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Essentials in welding

of CrMo reactors

Application Technology, Volker Gross


Bhler Schweisstechnik Deutschland GmbH / Hamm, Germany

Content

basics, metallurgical features


 application
 weld metal properties
 strong recommendations

Process schema for petrochemicals


Natural resources

Crude Oil
CrMo(V)

Refinery
why?

Resistance to creep / Hydrogen

+
stainless overlay why?

Coal
Natural Gas

~454 C

Resistance to H2S etc

~220 bar

Gasification, Liquifaction

Typical equipment (~1000t)


11/4Cr0,5Mo

CrMoV

21/4Cr1Mo

21/4Cr1Mo

Behaviour of C in
ferritic micro structure

- thermal expan.
- thermal conductiv.
- diffusion coeff.

Tendency to carbide formation

- solubility for C
- carbide formation

effect of stable carbides


less risk of CH4-formation > petrochemical hydrotreating reactors
Applcation in the creep range > power plant equipment

TTT diagram for SA weld metal

Bainitic/ Martensitic pwht essentials


Feature of bainitic/ martensitic structure requires
Post weld heat treatments

DHT: dehydrogenation treatment (~350C )


removes Hydrogen!
ISR: intermediate stress relieving (~620-650C)*
for highly stressed joints (nozzles, manholes etc)
SR: stress relieving <min pwht> (620-705C)*
desired structure achieved (final heat treatment)
Step Cooling / max pwht
Simulation of refinery conditions
*epending on the grade

Old materials with limited strength

CrMo- grades
PWHT
[C]

YS
[MPa]

TS
[MPa]

0,5

660

275

485 - 660

B2

2,3

690

310

515 - 690

B3

2,30

705

415

585 - 760

Type

Cr

Mo

11

0,15

1,3

22

0,12

22 V

0,10

0,3

Nb

0,05

AWS filler
metal

B3 mod.
Code Case
2098

Service conditions and demand for bigger reactors increased

Consequence of increased service conditions:


increase in wall thickness
increase in weight of the equipment
(limitations in transport to be considered)
358mm F22
PC:
454 C
215 bar

CrMo- grades
PWHT
[C]

YS
[MPa]

TS
[MPa]

0,5

660

275

485 - 660

B2

2,3

690

310

515 - 690

B3

2,30

705

415

585 - 760

Type

Cr

Mo

11

0,15

1,3

22

0,12

22 V

0,10

0,3

Nb

0,05

AWS filler
metal

B3 mod.
Code Case
2098

Benefit of CrMo(V) materials for hydroprocessing reactors


high (creep) strength conditions due to stable carbides
higher resistance against hydrogen, disbonding
high toughness level

Wall thickness acc. to ASME code criteria


service conditions:
454C, 215 bar
ASME VIII
Ed.

F22

F22V

2006

358mm

317mm

2007

267mm

allowable stress MPa

ALLOWABLE STRESS

economical advantages:
save in thickness
save in weight

BUT:

250

21/4Cr1MoV has to be welded

225
200
175
150
125

ATB
100
350
378

406

434

462

490

temperature C
Conventional 2Cr1Mo -ASME 2006

Conventional 2Cr1Mo -ASME 2007

2Cr1Mo V modified -ASME 2006

2Cr1Mo V modified -ASME 2007

Welding Essentials
to be considered:
 initial grain size (influence of heat input, welding process,
nucleation)
 increased tendency to carbide precipitations
 strength in as welded condition (restrained condition of heavy
wall thickness, nozzle welds, influence of Hydrogen)
YS (MPa)

TS (MPa)

A (%)

CVN (J)

CrMoV

880

1070

19

20

conv. CrMo

800

950

19

50

 internal strength increases with wall thickness


 strength (after pwht, ISR)
 toughness (pwht)

ISR of restrained joints, 22V SA welds


Tests on tandem DC/AC all weld metal,2x4mm
550/550 A, 29/ 32 V, 80 cm/min
Preheat.: 180 C, interpass: max 230 C

