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STUDY PACKAGE
Subject : Mathematics
Topic : LIMITS

Available Online : www.MathsBySuhag.com

Index
1. Theory
2. Short Revision
3. Exercise (Ex. 1 + 5 = 6)
4. Assertion & Reason
5. Que. from Compt. Exams
6. 39 Yrs. Que. from IIT-JEE(Advanced)
7. 15 Yrs. Que. from AIEEE (JEE Main)

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Limit
page 2 of 18

Limit of a function f(x) is said to exist as,


x a when,

Limit f (a h)
Limit f (a + h) = some finite value M.
=
h0
h0
(Left hand limit)
(Right hand limit)
Note that we are not interested in knowing about what happens at x = a. Also note that if L.H.L. &
R.H.L. are both tending towards ' ' or then it is said to be infinite limit.
Remember, Limit x a
x a

Solved Example # 1

Find xLimit
/ 2 f(x)
Solution.
Here

Limit f(x) = 1

x / 2

Solved Example # 2

Find Limit
x1 f(x)

Solution.
Left handed limit = 1
Right handed limit = 2
Limit
Hence x1 f(x) = does not exist.
Solved Example # 3
(i)
Find limit f(x)
(ii)
Find limit f(x)
x 0

x 1

(iii)

it f(x)
Find lim
x 3

Solution.
(i)
(ii)

2.

limit f(x) = does not exists


x 0
because left handed limit right handed limit
limit f(x) = 0
(iii)
x 1

limit f(x) = 1
x 3

Indeterminant Forms:
0
, , 0 , , 0, and 1 .
0

Solved Example # 4
Which of the following limits are forming indeterminant from also indicate the form
lim 1
lim 1 x
(i)
(ii)
x 0 x
x 0
1 x2
1 1
lim x n x
lim

(iii)
(iv)
x 0
x 0 x
x2
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1.

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(v)
(vii)

lim (sin x)x

lim (n x)x

(vi)

x 0

x 0

(viii)

x 0

No

(ii)

Yes

x 0

lim 1 sin x

1
x

lim (1)1/x

0
from
0
Yes ( ) form
Yes () form

page 3 of 18

(i)

(iii)
Yes 0 form
(iv)
(v)
Yes, (0) form
(vi)
(vii)
Yes (1) form
(viii)
NOTE :
(i)
' 0 ' doesn't means exact zero but represent a value approaching towards zero similary to ' 1 ' and
infinity.
(ii)
+=
(iii)
x =
(iv)
(a/ ) = 0 if a is finite
a
(v)
is not defined for any a R.
0
(vi)
a b = 0, if & only if a = 0 or b = 0 and a & b are finite.

3.

Method of Removing Indeterminancy


To evaluate a limit, we must always put the value where ' x ' is approaching to in the function. If we get
a determinate form, then that value becomes the limit otherwise if an indeterminant form comes. Then
apply one of the following methods:
(i)
Factorisation
(ii)
Rationalisation or double rationalisation
(iii)
Substitution
(iv)
Using standard limits
(v)
Expansions of functions.

1.

Factorization method :We can cancel out the factors which are leading to indeterminancy and find the limit of the remaing
expression.

Solved Example # 5
6
limit x 24 x 16
x 2
x 3 2x 12
Solution.
6
( x 2)( x 5 2x 4 4x 3 8 x 2 16 x 8)
limit x 24 x 16 = limit
x 2
x 2
( x 2 2x 6)( x 2)
x 3 2x 12
168
=
= 12
14

2.

Rationalization /Double Rationalization.


We can rationalize the irrational expression by multiplying with their conjugates to remove the
indeterminancy.

Solved Example # 6
Solution.
it
= lim
x 1

limit
x 1

4 5x 1

limit
x 1

2 3x 1

4 5x 1
2 3x 1

( 4 5 x 1)(2 3 x 1)( 4 5 x 1)
(2 3 x 1)(4 5 x 1)(2 3 x 1)

2 3x 1
(15 5x )
5

=
(3 3 x )
6
4 5x 1
Solved Example # 7
2 ( 2x 3)
1
lim
3
Evaluate :
(i)

x 2
x 2 x 3 x 2 2x
it
= lim
x 1

(iii)
Solution

(ii)

lim (2x 3) x 1
2x 2 x 3
(i)
We have
1
2 ( 2x 3)
lim
3

x 2
x

2
x 3 x 2 2x

lim

x 0

1 x 1 x
x

x 1

1
2 ( 2x 3)

= xlim

2 x 2
x
(
x 1)( x 2)

x( x 1) 2(2x 3)
= xlim

2
x( x 1)( x 2)

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Solution

= xlim
0 x

(iii)

1 x 1 x
2x

We have
( 2x 3) x 1
( 2x 3) x 1
lim
= lim

2
x 1
x 1 ( 2x 3 )( x 1)
2x x 3

( 2x 3) x 1

= xlim
1 (2 x 3)
x 1 x 1

2x 3

= xlim
1 ( 2x 3)
x 1

4.

2
2

=
= xlim
=1
0
2
1 x 1 x

1
1
=
(5)(2)
10

Fundamental Theorems on Limits:


Limit
Let Limit
x a f (x) = & x a g (x) = m. If & m exists then:

(i)

Limit { f (x) g (x) } = m

x a

(iii)

Limit f ( x) = , provided m 0
x a
g ( x) m

(iv)

Limit k f(x) = k Limit f(x) ; where k is a constant.


x a
x a

(ii)

Limit { f(x). g(x) } = . m

x a

Limit f [g(x)] = f Limit g ( x ) = f (m); provided f is continuous at g (x) = m.


x a

x a

Solved Example # 8 Evaluate

(v)

(i)
(v)
Solution
(ii)

lim (x + 2)

x 2

(ii)

lim x(x 1)

