Está en la página 1de 24

Examples

Example 1

Example 2 - Arrows in the Ac-Re Box

Differences between ANSI and ISO versions

Example 4 - Double Sampling

Example 1

Q Normal inspection is in use, the batch size is 1000, AQL is 1.5, single inspection and the
inspection level is II. What is the sampling plan?

1. Set the batch size (501 to 1200) in the upper window


2. Look next to the Inspection Level II to find the Code Letter of J.
3. Next set the AQL window to 1.5,
4. Looking under Code Letter J in Normal Inspection we find a sample size of 80, an
acceptance number of 3 and a rejection number of 4.
5. If the defect count is 3 or less accept the batch.
6. If the defect count is 4 or more reject the batch.

Example 2 - Arrows in the Ac-Re Box

Q Normal inspection is in use, the batch size is 20, AQL is 1.5, single inspection and the
inspection level is I. What is the sampling plan?

1. Set the batch size (16 to 25) in the upper window


2. Look next to the Inspection Level I to find the Code Letter of B.
3. Next set the AQL window to 1.5,

4. Looking under Code Letter B in Normal inspection we find an arrow. Following this
arrow to C we find another arrow and continue to D.
5. Under code letter plan D in Normal Inspection we find a sample size of 8, an
acceptance number of 0 and a rejection number of 1.
6. If the defect count is 0 accept the batch.
7. If the defect count is 1 or more reject the batch.

Example 3 - Differences between ANSI and ISO versions

Q Reduced inspection is in use, AQL is 1.0, the batch size is 125, single inspection and the
inspection level is III. What is the sampling plan?

A ANSI version of AQL Inspector's Rule


1. Set the batch size (91 to 150) is the upper window
2. Look next to the Inspection Level III to find the Code Letter of G.
3. Next set the AQL window to 1.0
4. Looking under Code Letter G in Reduced Inspection we find an arrow directing us to
Code Letter H.
5. Under Code Letter H we find a sample size of 20, an acceptance number of 0 and a
rejection number of 2.
6. If the defect count is 0 accept the batch.
7. If the defect count is 2 or more reject the batch and return to the normal inspection
for the next batch.
8. If the defect count is between the accept and reject numbers (1) accept the batch
and return to the normal inspection for the next batch.
ISO version of AQL Inspector's Rule
1. Set the batch size (91 to 150) is the upper window

2. Look next to the Inspection Level III to find the Code Letter of G.
3. Next set the AQL window to 1.0, looking under Code Letter G in Reduced Inspection
we find arrows directing us to Code Letter H then J.
4. Under Code Letter J we find a sample size of 32, an acceptance number of 1 and a
rejection number of 2.
5. If the defect count is 1 or less accept the batch.
6. If the defect count is 2 or more reject the batch and return to the normal inspection
for the next batch.

Example 4 - Double Sampling

Q Tightened inspection is in use, AQL is 10, the batch size is 2000, double inspection and the
inspection level is II. What is the double sampling plan?

1. Set the batch size (1201 to 3200) in the upper window


2. Look next to the Inspection Level II to find Code Letter K.
3. Next turn over the AQL Inspector's Rule and set the AQL window to 10, looking under
Code Letter K in Tightened inspection we find a first sample size of 80, with an
acceptance number of 9 and a rejection number of 14.
4. If the number of defects is 9 or less accept the batch the inspection of the batch is
complete.
5. If the number of defects is 14 or more reject the batch and inspection of the batch is
complete.
6. If the defect count is between 9 and 14 (10 to 13) continue to the second inspection.
Take second sample of 80 pieces.
7. Add the defects in found the first and second samples.
8. If the combined defect count is 23 or less accept the batch.
9. If the combined defect count is 24 or more reject the batch.

