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Review questions for the course

Anatomy and Physiology for Behavioral Clinicians

These questions relate to Mariebs 9th edition (or the 7th and 8th editions), Text files on your
course web site, Thibodeau & Pattons s 3rd and 4th editions, and Lipperts third edition.
Remember that only Mariebs ESSENTIALS of A&P book is required.
The others are optional.
The questions in each of the 15 (or 16) sets below refer to material covered in the (1) text files,
(2) book chapters, and (3) audiovisual lectures identified at the start of the question set. Several
students have had difficulty finding the answers to some questions because they didnt read the
assigned text files.
Answer only the questions for the book(s) you are using and the text files on the course web site.
Everyone must answer the questions for the Marieb book and the text files on the course
web site. You do not have to answer the optional questions from the Thibodeau & Patton, the
Marieb, or the Lippert book as they are optional to those not working with medical patients, pain,
or muscular rehabilitation. Required and optional questions are listed separately under each
question set. Note that some of the optional questions are from the Marieb book.
Please keep the answers to your questions as brief as possible. You are only showing that you
understand the material not proving the points.
There is no need to draw any diagrams as part of your answers.
Please put your full name on each submission as I cant easily track just first names.

1. Concepts and Overview of the Bodys Organization + First Thoughts

About Disease
Audiovisual lecture: Why you need to know A & P to perform psychophysiological
assessments and interventions and what you miss if you dont know it.
MS Word Text File on your course web site: Basic concepts of Disease.
Marieb book Chapter 1: Structural organization, atoms to organisms, overview of organ
systems, what is life and what is needed, homeostasis, descriptive terminology
Thibodeau/Patton 3rd Edition Chapters 1, 3, and 4 / 4th Edition 1,3, 4, and 5: Structure vs.
function, Organ systems; first look at disease mechanisms. NOTE: See the
appendices for examples of pathological conditions, medical terminology,
clinical and laboratory values, and common abbreviations and symbols.
Lippert book Chapter 1: Descriptive terminology, types of motion, joint movements
Required Questions:

1. Why did I include a unit on study design at the start of this course?
2. Define anatomy and physiology.
3. Why would you have a hard time trying to learn and understand physiology if you did
not also understand anatomy.
4. List the 11 organ systems of the body, briefly describe the function of each, and then
name two organs in each system (Note that the brain and spinal cord are a single nerve plexus so
are not two separate organs more on this in the nervous system lecture.).
5. Define homeostasis and explain how homeostasis (or its loss) related to disease and
aging? Provide examples to support your reasoning.
6. Describe the anatomical position.
7. A nurse informed John that she was about to take blood from his antecubital region.
What part of his body was she referring to? Later, she came back and said that she was going to
give him an antibiotic shot in the deltoid region. Did he take off his shirt or his pants to get the
shot? ] Before John left the office, the nurse noticed that his left sural region was badly bruised.
What part of his body was bruised?
8. What is the difference between a functional and structural disease?
9. Describe the eight main mechanisms of disease.
Optional Questions for set 1:
Thibodeau/Patton book:
1. Describe the inflammatory response. Include the four primary signs of inflammation
and their causes.
2. What is the difference between an epidemic and pandemic. What factor makes
pandemics more common now?
3. What are two positive effects of fever?
4. What is a mutagen?
5. What is the difference between an antibiotic and a vaccine?

2. Basic Chemistry:
Audiovisual lecture: The basics of atoms and ions, the body as a bag of ions, body
generated electromagnetic fields and behavior, recording the bodys electricity
Marieb book Chapter 2: Basic chemistry, matter and energy, composition of matter,
molecules and compounds, chemic bonds and reactions, biochemistry inorganic
vs. organic

Thibodeau/Patton 3rd Edition Appendix A Chemistry of life / 4th Edition Chapter 2

Required Questions:
1. Why is the body considered to be a volume conductor? Be sure to include
compartments in your answer.
2. What is the effect of differing depths of muscles on the signal recorded at the surface
and why?
3. Why is a study of basic chemistry essential to understanding human physiology?
Relate your answer to why an understanding of chemistry is important to understanding
what you are doing when making psychophysiological recordings for biofeedback.
4. What four elements make up the bulk of all living matter?
5. Define a molecule. Distinguish between a molecule of an element and a molecule of a
6. Explain the basis of ionic bonding. How do ionic bonds differ from covalent bonds?
7. What are the hydrogen bonds, and how are they important in the body?
8. True or False: The two oxygen atoms forming molecules of oxygen are joined by a
polar covalent bond.
9. Distinguish between inorganic and organic compounds.
10. Define pH.
11. What is an enzyme and how do they work? Include how (mechanism) high pH and
high body temperature interfere with enzyme activity.
(No optional questions for set two.)

