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A steady-state thermohydrodynamic analysis of an axial groove journal bearings in which oil is supplied
at constant pressure is performed theoretically. Thermohydrodynamic analysis requires simultaneous
solution of Reynolds equation, energy equation and heat conduction equations in the bush and the
shaft. From parametric study it is found that the temperature of the fluid film raises due to frictional
heat thereby viscosity, load capacity decreases. Increased shaft speed resulted in increased load carrying
capacity, bush temperature, flow rate and friction variable. It is difficult to obtain the solution due to
numerical instability when the bearing is operated at high eccentricity ratios.

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Tribology International

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/triboint

bearing with an axial groove

U. Singh a, L. Roy a,, M. Sahu b

a

b

TataMotors, Jamshedpur, India

a r t i c l e in fo

abstract

Article history:

Received 30 July 2007

Received in revised form

6 February 2008

Accepted 17 February 2008

Available online 9 April 2008

A steady-state thermohydrodynamic analysis of an axial groove journal bearings in which oil is supplied

at constant pressure is performed theoretically. Thermohydrodynamic analysis requires simultaneous

solution of Reynolds equation, energy equation and heat conduction equations in the bush and the

shaft. From parametric study it is found that the temperature of the uid lm raises due to frictional

heat thereby viscosity, load capacity decreases. Increased shaft speed resulted in increased load carrying

capacity, bush temperature, ow rate and friction variable. It is difcult to obtain the solution due to

numerical instability when the bearing is operated at high eccentricity ratios.

& 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords:

Steady-state characteristics

Thermo-hydrodynamic analysis

Axial groove journal bearing

1. Introduction

Oil ow plays an important role in maintaining an uninterrupted

oil lm and removing most of the frictional heat to cool the bearing;

ow rate can be improved by the arrangement of feeding sources,

journal motion also contributes to the ow. Oil fed through a single

hole, usually a single hole in the unloaded region, ensures higher

pressure development in the larger land area in the clearance space.

When both the magnitude and direction of load changes, then the

location of oil hole in the unloaded region is not always possible.

This is overcome by feeding oil through a circumferential groove at

the mid-plane but as the land area reduces, the load capacity

reduces.The arrangement studied here feeding from the top. In these

cases the radial load is applied from the top. A conventional

isoviscous hydrodynamic lubrication model cannot predict the

temperature of lubricating lms or bearing surfaces theoretically.

The thermo-hydrodynamic (THD) lubrication model incorporates

the generation of frictional heat in the lms and removal of it by

convection in the oil lms and also by conduction through the solid

walls of the mating surfaces. Review of several THD analyses is

presented by Khonsari [1] for journal bearings. The entire lubricant

viscosity eld is replaced with a single parameter called the effective

viscosity. Various methods of computing this parameter have been

outlined by Cameron [2], Shaw and Macks [3] and Boswell [4]. Hagg

[5] studied the inuence of speed and viscosity on the shear stress of

a journal bearing. Tipei and Nica [6] obtained a temperature

distribution for a nite journal bearing in which the variation of

variation of the supply pressure and found that it has a large effect

on ow rate at lower speeds and has a small effect on power loss in

the bearing. An increased supply pressure leads to a small increase

in power loss. Majumdar [8] numerically solved the energy and

Reynolds equations and found that the extent of the lm and also

the load capacity decreases if one includes the density and viscosity

variation in the lubricant as a function of temperature (Fig. 1).

2. Theory

The generalized Reynolds equation for the mean pressure

distribution under steady condition for compressible and incompressible lubricant can be written as

!

!

3

3

q h q

q h q

qh

(1)

6U

qx ZL qz

qz ZL qz

qz

The local average viscosity ZL corresponds to the local average

temperature TL. The following relation denes the lubricant

viscositytemperature variation:

ZL Zs ebTT s

(2)

ZL Zs ebT L T s

(3)

Corresponding author.

