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8/27/2016

Shari'ahLawsPertainingtoHiringandTenancybyMuftiEbrahimDesai

Shari'ahLawsPertainingtoHiringand
Tenancy

Q:MuhtaramMuftiSahebAssalaamuAlaykumWaRahmatullaahi
ThemajorityofourMuslimcommunityarebusinessmenandareoftenengagedinIjaarah
(hiring).InorderforustoconductourbusinessaccordingtotheShari'ah,itwillbe
appreciatedifyoucouldexplaintoustherulesandprinciplesofIjaarah.

A:Generally,therearetwogroupsofpeopleinsociety:a)thewealthy,whoaredependant
onotherstoconducttheiraffairs,andb)Thepoorwhodependonthewealthybyserving
themtoearnanincome.Thisisalsounderstoodfromthefollowingverse:
"Wedistributeamongthemtheirlivelihoodinthelifeofthisworld,andWe
haveexaltedsomeofthemaboveothersindegrees,thatsomeofthemmay
takeothersinsubjectionandthemercyofyourLordisbetterthanwhatthey
amass."(Zukhruf32)
AllaamahSarakhsi(RA)statesthattheabovementionedversereferstoIjaarah(hiring)
andformsthebasisforitspermissibility.(BahasoNazarpart25pg.10)
ThaabitibnDhahhaak(RadhiallaahuAnhu)statesthatRasulullah(SallallaahuAlayhi
Wasallam)said,"Thereisnothingwronginhiring."(Mishkaatpg.258Me'raaj)
TheFuqahaa(Jurists)haveexplainedtherulesandprinciplesofhiringandhereunderisa
summarisedversionofthat:

Definition
Totakepossessionofaniteminlieuofafee.(RaddulMukhtaarvol.10pg.4HMSaeed)
Prerequisites
Thecontractualagreementofhiringisestablishedwithaproposal(Iejaab)andacceptance
(Qubool)inthepasttenseandinonesittingwithwordsimplyinghiring,forexample,the
landlordsays,"Ihavehiredthehousetoyou"andinthesamesittingthetenantsays,"I
haveaccepted."(FataawaHindiyyavol.4pg.409Rashidiyya)
Conditions
1.Bothpartiesmustbesane.Thecontractualagreementofapermanentlyor
temporarilyinsanepersonisinvalid.(Ibidpg.410)
2.Itisnotnecessaryforbothoranyonepartytobeanadult(attainedmaturityorat
least15yearsofage).Ifaminorenteredintoacontractualagreementwiththe
consentofhis/herguardian,itwillbevalid.Iftheguardiandidnotconsent,thenthe
contractwillbesubjecttotheapprovaloftheguardian.(Ibid)
3.Thecontractualagreementmustbespecific.Thereshouldbenoambiguityinthe
agreementthathasapotentialofadisputeinfuture.Inhiringbenefits,forexample,
ahouseorshop,therentalamount,theperiod,etc.mustbespecified.Inhiring
services,forexample,ateacher,hissalary,workdescription,contractperiod,etc.
mustbespecified.Ifthereisanyambiguityinthecontractualagreementthatmay
leadtoadispute,thecontractwillbeinvalid.(Ibidpg.411).Inordertoavoid
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8/27/2016

