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TRAINING MANUAL- PIPING

PLANT LAYOUT
Uhde India Limited

DOC No. : 29040-PI-UFR-0017


Rev.

: R0

Page

: 1

CONTENTS
Page
0.0

Cover Sheet

1.0

Introduction

2.0

Concept of Plant Layout

35

Applicable Revision:
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Checked:

Approved:

Date:
First Edition: R0
Prepared: DNL

Date:

Date:

Checked: AKB

Approved: RUD

Date:
File Name: C- 17

Date:
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PUNE: KUMUS 207

Directory: PUNE: Refer \ Pi \ Training Manual

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VKO: KUMUS 209

VKO: Refer \ Training Manual

TRAINING MANUAL- PIPING


PLANT LAYOUT
Uhde India Limited

1.0

DOC No. : 29040-PI-UFR-0017


Rev.

: R0

Page

: 2

INTRODUCTION:
Todays trend at large and complex plants presents substantial risk potential. In order to
minimize the risks, certain norms are developed and practiced with respect to space
allocations & relative locations and some specified distances are to be taken care of while a
plant is designed. Many times, existing plants are modified to increase the capacity by
change/addition of certain equipment whereas the original space designs may not be
sufficiently cater for such changes. This also calls for a detailed analysis of the space
allocation and consideration of any new additions.
Generally, the basis of keeping specific inter distances depends on the lessons learnt during
the past years from accidents which occurred in various plants throughout the world.
Accordingly, the specified minimum distances and the specified relative locations are
undergoing a continuous updation as new datas are generated and experiences increase.
A few of the major points to be born in mind while venturing into plant layouts are explained
here.
The various process plants we come across are Petroleum refineries, Petrochemical
complexes. Fertilizer plants, and Chemicals and Pharmaceutical plants, which need special
attention due to the nature of the materials and products handled in those plants. All these
plants involve various facilities such as raw material storage; intermediate and finished
product storage, Process units and Control rooms; Flare System, Raw material/Product
loading and unloading facilities; Utilities generation and distribution; Waste water treatment
facilities; Non plant facilities such as Administration Buildings, Canteen, Workshops,
Laboratory, Security arrangements, Vehicle Parking space, Stores, Fire station, and
Township. Space allocation need to be provided to accommodate all these facilities.
Before starting the development of Plant Layout the following information is a must.

Process Units and Capacities.


A flow diagram indicating the process flow sequence.
Utility requirements.
Number of storage tanks and also open storage area.
Raw material/Product receipt and dispatch philosophy.
Covered storage required.
Number of Flares.
Grouping philosophy for utilities.
Non plant Buildings.
Environmental Considerations.

The data collected during the site selection stage shall be given due consideration at the time
of plant layout. A few of the points are:

Site location map and Area topography contour map for the plot size, shape and the
nature of the land.
Prevailing wind direction.
Source of water supply and the supply point with respect to the plot.
Electric supply point with respect to the plot.
Effluent disposal point and the other drainages.
Railway entry point.
Approach roads to the plant.
Raw material/Product movement by rail/road.
Surrounding areas of the plot and considerations to be given to the neighborhood.

TRAINING MANUAL- PIPING


PLANT LAYOUT
Uhde India Limited

2.0

DOC No. : 29040-PI-UFR-0017


Rev.

: R0

Page

: 3

CONCEPT OF THE PLANT LAYOUT:

A process plant, which consists of the various different sections mentioned earlier should be
arranged so as to follow the general route of raw material to process, to Intermediate/Finished
product storage, to dispatch.
Generally block concept is prevalent for the Plant Layout wherein the entire plot area is
divided into blocks. The sizes of the blocks depend on the facilities to be accommodated.
While locating the blocks and further sub blocks within them, the following points are to be
considered.