3. Cells and Tissues:

Audiovisual lecture: Evolution of communication systems, communication within and
between cells and tissues, development of stress response systems, wound
healing and stress
Marieb book Chapter 3: Cellular anatomy and physiology, epithelial, connective, nerve,
and, muscle tissues, introduction to tissue repair / wound healing
Read the files A&P stress brain changes, A&P kindness hormones, and A&P
Psychophysiology of stress
Thibodeau/Patton book 3rd Ed. Chapter 2/ 4th Ed. Ch 3: Tissues and membranes
Required Questions for set 3:

1. What do the communication systems of colony-like (e.g. Volvox) and worm-like

stages of embryological development have to do with current intra and intercellular
communication systems in adult humans? Give at least two examples of systems from
these stages which remain in adult humans.
2. What is the fight or flight response and what are its nerve and hormonal components?
3. What evidence is there that stress responses cause disease?
4. What effect does prolonged stress response have on wound healing and why?
5. Define a cell.
6. Name the cellular organelles and explain the function of each.
7. Define tissue. List the four major types of tissue. Which of the four major tissue types
is most widely distributed in the body?
8. Name the three types of muscle tissue and tell where each would be found in the body.
9. Why does cartilage take longer to heal than bone? (This has nothing to do with
incisions vs. tears.)
10. What is the symbiote hypothesis? Give at least two examples in humans.

Optional Questions for set 3:

1. Briefly describe the process of DNA replication.
2. Define mitosis. Why is mitosis important?
3. Three patients in an intensive care unit are examined by the resident doctor. One
patient has brain damage from a stroke, another had a heart attack that severely damaged his
heart muscle, and the third has severely damaged liver (a gland) from a crushing injury in a car
accident. All three patients have stabilized and will survive, but only one will have full functional
recovery through regeneration. Which one and why?
4. Kareem had a nervous habit of chewing on the inner lining of his lip, and his lip grew
thicker and thicker. Kareem's dentist noticed his thickened lip and suggested he have it checked.
A biopsy revealed hyperplasia and scattered areas of dysplasia, but no evidence of neoplasia.
What do these terms mean? Did Kareem have cancer of the mouth?
From the Optional Thibodeau/Patton book:

5. Why would doing the following to a child with cystic fibrosis help?: Frequently turn
the child over and, using a cupped hand, firmly pat the child on the back.

4. The Nervous System:

Audiovisual lecture: The overlapping types of communication systems in relationship to
evolution, how the interaction between the chemical and nervous communication
systems effects behavior, effects of stress on the nervous system, nervous system
plasticity and change with behavioral and chemical interventions, changing the
body through change in behavior and vice versa, biofeedback, pain, EEG,
Marieb book Chapter 7: Organization of the nervous system, structure and function, the
CNS, brain dysfunctions, the spinal cord, the peripheral nervous system
MS Word files entitled A&P Itch nerves, A&P kindness hormones, A&P stress brain
changes and A&P gut brain.
Thibodeau/Patton 3rd Ed. Chapter 8 / 4th Ed Ch 9: Nervous system and its diseases
Optional Lippert book Chapter 5: The nervous system and movement: CNS, PNS
Required questions for set 4
1. What is the EEG (not the machine) and what is the relationship between typical EEG
frequencies and stages of alertness?
2. What are dermatomes?
3. Describe the pain gate theory. Include the impact of peripheral and central inhibition
on perceived pain intensity.
4. How do myelinated and unmyelinated nerve fibers transmit at different rates
(structure and mechanism)?
5. What are the two great controlling systems of the body (The nervous system is just
6. Two major cell groups make up the nervous system- neurons and connective tissue
cells such as astrocytes and Schwann cells. Which are signal transmitting cells? What
are the major functions of the other cell group?
7. Briefly explain how nerve impulses are initiated and transmitted.
8. Why does one-way conduction at synapses always happen?
9. Name five types of cutaneous sensory receptors (dont forget itch receptors). Which of
the cutaneous receptor types is most numerous? Why?
10. What is a reflex arc? Name its minimum components.