0301-679X/$ - see front matter & 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.triboint.2008.02.009

TL

1

h

T dy

0

(4)

ARTICLE IN PRESS

1136

F

Ei, Eo

Nomenclature

D, R

(m)

L, C

length of bearing (m), radial clearance (m)

e, e

eccentricity (m), eccentricity ratio e e/C

N, o

journal rotation speed (rpm), journal angular speed

(rad/s)

U

linear speed of moving surface (m/s)

f, c

attitude angle (rad), assumed attitude angle (rad)

h, h

lubricant lm thickness (m), non-dimensional lm

thickness h h=C

y; y;

non-dimensional coordinates, x/R, y/h and z/L/2,

z

measured from the top of bearing and at the midplane of the groove

Y

angular coordinate for simple plain journal bearing,

measured from the maximum lm thickness position

u;

non-dimensional velocity components u/U, vR/CU

v;

w

and w/U

rf, rs

density of lubricant and density of lubricant at the

supply conditions (kg/m3)

Zf, ZL, Zs viscosity of the lubricant lm at the temperature of

the lm, local average viscosity at local average

temperature of the lubricant lm and viscosity of

lubricant at supply temperature (Pa s)

p, ps, p

lm pressure (Pa), supply pressure (Pa) and nondimensional lm pressure p p=ps

pcav

cavitation pressure (Pa)

T, Ts, TL, T lubricant lm temperature at any specied

coordinates, supply temperature of lubricant, local

average temperature (1C), non-dimensional lm

temperature T T=T s

Qx, Qz

ow rate along circumferential and axial directions

(m3/s)

tx, tz

shear stress along circumferential and axial directions (N/m2)

3

q h qp

qy Z L qy

!

2

3

D

q h qp

qh

L

L

qz Z L qz

qy

(5)

energy transported into the control volume and

energy transported out of the control volume (J)

Hdo, Hdb work done on the uid volume and work done by

the uid volume (J)

Cp

specic heat of lubricant (J/kg 1C)

Kf

lubricant thermal conductivity (W/m 1C)

Tb, Tsh

temperature of bush and temperature of shaft (1C)

rb, rsh

radial coordinate for bush and shaft

h1, h2

lm thickness at reformation and cavitation boundary (m)

y1, y2

reformation and cavitation boundary (deg)

Q1, Q2, Qs lm inlet ow, recirculating ow and supply

ow (m3/s)

T1, T2, T0 lm inlet temperature, temperature of recirculating

uid and temperature of incoming oil (1C)

L, w

L 6Zs o=ps R=C2 bearing number, inertial parameter rf RoC=Zf C=R Rec C=R

Rbi, Rbo, Rsh inner bearing radius, outer bearing radius and

shaft radius (m)

Rec

Reynolds number for the lubricating lm

rf RoC=Zf

W

non-dimensional load W=LDps

m, m

coefcient of friction, friction variable R=Cm

ag, fg

groove angle (deg), groove location (deg)

GL

groove length (m)

Kb, Ks

thermal conductivity of the bush and the shaft

material (W/m 1C)

hb, hs

convective heat transfer coefcient for the bush and

the shaft material (W/m2 1C)

Bib

Biot number for the bush hb Rbi =kb

Bis

Biot number for the shaft hs L=K s

l1, l2, l3 non-dimensional parameters used in non-dimensionalized energy equation

Pe

Peclet number

"Z

#

R y

R1

2

y

h qp

y

Z f dy 0 dy=

Z f

0 y=

u 6

dy

R1

L qy 0 Z f

Z f

0 dy=

Z y

1

dy=

R1

Z f

Z f 0

0 dy=

"Z

#

R y

R1

2

y

y

D h qp

Z f dy 0 dy=

Z f

0 y=

d

y

w

R1

L L qz 0 Z f

dy=

Z f

(6)

(7)

qv

qy 2

h

!

q qu y dh qu D qw

qy qy h dy qy

L qz

(8)

The steady-state non-dimensionalised energy equation assuming thermal conductivity of uid is invariant with temperature

and so with space also specic heat variation with temperature

negligible for a laminar, incompressible uid can be written as

v qT

qT

D qT

w

u

qy

L qz

h qy

!

