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Cannibalism, or anthropophagy, is the consumption of human flesh or internal organs by other human beings.

Accounts of cannibalism date back as far as Biblical times, and some

anthropologists suggest that cannibalism was common in human societies as early as the Paleolithic Era. Historically, numerous tribal societies have engaged in cannibalism, although
very few are thought to continue the practice to this day.
Occasionally, starving people have resorted to cannibalism for survival necessity. Classical antiquity recorded numerous references to cannibalism during siege starvations. More recent
well-documented examples include the Donner Party in 1846, and the 1972 Andes flight disaster. Some murderers, such as Albert Fish and Boone Helm, are known to have devoured
their victims after killing them. Other individuals, such as artist Rick Gibson and journalist William Seabrook, have legally consumed human flesh out of curiosity, or as an attentiongrabbing stunt.
The Siege of Maarat, or Ma'arra, occurred in late 1098 in the city of Ma'arrat al-Numan, in what is modern-day Syria, during the First Crusade. It is infamous for the claims of
widespread cannibalism displayed by the Crusaders. Maarat was not as rich as the crusaders had hoped and they were still short of supplies and food as December progressed. Most of
the soldiers and knights preferred to continue the march to Jerusalem, caring little for the political dispute between Bohemond and Raymond, and Raymond tried to buy the support of the
other leaders. While the leaders negotiated away from the city, some of the starving crusaders at Maarat reportedly resorted to cannibalism, feeding on the dead bodies of Muslims. Some
people said that, constrained by the lack of food, they boiled pagan adults in cooking-pots, impaled children on spits and devoured them grilled.

Incest is one of the most common taboos across cultures. Among incestuous relationships, parent-child and sibling-sibling unions are the most abhorred ones. Though incest
occurred among many cultures sporadically throughout history, modern age has seen the steep decline of formally practiced incest. Many countries also legally prohibit incest, though
some countries like Israel, China, Russia, France and Turkey do not have any legal prohibition against consensual incest. Incest, however, amounts to inbreeding and the resulting
offspring are likely to suffer from congenital birth defects. In nature, animals tend to avoid inbreeding if alternatives are available. Incest is against the rules in all societies, but you know
what they say; if it didn't happen, there would be no need for rules against it. In Japan, the Civil Code restricts incest marriages, but incest is not a crime. Incest law was abolished in 1881.
There is currently such a taboo on talking about sexual molestation of children that current official figures report only a few hundred cases.
In the late 1980s and early 1990s there was a media panic in Japan about the prevalence of mother-son incest. Mama Love (or Kinshinsokan Monogatari) Clubs began to be opened for
men eager to pay large amounts of money to see older women having sex with young men that were promoted as being their son. Women started to come in bringing their own sons or
Mama clubs
The situation is blamed on the excessive motherly love Japanese women shower on their sons; idolizing them and viewing their sons as the greatest object of their hopes, dreams, and
A boy's whole future can depend on the senior high school he gets into. The mothers get into a psychological condition where they're aware that sexual urges can stop their children from
studying and feel that they are the best option for countering the craving. Some mothers will do anything to make sure their junior high school sons pass the all determining entrance
exams. Studies show that almost 80% of Japanese men report they have had some form of sexual contact with their mothers with most of the sexual contact between mother and son
beginning at a very early age. A boys childhood in contemporary Japan, although somewhat more Western than that of other Eastern nations, still includes masturbation by mothers "to
put them to sleep." Parents often have intercourse with their children in the same bed with them, and "co-sleeping," with mothers physically embracing the child, routinely continues until
the boy is ten or fifteen. One recent Japanese study found sons sleeping with their mothers over 20 percent of the time after age 16. A recent sex survey reported "hot lines" of sexual
abuse saying that mother-son incest in almost a third of the calls, the mother saying to her teenage son, "It's not good to do it alone. Your IQ becomes lower. I will help you, " or "You
cannot study if you cannot have sex. You may use my body," or "I don't want you to get into trouble with a girl. Have sex with me instead." Incest is sexual activity between family
members or close relatives. This typically includes sexual activity between people in aconsanguineous relationship (blood relations), and sometimes those related by affinity, such as
individuals of the same household, step relatives, those related by adoption or marriage, or members of the same clan or lineage.
The incest taboo is and has been one of the most widespread of all cultural taboos, both in present and in many past societies. [3] Most modern societies have laws regarding incest or
social restrictions on closely consanguineous marriages.[3] In societies where it is illegal, consensual adult incest is seen by some as a victimless crime.[4][5] Some cultures extend the
incest taboo to relatives with no consanguinity such as milk-siblings, stepsiblings, and adoptive siblings.[6][7] Third-degree relatives (such as half-aunt, half-nephew, first cousin) on average
share 12.5% genes, and sexual relations between them is viewed differently in various cultures, from being discouraged to being socially acceptable. [8] The children of incestuous
relationships were regarded as illegitimate, and are still so regarded in some societies today. In most cases, the parents did not have the option to marry to remove that status, as
incestuous marriages were and are normally also prohibited.