11. What is the function of the thalamus? The hypothalamus? The cerebellum?
12. List five different functional areas of the cerebral hemisphere and say what each
13. How does the autonomic nervous system differ from the somatic nervous system?
14. What is the difference in function of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions
of the autonomic nervous system? Since the sympathetic and parasympathetic
serve the same organs, how can their opposing effects be explained?
15. What are the major functions of the pons and medulla?
16. Differentiate between a concussion and a contusion.
17. Jed, a couch potato, likes to eat a very large meal in the evening. After the meal, his
wife asks him to help clean the dishes, but Jed explains that he is 'too tired' and promptly
goes to sleep. What seems to be his problem?
Optional questions for set 4:
1. How many pairs of spinal nerves are there? How do they arise (come from)?
2. How many pairs of cranial nerves are there and, in general which functions does each
control and / or sense?
From the Optional Thibodeau/Patton book:
3. What are two ways that neurotransmitter activity is terminated at the synapse?
4. What is the cause of Parkinson disease? What are some treatment options?
5. What is a seizure?
6. What are neuritis and neuralgia?
7. Tonys teachers describe him as a daydreamer. The teachers often find him staring off
into space when they are trying to get his attention. Could Tonys daydreaming be a sign
of epilepsy? What test could help confirm such a diagnosis? What signs would one look
for in such a test if epilepsy is present?
From the Optional Lippert book (Lippert book editions 2 and 3 - Chapter 5):

8. What is the difference in direction of transmission between an afferent and efferent

nerve fiber?

5. The Senses:
Audiovisual lecture: Sensory abilities limit perception and training, the senses not
usually taught including pheromones, ESP, etc..
MS Word Text files on your course website entitled A&P p100,A&P blind spot,
A&P aura vs. illumination, A&P stress brain changes.
Marieb book Chapter 8: vision, hearing, balance, taste, smell
Optional Thibodeau/Patton 3rd Ed. Chapter 9 / 4th Ed Ch 10: The senses and their
Required questions for set 5:
1. What is the basis for the statement that we consciously live one tenth of a second in
the past?
2. Are humans sensitive to pheromones? Support your answer and include at least two
3. What is referred pain and what is the evidence for its existence?
4. What have the p100 brain response and the homunculus to do with pain perception and
5. What is the blind spot, and why is it called this. If we have a blind spot, why isnt there
a hole in the visual field?
6. Since there are only three types of cone, how can you explain the fact that we see many
more colors?
7. Distinguish between dynamic and static types of equilibrium.
8. Normal balance depends upon information transmitted from a number of sensory
receptor types. Name at least two of these receptors and describe what each does.
9. What name is given to the taste receptors, and where are they found?
10. Name the structures of the outer, middle, and inner ears and give the general function
of each.
11. Describe the effects or results of aging on the special sense organs.
Optional questions for set 5:

1. Trace the pathway of nerve impulses from the photoreceptors in the retina to the visual
cortex of the brain. How is an image formed by the cortex? Include the impact of
memory and emotions in your answer.
From the Optional Thibodeau/Patton book:
2. Explain why the longer you are in a newly painted room the less able you are to smell
the paint.
3. Explain why the smell of a dentists office can easily generate an emotional response?
4. Why are there more color blind men than color blind women?
5. What is the mechanism causing many rock musicians lose their ability to hear highfrequency tones?