(iii)

x 2

2
lim x 4
x2

x 2

(iv)

lim cos (sin x)

x 0

2
2
lim x 3 x 2 (vi)
lim x 3 x 2
2
x 1
x 1
x2 1
(i)
x + 2 being a polynomial in x, its limit as x 2 is given by xlim
(x + 2) = 2 + 2 = 4
2
Again x(x 1) being a polynomial in x, its limit as x 2 is given by
lim x(x 1) = 2 (2 1) = 2

x 1

x 2

(iii)
(iv)
(v)

(vi)

2
2
lim x 4 = (2) 4 = 2
x 2
x2
22

lim cos (sin x) = cos lim sin x = cos 0 = 1


x 0
x 0

Note that for x = 1 both the numerator and the denominator of the given fraction vanish. Therefore
( x 1)( x 2)
x2
1
x 2 3x 2
by (III) above, we have xlim
= xlim
= xlim
=
1
2
1 ( x 1)( x 1)
1 x 1
2
x 1
Note that for x = 1, the numerator of the given expression is a non-zero constant 6 and the
6
denominator is zero. Therefore, the given limit is of the form
. Hence, by (IV) above, we
0

By (II) above, we have

2
lim x 3 x 2 does not exist
x 1
x2 1
1
1
Limit sin x = 1 = Limit tanx = Limit tan x = Limit sin x
Standard Limits:
(a)
x 0
x 0
x 0
x 0
x
x
x
x
[ Where x is measured in radians ]

conclude that

5.

(b)

Limit (1 + x)1/x = e ;
x 0

Limit 1 1 = e
x
x

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(ii)

x 2 5x 6
lim
= x 2 x( x 1)( x 2)

( x 2)( x 3)
x3
1
lim
= xlim
=

=
2
x 2
2
x( x 1)( x 2)
x( x 1)
0
The given limit taken the form
when x 0. Rationalising the numerator, we get
0
1 x 1 x
1 x 1 x
lim 1 x 1 x
lim

=
x 0
x 0
x
1 x 1 x
x

(1 x) (1 x )

= xlim
0 x
1 x 1 x

page 4 of 18

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(c)
(d)

x
Limit e 1 = 1;
x 0
x

n
(1 x )
Limit
=1
x 0
x

x
Limit a 1 = log a, a > 0
x 0
e
x

(e)

n
n
Limit x a = nan 1.
x a
x a

sin 2x
Find Limit
x 0
x
sin 2x
sin 2x
Limit
Limit
Solution.

.2
=2
x 0
x 0
x
2x
e3x 1
Solved Example # 10: Limit
x 0
x/2
3x
3x
Limit e 1
Limit 2 3 e 1
Solution.
= 6.
x 0
x 0
3x
x/2
tan x sin x
Solved Example # 11 Limit
x 0
x3
Limit tan x sin x
Solution.
x 0
x3
tan x(1 cos x )
= Limit
x 0
x3
2
x

sin
2 x
tan x . 2 sin
2
tan x

2 = Limit
= Limit
.
x

= 1.
x 0
x 0
x

x3
2

Solved Example # 12
Solution

We have

sin 2x
Compute xlim
0 sin 3 x
lim sin 2x
= xlim
x 0 sin 3 x
0
sin 2x

2
= 2lim
.
.
x

0
2
x
3

=1.

.x
lim 1 2 = e xlim
x
= e2.
x
x

Solution

x
3
lim e e
x 3
x 3
(i)
Put y = x 3. So, as x 3, y 0. Thus
3y
x
3
e3
lim e
lim e e
=
y 0
x 3
y
x 3

Solved Example # 14 Compute


Solution

page 5 of 18

sin 3 x

2
2
2
+ 3lim
=
1=

0
3x
3
3
3

1
Evaluate xlim

Solved Example # 13

3x
sin 2x 2x
2x . 3 x . sin 3 x

3x

,x0
3lim
x

0
sin
2x

(i)

(ii)

x
lim x(e 1)
x 0 1 cos x

e3 . e y e3
= ylim
0
y

ey 1
= e3 ylim
0
y
(ii)

We have

(ii)

x
lim x(e 1)
x 0 1 cos x

Solved Example # 15

= e3 . 1 = e3

x(e x 1)
= xlim
0
x
2 sin2
2

ex 1
x2
1 lim
.

=
. x 0 x
x
sin 2
2

2
3
x 8
Evaluate xlim
2
x2 4

= 2.

Solution
(First Method)
The given expression is of the form
x 3 ( 2 )3
x 3 ( 2 )3
x 2 ( 2) 2

2
2 =
x ( 2)
x2
x2

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Solved Example # 9:

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3
lim x 8
x 2
x2 4

2
2
x 3 ( 2 )3
lim x (2)
= xlim

2
x 2
x2
x2

x n an
(using xlim
= nan1 )
a
x a

= 12 4 = 3
(Second Method)
The numerator and denominator have a common factor (x 2). Cancelling this factor, we obtain
x3 8

3
2
x 2 2x 4
lim x 8
lim x 2 x 4

=
x 2
x 2
x2
x2
x2 4
x2 4
2
12
(2) 2(2) 4
=
=
=3
4
22
Note : Since x 2, x 2 is not zero, so the cancellation of the factor x 2 in the above example is
carried out.

6.

Use of Subsitution in Solving Limit Problems


Sometimes in solving limit problem we convert xlim
f(x) by subtituting x = a + h or x = a h as
a
lim f(a + h) or lim f(a h) according as need of the problem.
h 0

h 0

lim it

Solved Example # 16

1 tan x
1 2 sin x

+h

1 tan h
4

limit

h0 1 2 sin
h
4

1 tan h
1
1 tan h
lim
it
= h0 =
1 sin h cos h
2 tan h
1 tan h
it
= lim
h
h
h
h0
2 sin2 2 sin cos
2
2
2
1

2
tan
h
it
= lim
h0
h
h
h (1 tanh)
2 sin 2 2 sin cos
2
2
2
tanh
2
1
h
it
= lim
h
h0
(
1

tanh)
sin
2 sin h cos h
h 2
2
2

Solution.