Female genital mutilation (FGM),

also known as female genital cutting and female circumcision, is the ritual removal of some or all of the external female
genitalia. UNICEF estimated in 2016 that 200 million women had undergone the procedures in 27 countries in Africa, as well as in Indonesia, Iraqi Kurdistan and Yemen, with a rate of 80
98 percent within the 1549 age group in Djibouti, Egypt, Eritrea, Guinea, Mali, Sierra Leone, Somalia and Sudan. The practice is also found elsewhere in Asia, the Middle East, and
among communities from these areas around the world.
Typically carried out by a traditional circumciser using a blade, FGM is conducted from days after birth to puberty and beyond; in half the countries for which national figures are available,
most girls are cut before the age of five. Procedures differ according to the country or ethnic group. They include removal of the clitoral hood and clitoral glans; removal of the inner labia;
and removal of the inner and outer labia and closure of the vulva. In this last procedure (known as infibulation), a small hole is left for the passage of urine and menstrual fluid;
the vagina is opened for intercourse and opened further for childbirth. The United Nations Population Fundestimated in 2010 that 20 percent of women affected by FGM had been
infibulated, a practice found largely in northeast Africa.
The practice is rooted in gender inequality, attempts to control women's sexuality, and ideas about purity, modesty and aesthetics. It is usually initiated and carried out by women, who see
it as a source of honour, and who fear that failing to have their daughters and granddaughters cut will expose the girls to social exclusion. The health effects depend on the procedure;
they can include recurrent infections, difficulty urinating and passing menstrual flow, chronic pain, the development of cysts, an inability to get pregnant, complications during childbirth,
and fatal bleeding.[5] There are no known health benefits.
FGM has been outlawed or restricted in most of the countries in which it occurs, but the laws are poorly enforced. There have been international efforts since the 1970s to persuade
practitioners to abandon it, and in 2012 the United Nations General Assembly, recognizing FGM as a human-rights violation, voted unanimously to intensify those efforts.[9] The opposition
is not without its critics, particularly among anthropologists. Eric Silverman writes that FGM has become one of anthropology's central moral topics, raising difficult questions about cultural
relativism, tolerance and the universality of human rights.
Until the 1980s FGM was widely known as female circumcision, which implied an equivalence in severity with male circumcision.[11] TheKenya Missionary Council began referring to it as
the sexual mutilation of women in 1929, following the lead of Marion Scott Stevenson, aChurch of Scotland missionary. References to the practice as mutilation increased throughout the
1970s. In 1975 Rose Oldfield Hayes, an American anthropologist, called it female genital mutilation in the title of a paper,and in 1979 Fran Hosken, an Austrian-American researcher and
feminist, called it mutilation in her influential The Hosken Report: Genital and Sexual Mutilation of Females.
The Inter-African Committee on Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Women and Children and the World Health Organization(WHO) began referring to it as female genital
mutilation in 1990 and 1991 respectively.In April 1997 the WHO, United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) and United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) issued a joint statement using
that term. Other terms in common use include female genital cutting (FGC) and female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C), preferred by those who work with practitioners

Surveys have shown a widespread belief, particularly in Mali, Mauritania, Guinea and Egypt, that FGM is a religious requirement.[2]:69Gruenbaum has argued that practitioners may not
distinguish between religion, tradition and chastity, making it difficult to interpret the data.