6. The Glands Exocrine and Endocrine systems:

Audiovisual lecture: Chemical communication vs. behavioral therapy, pheromones and
community and sexual behavior, exocrine glands
Marieb book Chapter 9: Functions, endocrine organs, hormone producing tissues
Thibodeau/Patton 3rd Ed Chapter 10/ 4th Ed Ch 11: Glandular disorders
Required questions for set 6:
1. What are the major effects of hormones on adult human behavior? Include an
overview of hormonal effects (not just the sex hormones) on adult behavior and
examples of behavioral effects of at least two hormones. One must not be an estrogen or
androgen. This question is only about BEHAVIOR.
2. Explain how the nervous and endocrine systems differ in (a) the rate of their control,
(b) the way in which the communicate with body cells, and (c) the types of body
processes they control.
3. Define negative feedback and explain how it regulates blood levels of the various hormones.
4. What controls the release of hormones by the anterior pituitary?
5. Define target organ and explain why all organs are not target organs for all hormones.
6. What are the possible harmful psychological and physical effects of using anabolic steroids to
increase muscle mass and strength?
7. Is the biofeedback teaching process an example of negative feedback? Explain.
Optional questions for set 6:

1. What is the most common cause of hypersecretion by endocrine organs?

From the Optional Thibodeau/Patton book:

2. If a person is diagnosed with diabetes mellitus but is producing a normal amount of
insulin, what other cause could explain the diabetes?

7. The Skin External and Internal:

Audiovisual lecture: Oxygen and wound healing in relation to stress, effects of behavioral
choices on skin function and diseases, skin cancer and the need for behavioral
stimulation, behavioral interventions to speed skin / wound healing
Marieb book Chapter 4: More on membranes, basic structure and functions of the skin,
skin color, homeostatic imbalances of the skin (allergies, burns, cancer,
infections, etc.)
Thibodeau/Patton 3rd Ed Chapter 5 / 4th Ed Ch 6: Disorders of the integument
Required questions for set 7:
1. What is the electrodermal response and how is it recorded?
2. From what types of damage does the skin protect the body?
3. What is a decubitus ulcer? Why does it occur?
4. Distinguish between first-, second-, and third-degree burns. Why are severe burns life
5. Both newborn infants and aged individuals have very little subcutaneous tissue. Why
(mechanism) does this affect their sensitivity to cold environmental temperature?
Optional questions for set 7:
From the Optional Thibodeau/Patton book:
1. Name and briefly describe the layers of the epidermis.
2. What are the apocrine, eccrine, and sebaceous glands and what is the function of each?
3. If one of your patients has a lesion on his skin which is a papule with an ulcer in the
center, what type of problem does the person probably have and how serious is it.
4. If one of your patients arrives with a red, scaly, rash formed into rings on an area of
skin you need to record from, what is probably wrong with the patient? What causes it
and are you likely to get it from the patient?

8. The Skeletal System:


Audiovisual lecture: The need for bones to continuously reshape themselves in response
to behavioral challenges, stress and bone healing and change, behavioral
interventions to speed bone healing
Marieb book Chapter 5: Functions of bones, the axial skeleton, the appendicular
skeleton, joints, developmental aspects of the skeleton
Thibodeau/Patton 3rd Ed Chapter 6 / 4th Ed Ch 7: Skeletal disorders and fractures
Optional Lippert book Chapter 2: Skeletal system: functions, types, composition of bone,
structure; Chapter 3: Joints / Articular system: types of joints, joint structure,
planes; Chapter 6: Basic biomechanics
Required questions for set 8:
1. What are the effects of psychological stress on bone healing and reshaping?
2. If a woman has pain in the pelvic area, what bone / tendon / ligament problems
should be looked for?
3. Name three functions of the skeletal system.
4. Compare and contrast the role of PTH hormone and mechanical forces acting on the
skeleton in bone remodeling?
5. Define fracture. Describe the most common types of fractures. Which fracture types
are most common in the elderly?
6. Define arthritis. What type of arthritis is most common in elderly? What type is
believed to result from the immune systems attack on ones own joint tissue?
7. List two factors that keep bones healthy. List two factors that can cause bones to
become soft or to atrophy.
8. A 75-year woman and her 9-year-old granddaughter were in a train crash in which
she sustained trauma to the chest. X-rays showed that her grandmother had several
fractured ribs but her granddaughter had none. Explain these surprisingly different
9. A patient complains of pain starting in the jaw and radiating down the neck. Upon
questioning, he states that under stress he grinds his teeth. What joint is causing his
pain? What else could cause the pain (dont limit your answer to bones and joints)?
Optional questions for set 8:
1. After a severe cold accompanied by nasal congestion. Helen complained that she had a
frontal headache and the right side of her face ached. What bony structures probably became
infected by the bacteria or viruses causing the cold?