7.

x / 4

Put

x=

h0

2
= 2.
1

Limit When x

1
0 hence in this type of problem we express most of the part of expression
x
1
1
in terms of
and apply
0. We can see this approch in the given solve examples.
x
x
lim it x sin 1
Solved Example # 17
x
x
1
lim
it
Solution.
x x sin
x
sin
1
/
x
it
= lim
=1
x
1/ x
lim it x 2
Solved Example # 18
x 2x 3
lim it x 2
Solution.
x 2x 3
lim it 1 2 / x = 1 .
x 2 3 / x
2
2
lim it x 4 x 5
Solved Example # 19
x
3x 2 x 3 2

Since x

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= 3(22) 2(21)

page 6 of 18

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lim it

Solution.

x 2 4x 5

lim

1
t

= xlim
0

8.

3x 2 2
x2

t 0+

x
1

3 2t 2 .

= xlim
0

page 7 of 18

Solution.
Put x =

3x 2 2
x2

lim

Solved Example # 20

t2

1 2t
t
t
3 2t 2
(1 2t ) | t |

3
=
1

3.

Limits Using Expansion


x ln a x 2 ln2 a x 3 ln3 a

.........a 0
1!
2!
3!

(i)

a x 1

(iii)

ln (1+x) = x

(v)

cosx 1

(vii)

tan-1x = x

x 3 x5 x7

....
3
5
7

(ix)

sec-1x = 1

x 2 5 x 4 61x 6

......
2!
4!
6!

(x)

for |x| < 1, n R (1 + x)n = 1 + nx +

x2 x3 x4

.........for 1 x 1 (iv)
2
3
4

x2 x4 x6

.....
2!
4! 6!

lim

Solved Example # 21
lim

Solution.

x 0

sin x x

(vi)

tan x = x

(viii)

sin-1x = x

x3 x5 x7

.....
3!
5! 7!

x 3 2x 5

......
3
15
12 3 12.3 2 5 12.3 2.5 2 7
x
x
x .....
3!
5!
7!

n(n 1)
n(n 1)(n 2)
2
x
+
x 3 + ............
1. 2
1. 2 . 3

ex 1 x
x2

e 1 x
x2

1 x x ....... 1 x

2!

= xlim
0
2
x

lim

Solved Example # 22
lim

x x2 x3
e x 1

......
1! 2! 3!

x 0

Solution.

(ii)

x 0

1
2

tan x sin x
x3

tan x sin x

x 0

x3

3
3

x x ........ x x .......
1
1
1

lim
3
3
!
= x 0

=
+
=
.
3
6
2
3
x
7 x )1/ 3 2
Solved Example # 23 xlim
0
x 1
(8 h)1/ 3 2
Solution.
Put x 1 + h hlim
0
h

lim

h0

h
2 . 1
8
h

= hlim
0

1/ 3

1 1
h

1
1 h 33
8

2 1 .
....... 1
3 8
1. 2

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3x 2 x 3 2
1 4
5

x x 2 x3
it 3
= lim
=0
2
x
1 3
x
x
x

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1
1
= hlim
=
0 2
24
12

lim

Solved Example # 24

n(1 x ) sin x

x 0

x2
2

x tan x sin x

x 0

x tan x sin x

= xlim
0

9.

x
2

2
3
3
5
2

x x x ..... x x x ..... x

2
3
3! 5!


2
tan x sin x
x3 .
.
x
x

1
1
1
+
=
3
6
2

Limits of form
All these forms can be convered into
( i )

I f

0
form in the following ways
0

1, y , then z = (x) y

n z = y n x

n z =

nx
(1/ y )

1
Since y hence y 0 and x 1 hence nx 0
(ii) If x 0, y 0, then z = x y

n z = y n x
y
0

n z =
=
form
1/ ny
0
(iii)
If x , y 0, then z = x y
n z = y n x
0
y

n z =
=
form
0
1/ nx

also for (1) type of problems we can use following rules.


lim (1 + x)1/x = e
lim [f(x)] g(x)
(i)
(ii)
x 0

x a

where f(x) 1 ;

g(x) as x a
1

f ( x ) 1
= xlim
a 1 f ( x ) 1

{ f ( x ) 1} . g( x )

[ f ( x )1] g( x )
= e xlim
a

lim 2 x 1
Solved Example # 25
x 2x 2 3

Solution.
Since it is in the form of 1
2

lim 2 x 1
x 2x 2 3

4 x 2

4 x 2

2x 2 1 2x 2 3

(4x 2 + 2)
= e xlim

2x 2 3

= e8

lim
Solved Example # 26: x (tan x)tan 2x
4
lim (tan x 1) tan 2x

= e

Solution

lim (tan x 1)

= e
= e

2 tan x
1 tan 2 x

tan / 4
1(1 tan / 4 )

= e1

put

1
e

Evaluate xlim
2
a
x

Solved Example # 27

Solution.

lim 2 a
x a
x

tan

lim 1 h
h 0
ah

x
2a

x
2a

x=a+h

lim 2a
h
h0

tan
2a

tan

h
cot

2a

2a

.
a h

lim 1 h
h 0

(a h)
lim cot

h0

h
tan

2 2a

h
h

. 1
1
2a a h

= e2/

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page 8 of 18

n(1 x ) sin x

lim

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lim x x

Solved Example # 28:

x 0

y = xlim
xx
0

Solution.

page 9 of 18

1
x = 0
1
x

= xlim

y=1

1 0 . Sandwich Theorem or Squeeze Play Theorem:


Limit
Limit
If f(x) g(x) h(x) x & Limit
x a f(x) = = x a h(x) then x a g(x) = .

