Está en la página 1de 10

ARTICLE IN PRESS

Tribology International 41 (2008) 1135 1144

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Tribology International
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/triboint

Steady-state thermo-hydrodynamic analysis of cylindrical uid lm journal


bearing with an axial groove
U. Singh a, L. Roy a,, M. Sahu b
a
b

Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Silchar 788010, India


TataMotors, Jamshedpur, India

a r t i c l e in fo

abstract

Article history:
Received 30 July 2007
Received in revised form
6 February 2008
Accepted 17 February 2008
Available online 9 April 2008

A steady-state thermohydrodynamic analysis of an axial groove journal bearings in which oil is supplied
at constant pressure is performed theoretically. Thermohydrodynamic analysis requires simultaneous
solution of Reynolds equation, energy equation and heat conduction equations in the bush and the
shaft. From parametric study it is found that the temperature of the uid lm raises due to frictional
heat thereby viscosity, load capacity decreases. Increased shaft speed resulted in increased load carrying
capacity, bush temperature, ow rate and friction variable. It is difcult to obtain the solution due to
numerical instability when the bearing is operated at high eccentricity ratios.
& 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords:
Steady-state characteristics
Thermo-hydrodynamic analysis
Axial groove journal bearing

1. Introduction
Oil ow plays an important role in maintaining an uninterrupted
oil lm and removing most of the frictional heat to cool the bearing;
ow rate can be improved by the arrangement of feeding sources,
journal motion also contributes to the ow. Oil fed through a single
hole, usually a single hole in the unloaded region, ensures higher
pressure development in the larger land area in the clearance space.
When both the magnitude and direction of load changes, then the
location of oil hole in the unloaded region is not always possible.
This is overcome by feeding oil through a circumferential groove at
the mid-plane but as the land area reduces, the load capacity
reduces.The arrangement studied here feeding from the top. In these
cases the radial load is applied from the top. A conventional
isoviscous hydrodynamic lubrication model cannot predict the
temperature of lubricating lms or bearing surfaces theoretically.
The thermo-hydrodynamic (THD) lubrication model incorporates
the generation of frictional heat in the lms and removal of it by
convection in the oil lms and also by conduction through the solid
walls of the mating surfaces. Review of several THD analyses is
presented by Khonsari [1] for journal bearings. The entire lubricant
viscosity eld is replaced with a single parameter called the effective
viscosity. Various methods of computing this parameter have been
outlined by Cameron [2], Shaw and Macks [3] and Boswell [4]. Hagg
[5] studied the inuence of speed and viscosity on the shear stress of
a journal bearing. Tipei and Nica [6] obtained a temperature
distribution for a nite journal bearing in which the variation of

viscosity was considered. Knight et al. [7] described the effect of


variation of the supply pressure and found that it has a large effect
on ow rate at lower speeds and has a small effect on power loss in
the bearing. An increased supply pressure leads to a small increase
in power loss. Majumdar [8] numerically solved the energy and
Reynolds equations and found that the extent of the lm and also
the load capacity decreases if one includes the density and viscosity
variation in the lubricant as a function of temperature (Fig. 1).

2. Theory
The generalized Reynolds equation for the mean pressure
distribution under steady condition for compressible and incompressible lubricant can be written as
!
!
3
3
q h q
q h q
qh
(1)

6U
qx ZL qz
qz ZL qz
qz
The local average viscosity ZL corresponds to the local average
temperature TL. The following relation denes the lubricant
viscositytemperature variation:
ZL Zs ebTT s

(2)

So for local average viscosity


ZL Zs ebT L T s

(3)

The local average temperature TL is given by


 Corresponding author.

E-mail address: lintu_roy@yahoo.com (L. Roy).


0301-679X/$ - see front matter & 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.triboint.2008.02.009

TL

1
h

T dy
0

(4)