From the Optional Thibodeau/Patton book:

2. What are the five main sections of the vertebral column?
3. Briefly describe a joint capsule.
4. Describe the three types of arthritis.
5. How do male and female skeletons differ especially with regard to childbearing?
6. Why is mastoiditis potentially more dangerous than a paranasal sinus infection?
From the optional Lippert book Chapter 3: 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, and 8.
Chapter 6: 1, 2, 5, and 7.

9. The Muscular System:

Audiovisual lecture: Stress and muscle tension, muscle tension vs. pain, types of muscle
tissue vs. training for different types of tasks why you cant train some muscles
to perform some functions, muscle rehabilitation vs. type of training
Marieb book Chapter 6: Types of muscle tissue, muscle activity, motion, anatomy
Read the booklet from Thought Technology about Muscle function. The file is
entitled A&P TT rehab book. You must read this file or you will not have
sufficient information about muscle function to perform biofeedback effectively.
Required movie (A&Pmovie) showing low back and facial muscle position /
direction vs. muscle tension recording.
Thibodeau/Patton 3rd Ed Ch 7 / 4th Ed Ch 8: Disorders of the musculoskeletal system
Optional Lippert book Chapters 7 & 8: The shoulder girdle and joint
Lippert book Chapter 16: The Hip: Joint structure, motions, and
muscle actions
Lippert book Chapter 12: TM / Jaw joint function
Lippert book Chapter 17: The Knee: Muscles of the knee, muscle
actions, motions
Lippert book Chapter 13: The Neck and Trunk: Vertebral curves,
explanation of terms, joints and ligaments, muscles of the neck and trunk
Lippert book Chapter 20: Walking: Normal gait, stance,
analysis of the swing and stance phases, determinants of gait properties
Lippert book Chapter 19: Posture
Required questions for set 9:
(Note that the stress pain muscle tension questions are from material covered
in slide set 3 cells and tissues.)
1. How can muscles be both painful and relaxed at the same time?



Do you have to tense up with acute stress responses? (This is a synthesis question.
Material for this answer was presented in lecture 3 on cells and tissues.)

3. What is the homeostatic model of tension and pain? (This is a synthesis question.
Material for this answer was presented on slide 50 in lecture 3 on cells and tissues.)
4. Describe trigger points and their proposed (likely) underlying physiology.
5. What is the function of tendons? What is the difference between a tendon and a
6. How do isotonic and isometric contractions differ?
7. Muscle tone keeps muscles healthy. What is muscle tone, and what causes it? What
happens to a muscle that loses its tone?
8. How is a prime mover different from a synergist muscle?
9. What is the effect of aging on skeletal muscles?
10. What signs and symptoms are likely to accompany a moderate muscle strain? (You
may need to look this up on the web.)
Optional questions for set 9:
1. Mr. Posibo has had gallbladder surgery. Now he is experiencing weakness of the
muscles on his right side only, the side in which the incision was made through the abdominal
musculature. Consequently, the abdominal muscles on his left side contract more strongly,
throwing his torso into a lateral flexion. Mr. Posibo needs physical therapy. What abnormal
spinal curvature will result if he doesnt go it, and why?
2. Why are the connective tissue wrappings of skeletal muscles important?
3. When Eric returned from jogging, he was breathing heavily and sweating profusely,
and he complained that his legs ached and felt weak. His wife poured him a sports drink and
urged him to take it easy until he could catch his breath. On the basis of what you have learned
about muscle energy metabolism, respond to the following questions:
Why is Eric breathing heavily?
What ATP harvesting pathway have his working muscles been using that leads to such a
breathing pattern?
What metabolic product(s) might account for his sore muscles and his feeling of muscle
4. Gregor, who works at a pesticide factory, comes to the clinic complaining of muscles
spasms that interfere with his movements and breathing. A blood test shows that he has become