[ x] [2x] [3 x] .... [nx ]


Evaluate nlim

n2
Where [ ] denotes the greatest integer function.
Solution.
We know that, x 1 < |x| x

2x 1 < [2x] 2x

3x 1 < [3x] 3x
....................
....................

nx 1 < [nx] nx

(x + 2x + 3x + .... + nx) n < [x] + [2x] + ..... +[nx] (x + 2x + .... + nx)

Solved Example # 29:

xn(n 1)
n<
2

[r x]
r 1

x.n(n 1)
2

[ x] [ 2x] .... [nx ]


Thus, nlim

n2
1
1
lim x 1 1 < lim [ x] [ 2x] .... [nx ] lim x 1

2
n 2
n
n 2
n
n
n

n
[ x] [ 2x] .... [nx ]
x
x
lim [ x] [ 2x] .... [nx ] = x

< nlim

2
2
2
n
n2
Aliter We know that [x] = x {x}
n

r x

= [x] + [2x] + .... + nx [nx]

r 1

= (x + 2x + 3x + ... + nx) ({x} + {2x} + .... + {nx})


xn(n 1)
=
({x} + {2x} + .. + {nx})
2

1
n

[r x ] =
r 1

{x } {2 x} .... {nx}
x 1 1


n
2

n2
n

Since, 0 {rx} < 1,

[r x ] < n
r 1

lim

[rx]
r 1

=0

lim

[rx]
r 1

n2

x 1 1

lim
= nlim
2
n
n

{rx}
r 1

n2

lim

[rx]
r 1

n2

x
2

limit x sin 1
x 0
x
1
limit x sin
Solution.
x 0
x
= 0 (some value in [ 1, 1]) = 0
Solved Example # 30

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n y = xlim
x n x
0

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1 1 . Some Important Notes :


x
lim nx = 0
lim
(ii)
=0
x

x
ex
As x , n x increnes much slower than any (+ve) power of x where ex increases much faster than
(+ve) power of x
Limit (1 h)n = 0 & Limit (1 + h)n where h > 0.
(iii)
(i)

Limit
If Limit
x a f(x) = A > 0 & x a (x) = B (a finite quantity) then;

(iv)

Limit [f(x)] (x) = ez where z = Limit


x a
x a

(x). ln[f(x)] = eBlnA = AB

x 1000
Solved Example # 31 xlim

ex
1000
lim x
Solution.
=0
x
ex
__________________________________________________________________________________________

Short Revesion (LIMIT)


THINGS TO REMEMBER :
1.
Limit of a function f(x) is said to exist as, xa when
Limit
Limit
x a f(x) = x a f(x) = finite quantity..
2.
FUNDAMENTAL THEOREMS ON LIMITS :
Limit
Let Limit
x a f (x) = l & x a g (x) = m. If l & m exists then :
Limit f (x) g (x) = l m
.
(i)
(ii) Limit
x a
x a f(x) g(x) = l. m
(iv)

Limit f (x) , provided m 0


x a g (g)
m
Limit k f(x) = k Limit f(x) ; where k is a constant.

(v)

Limit

(iii)

x a

x a

x a

g (x) = f (m) ; provided f is continuous at g (x) = m.


f [g(x)] = f Limit

xa

Limit f (x) l n l (l > 0).


For example Limit
x a l n (f(x) = l n x a

REMEMBER

Limit x a
x a

3.

STANDARD LIMITS :

(a)

Limit sinx

= 1 = Limit
= Limit
x 0
x0
x 0
x
x
[ Where x is measured in radians ]

(b)

Limit
x 0

and
(c)

If

(1 +

Limit
h0
n

tan x

x)1/x

1
1
= e = Limit
x
x

tan 1 x Limit sin 1 x


= x0
x
x

note however there

Limit
h0
n

(1 - h )n = 0

(1 + h )n

Limit f(x) = 1 and Limit (x) = , then ;


x a
x a

Limit f ( x ) ( x ) e Limit
x a ( x )[ f ( x ) 1]
x a

(d)

If

Limit

f(x) = A > 0 & Limit


x a (x) = B (a finite quantity) then ;

Limit

BlnA = AB
[f(x)](x) = ez where z = Limit
x a (x). ln[f(x)] = e

x a

x a
x

(e)

x
Limit a 1 = 1n a (a > 0). In particular Limit e 1 = 1
x 0
x 0

(f)

n
n
Limit x a n a n 1
x a

4.

Limit
Limit
SQUEEZE PLAY THEOREM :If f(x) g(x) h(x) x & Limit
x a f(x) = l = x a h(x) then x a g(x) = l.

xa

,
, 0 x , 0 , , and 1
INDETERMINANT FORMS :
0
Note : (i)
We cannot plot on the paper. Infinity () is a symbol & not a number. It does not
obey the laws of elementry algebra.
(ii)
+=
(iii) =
a
(iv) (a/) = 0 if a is finite
(v)
is not defined , if a 0.
0
(vi)
a b = 0 , if & only if a = 0 or b = 0 and a & b are finite.
6.
The following strategies should be born in mind for evaluating the limits:
(a)
Factorisation (b)
Rationalisation or double rationalisation
(c) Successful
Use of trigonometric
transformation
;
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5.

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page 10 of 18

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appropriate substitution and using standard limits
Expansion of function like Binomial expansion, exponential & logarithmic expansion, expansion of sinx ,
cosx , tanx should be remembered by heart & are given below :

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x2 x3

............
2! 3!
3
5
x
x
x7
sin x x

.......
3! 5! 7!
x 3 2x 5
........
tan x = x
3
15
x
1!

(ii) e x 1
(iv)
(vi)

(ix) sec-1x = 1

x 2 5x 4 61x 6

......
2!
4!
6!

