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In a graph G, a vertex dominates itself and its neighbours. A subset S of V is called a dominating set in G if every vertex in V is dominated by at least one vertex in S. The domination number ) (G is the minimum cardinality of a dominating set. A set V S is called a double dominating set of a graph G if every vertex in V is dominated by at least two vertices in S. The minimum cardinality of a double dominating set is called double domination number of G and is denoted by dd(G). The connectivity ) (G of a connected graph G is the minimum number of vertices whose removal results in a disconnected or trivial graph. In this paper we find an upper bound for the sum of the double domination number and connectivity of a graph and characterize the corresponding extremal graphs.

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C. Sivagnanam

Department of Information Technology

Al Musanna College of Technology

Sultanate of Oman

E-mail: choshi71@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

In a graph G, a vertex dominates itself

and its neighbours. A subset S of V is called a

dominating set in G if every vertex in V is

dominated by at least one vertex in S. The

domination number (G) is the minimum

cardinality of a dominating set. A set S V is

called a double dominating set of a graph G if

every vertex in V is dominated by at least two

vertices in S. The minimum cardinality of a

double dominating set is called

double

domination number of G and is denoted by

dd(G). The connectivity (G) of a connected

graph G is the minimum number of vertices

whose removal results in a disconnected or

trivial graph. In this paper we find an upper

bound for the sum of the double domination

number and connectivity of a graph and

characterize the corresponding extremal

graphs.

Key Words: Domination, Domination

number,

Double

domination,

double

domination number and Connectivity.

1. INTRODUCTION

The graph G = (V,E) we mean a

finite, undirected and connected graph with

neither loops nor multiple edges. The order

and size of G are denoted by m and n

respectively. The degree of any vertex u in

and is denoted by d(u). The minimum and

maximum degree of a graph G is denoted

theoretic terminology we refer to Chartrand

and Lesniak [1] and Haynes et .al [2, 3].

Let v V . The open neighbourhood

and closed neighbourhood of v are denoted

by

N(v)

and

N[v] N (v) {v}

respectively.If S V then N ( S ) N (v)

vs

for

all

v S and N[s] N (S ) S .

If

u S then

the

private

S V and

neighbour set of u with respect to S is

defined by pn[u, S ] {v : N[v] S {u}}.

H(m1,m2,....mn) denotes the graph obtained

from the graph H by pasting mi edges to

v i V (H ), 1 i n

the

vertex

H(Pm1,Pm2,.......Pmn) is the graph obtained

from the graph H by attaching the end

vertex of Pmi to the vertex vi, in H ,

1 i n . Bistar B(r,s) is a graph obtained

from K1,r and K1,s by joining its centre

vertices by an edge.

In a graph G, a vertex dominates

itself and its neighbours. A subset S of V is

called a dominating set in G if every vertex

in V is dominated by at least one vertex in

40

International Journal of Digital Information and Wireless Communications (IJDIWC) 2(1): 40-45

The Society of Digital Information and Wireless Communications, 2012(ISSN 2225-658X)

minimum cardinality of a dominating set.

Harary and Haynes [4] introduced the

concept of double domination in graphs. A

set S V is called a double dominating set

of a graph G if every vertex in V is

dominated by atleast two vertices in S. The

minimum cardinality of double dominating

set is called double domination number of

G and is denoted by dd(G). The

connectivity (G) of a connected graph G

is the minimum number of vertices whose

removal results in a disconnected or trivial

graph.

Several authors have studied the

problem of obtaining an upper bound for

the sum of a domination parameter and a

graph

theoretic

parameter

and

characterized the corresponding extremal

graphs. J.Paulraj Joseph and S.Arumugam

[5] proved that (G) (G) n and

characterized the corresponding extremal

graphs. In this paper, we obtain an upper

bound for the sum of the double

domination number and connectivity of a

graph and characterize the corresponding

extremal graphs. We use the following

theorems.

dd(G)n.

(G) (G).

2. MAIN RESULTS

dd (G) (G) 2n 1 and equality holds

if and only if G is isomorphic to K2.

Proof.

dd (G) (G) n n n 1 2n 1.

Let dd (G) (G) 2n 1. Then dd(G) = n

and (G) n 1 . Then G is a complete

graph on n vertices. Since dd(Kn) = 2 we

have n = 2 . Hence G is isomorphic to K2.

The converse is obvious.

Theorem 2.2. For any connected graph

G, dd (G) (G) 2n 2 if and only if G

is isomorphic to K3 or K1,2.

there are two cases to consider.

(i)

dd (G) n 1 and (G) n 1

(ii)

Then G is a complete graph on n

vertices. Since dd(Kn)= 2 we have n = 3 .

Hence G is isomorphic to K3.