FGM's origins in northeastern Africa are pre-Islamic, but the practice became associated with Islam because of that religion's focus on female chastity and seclusion. [] There is no mention
of it in the Quran. It is praised in several hadith (sayings attributed to Muhammad) as noble but not required. In 2007 the Al-Azhar Supreme Council of Islamic Research in Cairo ruled that
FGM had "no basis in core Islamic law or any of its partial provisions.
There is no mention of FGM in the Bible. Christian missionaries in Africa were among the first to object to FGM, but Christian communities in Africa do practise it. UNICEF reported in
2013 that, for example, 55 percent of Christian women and girls in Niger had experienced FGM, compared with two percent of their Muslim counterparts. The only Jewish group known to
have practised it are theBeta Israel of Ethiopia. Judaism requires male circumcision, but does not allow FGM.[103] FGM is also practised by animist groups, particularly in Guinea and Mali

Foot binding was the custom of applying painfully tight binding to the feet of young girls to prevent further growth. The practice possibly originated among upper-class court
dancers during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period in Imperial China (10th or 11th century), then became popular during the Song dynasty and eventually spread to all social
classes. Foot binding became popular as a means of displaying status (women from wealthy families, who did not need their feet to work, could afford to have them bound) and was
correspondingly adopted as a symbol of beauty in Chinese culture. Its prevalence and practice however varied in different parts of the country. Feet altered by binding were called lotus
The Manchu Kangxi Emperor tried to ban foot binding in 1664 but failed. In the later part of the 19th century, Chinese reformers challenged the practice but it was not until the early 20th
century that foot binding began to die out as a result of anti foot-binding campaigns. Foot-binding resulted in lifelong disabilities for most of its subjects, and a few elderly Chinese women
still survive today with disabilities related to their bound feet.
There are many suggestions for the origin of footbinding. One story relates that during the Shang dynasty, the concubine Daji, who was said to haveclubfoot, asked the Emperor to make
footbinding mandatory for all girls in court so that her own feet would be the standard of beauty and elegance. Another story tells of a favorite courtesan of Emperor Xiao Baojuan, Pan
Yu'er, who had delicate feet, dancing barefeet over a floor decorated with golden lotus flower design. The emperor expressed admiration and said that "lotus springs from her every step!"
(), a reference to the Buddhist legend of Padmavati under whose feet lotus springs forth. This story may have given rise to the terms "golden lotus" or "lotus feet" used to
describe bound feet, there is however no evidence that Pan Yu'er ever bound her feet. The general consensus is that the practice is likely to have originated from the time of Emperor Li
Yu (Southern Tang of the Ten Kingdoms, just before the Song dynasty). Emperor Li Yu created a six-foot tall golden lotus decorated with precious stones and pearls, and asked his
concubine Yao Niang (zh) to bind her feet in white silk into the shape of the crescent moon, and performed a dance ballet-like on the points of her feet on the lotus. Yao Niang's dance was
said to be so graceful that others sought to imitate her. The binding of feet was then replicated by other upper-class women and the practice spread. Foot binding was practiced in various
forms and its prevalence varied in different regions. In Sichuan, a less severe form, called "cucumber foot" (huanggua jiao) due to its slender shape, folded the four toes under but did not
force up the heel and taper the ankle. Some working women inJiangsu made a pretense of binding while keeping their feet natural. Not all women were always boundsome women
once bound remained bound all through their lives, but some were only briefly bound, and some were bound only until their marriage. Footbinding was most common among women
whose work involved domestic crafts and those in urban areas; it was also more common in northern China where it was widely practiced by women of all social classes, but less so in
parts of southern China such as Guangdong and Guangxi where it was largely a practice of women in the provincial capitals or among the gentry. [24][25] Manchu women, as well as Mongol
and Chinese women in the Eight Banners, did not bind their feet, and the most a Manchu woman might do was to wrap the feet tightly to give them a slender appearance. [ The Manchus,
wanting to emulate the particular gait that bound feet necessitated, invented their own type of shoe that caused them to walk in a similar swaying manner. These "flower bowl" ()
or "horse-hoof" shoes () have a platform generally made of wood two to six inches in height and fitted to the middle of the sole, or they have a small central tapered pedestal.
Many Han Chinese in the Inner City of Beijing also did not bind their feet, and it was reported in the mid-1800s that around around 50-60% of non-banner women had unbound feet.
Bound feet nevertheless became a significant differentiating marker between Han women and Manchu or other banner women.
The Hakka people however were unusual among Han Chinese in not practicing foot binding at all. Most non-Han Chinese people, such as the Manchus, Mongols and Tibetans, did not
bind their feet, however, some non-Han ethnic groups did. Foot binding was practiced by the Hui Muslims inGansu Province, the Dungan Muslims, descendants of Hui from northwestern
China who fled to central Asia, were also seen practicing foot binding up to 1948. [ In southern China, in Guangzhou, Westerner James Legge encountered a mosque which had a placard
denouncing foot binding, saying Islam did not allow it since it constituted violating the creation of God. The process was started before the arch of the foot had a chance to develop fully,
usually between the ages of 4 and 9. Binding usually started during the winter months since the feet were more likely to be numb, and therefore the pain would not be as extreme.
First, each foot would be soaked in a warm mixture of herbs and animal blood; this was intended to soften the foot and aid the binding. Then, the toenails were cut back as far as possible
to prevent in-growth and subsequent infections, since the toes were to be pressed tightly into the sole of the foot. Cotton bandages, 3 m long and 5 cm wide (10 ft by 2 in), were prepared
by soaking them in the blood and herb mixture. To enable the size of the feet to be reduced, the toes on each foot were curled under, then pressed with great force downwards and
squeezed into the sole of the foot until the toes broke.
The broken toes were held tightly against the sole of the foot while the foot was then drawn down straight with the leg and the arch of the foot was forcibly broken. The bandages were
repeatedly wound in a figure-eight movement, starting at the inside of the foot at the instep, then carried over the toes, under the foot, and around the heel, the freshly broken toes being
pressed tightly into the sole of the foot. At each pass around the foot, the binding cloth was tightened, pulling the ball of the foot and the heel together, causing the broken foot to fold at
the arch, and pressing the toes underneath the sole. The binding was pulled so tightly that the girl could not move her toes at all and the ends of the binding cloth were then sewn so that
the girl could not loosen it.