2 !

1 q2 T

1 l2

q T

1 l3

Z

2

f 2

2

2

l1 qy

l1

l1

qy

h

h

(

2 )

2

qu

qu

(9)

qy

qy

ARTICLE IN PRESS

U. Singh et al. / Tribology International 41 (2008) 11351144

The heat conduction equation for a bush and for a shaft is given

by

2

q2 T b 1 qT b 1

Dbi qT b

0

(10)

r b qr b r 2b

L

qr 2b

qz2

q2 T sh

qr 2s

2 2

1 qT sh

D q T sh

0

r s qr s

L

qz2

bearing, the load components along the line of centers and its

perpendicular direction are derived from

Z 1 Z 2p

w

r

p cosy c dy dz

(11)

0:5

W

LDps

0

0

t

W

w

0:5

LDps

1Z

0

2p

p siny c dy dz

q

W

2r W

2t

W

j tan1

t

W

r

W

(12)

(13)

!

Z 2p

3

h qp

Q z 2

R dy

12Zf qz

0

(14)

zL=z

Z 2p 3 !

2Q Z L

1

h qp

dy

(15)

Q z 3 z s 2

Z L qz

12 0

C Dps

1137

inlet zone of the next pad. There it mixes with an amount of cold

oil Q0 at a temperature T0 to form the inow Q1 at a mixing

temperature T1, which is less than T2 but higher than T0. Hot oil at

a temperature T2 mixes with the cold oil at a temperature T0, then

the mixing oil temperature is T1. So, the inlet temperature T1 is

higher than the oil temperature. Therefore the equation determining the mixing temperature is the energy balance [9]

Q 2T 2 Q 0T0 Q 1T 1.

Since Q0 Qs, T2 Tmax and Q1 (Qs+Q2) we have for the

mixing temperature:

T mix

Q z tz Q s T s

Q s Q z

(20)

as mentioned by Costa et al. [10]. Reynolds equation, energy

equation and heat conduction equations with the appropriate

boundary conditions are solved simultaneously. First the Reynolds

equation is solved, with proper boundary conditions. The

convergence criterion adopted is

P

1 P p old p5 105

p new

Pressure distribution is used to obtain different velocity

components. Velocity components are used in the energy

equation to obtain the uid temperature. The convergence

criterion adopted for temperature is

P

1 P T old p0:001

T new

For Reynolds equation

For axially grooved bearing the boundary conditions are:

z1

Z L=Z Z 2p

tx R dy dz

F2

0

(16)

F

2

F

2LCps

1

0

2p

0

!

h qp

L

dy dz

4 qy 12h

F

R

m

u

C

W

That means

(17)

(18)

S

12pW

L

p y;

0

2

(19)

!

Z L=z

3

LUh1

h1 qp

dz

Q1

2

L=z 12RZf qy

yy1

Side leakage, Qs, is given by

!

Z 2p

3

h qp

2

R dy

Qs

12Zf qz

0

py;

1 0

the z direction:

qp

0

qz z0

yyz

end of the uid lm adheres to the runner and is carried into the

qp

0

qz z 0

(22)

pressure and also the pressure gradient in that region is

zero:

qp

0

qy y1 pypy2

and

zL=z

replenished to maintain a full lm. End ow, Q2, is given by

!

