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8th Edition

7th Edition

Section 16

Section 16

Pages 16-4 to 16-38

Pages 16-4 to 16-38

Concentration of a substance on the


surface of a solid or a liquid.
The substance attracted to a surface is the
adsorbed phase, while the substance to
which it is attached is the adsorbent

Adsorbent solid that does the adsorbing


Adsorbate component adsorbed
Common Adsorbents:
1. Activated Carbon
2. Bone Char
3. Silica Gel
4. Alumina
5. Fullers Earth

Factors determining the amount of gas


adsorbed by a solid:
Nature of the adsorbent and the gas being
adsorbed.
Area of the adsorbent
Temperature of the gas
Pressure of the gas

Physical or Van der Waals Adsorption

occurs when the intermolecular forces of


attraction between the fluid molecules and
the solid surface are greater than the
attractive forces between molecules of the
fluid itself. Fluid molecules adhere to the
surface of the solid adsorbent. The forces
responsible for the adsorption are of the
same fluid as are involved in the deviation of
gases from ideal behavior and in
liquefaction, i.e. Van der Waals forces.
characterized by low heats of adsorption.

Chemical

or Activated
Adsorption/Chemisorption
involves chemical interaction between
the adsorbed fluid and the adsorbent
solid. Frequently, the adsorption is
irreversible and it is difficult to separate
the adsorbate from the adsorbent.
Hence, only physical adsorption tends
itself to continuous stage-wise operations.

At equilibrium, Freundlich Isotherm,


y m xn

n 1

n0
n 1

Single stage operation


L0
X0

Vo

mass adsorbent

mass adsorbate
V1
Y1

Yo

L1
X1

mass adsorbent
y
mass solution

Material balance on adsorbate

VoYo V1Y1 L1 X 1 Lo X o
V o V1 V

& L o L1 L

V Y o Y1 L x1 x 0
y 0 y1
L

V
x1 x 0

y 0 y1
y1

x0

Xo = 0 ( for pure of fresh adsorbent )

Graphical Representation

x0 , y 0
y

x1 , y1

Two Stage Co-current process


L1

L2

X 0 1

X 0 2

V
Yo

V
Y2

V
Y1

Y1
X1
m

Y2

X2
m

The first stage and second stage


operating lines are:
y 0 y1
L1

V
x 1 x 0 1

Lt
L1 L 2

V
V

V
d y

L2
y1 y 2

V
x 1 x 0 2
y 0 y1
1

y1

m

x 0 2

x0 1 x0 2 0

y1

y2

1 y0
1
.
1
n y1
n

Graphical Representation
xo , y o
L1

x1, y1

x1 , y1
L2

x 2, y 2

Countercurrent Operation
x1
V
yo

x2

x3

Stage
I

Stage
II

yn1

y2

y1

xn

n+1

Stage
N

xN+1 L
yn

For the 2 stage Countercurrent Process:


L
x2

x1
Stage 1
V y
o

x3
Stage 2

y1

y2

y0 y2
L
y1 y 2

V
x1 x 3
x 2 x3

Graphical Representation
x1 , y0
L

x2 , y1

x1 , y1

x3 , y2
x3 , y2
x