Case 2 . dd (G) n and (G) n 2

Then n 2 (G) . If n 1 then

G is a complete graph which is a

contradiction. Hence n 2 . Then G is

isomorphic to Kn-Y where Y is a matching

in Kn . Then dd(G) = 2 or 3. Since dd(G)

=2 is isomorphic we have n = 3. Hence G

is isomorphic to K1,2. The converse is

obvious.

dd (G) (G) 2n 3 if and only if G is

isomorphic to K4 or C4 or P4 or K1,3.

41

International Journal of Digital Information and Wireless Communications (IJDIWC) 2(1): 40-45

The Society of Digital Information and Wireless Communications, 2012(ISSN 2225-658X)

there are three cases to consider

(i) dd (G) n 2 and (G) n 1

(ii) dd (G) n 1 and (G) n 2

(iii) dd (G) n and (G) n 3

Then G is a complete graph on n

vertices. Since dd(Kn)=2 we have n = 4 .

Hence G is isomorphic to K4.

Then n 2 (G). If n 1 then

G is a complete graph which gives a

contradiction. Hence (G) n 2. Then G

is isomorphic to Kn - Y where Y is a

matching in Kn. Then dd(G) = 2 or 3. If

dd(G) = 2 then n = 3. Hence G is

isomorphic to K1,2 which is a contradiction.

Thus dd(G) = 3. Then n = 4 and hence G is

isomorphic to C4.

Then n -3 . If n 1 then G is a

complete graph which is a contradiction.

If n 2 then G is isomorphic to Kn-Y

where Y is a matching in Kn. Then dd(G)

=2 or 3. Then n =2 or 3 which is a

(G) n 3.

contradiction

to

G

with

X n 3 and let V X {x1, x 2 , x3 } ,

Hence

Then every vertex of V-X is

adjacent to all the vertices of X. Then (V

X) {v1} is a double dominating set of G

n3 is impossible, we have n = 4. Hence G

is isomorphic to K1,3.

Let x1 x2 E (G). Then x3 is

adjacent to all the vertices in X and x1, x2

are not adjacent to at most one vertex in X.

If v1 N ( x1 ) N ( x2 ) then (V X) {v1}

is a double dominating set of G and hence

dd(G)4. This gives n = 4 which is a

contradiction to G is a connected graph. So

all v i either N(x1) or N(x2) or both. .

Then (V X) {vi } is a double dominating

set of G. Hence dd(G)4 and then n = 4 .

Then G is isomorphic to P4 or K3(1,0,0).

But dd[K3(1,0,0)]=3n which is a

contradiction . The converse is obvious.

G dd (G) (G) 2n 4 if and only if G

is isomorphic to K4 e or K1,4 or K3 (1,0,0)

or B(1,2) or K5 Y where Y is a matching

on K5 with Y 2

there are four cases to consider

(i) dd (G) n 3 and (G) n 1

(ii) dd (G) n 2 and (G) n 2

(iii) dd (G) n 1 and (G) n 3

(iv) dd (G) n and (G) n 4

Then G is a complete graph

on n vertices. Since dd(G) = 2 we have n =

5. Hence G is isomorphic to K5.

42

International Journal of Digital Information and Wireless Communications (IJDIWC) 2(1): 40-45

The Society of Digital Information and Wireless Communications, 2012(ISSN 2225-658X)

Then n 2 . If n 1 then G is

a complete graph which is a contradiction.

If (G) n 2. Then G is isomorphic to

Kn - Y is a matching in Kn. Then dd(G)=2

or 3 . If dd(G) =2, then n = 4 then G is

either C4 or K4- e. But dd(C4)=3n-2.

Hence G is isomorphic to K4-e. If dd(G) =

3 then n = 5 and hence G is isomorphic to

K5- Y where Y is a matching on K5 with

adjacent to all the vertices in X and x1, x2

are not adjacent to at most one vertex in X.

If v1 N ( x1 ) N ( x2 ) then (V X ) {v1 }

is a double dominating set of G and hence

dd(G)4. This gives n = 5 . For this graph

(G) 1 which is a contradiction. So all

vi, either vi N ( x1 ) or vi N ( x 2 ) or both.

(V X ) {vi }

Y 2.

Then

then n = 4 or 5. If n = 4 then G is

isomorphic to C5 or C3(P3,P1,P1). But

[c 3 ( P3 , P1 , P1 )] 1 n 3. Hence G is

Then n 3 . If n 1 then G is

a complete graph which is a contradiction.

If n 2 then G is isomorphic to K - Y

n

dd(G)=2 or 3. Then n = 3 or 4. Since n = 3

is impossible, we have n = 4. Then G is

either K4 e or C4. For these two graphs

(G) n 3 which is a contradiction.

Hence n 3.

Let X be the vertex cut of G

with X n 3 and let V-X = {x1,x2,x3},

X = {v1, v2,....,vn-3}.

Then every vertex of VX is

adjacent to all the vertices of X . Then

(V X ) {v1 } is a double dominating set

of G and hence dd(G) 4. This gives n5.

Since n3 is impossible we have n = 4 or 5.