ARTICLE IN PRESS
1136

U. Singh et al. / Tribology International 41 (2008) 11351144

F
Ei, Eo

Nomenclature
D, R

diameter of the bearing (m), radius of the journal


(m)
L, C
length of bearing (m), radial clearance (m)
e, e
eccentricity (m), eccentricity ratio e e/C
N, o
journal rotation speed (rpm), journal angular speed
(rad/s)
U
linear speed of moving surface (m/s)
f, c
attitude angle (rad), assumed attitude angle (rad)
h, h
lubricant lm thickness (m), non-dimensional lm
thickness h h=C
y; y;
non-dimensional coordinates, x/R, y/h and z/L/2,
z
measured from the top of bearing and at the midplane of the groove
Y
angular coordinate for simple plain journal bearing,
measured from the maximum lm thickness position
u;
non-dimensional velocity components u/U, vR/CU
v;
w

and w/U
rf, rs
density of lubricant and density of lubricant at the
supply conditions (kg/m3)
Zf, ZL, Zs viscosity of the lubricant lm at the temperature of
the lm, local average viscosity at local average
temperature of the lubricant lm and viscosity of
lubricant at supply temperature (Pa s)
p, ps, p
lm pressure (Pa), supply pressure (Pa) and nondimensional lm pressure p p=ps
pcav
cavitation pressure (Pa)
T, Ts, TL, T lubricant lm temperature at any specied
coordinates, supply temperature of lubricant, local
average temperature (1C), non-dimensional lm
temperature T T=T s
Qx, Qz
ow rate along circumferential and axial directions
(m3/s)
tx, tz
shear stress along circumferential and axial directions (N/m2)

The non-dimensionalised Reynolds equation


3
q h qp
qy Z L qy

!
 2
3
D
q h qp
qh

L
L
qz Z L qz
qy

(5)

friction force due to the viscosity of lubricant (N)


energy transported into the control volume and
energy transported out of the control volume (J)
Hdo, Hdb work done on the uid volume and work done by
the uid volume (J)
Cp
specic heat of lubricant (J/kg 1C)
Kf
lubricant thermal conductivity (W/m 1C)
Tb, Tsh
temperature of bush and temperature of shaft (1C)
rb, rsh
radial coordinate for bush and shaft
h1, h2
lm thickness at reformation and cavitation boundary (m)
y1, y2
reformation and cavitation boundary (deg)
Q1, Q2, Qs lm inlet ow, recirculating ow and supply
ow (m3/s)
T1, T2, T0 lm inlet temperature, temperature of recirculating
uid and temperature of incoming oil (1C)
L, w
L 6Zs o=ps R=C2 bearing number, inertial parameter rf RoC=Zf C=R Rec C=R
Rbi, Rbo, Rsh inner bearing radius, outer bearing radius and
shaft radius (m)
Rec
Reynolds number for the lubricating lm
rf RoC=Zf

W
non-dimensional load W=LDps
m, m
coefcient of friction, friction variable R=Cm
ag, fg
groove angle (deg), groove location (deg)
GL
groove length (m)
Kb, Ks
thermal conductivity of the bush and the shaft
material (W/m 1C)
hb, hs
convective heat transfer coefcient for the bush and
the shaft material (W/m2 1C)
Bib
Biot number for the bush hb Rbi =kb
Bis
Biot number for the shaft hs L=K s
l1, l2, l3 non-dimensional parameters used in non-dimensionalized energy equation
Pe
Peclet number

Non-dimensional velocity components:


"Z
#
R y
R1
2
y
h qp
y
Z f dy 0 dy=
Z f
0 y=
u 6
dy 
R1
L qy 0 Z f
Z f
0 dy=
Z y
1
dy=
R1
Z f
Z f 0
0 dy=
"Z
#
R y
R1
  2
y
y
D h qp
Z f dy 0 dy=
Z f
0 y=
d
y

w

R1
L L qz 0 Z f
dy=
Z f

(6)

(7)

qv
qy 2

Fig. 1. Axial grooved journal bearings with coordinate system.

h

!
q qu y dh qu D qw

qy qy h dy qy
L qz

(8)

The steady-state non-dimensionalised energy equation assuming thermal conductivity of uid is invariant with temperature
and so with space also specic heat variation with temperature
negligible for a laminar, incompressible uid can be written as
 
v qT
qT
D qT
w
u 

qy
L qz
h qy
!
  2 !
 