AQL Inspection Manual


Table of Contents
Introduction
Standards
Versions
References
Applications
Instructions For Use Of AQL Inspector's Rule
o Single Sampling Plan
o Double Sampling Plan
o Notes
Examples
AQL (Acceptance Quality Level)
Inspection Levels
Switching Procedures
Dictionary
Limit Numbers For Reduced Inspection
Introduction
AQL sampling inspection plans are designed to protect the supplier from
having good lots or product rejected based on an inspection of a limited
sample if the defects are within the specified limits. Since the inspection is
based on sampling, there is some risk that good lots may be rejected.
However, the supplier risk of rejection is low. This manual is designed to give

the reader a basic understanding of AQL sampling inspection, its application


and some feel for inspection levels and AQL's.
The AQL Inspector's Rule is a slide rule device for quickly finding AQL
sampling plans. Its straightforward design makes it very easy to use. All the
data is conveniently grouped so that the sampling plan can read off instantly.
The rule covers a wide range of AQL's (.065 to 15), and Normal, Tightened
and Reduced inspection levels for both single and double sampling plans.
Besides being a time-saving tool on the job, the AQL Inspector's Rule,
combined with the Manual, makes a useful training aid.
Standards
AQL sampling inspection currently enjoys wide acceptance for inspection by
attribute. The specifying of AQL plans by the Department of Defense has
greatly increased the role of this method of sampling. Originally specified in
MIL-STD-105E, the department of Defense discontinued this standard in
February 1995 and users were referred to its commercial equivalent:
ANSI/ASQC Z1.4-1993.
In December 2003 the ANSI/ASQC Z1.4-1993 was replaced by the ANSI/ASQ
Z1.4-2003 standard.
The ANSI/ASQ Z1.4-2008 standard is a reaffirmation of ANSI/ASQ Z1.4-2003.
The ISO standard for the inspection by attributes was introduced in 1989 as
the ISO 2859-1:1989 standard, matching the ANSI/ASQC Z1.4-1993 and MIL
STD 105E standards. The ISO 2859-1 standard was modified, including
changes to the sample plans, in a 1999 revision.
AQL sampling plans and procedures have also gained popularity for many
non-defense and industrial applications. In addition, AQL has been adopted by
Canada and Great Britain as an International Standard ABC-STD-105.
Versions
ANSI English Version. This is the original version of the AQL
Inspector's Rule introduced in 1968. The Rule and Manual are both in
English. This version conforms to standards:
o MIL-STD-105E

o ANSI/ASQC Z1.4-1993
o ANSI/ASQ Z1.4-2008 with note
ISO English Version. The ISO version was introduced in August 2002
in response to the 1999 revision of the ISO 2859-1 standard. The
revision changes made this standard diverge for the MIL-STD105E and ANSI/ASQC Z1.4-1993 standards. This version conforms to
standard:
o ISO 2859-1 (1999)
References
The complete ANSI/ASQ Z1.4-2003 standard is available from ASQ, item
T004 or T004E, Customer Service Department, P. O. Box 3066, Milwaukee,
WI 53201-3066. (414) 272-8575 or (800) 248-1946

Applications
The AQL Inspector's Rule can be used in sampling, inspection, measuring,
examination, testing or otherwise comparing the unit of product with specified
requirements of continuous series of lots or batches. AQL sampling plans are
used for, but not limited to, the following:
Components and Raw Materials - These materials are shaped, treated or
assembled to form end items. These materials may be inspected at the source
(vendor's), upon receipt (receiving inspection), at point of assembly or at any
convenient place along the assembly process where end items are formed.
Information tabulated during receiving inspection can be used to establish a
"Vendor Rating System."
End Items - Final inspection of completed products that may be inspected
before or after packaging. Final inspection may be accomplished to
commercial standards or Military Packaging Specification MIL-P-116E.
Operations - Repetitive work performed by machines and operators may be
judged acceptable or not acceptable. These work operations may be
inspected on a sampling basis to determine whether the processing machine,
operator or clerk is performing satisfactorily.

