieving of all the in -between joints of the lines are to be completed before
taking up work of the above last two end joints . Similar proceedure may be
followed for the lines between I V valves and IP casing also.
8.1.9. Weld left and right MS and HRH joints togethers with the HP and IP casing to
avoid any left and right loading on the casing . during welding the left and right
movements of casing may be monitored by installing the radial dial gauge on the
casing.
8.1.10.
The CRH lines are to be erected on their permanent hangers and the
joint with the HP casing are to be made free /parallel after floating the pipe lines.
The left and right side casing joints are to be welded together , similar to MS
lines but before weling of these line the in- between joints are to be completed
first . The equvalent insulation weight is also to be given on these line while
checking the freeness of end joints with the HP casing.
8.1.11.
The horn drop readings are to be recorded for both HP and IP casing after
copletion of the job including insulation of pipe lines and control valve etc.

8.2. SPECIAL CARE

8.2.1. If possible keep the insulation weight and servomotors on ESV and I V control
valves during erection /welding of these MS & HRH lines from strainers to the
valve and casing . If the above condition are fulfilled then there no need of any
locking of the valves during the welding of any pipe lines.
8.2.2. The control valves hanger readings are to be measured with the inside
micrometer in various stages and changes are to be monitored properly . The
readings are to be measured in the following stages : After complete leveling of ESV and IV control valves with their
servomotors
After putting the equivalent insulation weight on the control
valves.
After readjustements of control valve height equivalent to
insulation weight.
After connection of MS &HRH lines with the strainers .
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited
T1-17-0808G
Rev 00,
7-98
Page No. 37of 40

STEAM TURBINE
250 MW
ERECTION

CRITICAL ACTIVITIES
(Welding of steam inlet and exhaust
pipe lines with HP and IP casing)

After connection of MS & HRH lines with the HP & IP casing .


After complete insulation of control valve and pipings.
8.2.3. Ensure proper clraning of MS and HRH lines between controls valve and casing
as these lines are not covered in steam blowing operation . Proper care is to be
taken during erection of these lines to avoid entry of foreign material.
8.2.4. The steam blowing of the MS and HRH pipe line are to be carried out after fully
completing the erection /welding of lines from control valve to the HP and IP
casing .
8.2.5. All the four corners of the casing may be locked with the casing clamp during
welding of piping joints to avoid movement of casing radially.
8.2.6. The load of the upper half HRH pipe upto the flange supplied by turbine supplier
is taken by the IP casing and by the piping hangers. This may be taken care
while erecting the HRH lines.

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited


Rev 00,
7-98

T1-17-0808G
Page No. 38of 40