1 q2 T
1 l2
q T
1 l3

Z
2
f 2
2
2
l1 qy
l1
l1
qy
h
h
( 
 2 )
2
qu
qu


(9)
qy
qy

ARTICLE IN PRESS
U. Singh et al. / Tribology International 41 (2008) 11351144

The heat conduction equation for a bush and for a shaft is given
by
 2
q2 T b 1 qT b 1
Dbi qT b

0
(10)
r b qr b r 2b
L
qr 2b
qz2
q2 T sh
qr 2s

 2 2
1 qT sh
D q T sh

0
r s qr s
L
qz2

Steady-state characteristics: For single axial groove journal


bearing, the load components along the line of centers and its
perpendicular direction are derived from
Z 1 Z 2p
w
r
p cosy  c dy dz
(11)
0:5
W
LDps
0
0
t
W

w
0:5
LDps

1Z
0

2p

p siny  c dy dz

The load carrying capacity and attitude angle are:


q
W
2r W
2t
W
j tan1

t
W
r
W

(12)
(13)

The bearing end ow is calculated as


!
Z 2p
3
h qp
Q z 2
R dy
12Zf qz
0

(14)

zL=z

The ow rate in the dimensionless form can be written as


Z 2p 3 !
2Q Z L
1
h qp
dy
(15)
Q z 3 z s 2
Z L qz
12 0
C Dps

1137

inlet zone of the next pad. There it mixes with an amount of cold
oil Q0 at a temperature T0 to form the inow Q1 at a mixing
temperature T1, which is less than T2 but higher than T0. Hot oil at
a temperature T2 mixes with the cold oil at a temperature T0, then
the mixing oil temperature is T1. So, the inlet temperature T1 is
higher than the oil temperature. Therefore the equation determining the mixing temperature is the energy balance [9]
Q 2T 2 Q 0T0 Q 1T 1.
Since Q0 Qs, T2 Tmax and Q1 (Qs+Q2) we have for the
mixing temperature:
T mix

Q z tz Q s T s
Q s Q z

(20)

The computational domain is discretized in several grid points


as mentioned by Costa et al. [10]. Reynolds equation, energy
equation and heat conduction equations with the appropriate
boundary conditions are solved simultaneously. First the Reynolds
equation is solved, with proper boundary conditions. The
convergence criterion adopted is

P



 1  P p old p5  105

p new 
Pressure distribution is used to obtain different velocity
components. Velocity components are used in the energy
equation to obtain the uid temperature. The convergence
criterion adopted for temperature is

P




 1  P T old p0:001

T new 
For Reynolds equation
For axially grooved bearing the boundary conditions are:

z1

Friction force can be found from


Z L=Z Z 2p
tx R dy dz
F2
0

(16)

This can be written as


F
2
F
2LCps

1
0

2p
0

!
h qp
L

dy dz
4 qy 12h

The friction variable is given by


 
F
R
m
u

C
W

That means
(17)

(18)

The Sommerfeld number is


S

12pW

(i) Pressure at the edges of bearing is assumed to be atmospheric:




L
p y; 
0
2

(19)

Inow to the bearing pad, Q1, is given by


!
Z L=z
3
LUh1
h1 qp

dz
Q1
2
L=z 12RZf qy
yy1

is determined by the lm height at the inlet, h1.


Side leakage, Qs, is given by
!
Z 2p
3
h qp
2
R dy
Qs 
12Zf qz
0

py;
1 0

(ii) Pressure distribution is symmetric about the mid-plane along


the z direction:
 
qp
0
qz z0


yyz

where h2 is the lm height. The groove mixing the ow Q2 at the


end of the uid lm adheres to the runner and is carried into the

In the non-dimensional form:



qp
0
qz z 0

(22)

(iii) Pressure in the cavitation region is equal to the cavitation


pressure and also the pressure gradient in that region is
zero:



qp
0
qy y1 pypy2

and

py1 pypy2 pcav

In the non-dimensional form:

zL=z

This Qs or Q0 is also the amount of ow that needs to be


replenished to maintain a full lm. End ow, Q2, is given by
!
Z L=z
3
LUh2
h2 qp

dz
Q2
2
L=z 12RZf qy

(21)


qp
0
qy y1 pypy2

and

py1 pypy2 0

(23)

(iv) The inlet chamber is lled with lubricant having a constant


supply pressure ps:
p 1

for the groove region

(24)

ARTICLE IN PRESS
1138

U. Singh et al. / Tribology International 41 (2008) 11351144

Using the non-dimensional parameter:





qT b 

Bib T b jr b Rbo =Rb1  1
qr b r b Rbo

For velocity components


(i) For circumferential velocity
u0

at y 0

and

uU

at y h

In the non-dimensional form


u 0

at y 0

and

u 1

at y 1

(25)

(ii) For axial velocity


w0

at y 0

and

w0

at y 0

and

w
0

at y h

at y 1

(26)

(iii) For radial velocity


v0

at y 0

and

qh
v
qy

at y 0

and

qh
qy

at y h

at y 1

(27)