Materials In Progress - Materials may be inspected on a sampling basis to


determine their quality after any step along the production line as to the extent
of damage or deterioration while in temporary storage between production
steps or quality before proceeding to the next step in the production process.
Supplies in Storage - AQL Inspections can be used to determine the quality
and quantity of supplies in storage on a sampling basis
Maintenance Operations - The operations are usually performed on
repairable materials to restore them to serviceable condition. When
maintenance or overhaul operations are completed, attribute sampling
inspection is made to determine the quality of the product after reconditioning.
Data or Records - Whenever large volumes of data are processed; i.e.,
accounting records, cost data, invoices, bills of lading, attribute sampling
inspection can be used as a basis for determining dollar volume, item count,
accuracy or other measures or quality of data or records.
Administrative Procedures - Procedures of this type maybe questioned as
to whether desirable results are achieved. If the results can be measured on
an attribute basis, the AQL Inspector's Rule can be used for this purpose.
Inspection by Attribute means when a procedure is judged to be good or bad,
or correct or incorrect.

Instructions for use of the AQL Inspector's Rule


In order to find any Sampling Plan, the Sample Size Code Letter, Inspection
Level and AQL must be known. The AQL is usually provided in specifications
involved.Inspection levels are generally given in the specifications. The
Sample Plan is quickly found with the AQL Inspector's Rule.
Single Sampling Plan
Double Sampling Plan
Notes

Single Sampling Plan


Find the Sample Size Code Letter

Set the range covering the Batch or Lot Size being inspected in the
window at the top right corner of the AQL Inspector's Rule. Then read
the Sample Size Code Letter, in the box, directly to the left of the
Inspection Level.
Find the Sampling Plan
The Sampling Plan consists of Acceptance Number, Rejection Number
and Sample Size. Normal inspection is used until such time as the
results of inspection dictate the Tightened or Reduced inspection should
be employed as outlined in Switching Procedures on page 10. Single
sampling plans are found on the front of the AQL Inspector's Rule.
Set the required AQL level in the window above the Single Sampling
Plans. Locate the Sample Size Code Letter previously selected in step
1. If an arrow show in the window directly below the Code Letter, follow
the direction of the arrow until a set of acceptance-rejection numbers
are reached. Then read the Acceptance (black) and Rejection (orange)
Numbers in the window and the Sample Size directly below.
The Acceptance and Rejection number pair and the Sample Size
directly below them make up the Sample Plan.
Perform the Inspection
Randomly select a group of "Sample Size" items from the lot and
inspect them. If the sample size equals or exceeds the lot size do 100%
inspection. If the number of defective items is equal to or less than the
Acceptance Number accept the lot. If the number of defective items is
equal to or greater than the Rejection Number reject the lot.
Continue to Notes on Use

Double Sampling Plan


Find the Sample Size Code Letter
Set the range covering the Batch or Lot Size being inspected in the
window at the top right corner on the front of the AQL Inspector's Rule.

Then read the Sample Size Code Letter, in the box, directly to the left of
the Inspection Level.
Find the Sampling Plan
The Double Sampling Plan consists of two sets of Acceptance
Numbers, Rejection Numbers and Sample Sizes. Normal inspection is
used until such time as the results of inspection dictate the Tightened or
Reduced inspection should be employed as outlined in Switching
Procedures on page 10. Double sampling plans are found on the back
of the AQL Inspector's Rule.
Set the required AQL level in the window above the Double Sampling
Plans. Locate the Sample Size Code Letter previously selected in step
1. If an arrow show in the window directly below the Code Letter, follow
the direction of the arrow until a set of acceptance-rejection numbers
are reached. Then read the first Acceptance (in black) and Rejection (in
color) Number in the window on the '"1st" row.
The Acceptance and Rejection number pairs and the Sample Sizes
directly below them make up the Sample Plan.
Perform the First Inspection
Randomly select a group of "Sample Size" items from the lot and
inspect them. If the sample size equals or exceeds the lot size do 100%
inspection. If the number of defective items is equal to or less than the
Acceptance Number accept the lot. If the number of defective items is
equal to or greater than the "Rejection Number" reject the lot.
Perform The Second Inspection
If the lot was the accepted or rejected from the first inspection the
second sample inspection is not required, skip this step.
Read the Acceptance and Rejection Numbers and Sample size from the
"2nd" row under those used for the first inspection.
Randomly select a second group of "Sample Size" items from the lot
and inspection them. Combine the total number of defective items from
the first and second samples. If the total number of defective items is