Shari'ahLawsPertainingtoHiringandTenancybyMuftiEbrahimDesai

disputes,itisemphasisedtoreduceagreementstowriting.Verbalagreementsmay
leadtomisunderstandingsanddisputes.
4.Whentheagreementisconcluded,thelandlordorhisrepresentativemustbeableto
handoverthepremisesasagreed.Ifheisunabletohandoverthepremisesfor
whateverreason,theagreementwillbeinvalid.Ifthereisnoobstacleinhanding
overthepremises,heshoulddosoasagreed.(Ibid)
5.Thetenantorthelesseemustbeabletobenefitfromwhateverishired.Ifitisnot
possible,forexample,thehiredpropertyisinauctionduetoinsolvencyorthehired
carisstolenfromthelessor,thentheagreementwillbeinvalid.(Ibid)
6.ThehireditemmustnotbeHaraam,forexample,gamblingmachines.(Hidayavol.3
pg.303Ashrafiyya)
7.Thetenantorlesseehastherighttoseethehireditemevenafterconcludingthe
agreement.Ifthetenantorlesseedisapprovesthenhehastherighttocancelthe
agreement.(BahasoNazarpart25pg.23)
TypesofHiredPersons
AjeereKhaas(Exclusivelyhiredperson)
AnAjeerKhaasishewhoishiredbyonepersononlyandhis(hiredperson)positionisthat
ofanAmeen(anentrustedperson).Whateverisgiventohimbyhiscontractorisan
Amaanat(trust).AnAmeenwillnotberesponsibleforthelossofanentrusteditemifhe
didnotdoanydeliberateharmortherewasnonegligenceonhisbehalf.Thefeesofthe
hiredpersonmustbespecified.(Hidayavol.3pg.293Ashrafiyya).Thecommonhabit"do
thework,Iwillpayyousomething"isnotpermissible.Whenthehiredtimeexpires,the
contractorisboundtopaytheAjeereKhaasevenifthecontractordidnotusehimtodo
anywork.(BahasoNazarpart25pg.36)
AjeereAam(Commonlyhiredperson)
AnAjeereAamishewhoisnothiredbyanyoneparticularperson.Thepositionofan
AjeereAamisofaKafeel(guarantor)andhewillberesponsibleforthelossofpeople's
itemsgiventohimifhehascauseddeliberateharmorthelosswasduetohisnegligence.
(FataawaHindiyyavol.4pg.500Rashidiyya).Forexample,ifamotormechanicparkedthe
carofhisclientathisgaragewheretherewasahighriskoftheftandthecargotstolen
fromthere.AnAjeereAamwillbeentitledforfeesonlyuponcompletionofthecontract
giventohim.Thehiredpersonshouldbepaidtimeously.
HadhratAbdullahibnUmar(RadhiallaahuAnhu)narratesthatRasulullah(SallallaahuAlayhi
Wasallam)said,"Paythehiredpersonhisfeebeforehissweatdries."(Mishkaatpg.258
Qadeemi).TodelaypaymentwithoutanyvalidShar'eereasonisamajorsin.
SomeResponsibilitiesoftheTenant
1.Thetenantisresponsibleforthedailymaintenance,sweeping,removinggarbage,
etc.oftheproperty.(BahasoNazarpart25pg.39)
2.Thetenantcannotdoanythingthatwilldamagetheproperty.Ifhedamagesthe
property,thelandlordcanterminatetheleaseagreement.(Ibid)
3.Ifthetenantmadeextensionsorrenovationswiththeconsentofthelandlord,hemay
claimtheexpensesofthatfromthelandlord.Ifhedidnottaketheconsentofthe
landlord,hecannotclaimtheexpensesfromthelandlord.(Ibid)
4.Itispermissibleforthetenanttosubletthehiredproperty.(Ibid)
SomeResponsibilitiesoftheLandlord
a.Thelandlordwillberesponsibletorepairthosethingsofthepropertywhichresultsin
thetenantnotbeingabletobenefitfromtheproperty,forexample,noelectricity,
etc.(Ibid)
b.Thelandlordmustprovideallthosethingsthatarenecessarytobenefitfromthe
hiredproperty,forexample,keysofthesecuritygates,etc.(Ibid)
HiringofWaqfProperty(Musjidproperty,etc.)
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Shari'ahLawsPertainingtoHiringandTenancybyMuftiEbrahimDesai

ThehiringofaWaqfpropertywillbegovernedbytherulesandprinciplessetoutbythe
Waaqif(donor).(AlAshbahWannazaair)
IftheWaaqifdidnotspecifyatimelimitforhiringoftheWaqfproperty,thentheWaqf
propertycanbeleasedforthemaximumperiodofthreeyears.(BahasoNazarpart25
pg.26)
DisputesBetweentheContractor(Musta'jir)andtheHiredperson(Ajeer)
AbdullahibnAbbaas(RadhiallaahuAnhu)narratesthatRasulullah(SallallaahuAlayhi
Wasallam)said,"Tosubstantiateaclaimisupontheplaintiffandtotakeanoathisupon
thedefendant."(Mishkaatpg.326Me'raaj)
Primarily,alldisputeswillbegovernedbytheprinciplementionedintheabovementioned
Hadith.TheFuqahaahaveexplainedthecriteriatodeterminetheplaintiffanddefendant
andapplicationoftheabovementionedHadithaccordingtothenatureandmeritsofthe
dispute.OnlycompetentUlamahavingexpertiseinFiqhwillbeabletoexpertlypreside
oversuchdisputesandissueawardsaccordingtotheShari'ah.
TheContractwillTerminateduetooneofthefollowing:
a.Ifoneofthecontractingpartiespassaway.(BadaaiusSanaai'ee)
b.IfboththecontractingpartiesmakeIqaala(dissolve)thecontract.(Bahasonazar
part25pg.43)
c.Ifthehiredpropertyisdestroyed,forexample,throughfire,etc.(Badaaius
Sanaai'ee)
d.Ifthecontractperiod(lease)expires.(Ibid)

ThisarticleisonlyasummaryofthegeneralrulesandprinciplesofIjaarah(hiring)
preparedtoserveasaguidelinetoconductourbusinessaccordingtotheShari'ah.
andAllahTa'alaKnowsBest
MuftiEbrahimDesai,www.askimam.com
FATWADEPT.

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