For the energy equation


(i) At the oilbush interface and at the oilshaft interface
matching temperatures
T Tb

at y 0

and

T T sh

at y h

In the non-dimensional form


T T b

at y 0

and

T T sh

at y 1

(28)

(ii) And in the groove inlet, the mixing temperature is assumed as


T T max

(32)

For the shaft


(i) At the shaftuid interface the temperature is given by the
heat ux continuity condition [12]

Z 2p 
qT 
qT 
K s 2pRsh sh 
Kf
R dy
qy yh
qr s rs Rsh
0

In the non-dimensional form


v0

(iii) On the two side end surface of the bush (z 7(L/2)):



qT 
hb T b jzL=2  T s
K b b 
qz zL=2
Using the non-dimensional parameter:

qT 
L

B T j
 1
 b 
qz z 1 Rbi ib b z 1

In the non-dimensional form


w
0

(31)

Using the non-dimensional parameter:




Z 2p
qT 
RK f
1 qT sh 

dy
K s sh 
qr s r s 1 2pCK s 0 h qy y1

(ii) A free convection hypothesis is assumed at the ends of the


shaft (z L=2), which gives



qT 
K s sh 
hs T sh jzL=z  T s
qz zL=z
Using the non-dimensional parameter:

qT 
Bis T sh jz 1  1
 sh 
qz z 1

(34)

(29)
3. Results and discussion

For the heat conduction equation


For the bush
(i) At the oilbush interface, (y 0, rb Rbt) the temperatures
are given by the heat ux continuity condition:


qT 
qT 
Ky 
K b b 
qy y0
qr b rb Rb1
Using the non-dimensional parameter:


qT 
Ky Rbi qT 
 b 

K b oh qy y0
qr b r b 1

Increase in temperature of the uid and viscosity has a major


inuence on the performance parameters of the bearings. Before
discussing the results, the non-dimensional oil lm temperature
obtained from the present computational method has been
compared with Ref. [10]. The bearing geometries, lubricant
properties and operating parameters are the same as in Ref.
[10]. Deviations have been found out for the maximum lm

(30)

where K(y) is the thermal conductivity of the uid, which is


constant and equal to Kf in the active zone and variable in the
inactive zone of the lm. As we have seen in the previous
chapter, in the cavitation zone gases, ambient air and uid
lm in the form of streamlets exist, so it is given by the
relation:
Ky

Kf Ka
2

This proves to be very advantageous for time-economic


computations.
(ii) For the outer circumference of the bush (rb Rbo), the free
convection and radiation hypothesis give

qT 
K b b 
hb T b jrb Rbo  T s
qr b rb Rbo

Fig. 2. Comparison of computed lm temperature distribution with experimental


data [10].

ARTICLE IN PRESS
U. Singh et al. / Tribology International 41 (2008) 11351144

temperature value and the temperature prole in the cavitation


region. The temperature rise prole in the lm is found to be
nearly matching (Fig. 2). When the bearing operates at a small
speed, the hydrodynamic effect is not predominant. The hydrodynamic pressure is insufcient to balance the applied load when
fed from the top. Thus it is difcult to run the bearing at low
speeds. To be on the safe side, we have considered the bearing
number above 10. For the present work, bearing numbers have
been taken from the speed range given in Appendix A. THD
solutions reveal a satisfactory feature of showing a drop in the oil
temperature in the cavitation region; since the ow region
diverges, the lm temperature drops. THD contour plots indicate
the region of maximum bush surface temperature. The lubricant

1139

comes at the supply temperature in the groove and causes the


heat ows from the bush material to the incoming lubricant, as
clearly shown in Fig. 3, where circumferential and axial temperature drop near the groove region. Fig. 4 shows the temperature
distribution of the bush material near the lubricant lm. Fig. 5
shows the shaft temperature distribution along the circumferential as well as along the axial direction. The shaft temperature
decreases along the axial direction, which means heat transfer
takes place from the lateral face of the shaft to the surrounding.
Circumferential temperature remains same due to the high speed
of shaft rotation. Along the length of the groove, a decrease in
shaft temperature is seen; incoming uid at the lower temperature causes some heat transfer from the shaft to the uid and

Fig. 3. Bush temperature along the circumferential and axial direction near the oil lm.

Fig. 4. Bush temperature along the circumferential and axial direction near the oil lm.