EXERCISE1
13
2
x2 x
x 7 x
Lim x x.1nx 1nx 1
Lim
Q 1. Lim
Q
2.
Q3.
x 1
x 1
x 1 5 x 3 x
x 1
x 1
1/ 3
1/ 5
q
p
1 3 tan x
Lim 2 x 3x 5x

Q 4. Lim
p,
q
N
Q
5.
Q
6.
Lim
x
x 1 1 x p 1 x q
3x 2 (2x 3)1/ 3
1 2 cos 2 x
x

Q 7.

a
x2

(a)

Lim tan

(b)

x
2x
tan 1 2

Plot the graph of the function f(x) = Lim


t 0
t

x 0

where a R

100 k
x 100
Lim K 1
x 1
x 1

Q 8.
Q 9.

Find the sum of an infinite geometric series whose first term is the limit of the function
tan x sin x
f(x) =
as x 0 and whose common ratio is the limit of the function
sin 3 x
1 x
g(x) =
as x 1. (Use of series expansion or L Hospitals rule is not allowed.)
(cos 1 x) 2
et e t
Q 10. Lim
(x

l
n
cosh
x)
where
cosh
t
=
.
x
2

Q 11.
Q 13.

Lim

1 tan x
1 2 sin x
sec
4x sec 2 x
Q 14. Lim
x 0
sec 3x sec x
cos x
1
Lim 2
Q 16. x 2 x ( x )
2

cos1 [cot x] where [ ] denotes greatest integer function

x 2

Q 12.

Lim [ln (1 + sinx). cot(ln2 (1 + x))]


x 0

Lim
x 4

2 cos sin
(4 ) 2
Q 17. If Lim a sin x 3 sin 2x is finite then find the value of 'a' & the limit.
x 0
tan x

Q 15.

Q 18.

Lim
4

2
2
2
2
Lim 8 1 cos x cos x cos x cos x
8
x 0

Q 19.

x 1
Lim (1n (1 x) 1n2)(3.4 3x)

x 1

[(7 x ) 3 (1 3x) 2 ].sin(x 1)

1
1
1

...........
Q 20. Using Sandwich theorem to evaluate nLim

2
2
2
n 2
n 1
n 2
n 2n
1
Q21. Given f (x)= Lim
tan1 (nx); g (x) = Lim
sin2n x and sin(h(x) ) = [cos (g(x)) +cos(2 f (x))]
n
n
2
Find the domain and range of h (x).

Q 22. Lim
x
4

(x 3 27 ) 1n (x 2)
Q 23. Lim
2
x 3

1 sin 2x

x 9

4x
x

(cos ) (sin ) 1
Q 24. Lim
x 2
x2

27 9x 3x 1
Lim
Q 25. x 0
2 1 cos x

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x 1n a x 2 1n 2 a x 3 1n 3a

......... a 0
1!
2!
3!
2
3
4
x
x
x
(iii) ln (1+x) = x ......... for 1 x 1
2
3
4
x2 x 4 x6
(v) cos x 1 ......
2! 4 ! 6 !
x 3 x5 x7
(vii) tan-1x = x .......
3
5
7
12 3 12 .32 5 12 .32 .5 2 7
-1
x
x .......
(viii) sin x = x x
3!
5!
7!

(i) a x 1

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(d)

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x
, x 0
sin x
2 x, x 0

Q 26. Let f ( x )

g( x ) x 3,

and

x 1

x 2 2x 2, 1 x 2
x 5,
x2
find LHL and RHL of g f (x ) at x = 0 and hence find Lim g f ( x ) .

Q 28. xLim

1 , n = 2, 3,.......and Let P1 = ax 1 where a R+ then evaluate Lim


x0

Pn
x

(3x 4 2 x 2 ) sin 1x | x |3 5
| x |3 | x |2 | x | 1

Q.29 If f ( x ) ln cosec ( x) 0 x 1
ln sin (2 x)
1 x 3/ 2
find tan1 (g (1 )) and sec1 (g (1 )) .

2f ( x ) 1
g (x) = f ( x )
then
3
1

and

page 12 of 18

Q 27. Let Pn a

Q.30 At the end-points and the midpoint of a circular arc AB tangent lines are drawn, and the points A and B
are joined with a chord. Prove that the ratio of the areas of the two triangles thus formed tends to 4 as the
arc AB decreases indefinitely.

EXERCISE2
2

Q 1.

2
Lim 2x 3
2
x
2x 5

8x 3

2
Q 4. Lim

x 0 sin
2 ax


sec 2

2 bx

x
Lim

cos
2

Q 6. x

1 x

F
GH

x 2 sin n cos
Q.5 Lim
x
x2

tan

Q 7. Lim
x 1
4

aR

x 1 cos x x
Q 8. Lim

x 0
x

Q 10. Let f(x) =

1 x 1/ x
Lim
Q 3. x 0 e

xc
Q 2. Lim
4 then find c
x x c

Q 9.

sin 1 (1 {x}).cos 1 (1 {x})


2{x} . (1 {x})

1
1
1
x1
x
x
x
Lim a 1 a 2 a 3 ..... a n

x
n

1/ x

I
JK

tan 2x

nx

where a1,a2,a3,......an > 0

then find xLim


f(x) and xLim
f(x), where {x} denotes the fractional
0
0

part function.

ae x b cos x ce x
Q 11. Find the values of a, b & c so that Lim
2
x 0
x. sin x
a2 x2
1
a
x

Lim
2 sin sin where a is an odd integer
Q 12. x a 2
2 2
(a x ) ax
2
2

Q 13.

2
2
Lim tan x x

x 0

x n f (x) g(x)
Q 14. Lim
xR
n
n

x 2 tan 2 x
x 1
[
1
.
x
]

[
2
.
x
]

[
3
.
x
]

.....

[
n
.
x
]
Q 15. Lim
, Where [.] denotes the greatest integer function.
n
n2

Q 16. Without using series expansion or L'Hospital's rule evaluate, Lim


x 1

Q 17.