equal to or less than the Acceptance Number accept the lot. If the total
number of defective items is equal to or greater than the "Rejection
Number" reject the lot.
Notes:
MIL-STD-105E and ISO 2859-1 (1999)
When an asterisk (*) is found in place of the acceptance-rejection levels
either use the corresponding single sampling plan on the front side of
the AQL Inspector's Rule or use the double sampling plan to the right.
ANSI/ASQ Z1.4-2003
When an asterisk (*) is found in place of the acceptance-rejection levels
use the corresponding single sampling plan on the front side of the AQL
Inspector's Rule.
Continue to Notes on Use

Notes
Instructions for using Single Sampling Plan
Instructions for using Double Sampling Plan
a. When using an AQL of 10 and Code Letter A, a solid color arrow will
show in the sample size. For Normal and Reduced inspection use Code
Letter C. For Tightened inspection use Code Letter D.
b. When using Double Sampling Reduced inspection. If a * shows for the
sample size use the corresponding Single inspection Plan on the front
of the AQL Inspector's Rule.
For MIL-STD-105E or ISO 2859-1 you may alternately use the first
doubling sampling plan to the right of the * and arrows. This option was
eliminated in the ANSI/ASQ Z1.4-2003 revision.
c. If the sample size equals or exceeds the lot of batch size do 100%
inspection.

d. Single and Double Reduced Inspection. If the acceptance level has


been exceeded, but the rejection level has not been reached, accept the
lot but reinstate Normal inspection (ANSI version only).
e. When Double sampling is to be used, each sample is to be selected
over the entire lot or batch.

Examples
Example 1
Example 2 - Arrows in the Ac-Re Box
Differences between ANSI and ISO versions
Example 4 - Double Sampling
Example 1
Q Normal inspection is in use, the batch size is 1000, AQL is 1.5, single
inspection and the inspection level is II. What is the sampling plan?

1. Set the batch size (501 to 1200) in the upper window


2. Look next to the Inspection Level II to find the Code Letter of J.
3. Next set the AQL window to 1.5,
4. Looking under Code Letter J in Normal Inspection we find a sample
size of 80, an acceptance number of 3 and a rejection number of 4.
5. If the defect count is 3 or less accept the batch.
6. If the defect count is 4 or more reject the batch.

Example 2 - Arrows in the Ac-Re Box

Q Normal inspection is in use, the batch size is 20, AQL is 1.5, single
inspection and the inspection level is I. What is the sampling plan?

1. Set the batch size (16 to 25) in the upper window


2. Look next to the Inspection Level I to find the Code Letter of B.
3. Next set the AQL window to 1.5,
4. Looking under Code Letter B in Normal inspection we find an arrow.
Following this arrow to C we find another arrow and continue to D.
5. Under code letter plan D in Normal Inspection we find a sample size
of 8, an acceptance number of 0 and a rejection number of 1.
6. If the defect count is 0 accept the batch.
7. If the defect count is 1 or more reject the batch.

Example 3 - Differences between ANSI and ISO versions


Q Reduced inspection is in use, AQL is 1.0, the batch size is 125, single
inspection and the inspection level is III. What is the sampling plan?

A ANSI version of AQL Inspector's Rule


1. Set the batch size (91 to 150) is the upper window
2. Look next to the Inspection Level III to find the Code Letter of G.
3. Next set the AQL window to 1.0
4. Looking under Code Letter G in Reduced Inspection we find an
arrow directing us to Code Letter H.

5. Under Code Letter H we find a sample size of 20, an acceptance


number of 0 and a rejection number of 2.
6. If the defect count is 0 accept the batch.
7. If the defect count is 2 or more reject the batch and return to the
normal inspection for the next batch.
8. If the defect count is between the accept and reject numbers (1)
accept the batch and return to the normal inspection for the next
batch.
ISO version of AQL Inspector's Rule
1. Set the batch size (91 to 150) is the upper window
2. Look next to the Inspection Level III to find the Code Letter of G.
3. Next set the AQL window to 1.0, looking under Code Letter G in
Reduced Inspection we find arrows directing us to Code Letter H
then J.
4. Under Code Letter J we find a sample size of 32, an acceptance
number of 1 and a rejection number of 2.
5. If the defect count is 1 or less accept the batch.
6. If the defect count is 2 or more reject the batch and return to the
normal inspection for the next batch.