Strength,rt

ISR As welded

620C/ 4h

650C/ 4h

680C/ 4h

710C/ 4h

Rp0.2, MPa

880

859

778

650

591

Rm, MPa

1070

956

858

735

682

A5, %

18,9

16,2

15,7

19,2

19,4

Z, %

51,2

60,4

62,9

69,9

70

17 19 20

8 14 11

17 26 40

127 123 132

152 153 156

345

333

295

252

232

CVN (J) at RT
Hardness HV10

Secondary hardening

Check up of welding conditions

welding generator
mass
cables
amperage, voltage to verified at welding
head
wire face distance=electrode dia
Welder !!!
heat treatment equipment

Preheating arrangement

toughness issue in 22V SA welds


fracture surface of impact specimens
from same lots, but different coupons (fabricators)

fracture along grain bounderies


21J

ductile surface
190J

small sized coupon for PQ


Reason for overheating:
Interpass temp. (recom. max 230C) was measured on top s ide.
loss in temp. from actual weld location to top side not considered
measured 230C

actual

Temp. gradient!

~400
C

Not an issue for reactor welds (except nozzle welds) due to


massive qty., but to maintain the min preheating temp.
becomes essential!

Temp. range of pwht equipment


record by thermocouple in the furnace: 705C
actual: 740 -760C
!!!! thermocouple to be attached to the coupon !!!!
770
765

Kanal 1
Kanal 2
Kanal 3
Kanal 4
Kanal 5
Kanal 6

760

Kanal 7

Temperatur in C

Kanal 8

755

Kanal 11
Kanal 12
Kanal 13

750

-far cheaper than repeat test

Kanal 14
Kanal 15
Kanal 16
Kanal 17
Kanal 18

745

Kanal 19
Kanal 20
Kanal 21
Kanal 22

740

Kanal 23
Kanal 24
Kanal 25
Kanal 27

735
730
14,0

-low cost for equipment

Kanal 9
Kanal 10

14,2

14,4

14,6

14,8

15,0

15,2

Zeit in Stunden

15,4

15,6

15,8

16,0

-online control on PC possible


LESS RISKS

Ferrite precipitations in S(M)A welds, 2Cr1Mo


low toughness
Precipitation of ferrite / 148 HV1

Matrix / 185 HV1

100 mm

9
8
7

192
77
194

6
5
4
3
2
1

162
199
73
144
29
29

CVN [J]

10 mm

Narrow gap welds

325mm

Flat thin beads mandatory


Sufficient refinement by
subsequent beads !!!!

Electrode weld build-up


Different bead formation in SMA welds;
Phoenix SH Chromo 2 KS, 4,0 mm, 3G up
low

thick beads

toughness

high

thin, weaved beads

Reasons: part of refined areas increased, smaller grain size, less


precipitations

HYDROGEN issue 
Kind attention to the rebaking of SAW flux


~60C
300C

~300C

Colds Cracks in build up welds (support rings) caused


by Hydrogen

recommendations for smooth CrMo welds


fine grain to be maintained by
 flat beads (see API 934B too)
 weaved beads for SMAW, max 2,5mm
 Saw: aim ~max 3mm
 controlled heat input
 controlled preheating, intepass temp.,
 welding-, process/ parameters to be controled
 Quality of the equipment to be controled
 Welders to be trained!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

consequence: strict limitations in welding

Schematic range of parameters


(e.g. amperage, preheating, interpass temp., pwht)
2Cr1Mo + V
martensitic
martensitic
X20 / P91 / P92
bainitic
bainitic
CrMo steel / Ni-steel
Low alloy steel
C-steel

optimum
parameters

Perlite
Perlite

summary
Essentials to be considered for satisfactory welds
21/4Cr1Mo(V) material is considered to be different
totally from conventional ferritic steels in terms of
properties. It responds to any kind of heat influence
by welding and/or heat treatment much more
significantly than the conventional grade!
Therefore 21/4Cr1(V requires (a must!) the
application of specific:
procedures
equipment
control mechanism/QA system
= understanding this material!