contaminated with organophosphate pesticide. The doctor states that this type of pesticide is an
acetylcholinesterase inhibitor? How would you explain to Gregor what this means?
From the Optional Thibodeau/Patton book:
5. Briefly give the functions of tendons, bursae, and synovial membranes.
6. Describe the following movements: flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, and
7. Can a muscle contract for very long if its blood supply is shut off? Why?
From the optional Lippert book Chapter 4 second edition: Questions 9 &10; third edition:
Questions 6, 7, 9
Lippert book 2nd Ed Chapter 6 or 3rd Ed Chapter 7: Question 5
Lippert book 2nd Ed Chapter 7 or 3rd Ed Chapter 8: Questions 7 - 9
Lippert book 2nd Ed Chapter 11 or 3rd Ed ch 16: Questions 4, 7, and 11
Lippert book 3rd Ed Chapter 12: Questions 1 - 11
Lippert book 2nd ed Chapter 12 or 3rd Ed ch 17: Questions 4, 5, 7, 8, 9,
Lippert book 2nd ed Chapter 14 or 3rd Ed ch 13: Questions 8, and 9, What are the major
neck muscles and what do they do?
Lippert book 2nd Ed Chapter 16 or 3rd Ed Chapter 20: Questions 8, 9, and 10
Lippert book 3rd Ed Chapter 19: Questions 1, 3, 5, 7, and 8

10. The Cardiovascular / Circulatory System:

Audiovisual lecture: Effects of stress and anxiety on cardiovascular functioning and vice
versa, behavioral interventions for cardiovascular problems
Marieb book Chapters 10, 11, & 12: Composition of blood, hemostasis (clotting, etc.),
blood types, the heart, blood vessels, the lymphatic system
Read the text file A&P HRV and anxiety disorders
Thibodeau/Patton 3rd Ed Chapters 11, 12, and 13 / 4th Ed Chs 12, 13, & 14: Disorders of the
cardiovascular system

Required questions for set 10:

1. Describe three ways of recording near surface blood flow.
2. What is Raynauds syndrome and how is it treated with biofeedback?
3. What is RSD and how is it tracked using temperature?
4. What is the relationship between burning phantom pain and blood flow?
5. What is the relationship between heart rate variability and stress / anxiety?
6. What determines whether blood is bright red or dull red in colo(u)r?

7. Define blood pressure, systolic pressure, and diastolic pressure.

How does stress affect them?
8. Define hypertension and arteriosclerosis. How are they often related? Why is
hypertension called the silent killer? Name three changes in lifestyle that might
help prevent cardiovascular disease in old age.
Optional Questions for set 10:
1. If you had a severe infection, would you expect your total WBC count to be closest to
5000, 10,000, or 15,000/mm? Why? What is this condition called?
2. Name three factors that are important in promoting venous return.
3. What are varicose veins? What factors seem to promote their formation?
From the Optional Thibodeau/Patton book:
4. What is meant by the bloods Rh factor? And why is the first Rh-positive baby born to an Rhnegative mother usually unaffected?
5. How does blood clot and how does heparin affect the process?
6. What advantage is imparted to people in Africa with sickle cell trait (From Marieb)?
7. What are pericarditis and pericardial effusion?
8. What is mitral valve prolapse?
9. What are tachycardia and bradycardia?
10. What is phlebitis?
11. Leo is a middle-aged man who has recently been experiencing pain in his legs, especially
when he walks for even moderate distances. His physician tells him that he has atherosclerosis in
a major artery in the affected leg. Why does this cause pain when Leo walks? What treatments
might Leos physician recommend to correct this problem and how does each work?

11. The Immune System:

Audiovisual lecture: Effects of stress on the immune system, behavioral interventions for
immune system dysfunctions
Marieb book Chapter 12: The lymphatic system, nonspecific body defenses, the immune
Thibodeau/Patton 3rd Ed Chapter 14 / 4th Ed Ch 15: Disorders of the immune system

Required questions for set 11:


1. Based on information provided in previous lectures, what is the effect of chronic

stress responses on the immune system? Discuss the evidence on whether behavioral
interventions can increase immune functioning.
2. Do you think infections or the immune system are related to mental illness? Support

your answer.
3. What are the (a) lymph nodes, (b) tonsils, (c) lymphatic vessels, and (d) spleen?

What does each do?

4. Define the immune response.
5. Describe the specific roles of helper, killer, and suppressor T cells in cell-mediated

immunity. Which are thought to be disabled in AIDS?