Example 4 - Double Sampling


Q Tightened inspection is in use, AQL is 10, the batch size is 2000, double
inspection and the inspection level is II. What is the double sampling plan?

1. Set the batch size (1201 to 3200) in the upper window

2. Look next to the Inspection Level II to find Code Letter K.


3. Next turn over the AQL Inspector's Rule and set the AQL window to
10, looking under Code Letter K in Tightened inspection we find a
first sample size of 80, with an acceptance number of 9 and a
rejection number of 14.
4. If the number of defects is 9 or less accept the batch the inspection
of the batch is complete.
5. If the number of defects is 14 or more reject the batch and inspection
of the batch is complete.
6. If the defect count is between 9 and 14 (10 to 13) continue to the
second inspection. Take second sample of 80 pieces.
7. Add the defects in found the first and second samples.
8. If the combined defect count is 23 or less accept the batch.
9. If the combined defect count is 24 or more reject the batch.

AQL (Acceptable Quality Level)


When a consumer designates some specific value of AQL for a
certain defect or group of defects, he indicates to the supplier that his (the
consumer's) acceptancesampling plan will accept the great majority of the lots
or batches that the supplier submits, provided the process average level of
percent defective (or defects per hundred units) in these lots or batches be no
greater than the designated value of AQL. Thus, the AQL is a designated
value of percent defective (of defects per hundred units) that the consumer
indicates will be accepted most of the time by the acceptance sampling
procedure used.
The sampling plans in the MIL-STD-105E, ANSI/ASQ Z1.4 and ISO 2859-1
and standards are so arranged that the probability of acceptance at the
designated AQL value depends upon the sample size, being generally higher
for large samples than for small ones, for a given AQL. The AQL alone does
not describe the protection to the consumer for individual lots or batches but
more directly relates to what might be expected from a series of lots or
batches. Altogether there are 26 specific values of AQL. The AQL Inspector's

Rule covers the range from 0.065 to 15 which includes the vast majority of
sample plans used. Notes are available online for using the AQL Inspector's
Rule for AQL values below 0.065.
For inspection under MIL-STD-105E, ANSI/ASQ Z1.4 or ISO 2859-1, the AQL
will be specified in the contract or specification. Different AQL's may be
designated for groups of defects consider collectively, or for individual defects.
A common practice is to designate different value of AQL for major, minor or
total defects. Due to the difference in the specified AQL values, it is possible
that one sample size be indicated in the sampling procedures for major
defects, and another sample size for minor defects or total defects. Whenever
two or more sample sizes are indicated by Tables (for a given sample size
Code Letter but for different values of AQL), the correct procedure is to select
the largest indicated sample at random from the lot, then select the smaller
sample sizes at random from the larger sample. An AQL for a group of defects
may be designated in addition to AQLs for individual defects, or subgroups,
within that group. AQL values of 10 or less may be expressed either in percent
defective or in defects per hundred units: those over 10 shall be expressed in
defects per hundred units only.
Inspection Levels
Three general and four special inspection levels are provided. The general
inspection levels (I to III) are commonly used for non-destructive inspection.
Level II is considered the norm (except for small sample sizes). Level I is
required only 40 percent of inspection level II and can be used where less
discrimination is needed. Level III equals 160 percent of the amount of
inspection Level II. Level III will give a lower risk of accepting a lot with
excessive number of defects. However, inspection of larger samples is
required. Unless otherwise specified, inspection Level II will be used.
Special Levels S-1, S-2, S-3 and S-4 may be used where relatively small
sample sizes are necessary or large sampling risks can be taken. Examples
of this are inspections involving destructive or costly (time consuming) type
inspection, or where large lots are involved, small sample sizes are desired
and large risks can be tolerated such as repetitive processes (screw machine,
stamping, bolting operations, etc.) performed by a quality supplier. Larger
sample sizes are for inspection levels increasing from S-1 to S-4.
EXAMPLE: Lot of 1500 units, AQL of 2.5, Normal Inspection and Single
Sampling