ARTICLE IN PRESS
1140

U. Singh et al. / Tribology International 41 (2008) 11351144

consequently decreases the shaft temperature (Fig. 6). Load


capacity and ow rate increase with the increase in eccentricity
ratio. Friction variable and Sommerfeld number decrease in the
same manner as eccentricity ratio increases. The maximum lm
pressure increases as the eccentricity ratio increases (Fig. 7). The
attitude angle decreases as the eccentricity ratio increases. The
maximum temperature of the bush internal surface increases at a
faster rate than the maximum uid lm temperature as the
eccentricity ratio increases (Fig. 8). The inlet lm temperature
decreases with an increase in eccentricity because the oil ow rate
increases and the recalculating ow rate decreases. The maximum
lm pressure and load carrying capacity improve for a lower
groove length. Flow rate, maximum shaft temperature, maximum
lm temperature, maximum bush temperature and lm inlet

temperature improves when groove length decreases. The


difference in attitude angle is not so higher. Maximum bush
temperature, maximum shaft temperature, maximum lm temperature, inlet lm temperature improve for a lower groove angle.
Load carrying improves for a lower groove angle. The improved
load is due to the higher pressure development in the large land
area. Leakage ow for a smaller groove angle is more than a larger
groove angle. Friction variable for an 181 groove angle is less than
that for a 361 groove angle, similar to the one reported in [11] and
the same pattern is followed by the Sommerfeld number, friction
variable. This may be due to the temperature increase in bearing,
because for higher eccentricity ratio the lm temperature
increases. Load capacity and ow increase with the increase of
speed (Figs. 9 and 10). Friction variable decreases with the

Fig. 5. Shaft temperature along the circumferential and axial direction near the oil lm.

Fig. 6. Shaft temperature along the circumferential and axial direction near the oil lm.

ARTICLE IN PRESS
U. Singh et al. / Tribology International 41 (2008) 11351144

Fig. 7. Variation of maximum lm pressure with eccentricity ratio.

Fig. 10. Leakage ow rate variation with bearing number.

Fig. 8. Variation of maximum lm temperature, maximum bush temperature,


maximum shaft temperature and lm inlet temperature with eccentricity ratio.
Fig. 11. Friction variable variation with bearing number.

Fig. 9. Load carrying capacity variation with bearing number.

Fig. 12. Maximum lm temperature variation with bearing number.

1141

ARTICLE IN PRESS
1142

U. Singh et al. / Tribology International 41 (2008) 11351144

Fig. 13. Inlet lm temperature variation with bearing number.

Fig. 16. Variation of leakage ow for different L/D ratios and eccentricity ratios.

Fig. 14. Maximum lm pressure variation with bearing number.

Fig. 17. Variation of maximum lm temperature for different L/D ratios and
eccentricity ratios.

Fig. 15. Variation of leakage ow for different L/D ratios and eccentricity ratios.

Fig. 18. Variation of maximum bush temperature for different L/D ratios and
eccentricity ratios.

ARTICLE IN PRESS
U. Singh et al. / Tribology International 41 (2008) 11351144

1143

increase of speed (Fig. 11). The rise in friction is particularly high


at low eccentricity ratios. The maximum lm temperature
increases with the increase in bearing number (Fig. 12). The
attitude angle increases with the bearing number. As the
eccentricity and speed increases, the maximum lm pressure
and inlet lm temperature increase (Figs. 13 and 14). With
increase in the L/D value load carrying capacity, the ow rate also
increases (Figs. 15 and 16). As the L/D ratio increases, the
maximum lm temperature, bush temperature and shaft temperature increase (Figs. 1719). The computed lm temperature
for the THD case as a function of bearing load capacity is shown in
Fig. 20. The maximum lm temperature in the gure depicts that
for light loads most of the heat is carried away by the oil lm,
while as the load increases the temperature also increases and the
lm temperature increases considerably.

4. Conclusions
Fig. 19. Variation of maximum shaft temperature for different L/D ratios and
eccentricity ratios.

Fig. 20. Variation of maximum lm temperature with load carrying capacity.