6. Define allergy, and distinguish between immediate types of allergy and delayed

allergic reactions relative to cause and consequences.

7. Mr. James, an 80-yr old man, is grumbling about having to receive a flu shot every

year. Flu viruses have a high mutation rate (change genetically rapidly), which results in
the appearance of new proteins on the flu viruss coat. How does this help explain the
need to get a flu shot each year?
Optional questions for set 11:
1. Before acting as mechanical barriers, the skin and mucosae of the body contribute to
body protection in other ways. Cite the common body locations and the importance of
mucus, lysozyme, keratin, acid pH, and cilia.
2. Compare and contrast a primary and secondary immune response.
What is more rapid, and why?
3. Define antigen. What is the difference between a complete antigen and an incomplete
antigen (hapten)?
4. Define immunocompetence. What indicates that a B cell and a T cell has developed
immunocompetence? Where does the programming phase occur in the case of T cells?
B cells?
From the Optional Thibodeau/Patton book:
5. What is contact dermatitis and what causes it?
6. What is the difference in the mechanisms in the development of the allergic reaction
of runny nose / hives vs. to poison ivy?

12. The Respiratory System:


Audiovisual lecture: Poor respiration patterns cause anxiety, psychophysiological

assessments and behavioral interventions for respiratory disorders
Marieb book Chapter 13: Anatomy, respiratory physiology
Read text file: A&P hyperventilation.
Thibodeau/Patton 3rd Ed Chapter 15 / 4th Ed Ch 16: Disorders of the respiratory system
Optional Lippert book Chapter 14: Respiration in relationship to motion,
muscles used during respiration and their tension patterns

Required questions for set 12:

1. How does stress effect respiration?
2. What is the relationship between chronically shallow, fast breathing, and anxiety?
3. What is the evidence that many people with anxiety disorders actually have breathing
disorders (remember that small studies cannot demonstrate firm relationships)?
4. What is the difference between external and internal respiration?
5. Name the two major brain areas involved in the nervous control of breathing.
6. Name two chemical factors that modify respiratory rate and depth. Which is usually
more important?
7. Define hyperventilation. If you hyperventilate, do you retain or expel more carbon
dioxide? What effects does hyperventilation have on blood ph?
Optional questions for set 12:
From the Optional Thibodeau/Patton book:
1. Describe rhinitis, pharyngitis, and laryngitis.
2. Explain the function of chemoreceptors and stretch receptors in regulating breathing.
3. What is bronchitis?
4 What is emphysema, what causes it, and how does it cause a reduction in lung surface
5. What occurs in asthma?
From the optional Lippert book chapter 14: Questions 4, 8, & 9.

13. The Digestive System, Metabolism, and Nutrition:

Audiovisual lecture: The gut brain, stress and metabolism, stress and GI functions,
behavioral interventions for irritable bowel disease, etc., diet vs. weight
Marieb book Chapter 14: Anatomy and functions of the digestive system, nutrition and


metabolism, body energy balance

File entitled A&P nutrition
Thibodeau/Patton 3rd Ed Chapters 16 & 17 / 4th Ed Chs 17 & 18: Disorders of the GI system

Required questions for set 13:

1. How does stress affect the GI system?
2. What is irritable bowel syndrome and what are two behavioral interventions for it
(dont limit your answer to biofeedback)?
3. Assume you have been chewing a piece of bread for 5 or 6 minutes. How would you
expect its taste to change during this time? Why?
4. Why is it necessary for the stomach contents to be so acidic? How does the stomach
protect itself from being digested?
5. How do segmental and peristaltic movements differ?
6. Where does most nutrient absorption occur?
7. What are the defecation reflex, constipation, and diarrhea?
8. Define BMR and name two factors that are important in determining an individuals
9. Name three digestive system problems common to middle-aged adults. Name one
common to teenagers. Name three common in elderly people.
10. What are two effects of nutrition on adult human behavior (from the file A&P
Optional questions for set 13:
1. An anorexic girl shows high levels of acetone in her blood. What is this condition
called, and what has caused it?

Name two regions of the digestive tract where mechanical food breakdown occurs,
and explain how it is accomplished in those regions.