Level

II

III

S-1

S-2

S-3

S-4

Sample Size

50

125

200

20

32

Aceptance Number

10

When it is necessary to determine an inspection level, a number of factors


must be considered in order to optimize the cost/risk relationship. These are:
a. The operating characteristic (OC) curves to evaluate the technical
properties of various plans.
b. The supplier's risk and discrimination afforded by various inspection
levels.
c. Knowledge of the production process.
d. Process capability knowledge and past quality performance history.
e. Item complexity.
f. Cost and importance of examination or test, particularly when testing is
expensive, time consuming or destructive.
g. Importance of the quality characteristics to be examined, that is, critical,
major and so forth.
h. Analysis of consumer's risk.

Switching Procedures
Normal inspection will be used at the start of inspection unless otherwise
directed by the responsible authority. Once Normal, Tightened or Reduced
inspection has been executed, it shall continue unchanged for each class of
defects or defectives on successive lots or batches except where the
switching procedures given below require a change. The switching procedures
shall be applied to each class of defects or defectives independently.
Normal to Tightened
When normal inspection is in effect, tightened inspection shall be instituted
when 2 out of 5 (or fewer) consecutive lots or batches have been non-

acceptable on original inspection (i.e., ignoring resubmitted lots or batches for


this procedure).
Tightened to Normal
When tightened inspection is in effect, normal inspection shall be instituted
when 5 consecutive lots or batches have been considered acceptable on
original inspection.
Normal to Reduced
When normal inspection is in effect, reduced inspection shall be instituted
providing that all of the following conditions are satisfied:
ANSI Version
a. The preceding 10 lots or batches (or more, as indicated by the note to
Limit Number for Reduced Inspection on the inside of the back cover)
have been on normal inspection and none has been rejected on original
inspection; and
b. The total number of defectives (or defects) in the samples from the
preceding 10 lots or batches (or such other number as was used for
condition "a" above) is equal to or less that the applicable number given
in Table VIII, Page 16. If double or multiple sampling is in use, all
samples inspected should be included, not "first" samples only; and
c. Production is at a steady rate; and
d. Reduced inspection is considered desirable by the responsible authority.
ISO Version
a. The current value of the switching score (see following) is at least 30;
and
b. Production is at a steady rate; and
c. Reduced inspection is considered desirable by the responsible authority.
Switching Score

The calculation of the switching score shall be initiated at the start of normal
inspection unless otherwise specified by the responsible authority.
The switching score shall be set at zero at the start and updated following the
inspection of each subsequent lot on original normal inspection.
a. Single sampling plans:
1. when the acceptance number is 2 or more, add 3 to the switching
score if the lot would have been accepted if the AQL had been
one step tighter; otherwise reset the switching score to zero;
2. when the acceptance number is 0 or 1, add 2 to the switching
score if the lot is accepted; otherwise reset the switching score to
zero.
b. Double sampling plans:
1. when a double sampling plan is used, add 3 to the switching
score if the lot is accepted after the first sample; otherwise reset
the switching score to zero;
Reduced to Normal
When reduced inspection is in effect, normal inspection shall be instituted if
any of the following occur on original inspection:
a. A lot or batch is rejected; or
b. (ANSI Version Only) The defect level falls between the Acceptance and
Rejection numbers. The lot or batch will be considered acceptable.
Normal inspection will be reinstated starting with the next lot or batch.
c. Production becomes irregular or delayed; or
d. Other conditions warrant that normal inspection shall be instituted.
Discontinuation of Inspection
ANSI/ASQ Z1.4-2003 and ISO 2859-1
If the cumulative number of lots not accepted in a sequence of consecutive
lots on original tightened inspection reaches 5, the acceptance procedures of

this part of ISO 2859 shall not be resumed until action has been taken by the
supplier to improve the quality of the submitted product or service, and the
responsible authority has agreed that this action is likely to be effective.
Tightened inspection shall then be used.
MIL-STD-105E
In the event that 10 consecutive lots or batches remain on tightened
inspection (or such other number as may be designated by the responsible
authority) inspection under the provisions of this document should be
discontinued pending action to improve the quality of submitted material.