1 x ln x
1 cos x

ay
by

exp x ln(1 ) exp x1n(1 )

x
x
Lim Limit
x
y

y0

Q 18. If sn be the sum of n terms of the series, sin x + sin 2x + sin 3x +..... + sin nx then show that
Limit s1 s 2 ...... s n = 1 cot x (x 2 k , k I)
n
n
2
2
n (1 x)1 x 1

Q 19. Lim
2
x 0
x
x

Q 20. Let Pn

23 1 33 1 4 3 1
n3 1
.
.
.......
. Evaluate Lim
n
23 1 33 1 4 3 1
n3 1

Pn

Q 21. A circular arc of radius 1 subtends an angle of x radians, 0 < x < as shown in
2
the figure. The point C is the intersection of the two tangent lines at A & B. Let
T(x) be the area of triangle ABC & let S(x) be the area of the shaded region.
Compute :
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x0

Pn 1

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(c) the limit of T(x) as x 0.

&

S(x )

x x x x

(b) Lim
x

x x x

2
Q 23. If f (n,)= 1 tan r , then compute Lim f (n , )
2
n
r 1
x
x
x
a
x

a
a

x
Q 24. Let l = Lim
& m = Lim
where a > 0. If l = m then find the value of ' a '.
x a
x a

page 13 of 18

Q 22. (a) Lim


x

(b) S(x)

xa

x
a
2
x

t
t
cosh
2 (tan x sin x) x 3
x where cosh t = e e
Q 25. Lim
Q 26. Lim
x 0
x5
2

x
cos
x

Q 27. Through a point A on a circle, a chord AP is drawn & on the tangent at A a point T is taken such that
AT = AP. If TP produced meet the diameter through A at Q, prove that the limiting value of AQ when P
moves upto A is double the diameter of the circle.
Q 28. Using Sandwich theorem, evaluate
1
1
2
n
n
n n
Lim
Lim
(a) n
+
+ ......... +
(b) n (a b ) , 0 < a < b
1 n2 2 n2
n n2
x2 1

Lim
Q 29. Find a & b if : (i) x x 1 ax b = 0

sin (x h)
Q 30. Show that Lim
h 0

xh

(sin x )x

x 2 x 1 ax b = 0
(ii) xLim

= (sin x)x [ x cot x + l n sin x ]

EXERCISE3
1

Q.1
Q.2

2
2
Lim 1 5x x = ______.
x0
2
1 3x

[ IIT96, 1 ]

1 cos 2 (x 1)
x 1

[ IIT 98, 2 ]

Lim
x1

(A) exits and it equals 2


(B) exits and it equals - 2
(C) does not exist because x - 1
(D) does not exist because left hand limit is not equal to right hand limit.
Q.3

Lim x tan 2x 2x tan x is :


2
x 0

[ JEE '99, 2 (out of 200) ]

(1 cos 2x)

(A) 2

(B) 2

(C)

1
2

(C)

e 5

Q.4
Q.5

Q.6
Q.7

Q.8

x 3
For x R , Lim
=
x
x 2
(A) e
(B) e 1
2
sin( cos x )
Lim
equals
x 0
x2
(A)
(B)

(D)

1
2

[ JEE 2000, Screening]


(D) e5
[ JEE 2001, Screening]

(C)

(D) 1

a tan x a sin x
, a > 0.
[REE 2001, 3 out of 100]
x 0 tan x sin x
(cos x 1)(cos x e x )
The integer n for which Lim
is a finite non-zero number is
x 0
xn
(A) 1
(B) 2
(C) 3
(D) 4
[JEE 2002 (screening), 3]
sin( n x )[(a n )n x tan x ]
If Lim
0 (n > 0) then the value of 'a' is equal to
x 0
x2
Evaluate Lim

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(a) T(x)

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(B) n2 + 1

(C)

n2 1
n

2
1
(n 1) cos 1 n .
Find the value of Lim

n
n

(D) None
[JEE 2003 (screening)]
[ JEE ' 2004, 2 out of 60]

EXERCISE4

2n

3 2
= (A) 5
5 2 n 32 n 3

1.

Limit 5

2.

Limit

n 1

(B) 3

(C) 1

(D) zero

(C) 2 sin 2

(D) 2 sin 2

(C) 0

(D) none

(C) is equal to zero

(D) none of these

cos2 cos2x

x2 | x |
(A) 2 cos 2
x 1

(B) 2 cos 2

3.

1
The value of Limit
x 0

4.

(A) 1
Limit sin1 (sec x).
x 0
(A) is equal to /2

1 cos2x
is:
2
(B) 1

(B) is equal to 1

5.

6.

7.

Limit x 9 x 20 where [x] is the greatest integer not greater than x:


x 5
x [x ]
(A) is equal to 1
(B) 0
(C) 4
(D) none
|x|
Limit
:
x
sinx
(A) is equal to 1
(B) is equal to 1
(C) is equal to
(D) does not exist
3
Limit ( x 27 ) ln ( x 2) =
2
x3

( x 9 )

(A) 8

(B) 8

(C) 9

(D) 9

(B) 5050

(C) 4550

(D) 5050

(C) ab

(D) none

(C) 1

(D) none

(B) 1

(C) 2

(D) 1

(B) 1

(C) 1

(D) none of these

100

8.

Limit

9.

(A) 0
Limit

10.

100

k 1

x 1

x 1

( x a)(x b) x =

(A)

ab

Limit

x 3 . sin 1x x 1

(B)

x2 x 1

(A) 0

ab
2

=
(B) 1/2

11.

Limit ( n 2) ! ( n 1) ! , n
n

12.

(A) 0
Limit | x |sinx =
x 0
(A) 0

(n 3) !

13.

14.

15.

16.