Z L=z

3

LUh2

h2 qp

dz

Q2

2

L=z 12RZf qy

(21)

qp

0

qy y1 pypy2

and

py1 pypy2 0

(23)

supply pressure ps:

p 1

(24)

ARTICLE IN PRESS

1138

qT b

Bib T b jr b Rbo =Rb1 1

qr b r b Rbo

(i) For circumferential velocity

u0

at y 0

and

uU

at y h

u 0

at y 0

and

u 1

at y 1

(25)

w0

at y 0

and

w0

at y 0

and

w

0

at y h

at y 1

(26)

v0

at y 0

and

qh

v

qy

at y 0

and

qh

qy

at y h

at y 1

(27)

(i) At the oilbush interface and at the oilshaft interface

matching temperatures

T Tb

at y 0

and

T T sh

at y h

T T b

at y 0

and

T T sh

at y 1

(28)

T T max

(32)

(i) At the shaftuid interface the temperature is given by the

heat ux continuity condition [12]

Z 2p

qT

qT

K s 2pRsh sh

Kf

R dy

qy yh

qr s rs Rsh

0

v0

qT

hb T b jzL=2 T s

K b b

qz zL=2

Using the non-dimensional parameter:

qT

L

B T j

1

b

qz z 1 Rbi ib b z 1

w

0

(31)

Z 2p

qT

RK f

1 qT sh

dy

K s sh

qr s r s 1 2pCK s 0 h qy y1

shaft (z L=2), which gives

qT

K s sh

hs T sh jzL=z T s

qz zL=z

Using the non-dimensional parameter:

qT

Bis T sh jz 1 1

sh

qz z 1

(34)

(29)

3. Results and discussion

For the bush

(i) At the oilbush interface, (y 0, rb Rbt) the temperatures

are given by the heat ux continuity condition:

qT

qT

Ky

K b b

qy y0

qr b rb Rb1

Using the non-dimensional parameter:

qT

Ky Rbi qT

b

K b oh qy y0

qr b r b 1

inuence on the performance parameters of the bearings. Before

discussing the results, the non-dimensional oil lm temperature

obtained from the present computational method has been

compared with Ref. [10]. The bearing geometries, lubricant

properties and operating parameters are the same as in Ref.

[10]. Deviations have been found out for the maximum lm

(30)

constant and equal to Kf in the active zone and variable in the

inactive zone of the lm. As we have seen in the previous

chapter, in the cavitation zone gases, ambient air and uid

lm in the form of streamlets exist, so it is given by the

relation:

Ky

Kf Ka

2

computations.

(ii) For the outer circumference of the bush (rb Rbo), the free

convection and radiation hypothesis give

qT

K b b

hb T b jrb Rbo T s

qr b rb Rbo

data [10].

ARTICLE IN PRESS

U. Singh et al. / Tribology International 41 (2008) 11351144

region. The temperature rise prole in the lm is found to be

nearly matching (Fig. 2). When the bearing operates at a small

speed, the hydrodynamic effect is not predominant. The hydrodynamic pressure is insufcient to balance the applied load when

fed from the top. Thus it is difcult to run the bearing at low

speeds. To be on the safe side, we have considered the bearing

number above 10. For the present work, bearing numbers have

been taken from the speed range given in Appendix A. THD

solutions reveal a satisfactory feature of showing a drop in the oil

temperature in the cavitation region; since the ow region

diverges, the lm temperature drops. THD contour plots indicate

the region of maximum bush surface temperature. The lubricant

1139

heat ows from the bush material to the incoming lubricant, as

clearly shown in Fig. 3, where circumferential and axial temperature drop near the groove region. Fig. 4 shows the temperature

distribution of the bush material near the lubricant lm. Fig. 5

shows the shaft temperature distribution along the circumferential as well as along the axial direction. The shaft temperature

decreases along the axial direction, which means heat transfer

takes place from the lateral face of the shaft to the surrounding.

Circumferential temperature remains same due to the high speed

of shaft rotation. Along the length of the groove, a decrease in

shaft temperature is seen; incoming uid at the lower temperature causes some heat transfer from the shaft to the uid and

Fig. 3. Bush temperature along the circumferential and axial direction near the oil lm.

Fig. 4. Bush temperature along the circumferential and axial direction near the oil lm.