Layout planning shall be in sequential order of process flow so that piping are also
minimum.
The blocks shall be so arranged considering the prevalent wind direction that
flammable gases should not be carried by wind on to source of ignition.
Process unit block shall be centrally located with straight approach from main gate.
Storage tanks shall be grouped according to product classification. In undulating
areas, storage tanks shall be located in lower elevations.
Utility blocks shall be located adjacent to unit blocks.
Main blocks shall be located adjacent to unit blocks.
Main power receiving station shall be close to the boundary line so that minimum
overhead power lines pass through the plant.
The electric sub stations in the plant shall be located in such a way that the cabling to
major load centers are minimum.
The location of power plants shall be near to the process/utility blocks and close to
main receiving station.
Flare shall be located upwind of process units so that the inflammable gas from plant
is not carried towards flare.
Truck loading facilities shall be located close to product movement gate. Rail loading
facilities are arranged generally at the periphery of the plant.
Effluent plant shall be located away from the other units on the down wind location.
The preferred location is at lower elevation than the other plant units in order to
facilitate gravity flow.
Fire station and fire water pump house shall be at a safe place away from hazardous
areas. Fire station shall be near to the main gate with straight approach to process
units and other critical areas.
Two adjacent process unit location shall be decided based on the annual shut down
philosophy for the maintenance of the units. If the shut downs will be at different times,
it is preferable to increase the distance between the two points so that the risk for
operating units due to hot jobs in the units under shut down can be minimized. Also
this will facilitate easy maintenance.

TRAINING MANUAL- PIPING


PLANT LAYOUT
Uhde India Limited

DOC No. : 29040-PI-UFR-0017


Rev.

: R0

Page

: 4

Process units shall be located on the high ground.


The adjacent neighbourhood installations, if any, shall be taken into consideration
before fixing the plant layout. The limitations imposed by the neighbourhood facilities
cannot be ignored, e.g. an ignition source.
Flares, Furnaces/Heaters, Dusty operations and Cooling towers shall be oriented
depending on the prevailing wind direction. The first two shall be located upwind of
Process units and the last two on the down wind directions of process units.
Due consideration of construction and erection of the plant shall be given while
deciding the plant layout, especially Tall Towers, Reactors, Furnaces, etc. shall not be
at congested areas and sufficient open space shall be provided to have erection at any
stage.
Equipment requiring frequent maintenance shall have easy accessibility. So also
equipment having removable parts shall have free access for removal of the part and
also for the free access for hoisting equipment.
Provisions for future expansion shall be considered. It is preferable to have similar type
of facilities in adjacent space for expansion. Care shall be given to give the expansion
facilities without any disturbance to the existing facility.
Care shall be given to give the expansion facilities without any disturbance to the
existing facility.
The blocks developed are separated by roads in between for purpose of access and
safety. The fire fighting facilities are to be provided on these roads.
There shall always be an alternative approach for fire fighting and maintenance in case
one route is blocked.
The layout shall be so designed that truck traffic inside the plant is minimized.
Boiler house, Air compressors, Fuel oil facilities shall be grouped into one block
adjoining the Process unit blocks, so that spreading of various utilities can be avoided
and also to facilitate easy operation.
The layout shall be designed so as to minimize capital cost for earthwork and
pavements, special foundations and extent of vacant plot as waste land.
Some of the major distances to be considered during plant layout are given in Table A.
The plant layout needs statutory approvals before implementation. Some of the statutory
approving codes are

Indian Factory Act.


Indian Explosives Act.
Petroleum and Carbide of Calcium Manual.
Indian Electricity Rules.
Insurance Association of India Fire Protection Manual.
NFPA Code of Practice / TAC Rules.

The oil industry safety directorate gives some guidelines for plant layouts but does not
overrule the existing statutory requirements.

TRAINING MANUAL- PIPING


PLANT LAYOUT
Uhde India Limited

DOC No. : 29040-PI-UFR-0017


Rev.

: R0

Page

: 5

The environmental/security requirements now demand that a Green Belt area around the
plant boundary shall be provided. This is a belt of width 30m to 40m around the plant
boundary where no construction will be done.
TABLE A
1.

Process Units to Flare

90 M

2.

* Storage tank Class A to Class


B or Class A to Class A

3.

* Storage tank Class


Flameproof Pump

to

Minimum of :
15 M from Perimeter
or 0.5 D or d where,
D=Dia. of Large tank
d=Dia. of small tank
8M

4.

* Storage
Boundary

to

20 M

5.

15 M

8.

Loading / Unloading Tank Vehicle


to Tank or Boundary
Non-Flameproof Electric Pump to
tank Class A/B
Electrical Sub stn. to Process
units
Fire stations to Process Units

9.

Boiler House to Process Units

45 M

10.

Cooling Towers to Boundary

30 M

11.

Service Buildings to Process Units

60 M

12.

Control Room to Process Unit

30 M

13.

Process Unit to Process Unit

30 M

14.

Process Unit to ADM Building

60 M

6.
7.

tank

* Petroleum Storage Tank

Class

15 M
15 M
60 M