N=

Limit x 2 x 1 =
2

x
x 4x 2
(A) 1
(B) 2

(C) e2
x (1 a cos x ) b sin x
The values of a and b such that xLim
= 1 are
0
x3
5 3
5
3
5
3
(A) ,
(B) ,
(C) ,
2 2
2
2
2
2

2 3 sin x cos x
6
6

Limit
=
x 0
x 3 3 cos x sin x
(A) 1/3
(B) 2/3
(C) 4/3
x 1
x0
x 1 ,
x 1 ,
2
If
f(x) =
, g(x) = 2
and
2x 2 , x 1
x 1 , x 0
then find Lim f(g(h(x)))

(D) e

(A) 1

(D) does not exists

(D)

5 3
,
2 2

(D) 4/3
h(x) = |x|

x 0

(B) 0

(C) 1

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Q.9

1
n

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(A)

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19.

sin x 3

, where [ . ] denotes greatest integer function is :


[ x 3]
(A) 0
(B) 1
(C) does not exist

1
1
x sin sin 2 x 0
Let f (x) =
, then xlim
x
x
f(x) equals

0
x0
(A) 0
(B) 1/2
(C) 1
Lt

x0

20.

1] + [1 x]) = where [x] denotes greatest integer function.


(B) 1
(C) 1
(D) does not exist

22.

24.

25.

(B) a2 1

(C) a2

ax 2 bx c
Lim
Let , be the roots of
+ bx + c = 0, where 1 < < . Then x x
= 1 then which of the
0
ax 2 bx c
following statements is incorrect
(A) a > 0 and x0 < 1
(B) a > 0 and x0 >
(C) a < 0 and < x0 <
(D) a < 0 and x0 < 1
Limit 1.n 2(n1)3(n2)...... n.1 has the value :
n
12 2 2 3 2 ...... n 2

1
2

(B)

1
3

(C)

27.

2
1

is equal to :
The limit Limit
x

n
x

(A) 1/2

30.

31.

(D) 1

n sin n tan

The limit lim

0

(A) 2n
(B) 2n + 1

29.

1
4

sin x
Lim 1 e x

x0
x is (where [] represents greatest integral part function)
(A) 1
(B) 1
(C) 0
(D) does not exist
lim
lim
If = x (sin x 1 sin x ) and m = x [sin x 1 sin x ] where [.] denotes the greatest integer
function then :
(A) = m = 0
(B) = 0 ; m is undefined
(C) , m both do not exist
(D) = 0, m 0 (although m exist)
n
1

1
x x
then lim f(0) is.
If f(x) =
n

1
(A) 1
(B) 1
(C) 2
(D) None

26.

28.

(D) a2

ax2

(A)
23.

(D) none of these.

| x|
x
lim
(a > 0), where [x] denotes the greatest integer less than or equal to x is

xa
a
a
(A) a2 1

21.

(D) sin 1

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18.

Limit (1 x + [x
x 1
(A) 0

, where [x] is the greatest integer function and n , is

(C) 2n 1
(D) does not exist

(C) 1/3

x 2
is : (where [.] represents greatest integer function.
lim
x / 2 cos x

(A) 1
(B) 0
(C) 2
If f(x) = sin x , x n, n = 0 , 1 , 2 , 3, ,....
= 2
, otherwise
and
g(x) = x + 1 , x 0 , 2
= 4
, x=0
= 5
, x=2
Limit
then x 0 g [f(x)] is :
(A) 1
(B) 0
(C) 4
x
2x
cot 1 2 , is

The graph of the function f(x) = tLim


0
t

(D) 1

(A)

(C)

(D)

(C) 1/4

(D) 1/2

The value of Limit


x0
(A) 1/5

(B) 3/2

(B)
cos (sin x ) cosx
x4
(B) 1/6

(D) does not exist

(D) does not exists

is equal to:

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17.

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(A) 0

33.

1
1
e x 3 x n e x


, n N is equal to :
n
x
(B) ln(2/3)
(C) ln(3/2)

(D) none

ay
by

exp x ln 1 x exp x ln 1 x

Limit Limit
x
y
y 0
=

(A) a + b
(B) a b
(C) b a

page 16 of 18

32.

e 2

Limit

xn

(D) (a + b)

EXERCISE5
1.

4.

Evaluate the following limits, where [ . ] represents greatest integer function and { . } represents
fractional part function
x
lim
lim sgn [tan x]
lim [sin x]
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
x 2 2
x

x
2
2x , x 1
x 2 2 , x 2
If f(x) =
and g(x) =
, evaluate xlim
f (g(x)).
1
1 x , x 2
3 x , x 1
Evaluate each of the following limits, if exists
x2 4
a 2x 3 x
lim
lim
(i)
(ii)
,a0
x 2
x

a
x 2 3x 2
3a x 2 x
Evaluate the following limits, if exists

5.

( x 2) 2 (a 2) 2
(i)
(ii) xlim
x 0 3 x sin 2 x
a
x a
Evaluate the following limits, if exist :

2.
3.

lim

(i)
(iii)

6.

lim

Limit
x

tan 3 x 2x

x2 x 1 x

cos

2 x
e2
lim x e
x 0
1 cos x

1
2
x
lim
2 .... 2
2
x
x
x

2
lim
x 8x + x
x

(ii)

(iv)

x1 cos x

(iii)

lim

Evaluate the following limits using expansions :(i)

e x 1 sin x

x 0

tan 2 x
2

x3

a b sin x cos x ce
If xlim
exists, then find values of a, b, c. Also find the limit
0
x3
[1 . 2x ] [ 2 . 3x] ..... [n . (n 1) x]
Evaluate xlim
where [ . ] denotes greatest integer function

n3
x 2n 1
If f(x) = nLim
, find range of f(x).
2n
x 1
Evaluate the following limits
x
x
(ln (1 x ) ln 2)(3.4 x 1 3x )
Limit
Limit (cos ) (sin ) cos2 , 0 ,
1
1
(i)
(ii)

x 1
x4
x4
[(7 x ) 3 (1 3 x ) 2 ]. sin( x 1)
2
Evaluate the following limits

x 5 tan 1 3 | x |2 7

2
2
4
Limit x 3
Limit
x
(i)
(ii)
x 1 x x 2
x
x
| x |3 7 | x | 8

(ii)
7.
8.
9.