Dictionary
Acceptance Number. The acceptance number is the maximum number of
defects or defective units in the sample that will permit acceptance lot or
batch.
AQL has two different definitions due to standard changes.
MIL-STD-105E, ISO 2859-1 (1999)
Acceptable Quality Level. The acceptable level (AQL) is defined as the
maximum percent defective (or the maximum number of defects per hundred
units) that, for purpose of sampling inspection, can be considered satisfactory
as a process average. The sampling plans most frequently used by the
department of Defense are based on the AQL.
ANSI/ASQ Z1.4-2003/2008
Acceptance Quality Limit. The AQL is the quality level that is the worst
tolerable process average when a continuing series of lots is submitted for
acceptance sampling.
The following note on the meaning of AQL was introduced with the ANSI/ASQ
Z1.4-2003 revision.
The concept of AQL only applies when an acceptance sampling scheme with
rules for switching between normal, tightened and reduced inspection and
discontinuance of sampling inspection is used. These rules are designed to
encourage suppliers to have process averages consistently better than the
AQL. If suppliers fail to do so, there is a high probability of being switched

from normal inspection to tightened inspection where lot acceptance becomes


more difficult. Once on tightened inspection, unless corrective action is taken
to improve product quality, it is very likely that the rule requiring
discontinuance of sampling inspection will be invoked.
Although individual lots with quality as bad as the AQL can be accepted with
fairly high probability, the designation of an AQL does not suggest that this is
necessarily a desirable quality level. The AQL is a parameter of the sampling
scheme and should not be confused with a process average which describes
the operating level of a manufacturing process. It is expected that the product
quality level will be less than the AQL to avoid excessive non accepted lots.
The AQL values are defined as percent nonconforming or defects or
nonconformities per hundred units.
Defects and Defectives. A defect is any nonconformance of the unit of
product with the specified requirements. A defective is a unit of product which
contains one or more defects. Failure to meet requirements with respect to
quality characteristics are usually described in terms of defects or defectives.
Critical - A critical defect is on that judgment and experience indicate is likely
to:
a. result in hazardous or unsafe conditions for individuals using,
maintaining, or depending upon the products; or
b. prevent performance of the tactical function of a major end item. A
critical defective is a unit of product that contains one or more critical
defects.
Major - A major defect is one, other than critical, that is likely to result in
failure, or to reduce materially the usability of the unit of product for its
intended purpose. A major defective is a unit of product that contains one or
more major defects.
Minor - A minor defect is one that is not likely to reduce materially the usability
of the unit of product for its intended purpose, or is a departure from
established standards having little bearing on the effective use or operation of
the unit of product. A Minor defective is a unit of product that contains one or
more defects.

Double Sampling Plan. A double sampling plan involves sampling inspection


in which the inspection of the first sample to a decision to accept, to reject or
to take a second sample. The inspection of a second sample, when required,
lead to a decision to accept or reject.
Drawing of Samples. Basic to sampling inspection is the assurance that the
sample selected from a quantity of units represents the quality of that quantity
of units. Hence, the procedure used to select units from a lot must be such
that it assures a sample free of bias.
Expression of Nonconformance. The extent of nonconformance of product
shall be expressed either in terms of percent defective or in terms of defects
per hundred units (DHU).
Defects per Hundred Units. The number of defects per hundred units of any
given quantity units of product is one hundred times the number of defects
contained therein (one or more defects being possible in any unit of product)
divided by the total number of units of product, i.e.:
number of defectives x 100
Defects per hundred units =
number of units inspected
Inspection. Inspection is the process of measuring, examining, testing, or
otherwise comparing the unit of product with the requirements.
Inspection by Attribute. Inspection by attributes is inspection where by either
the unit of product is classified simply as defective or non-defective, or the
number of defects in the unit of product is counted, with respect to a given
requirement or set of requirements.
Inspection Levels. The standards provides for three general inspection levels
and four special inspection levels. These seven levels permit the user to
balance the cost of inspection against the amount of protection required.
Lot or Batch. The term lot or batch shall mean "inspection lot" or "inspection
batch" i.e., a collection of units of product from which a sample is to drawn
and inspected to determine conformance with the acceptance criteria, any
may differ from a collection of units designated as a lot or batch for other
purposes (e.g., production, shipment, etc.).