ARTICLE IN PRESS

1140

capacity and ow rate increase with the increase in eccentricity

ratio. Friction variable and Sommerfeld number decrease in the

same manner as eccentricity ratio increases. The maximum lm

pressure increases as the eccentricity ratio increases (Fig. 7). The

attitude angle decreases as the eccentricity ratio increases. The

maximum temperature of the bush internal surface increases at a

faster rate than the maximum uid lm temperature as the

eccentricity ratio increases (Fig. 8). The inlet lm temperature

decreases with an increase in eccentricity because the oil ow rate

increases and the recalculating ow rate decreases. The maximum

lm pressure and load carrying capacity improve for a lower

groove length. Flow rate, maximum shaft temperature, maximum

lm temperature, maximum bush temperature and lm inlet

difference in attitude angle is not so higher. Maximum bush

temperature, maximum shaft temperature, maximum lm temperature, inlet lm temperature improve for a lower groove angle.

Load carrying improves for a lower groove angle. The improved

load is due to the higher pressure development in the large land

area. Leakage ow for a smaller groove angle is more than a larger

groove angle. Friction variable for an 181 groove angle is less than

that for a 361 groove angle, similar to the one reported in [11] and

the same pattern is followed by the Sommerfeld number, friction

variable. This may be due to the temperature increase in bearing,

because for higher eccentricity ratio the lm temperature

increases. Load capacity and ow increase with the increase of

speed (Figs. 9 and 10). Friction variable decreases with the

Fig. 5. Shaft temperature along the circumferential and axial direction near the oil lm.

Fig. 6. Shaft temperature along the circumferential and axial direction near the oil lm.

ARTICLE IN PRESS

U. Singh et al. / Tribology International 41 (2008) 11351144

maximum shaft temperature and lm inlet temperature with eccentricity ratio.

Fig. 11. Friction variable variation with bearing number.

1141

ARTICLE IN PRESS

1142

Fig. 16. Variation of leakage ow for different L/D ratios and eccentricity ratios.

Fig. 17. Variation of maximum lm temperature for different L/D ratios and

eccentricity ratios.

Fig. 15. Variation of leakage ow for different L/D ratios and eccentricity ratios.

Fig. 18. Variation of maximum bush temperature for different L/D ratios and

eccentricity ratios.

ARTICLE IN PRESS

U. Singh et al. / Tribology International 41 (2008) 11351144

1143

at low eccentricity ratios. The maximum lm temperature

increases with the increase in bearing number (Fig. 12). The

attitude angle increases with the bearing number. As the

eccentricity and speed increases, the maximum lm pressure

and inlet lm temperature increase (Figs. 13 and 14). With

increase in the L/D value load carrying capacity, the ow rate also

increases (Figs. 15 and 16). As the L/D ratio increases, the

maximum lm temperature, bush temperature and shaft temperature increase (Figs. 1719). The computed lm temperature

for the THD case as a function of bearing load capacity is shown in

Fig. 20. The maximum lm temperature in the gure depicts that

for light loads most of the heat is carried away by the oil lm,

while as the load increases the temperature also increases and the

lm temperature increases considerably.

4. Conclusions

Fig. 19. Variation of maximum shaft temperature for different L/D ratios and

eccentricity ratios.

important.

(ii) Results show that the oilbush interface temperature drops

slightly in the vicinity of the inlet followed by a rapid rise in

the circumferential direction and a decrease in the cavitation region.

(iii) The temperature gradients in the cross-lm direction were

found to be much greater than those of the circumferential

direction, supporting the validity of the parabolic formulation of the energy equation.

(iv) Heat recirculates from the hottest point to the groove area in

the uid due to the convection, in the bush due to

conduction and in the shaft due to shaft rotation.

(v) The role of the supply groove geometry on the performance

of the bearing cannot be ignored. The groove angle of 361

and groove length of half of the total length of bearing

promoted a reduction in the maximum temperature and

increase in the maximum hydrodynamic pressure.

(vi) Increasing oil supply pressure (lowering bearing number)

causes a decrease in bearing operating temperatures, which

is more signicant for low loads.

