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Faults of the ECU793 (APC200)

Behavior in case of faults

It is considered critical to be able to select Neutral in all circumstances. Selection of Neutral also is
considered the safe state in case of many faults. The APC200 has been designed to guarantee selection of
Neutral in some conditions.
When power is applied, the APC200 first selects Neutral without range clutch engaged and starts
initializing itself. This includes a series of self-tests to assume system integrity.
The initialization phase takes about 1 second. It includes Power-On Self -Test and integrity testing of the
redundant shutdown path.
After power up, the APC200 is in a Neutral Lock State. This means the transmission remains in Neutral
until the shift lever is cycled physically through Neutral.
Over voltage: the controller is very tolerant to large transients on the power lines. Even power
supply levels up to 48 Vdc will not damage circuit components.
However, a magneto-resistive sensor supply voltage in excess of about 15.5 Vdc prevents the
speed sensor circuit from operation (fault indicated). A fault indication on the display is given to
warn the operator of the problem.
Fault removed: normal operation is resumed.
Under voltage: the controller will continue to operate at voltages below 18 Vdc. Voltage below 11
Vdc causes the controller to enter the reset condition and shut off all outputs.
Fault removed: not applicable because this fault results in APC200 resetting.
Internal errors/malfunctions (Alarm Code 00): at power up, a series of integrity checks is
performed. These consist of normal CPU and memory function tests.
If the test prevents operation of the controller, the controller locks itself in a reset state with all
outputs off.
If the faults detected relate to shift limits and controlling the transmission is still possible, the
controller reverts to shutdown mode. In this mode, the transmission cannot be operated.
Fault removed: not applicable because internal faults are only checked at power-up. An exception
is the code checksum program. If this fault occurs, the AP200 enters a wait loop allowing the
production test system to program the correct checksum, in order to get the system running
Alarm Code 20 Redundant shutdown path error: at power up, before the solenoid is activated,
the pressure feedback (Analog Input 0) must indicate low pressure. Then after activating the
solenoid, the pressure must rise within a given timeout.
After power-up, the pressure feedback signal is ignored if the engine speed is lower than 500
RPM. When the engine speed exceeds this limit, this signal is still ignored for an additional 2
seconds to allow the system to build up the pressure.

Faults 1

If any of this fails or occurs too late, faults are generated, and the APC200 is not allowed to
operate. Any fault related to it causes the APC200 to enter Shut Down mode.
Fault removed: this fault is permanently flagged until the controller is powered down.
Program out of control: the watchdog timers reset the APC200 automatically if due to a program
disturbance either one is not timely reset (150 ms). Additionally, during program execution,
critical variables are continuously checked for content integrity. If faults are detected, the APC200
defaults to the reset state.
Fault removed: not applicable because this fault results in controller reset.
Intermittent voltage drop: after power is restored, the APC200 enters the reset condition, resulting
in the immediate selection of neutral no clutch engaged.
It stays there until the shift lever is placed in neutral and the vehicle speed drops to a safe level
where normal operation resumes.
In absence of power, the transmission defaults to Neutral (provided the redundant Drive solenoid
operates as expected).
Fault removed: not applicable because this fault results in controller reset.
Single faults on analogue outputs: faults related to analogue outputs are detected by various
principles. Besides being monitored just like ON/OFF outputs the current through their sense line
is compared to the target current. Significant deviations from the target current are treated as faults
Errors/malfunctions related to outputs A02, A04, A06, and A08: these outputs control pressure
modulators and have the capability to lock conflicting clutches. Faults on them are considered
critical. Any single fault on them results in the selection of Limp Home mode.
Errors/malfunctions related to outputs B01, B03, and B05: these outputs are not involved in
transmission control. Errors are indicated if used, but no further action is taken.
Single faults on on/off outputs: faults related to ON/OFF outputs are detected by comparing the
desired Output State with the actual Output State (using dedicated feedback lines). This implies
that if an output is intended to be OFF, it is not possible to detect shorts to ground.
If on the other hand, the output is intended to be ON, open circuits or shorts to battery (+)
cannot be detected. In order to circumvent this problem, each critical on/off output is toggled for
1ms every 220 ms in order to capture all faults.
Any fault relating to an output used by the application is flagged. The APC200 cannot distinguish
between open load or short to battery (+) conditions. An open circuit condition on these outputs is
therefore interpreted as a short to battery condition.
Faults related to A15, A16 (VFS selectors): faults related to A15, A16 result in selection of Limp
Home mode.
Faults related to A10 or A20 (Redundant Shutdown path solenoid control): Any fault related
to A10 or A20 immediately results in Shut Down mode. These outputs control the redundant
transmission shutdown solenoid. A fault related to this solenoid implies that the APC200 cannot
select neutral in case of a severe fault on a critical output.
Faults 2