If n = 4 then G is isomorphic to K1,3 which

is a contradiction. If n = 5 then the graph G

has dd(G) = 2 or 3 which is a contradiction.

Subcase 3.2.

V X K1 K 2

is

double

isomorphic to C5.

Then n 4 (G). If n 1 then G is

a complete graph which is a contradiction.

If n 2 then G is isomorphic to K n

dd(G)=2 or 3. Then n = 2 or 3 which is a

(G) n 4.

contradiction

to

Suppose (G) n 3. Let X be the vertex

cut

of

G

with

X n 4 and let X {v1 , v2 ,...vn4 }

V X {x1, x 2 , x3 , x 4 }

.

isolated

V X

If

vertex then

contains an

(G) n 4 which is contradiction. Hence

V X is isomorphic to K 2 K 2. Also

every vertex of V X is adjacent to all the

vertices of X. Let x1 x2 , x3 x4 E (G). Then

Then dd(G)3. Hence n3 which is

contradiction. Thus (G) n 4 .

43

The Society of Digital Information and Wireless Communications, 2012(ISSN 2225-658X)

Subcase 4.1. V X K 4

Then every vertex of V X

is adjacent to all the vertices in X. Suppose

E X . Then X 4 and hence G is

isomorphic to Ks,4 where s = 1,2,3,4. If s 1

then dd(G)=3 or 4 which is a contradiction

to dd(G) = n. Hence G is isomorphic to

K . Suppose E X . If any one of

1,4

vertices in X and hence dd(G)3 which

gives n3 which is a contradiction. Hence

every vertex in X is not adjacent to at least

one vertex in X . Then {x1,x2.v1.v2}is a

double dominating set of G and hence

dd(G)4. Then n4 which is a

contradiction to (G) n 4 .

Subcase 4.2. V X P3 K1

Let x1 be the isolated vertex

in V X and (x , x , x ) be a path. Then

2

3

4

x1 is adjacent to all the vertices in X and

x2,x4 are not adjacent to at most one vetex

in X and hence {x1,x2.x4,v1.v2}where

v1 N ( x1 ) X and v 2 N ( x 2 ) X is a

double dominating set of G and hence

dd(G)5. Thus n = 5. Then G is isomorphic

to P5 or C4(1,0,0,0) or K3(1,1,0) or

(K4- e )(1,0,0,0) . All these graph dd(G)n

which is contradiction.

Subcase 4.3. V X K 3 K1

in

V X and {x 2 , x3 , x 4 }

be a

the vertex in X and x2,x3,x4 are not adjacent

to at most two vertices in X and hence

{x1,x2,x3,v1,v2}

v1 , v 2 X N ( x 2 x3 ) is

where

a

double

dominating set of G and hence n = 5 . All

these graph dd(G)n.

Subcase 4.4. V X K 2 K 2

Let

x1 x2 E (G) and

i,

non adjacent to atmost one vertex in X and

each xj, j = 3 or 4 is adjacent to all the

verticesin X. Then {x1,x2,x3,x4,v1}is a

double dominating set of G and hence

(G) n 4 we

dd(G)5. Then n5. Since

have n = 5. Then G is isomorphic to either

B(1,2) or K3(2,0,0). Since dd[K3(2,0,0)]5

G is isomorphic to B(1,2).

Subcase 4.5. V X K 2 K 2

x1 x2 , x3 x4 E (G).

Since

Let

(G) n 4, each x is non adjacent to

i

v1 X such

vertex

say

that

N (v1 ) (V X ) 1 If all vi X such

.

N (vi ) (V X ) 2

that

then

{x1,x2,x3,x4}is a double dominating set of

G and hence n = 4 which is a contradiction.

N (v1 ) (V X ) 1

Then

and

N (vi ) (V X ) 2, i 1.

Then

{v1,x1,x2,x3,x4} is a double dominating set

of G and hence n = 5 which gives a

N (v1 ) (V X ) 1

contradiction to

and

N (vi ) (V X ) 2.

The converse is

obvious.

44

The Society of Digital Information and Wireless Communications, 2012(ISSN 2225-658X)

3. Conclusion

In this paper we found an

upper bound for the sum of double

domination number and connectivity of

graphs and characterized the corresponding

extremal

graphs.

Similarly

double

domination number with other graph

theoretical parameters can be considered.

REFERENCES

[1] G.Chartrand and

Digraphs, CRC,(2005).

L.Lesniak,Graphs

and

Fundamentals of Domination in Graphs, Marcel

Dekkar, Inc., NewYork, (1997).

[3] T.W.Haynes, S.T.Hedetniemi and P.J.Slater ,

Domination in Graphs- Advanced Topics, Marcel

Dekker, Inc., NewYork , (1997).

[4]

F.Harary

and

T.W.Haynes,

Double

Domination in graphs, Ars combin. 55, 201213(2000).

[5]

J.Paulraj

Joseph

and

S.Arumugam,

Domination and connectivity in Graphs,

International Journal of management and systems,

8,233- 236(1992).

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