(vii) The inuence of shaft speed has also been investigated.

Increasing the shaft speed (increasing bearing number)

Table A1

List of the inputs used in computer simulation

Parameter

Symbol

Unit

Bearing parameters

Journal radius

External bearing radius

Radial clearance

Slenderness ratio

Rotational speed range

Thermal conductivity for bush and shaft

Convective heat transfer coefcient for bush/shaft

Groove location

Groove angle

Groove length/total length of bearing

R

Rbo

C

L/D

N

Kb and Ks

hb and hs

fg

ag

GL/L

m

m

m

dimensionless

rpm

W/m 1C

W/m2 1C

deg

deg

dimensionless

0.05

0.070.1

0.000045

1, 1.5, 2

2002000

50

80

01

181 and 361

0.5, 0.3

Lubricant parameters

Lubricant viscosity at supply temperature

Lubricant specic heat

Lubricant density

Lubricant thermal conductivity

Lubricant viscosity coefcient

Zs

Cp

rf

Kf

b

Pa s

J/kg 1C

kg/m3

W/m 1C

dimensionless

0.0277

2000

860

0.13

0.034

Operating parameters

Inlet lubricant temperature

Ambient temperature

Air thermal conductivity

Inlet lubricant pressure range

Ts

Tamb

Ka

ps

1C

1C

W/m 1C

kPa

40

40

0.025

70150

ARTICLE IN PRESS

1144

(viii)

(ix)

(x)

(xi)

resulted in increased load carrying capacity, bush temperature, ow rate and friction variable.

A bearing having smaller groove angles gives a higher load

capacity, this is due to higher pressures in the larger land

region.

As the ow rate shows an increase in magnitude with

eccentricity and speed, it appears that this bearing allows

the removal of heat more efciently than the pain journal

bearing.

It can be concluded that THD analysis presents more

realistic operating characteristics for a single axial grooved

journal bearing.

The data obtained from the above analysis can be used

conveniently in designing such bearings, as these are

presented in the dimensionless form.

Appendix A

Table A1 shows data used in the thermal analysis.

References

[1] Khonsari MM. A review of thermal effects in hydrodynamic bearings, Part ii:

journal bearing. ASLE Trans 1987;30(1):2633.

[2] Cameron A, Wood WL. The full journal bearing. Proc Inst Mech Engrs

1949;161:5964.

[3] Shaw MC, Macks EF. Analysis and lubrication of bearing. McGraw Hill Book

Co; 1949.

[4] Boswell R. The theory of lm lubrication. New York: Wiley; 1966.

[5] Hagg A. Heat effects in lubricating lms. Trans ASME 1944;66:A726.

[6] Tipei N, Nica A. Investigation on the operating conditions of journal bearing: I

Inuence of viscosity variation. Rev Mec Appl 1959;4:4.

[7] Knight JD, Barrett LE, Cronan RD. Effect of supply pressure on the operating

characteristics of two-axial-groove journal bearings. ASLE Trans

1984;28(3):33642.

[8] Majumdar BC. The thermohydrodynamic solution of oil journal bearings.

Wear 1975;31:28794.

[9] Heshmat H, Pinkus O. Mixing inlet temperature in hydrodynamic bearings.

Trans ASME J Tribol 1986;108:23148.

[10] Costa L, Miranda AS, Fillon M, Claro JCP. An analysis of oil supply conditions

on the thermohydrodynamic performance of a single-groove journal bearing.

Proc Inst Mech Engrs Pt J: J Eng Tribol 2003;217:13344.

[11] Majumdar BC, Pai R, Hargreaves DJ. analysis of water-lubricated journal

bearings with multiple axial grooves. Proc Inst Mech Engrs Pt J: J Eng Tribol

2004;218:13546.

[12] Banwait SS, Chandrawat HN. Study of thermal boundary conditions for a plain

journal bearing. Tribol Int 1998;31:18996.

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