(Likas Batas Moral)

NAME:Angelica, D. Vipinosa

TEACHER:Ryan T. Dela Rosa


Polygamy (from Late Greek , polygamia, "state of marriage to many spouses")


involves marriage with more than one spouse. When a man is married to

more than one wife at a time, it is called polygyny. When a woman is married to more than one husband at a time, it is called polyandry. If a marriage includes multiple husbands and
wives, it can be called a group marriage. In contrast, monogamy is marriage consisting of only two parties. Like "monogamy", the term "polygamy" is often used in a de facto sense,
applied regardless of whether the relationship is recognized by thestate.[n 1] In sociobiology and zoology, researchers use polygamy in a broad sense to mean any form of multiple mating.
Polygamy is widely accepted among different societies worldwide. According to the Ethnographic Atlas, of 1,231 societies noted, 588 had frequent polygyny, 453 had occasional polygyny,
186 were monogamous and 4 had polyandry.Polygamy is legal in 57 out of nearly 200 sovereign states, the vast majority of them being Muslim majority countries. In most of these
states, polygyny is allowed and legally sanctioned. Polyandry is illegal in virtually every state in the world. The rest of the sovereign states do not recognize polygamous marriages.
Morocco, Libya, Syria, Yemen, Qatar, United Arab EmiratesPolygamy is the practice of taking more than one spouse. Polygyny is the specific practice of one man taking more than one
wife. Under Islamic marital jurisprudence, Muslim men are allowed to practice polygyny, that is, they can have more than one wife at the same time, up to a total of four. Polyandry, the
practice of a woman having more than one husband, by contrast, is not permitted.

Vine Jumping

In the village of Bunlap, which lies on an island in the Pacific archipelago, a strange ritual is performed called Gkol, or land-divinga kind of

precursor to bungee jumping. The villagers sing and dance together, and some of them beat drums as men come forward to volunteer for the jump. They tie vines around their ankles, and
jump from very high wooden towers constructed especially for this ritual.
The participants, apparently heedless of the potential for broken bones, simply leap forward head-first. The fall is broken by the vines tied to the tower. It is said that a higher jump
guarantees you a greater the blessing from the gods

Sky Burials

In Tibet, Buddhists practice a strange sacred ritual called Jhator, or sky burial. Buddhists believe in a cycle of rebirth, which means that there is no

need to preserve a body after death, since the soul has moved on to another realm. The bodies of the dead are therefore taken to open groundsusually at very high altitudesand then
left as alms for scavengers such as vultures. In order to dispose of the body as quickly as possible, a specialist cuts the corpse into pieces, and spreads it around to be devoured.