(i) The temperature gradient across and along the uid lm is


important.
(ii) Results show that the oilbush interface temperature drops
slightly in the vicinity of the inlet followed by a rapid rise in
the circumferential direction and a decrease in the cavitation region.
(iii) The temperature gradients in the cross-lm direction were
found to be much greater than those of the circumferential
direction, supporting the validity of the parabolic formulation of the energy equation.
(iv) Heat recirculates from the hottest point to the groove area in
the uid due to the convection, in the bush due to
conduction and in the shaft due to shaft rotation.
(v) The role of the supply groove geometry on the performance
of the bearing cannot be ignored. The groove angle of 361
and groove length of half of the total length of bearing
promoted a reduction in the maximum temperature and
increase in the maximum hydrodynamic pressure.
(vi) Increasing oil supply pressure (lowering bearing number)
causes a decrease in bearing operating temperatures, which
is more signicant for low loads.
(vii) The inuence of shaft speed has also been investigated.
Increasing the shaft speed (increasing bearing number)

Table A1
List of the inputs used in computer simulation
Parameter

Symbol

Unit

Value or range variation

Bearing parameters
Journal radius
External bearing radius
Radial clearance
Slenderness ratio
Rotational speed range
Thermal conductivity for bush and shaft
Convective heat transfer coefcient for bush/shaft
Groove location
Groove angle
Groove length/total length of bearing

R
Rbo
C
L/D
N
Kb and Ks
hb and hs
fg
ag
GL/L

m
m
m
dimensionless
rpm
W/m 1C
W/m2 1C
deg
deg
dimensionless

0.05
0.070.1
0.000045
1, 1.5, 2
2002000
50
80
01
181 and 361
0.5, 0.3

Lubricant parameters
Lubricant viscosity at supply temperature
Lubricant specic heat
Lubricant density
Lubricant thermal conductivity
Lubricant viscosity coefcient

Zs
Cp
rf
Kf
b

Pa s
J/kg 1C
kg/m3
W/m 1C
dimensionless

0.0277
2000
860
0.13
0.034

Operating parameters
Inlet lubricant temperature
Ambient temperature
Air thermal conductivity
Inlet lubricant pressure range

Ts
Tamb
Ka
ps

1C
1C
W/m 1C
kPa

40
40
0.025
70150

ARTICLE IN PRESS
1144

(viii)

(ix)

(x)

(xi)

U. Singh et al. / Tribology International 41 (2008) 11351144

resulted in increased load carrying capacity, bush temperature, ow rate and friction variable.
A bearing having smaller groove angles gives a higher load
capacity, this is due to higher pressures in the larger land
region.
As the ow rate shows an increase in magnitude with
eccentricity and speed, it appears that this bearing allows
the removal of heat more efciently than the pain journal
bearing.
It can be concluded that THD analysis presents more
realistic operating characteristics for a single axial grooved
journal bearing.
The data obtained from the above analysis can be used
conveniently in designing such bearings, as these are
presented in the dimensionless form.

Appendix A
Table A1 shows data used in the thermal analysis.

References
[1] Khonsari MM. A review of thermal effects in hydrodynamic bearings, Part ii:
journal bearing. ASLE Trans 1987;30(1):2633.
[2] Cameron A, Wood WL. The full journal bearing. Proc Inst Mech Engrs
1949;161:5964.
[3] Shaw MC, Macks EF. Analysis and lubrication of bearing. McGraw Hill Book
Co; 1949.
[4] Boswell R. The theory of lm lubrication. New York: Wiley; 1966.
[5] Hagg A. Heat effects in lubricating lms. Trans ASME 1944;66:A726.
[6] Tipei N, Nica A. Investigation on the operating conditions of journal bearing: I
Inuence of viscosity variation. Rev Mec Appl 1959;4:4.
[7] Knight JD, Barrett LE, Cronan RD. Effect of supply pressure on the operating
characteristics of two-axial-groove journal bearings. ASLE Trans
1984;28(3):33642.
[8] Majumdar BC. The thermohydrodynamic solution of oil journal bearings.
Wear 1975;31:28794.
[9] Heshmat H, Pinkus O. Mixing inlet temperature in hydrodynamic bearings.
Trans ASME J Tribol 1986;108:23148.
[10] Costa L, Miranda AS, Fillon M, Claro JCP. An analysis of oil supply conditions
on the thermohydrodynamic performance of a single-groove journal bearing.
Proc Inst Mech Engrs Pt J: J Eng Tribol 2003;217:13344.
[11] Majumdar BC, Pai R, Hargreaves DJ. analysis of water-lubricated journal
bearings with multiple axial grooves. Proc Inst Mech Engrs Pt J: J Eng Tribol
2004;218:13546.
[12] Banwait SS, Chandrawat HN. Study of thermal boundary conditions for a plain
journal bearing. Tribol Int 1998;31:18996.