Nonconformance. Nonconformance may be defined as the failure of a unit of


product to conform to specified requirements for any stated quality
characteristic. The extent of nonconformance of product to the required quality
characteristics shall be expressed either in terms of percent defective or in
terms of defects per hundred units (DHU).
Normal Inspection. Normal inspection is that which is used where there is no
evidence that the quality of product being submitted is better or poorer than
the specified quality level.
Percent Defective. The percent defective of any given quantity of units of
product is one hundred times the number of defective units of product
contained therein divided by the total number of units of product, i.e.: Percent
defective = number of defectives x100 / number of units inspected
Reduced Inspection. Reduced inspection under a sampling plan uses the
same quality level as for normal inspection, but requires a smaller sample for
inspection.
Rejection Number. The rejection number is the minimum number of defects
or defective units in the sample that will cause rejection of the lot represented
by the sample.
Representative Sampling. When appropriate, the number of units in the
sample shall be selected in proportion to the size of sub-lots or sub-batches,
or parts or the lot or batch, identified by some rational criterion. When
representative sampling is used, the units from each part of the lot or batch
shall be selected at random.
Resubmitted Lots or Batches. Lots or batches found unacceptable shall be
resubmitted for reinspection only after all units are re-examined or retested
and all defective units are removed or defects corrected. The responsible
authority shall determine whether normal or tightened inspection shall be used
and whether reinspection shall include all types or classes of defects or only
the particular types or classes of defects which caused initial rejection.
Sample. A sample consists of one or more units of product drawn from a lot or
batch, the units of the sample being selected at random without regard to their
quality. The number of product in the sample is the sample size.
Sampling Plans. A lot sampling plan is a statement of the sample size or
sizes to be used and the associated acceptance and rejection numbers.

Single Sample Plan. A single sampling plan is a type of sampling plan by


which the results of a single sample from an inspection lot are conclusive in
determining acceptability. The number of sample units inspected shall be
equal to the sample size given by the plan.
Severity of Inspection. The severity of inspection concerns the total amount,
kind and extent of inspection specified by the quality assurance provisions
established for the unit of product, or as dictated by quality history.
Unit of Production. The unit of product is the thing inspected in order to
determine its classification as defective or non-defective or to count the
number of defects. It may be a single article, a pair, a set, a length, an area,
an operation, a volume, a component of an end product, or the end product
itself. The unit of product may or may not be the same as the unit of purchase,
supply, production, or shipment.
Tightened Inspection. Tightened inspection under a sampling procedure
plan uses the quality level as for normal inspection, but requires more
stringent acceptance criteria.

Limit Number for Reduced Inspection

ANSI Version OF AQL Inspector's Rule Only


Number of samples
from last 10
lots or batches

Acceptable Quality Level


0.065 0.10 0.15 0.25 0.40 0.65

1.0

1.5

2.5

4.0

6.5

10

15

20-29

30-49

50-79

80-129

130-199

13

200-319

14

22

320-499

14

24

39

500-799

14

25

40

63

800-1249

14

24

42

68

105

1250-1999

13

24

40

69

110 169

2000-3149

14

22

40

68

115 181

3150-4999

14

24

38

67

111 186

5000-7999

14

24

40

63

110 181

8000-12499

14

24

40

68

105 181

12500-19999

13

24

40

69

110 169

20000-31499

14

22

40

687

115

181

31500 & over

14

24

38

67

111

186