A tribe in Papua New Guinea called Kaningara practices a bloody body-modification ritual that is intended to strengthen the spiritual connection

between them and their environment.

One of these ritual ceremonies is carried out in Haus Tambaran, or The Spirit House. The adolescents live in seclusion in Haus Tambaran for two months. After this period of isolation,
they prepare for an initiation ceremony which recognizes their transition to manhood. An expert cutter marks their bodies with sharp pieces of bamboo. The resulting patterns resemble the
skin of a crocodile; this is based on the notion that crocodiles are the creators of humans. The marks symbolize the tooth marks left by the spirit of the crocodile as it ate the young boys
body and expelled him as a grown man.

Niyog-Niyogan ay isang gumagapang na halaman na nagkakaroon ng matitigas at kahoy na mga sanga. Kilala ito bilang
halamang ornamental dahil sa bulaklak nito na may matingkad na kulay at mabangong halimuyak. Tinawag na niyog-niyogan sapagkat ang
lasa nito ay kahalintulad mismo ng niyog. Ang halaman ay karaniwang tumutubo sa mabababang lugar at sa loob ng mga kagubatan sa
mga bansang nasa rehiyong tropiko kabilang na ang Pilipinas.
Ang ibat ibang bahagi ng halamang niyog-niyogan ay maaaring makuhanan ng maraming uri ng kemikal at sustansya na maaaring may
benepisyo sa kalusugan:

Ang halaman ng niyog-niyogan ay may taglay na alkaloids, carbohydrates, protein, amino acid, saponins, glycosides, steroids,
tannins, flavonoids at phenolic compounds.

Ang langis na makukuha sa mga buto ay may taglay na oleic acid at palmitic acid

Ang dahon ay mayroong rutin, trigonelline, L-proline, L-aspargine, at quisqualic acid

Maaaring gamitin bilang gamot ang ilang bahagi ng halaman tulad ng:

Buto. Ang mga buto ng niyog-niyogan ay karaniwang pinatutuyo at kinakain o pinakukuluan upang mainom. Maaari din itong itusta
upang makain.

Dahon. Ang dahon naman ay karaniwang ipinangtatapal para sa ilang mga kondisyon. Ito rin ay maaaring dikdikin bago ipantapal sa
balat. Para sa iba, ang pinaglagaan ng dahon ay mabisa ring gamot.
1. Pagtatae. Ginagamit ang tinustang buto ng niyog-niyogan upang matigil ang tuloy-tuloy na pagtatae.
2. Ubo. Mabisa naman para sa ubo ang pinaglagaan ng mga dahon ng halaman.
3. Pananakit ng ulo. Para sa sakit ng ulo, karaniwang ipinantatapal sa noo ang dahon ng niyog-niyogan.
4. Sakit sa balat. Ang ibat ibang uri ng sakit sa balat gaya ng eczema ay maaaring matulungan ng paglalagay ng dinikdik na dahon ng

5. Problema sa pag-ihi. Ang hirap sa pag-ihi at pagkakaroon ng masakit na pakiramdaman sa tuwing umiihi (dysuria) ay maaari namang
maibsan sa tulong ng pag-inom sa pinaglagaan ng dahon ng niyog-niyogan.
6. Lagnat. Mabisa rin para sa lagnat ang pagkain ng buto ng niyog-niyogan.
7. Bulate sa sikmura. Malakas na pampurga sa impeksyon ng bulate sa sikmura ang pagkain sa pinatuyong buto ng niyog-niyogan.

In this lesson I realized that there are many different types of culture,tradition, and beliefs in asia not anly in asia but all over the worl. And I also learned that beyond this existing new
generation TECHNOLOGY GENERATION.There still have a country with a taboo culture, A taboo is a vehement prohibition of an action based on the belief that such behavior is either
too sacred or too accursed for ordinary individuals to undertake. Such prohibitions are present in virtually all societies.[1] The word has been somewhat expanded in the social sciences to
strong prohibitions relating to any area of human activity or custom that is sacred or forbidden based on moral judgment and religious beliefs. Breaking a taboo" is usually considered
objectionable by society in general, not merely a subset of a culture.A descriptive term for words, objects, actions, or people that are forbidden by a group or culture.