10.

11.

Evaluate the following limits

(ii)

12.

sec2
2 bx

nx
1/ x a 1/ x a 1/ x ....... a 1/ x
2
3
n

, where a1, a2, a3,......., an > 0.


n

Limit a 1
x

Find the values of a & b so that: (i) Limit


x 0

(1 a x sin x) (b cos x)
x4

lim x 4 ax 3 3 x 2 bx 2 x 4 2x 3 cx 2 3 x d = 4

n 1 x (1 x ) 1

Find the limits using expansion : Limit


x 0
x
x2

(ii)
13.

(i)

Limit sin2

x 0
2 a x

may find to a definite limit.

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sin 1(1 { x }) . cos 1(1 { x})

14.

Let f(x) =

2{ x} . (1 { x})

Limit
then find Limit
x0 f(x) and x0 f(x), where {.} denotes the fractional

part function.

page 17 of 18

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[12 (sinx) x ] [ 22 (sinx ) x ] .......[n2 (sinx )x ]

Limit
Limit

Evaluate x 0 n
3
,
n

where [. ] denotes the greatest integer function.


Evaluate the following limits

16.
17.

Limit cos x cos x cos x ........ cos x


n
n

(i)

2
4
8
2
1
x
1
x
x
1
x
1
Limit
tan + 2 tan 2 + 3 tan 3 +...... + n tan n .
n
2
2 2
2
2
2
2
2

(ii)

Limit logx 1( x ). logx ( x 1). logx 1( x 2). logx 2 ( x 3 ).....logk ( x 5 ) ; where k = x 5 1.

(iii)

(iv)

Let Pn =

3
3
23 1 3 1 4 1
n3 1
Limit P = 2 .
.
.
..........
.
Prove
that
n
3
n
3
3
23 1 3 1 4 1
n3 1

ANSWER
EXERCISE1
Q 1. 3

Q 2.

45
91

Q 3. 2

Q 4.

pq
2

Q 5.

2
3

Q.6

Q 7. (a) /2 if a > 0 ; 0 if a = 0 and /2 if a < 0(b) f(x) = | x |

1
1
2
;r= ;S=
Q 10. l n 2
Q 11. does not exist
Q 12. 2
2
4
3
1
3
21n 2
Q 13. 1
Q 14.
Q 15.
Q 16.
16 2
2

1
9
4
Q 17. a = 2 ; limit = 1
Q 18.
Q 19. 1n
Q 20. 2
32
4
e
n
Q 21. Domain, x R, Range, x =
,nI
Q 22. does not exist
Q 23. 9
2
Q 24. cos lnCos + SinlnSin
Q 25. 8 2 (1n 3) 2
Q 26. 3, 3, 3
Q 8. 5050

Q 9. a =

Q 27. (ln a)n


-8

Q 28. 2
Q 3. e

Q 1. e

Q 2. c = ln2

Q 8. e-1/2

Q 9. (a1.a 2.a 3....an )

Q 13.
Q 15.

2
3

Q 29. 0, 0
EXERCISE2

12

Q 4. e
Q 10.

a 2 / b2

,
2 2 2

Q 14. f(x) when x> 1 ; g(x) when x < 1 ;

x
2

Q 16.

Q.5

2
4

2
Q 6. e

2 a2

Q 11. a = c = 1, b = 2 Q 12.

Q 7. e-1

2a 2 4
16a 4

g(x ) f (x)
when x = 1 & not defined when x = -1
2

Q 17. a - b

Q. 30 4

Q 19. 1/2

3
x
x sinx
1
1
1
tan2 . sin x or tan
, S(x) = x sin x , limit =
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1

Q 22. (a) 1 (b)


Q 23.
Q 24. a = e2
2
tan

2
3

Q 20.

Q 21. T(x) =

Q 26.

1
4

Q 1. e
Q6. lna

Q 28. (a) 1/2, (b) b


Q 2. D
Q7. C

Q 29. (i) a =1, b = 1 (ii) a = 1 , b =

EXERCISE3
Q 3. C
Q 4. C Q5. B
Q8. C

Q 25. e

Q.9

1
2

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1
3

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2m
Limit cos (n!x ) where x R. Prove that
Let f (x) = Limit
m n

1 if x is rational
f (x) = 0 if x is irrational .

15.

2. C
12. B
22. A
32. B

EXERCISE4
3. D 4. D 5. D 6. D 7. C 8.
B
13. C 14. C 15. C 16. B 17. C 18.
C
23. A 24. B 25. A 26. C 27. A 28.
C
33. B
EXERCISE5

9.
19.
29.

1. (i) 0

(ii) Limit does not exists (iii) Limit does not exists

2. 6

(ii)

3. (i) ( 8)

5. (i) 1/2

(ii) 1/2

x
3

8. {1, 0, 1}

7.

10. (i)

1
4 2

(ii)

2
3 3

(iii) zero

C
C
C

(iii)

2e 2

(ii)

5
(a + 2)3/2
2

(iv) 6. (i)

1
3

(ii)a = 2, b = 1, c = 1 and value =

9 4
ln
4 e 2
a

11. (i) e

b2

(ii) cos4 a ln (cos a) - sin4 a ln (sin a)


(ii) (a 1 a 2 a 3 ....... a n)

1
,b = 1 (ii) a = 2, b R, c = 5, d R
2
1
1
sin x

14. ,
16.
17. (i)
(ii)
cot x (iii)
x
3
x
2 2 2

12. (i) a =

10.
20.
30.

4. (i) 1/3

9. (i)

B
C
A

13.

1
2

For 39 Years Que. from IIT-JEE(Advanced) &


15 Years Que. from AIEEE (JEE Main)
we distributed a book in class room

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page 18 of 18

1. D
11. A
21. D
31. B

1
3

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