Fault removed: single outputs, normal operation is resumed. Multiple outputs, controller remains
in shutdown mode until powered down.
Incorrect input patterns: the shift lever pattern presented to the APC200 is continuously checked
for plausibility.
Direction selection related inputs: a three input direction selection mechanism (using
redundancy) is used to allow detecting any fault related to the direction inputs. A fault on the
direction inputs immediately results in the selection of Neutral.
Range selection related inputs: two inputs are used to encode 3 ranges. An incorrect pattern is
flagged as a fault. During the fault, the last correct position remains selected.
Fault removed: normal operation is resumed.
Speed sensor faults: the fault detection relies on a permanent monitoring of sensor current. If it
gets too low, an open circuit condition is assumed. Conversely, if it is too high, a short to ground is
Faults related to incorrect sensor mounting or sensor malfunction for transmission speed related
sensors are detected by comparing actual transmission ratios with selected ratios. If one or two
vehicle speed sensors fail (turbine, output or drum sensor), the controller will signal the error but
will calculate the value based on the remaining sensors. This will allow the driver to continue
Note: if more than one sensor or the engine speed sensor fail, the controller is no
longer considered safe to operate. In this case, the controller will switch to LIMP
HOME mode.
A sensor specific fault indication on the display is given to warn the driver of the problem.
Fault removed: normal operation is resumed.
Analogue sensor faults: the mapping of fault-codes to functions described below is typical but
actually depends on parameter file settings. Verify using the appropriate wiring diagrams.
Pressure Feedback Sensor Failure (50): if the valve-resident pressure switch is shorted or has an
open connection, this fault is shown. Considering its critical role in ensuring the safety integrity
of the drive train, any fault related to this input results in system shutdown.
Transmission Temperature Sensor Failure (51): if the temperature sensor indicates a
transmission temperature below -50C, a short to ground condition is assumed. If the temperature
sensor indicates a transmission temperature beyond +150C, an open circuit condition is assumed.
Either condition is indicated on the display to warn the driver of the problem. While the fault is
present, the temperature value is limited at the lowest or highest value used for temperature
Cooler Input Temperature (52): on transmissions with analog cooler input temperature sensor,
open and short circuit conditions are detected and displayed. In case an ON/OFF temperature
switch is used, no faults are detected.
Any such fault results in a Value Out Of Range fault on the Converter Temperature reading
showing up as fault 43. Check with the specific applications wiring diagram for references to
the applied sensor type.
Faults 3

Accelerator Position Sensor Failure (56): if the accelerator pedal sensor produces an out of
range value, the accelerator position is assumed to be at 0%.
This results in Low Accelerator shift point selection. A fault is indicated on the display.
Brake Pedal Position Sensor Failure (53) if the brake pedal sensor produces an out of range
value, the brake pedal position is assumed to be at 0%.
Inching and declutch are disabled. A fault is indicated on the display.
Fault removed: normal operation is resumed.
Transmission ratio faults: each selected transmission gear has an expected transmission ratio. The
actual ratio is measured continuously.
If one of the directional clutches is supposed to be engaged and the transmission output speed is
above a minimum value for checking, the actual ratio is compared to the expected value.
Measured transmission ratios are accepted within 5% deviation on the expected ratio. If the
deviation on the ratio exceeds these limits, the appropriate fault is flagged.
Converter Temperature problem: fault code 43 covers overtemperature conditions of the
transmission. If the related sensor exhibits a fault (open or shorted) code 03 is shown indicating an
out of range condition.
If the oil temperature exceeds 100C, a warning is given (code 07)
Service requests: in case there is a condition that requires direct intervention from a specialized
service engineer, a fault in the range of 90.00 99.99 is generated. If such a fault occurs, the error
display intermittently shows this code and the word Code.
When the fault is read though the CAN-bus, no special indication is provided other than the fact
that these fault codes have numbers from 90-99.
In case such a fault occurs, please contact the European Spicer Off Highway service department
located in Brugge Belgium for assistance.
Indication of faults: when a fault is detected, the E -led starts flashing. In order to find out which fault was
last detected hold the 'S' switch for about a second. The display will then show the fault area.
When holding the button another second or so, the display shows the number of times the fault has
occurred (since the last time the fault counters were cleared).
When the S switch is released, the fault type is shown. A flashing display indicates a fault thats no longer
present. If several faults coexist, pressing the S switch before the normal display is resumed selects the
next fault for display.
Faults are shown in order of severity. After the last fault has been displayed, the display shows ' -- '
meaning no more errors is detected.

Faults 4


Priority x/29 Fault area

Fault Types

Power On Self Test

3100 4


50,51, 52,53

Redundant shutdown path

3300 3



Battery voltage

5000 2



Sensor supply voltage

1700 15



Shift lever direction


1200 24



Shift lever position

DIGIN0 1-2
DIGIN1 2-3
DIGIN2 3-4

1100 22 41

Transmission ratio

1650 16



Converter temperature

1000 23


03, 07,08

Transmission pressure
feedback ANI0

1900 14



Transmission temperature
sensor ANI1

300 29



Cooler temperature

900 24



Brake pedal position


800 25



Ref voltage out


600 26



Servo motor position


500 27



Throttle pedal position


400 28



Drum speed +/Sensor 0 (A22 A23)

1600 17



Output speed +/Sensor 1 (A24 A25)

1500 18



Engine speed +/Sensor 2 (A26 A27)

1400 19




Faults 5



Fault area

Fault Types

Turbine speed +/Sensor 3 (B11 B18)

1300 20




2500 8


00,01, 02,03

Rev/Hi or 2nd/4th VFS


2400 9


00,01, 02,03

2nd or Rev VFS


2300 10


00,01, 02,03

1st/3rd VFS

2200 1173

RSP drive solenoid +


2700 6



2/4VFS selector

2100 12



1/3 VFS selector


2000 13



RSP drive solenoid DO3

2600 7



Analogue output supply

2900 5



9999 1



00,01, 02,03

Service Request
Contact SOHPD service Dept.

Faults 6