3. Only one organ produces enzymes capable of digesting all groups of foodstuffs. What
organ is this?
From the Optional Thibodeau/Patton book:
4. What do the cardiac and pyloric sphincter muscles do?


5. What causes ulcers and what are the three parts of the triple therapy used to treat them?
6. What is hepatitis and what are its signs and symptoms?
7. If somebody maintains a totally vegetarian diet without taking supplements, what will
happen to them physiologically and why?
8. What is the difference between heat exhaustion and heat stroke? How is each treated?

14. The Urinary System, Waste Disposal, Fluid Balance Systems:

Audiovisual lecture: Mechanisms of continence, psychophysiological assessment
and treatment of urinary and fecal incontinence, reflexes
Marieb book Chapter 15: The kidneys, bladder, and urethra
Thibodeau/Patton 3rd Ed Chapters 18, 19 & 20 / 4th Ed 19, 20 & 21: Electrolyte balance,
Disorders of the urinary system

Required questions for set 14:

1. What is the mechanism we use to avoid urinating when we get the urge and then to
urinate when we are ready to (include disinhibition in your answer)?
2. What are the three major types of urinary incontinence and which can be treated with
behavioral interventions?
3. Name the organs of the urinary system and describe the general function of each organ.
4. How is the female urethra different from that of the male in structure and function?
5. Why is cystitis more common in females?
6. Describe the changes that occur in kidney and bladder function in old age.
7. A 55-year-year-old woman is awakened by an excruciating pain that radiates from her
right abdomen to her flank on the same side. The pain is not continuous, but it recurs
every 3 to 4 minutes. What is probably wrong and why does the pain comes in waves?
8. A young woman has come to the clinic with dysuria and frequent urination. What is
the most likely diagnosis?
Optional questions for set 14:
1. Mitchells parents bring him to the clinic because his urine is tinged with blood. Two
days before he was diagnosed with strep throat. His face and hands are swollen. What is the
probable cause of Mitchells current kidney problem?


From the Optional Thibodeau/Patton book:

2. What do the kidneys do and how do they do their job?
3. Describe the structure of the bladder including the trigone?
4. What is the most common urinary disorder?
5. How does overhydration tax the heart?

15. The Reproductive System, Growth, and Genetics:

Audiovisual lecture: Mechanisms of orgasm, stress and sexual function
Marieb book Chapter 16: Anatomy and physiology of the male and female reproductive
systems, female reproductive functions
Thibodeau/Patton 3rd Ed Chapters 21, 22, & 23 / 4th Ed Chapters 22, 23, & 24: Disorders of the
reproductive system and genetics

Required questions for set 15:

1. What is the relationship between extended stress responses and sexual function

include both ability to maintain an erection and have orgasms among males?
2. What is the relationship between weak or flaccid pelvic floor muscles and ability to
have an orgasm among females?
What determines which gender you will be? Include the effects of genes and
hormones in your answer.

4. Give an example of offspring ratios determined by Mendelian genetics.

5. What is a sex-linked trait and why do men exhibit more sex-linked disorders than
6. Discuss the nature vs. nurture debate with regard to human behavior. Give at least
two examples of behaviors at least partially controlled by genetics and discuss the
concept of whether inherited traits must be expressed to the extent the genetic component
would call for.
Optional questions for set 15:
From the Optional Thibodeau/Patton book:
1. What ways other than sex can STDs be transmitted?
2. What is dysmenorrhea?
3. Why are the testes located outside the body cavity?
4. What are the causes and symptoms of any 5 STDs?


5. What is an ectopic pregnancy?

6. Define and explain the terms dominant, recessive, and co-dominant?
7. What is crossing-over and how does it add to genetic variation?
8. If parents are concerned that their child might be born with Down syndrome, what would be
the best way to determine this: A pedigree, a Punnet square, or a karyotype? Explain your logic.
9. Read through the Thibodeau/Patton Appendices (There are no review questions about these
sections.). Especially look at: Common Pathological Conditions, Medical Terminology,
Common Abbreviations and Symbols, Clinical Laboratory Values, & Examples of
Pathological Conditions.

16. You arent quite done with the course yet. fill out
a. The course and instructor evaluation on the course web site and email it to
b. The BCIA course evaluation form on your course web site and e-mail it to
End of review questions.