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RADIATION PHYSICS

AND
EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE II
ELECTROSTATIC
- Define as the branch of physics that deals with stationary or resting charge.
STATIC ELECTRICITY
- Other name of resting charge.
ELECTRIFICATION
- Is a process from which electrons maybe added all atoms containing electrons in motion about a
nucleus.
- If one or more electron are removed, the atom is left with an excess positive charge, the removed
electron become attached to neutral atom. Then later it will become negatively charged.
METHODS OF ELECTRIFICATION
1. Electrification by Friction
2. Electrification by Contact
3. Electrification by Induction
ELECTRIFICATION BY FRICTION
- Is the removal of electron from one object by rubbing it with another of different kind of object.
- Is the simplest and most fundamental method of electrification.
AMBER
- Sometimes called as ELECTRON
ELECTRIFICATION BY CONTACT
- A charge objects confers the same kind of charge on any charged body with which it comes in
contact.
- When a body charged by frictions touches an uncharged object, latter acquires the same charge.
- If the first object is negatively charged, it will give up some its electrons to the second object.
- If the first object is positively charge, it will remove electrons from second object, living
positively charged.
ELECTRIFICATION BY INDUCTION
- A process to which an uncharged metallic object experience a shift of electrons when brought into
the electric field a charged object, only the electron move.
ELECTRIC FIELD
- Is a region in which a force is exerted on another charge body.
ENERGY STATE
- Is the energy of a particular electron corresponding to its energy level in the atom.
- Their energy levels merge into a series of ENERGY BANDS
THREE TYPES OF ENERGY BANDS
1. VALENCE BAND
- This band represent the energy needed to raise electron
- It corresponds to the valence shell of a single isolated atom.

2. FILLED BAND
- These are energy bands below the valence band.
- They possess a full complement of electrons; because the filled bands do not contribute to
electrical conduction we normally omit them from energy band diagrams.
FORBIDDEN GAPS
- Refers to the energy bands that separate each other by a region.
3. CONDUCTION BAND
- Electron can move freely in this band, because they are no longer tied to a particular atom. And
the electron in the conduction band is called FREE ELECTRON.
The conduction properties of different materials largely depend on the existence and the size of the
forbidden gap between the valence and conduction bands.

CLASSIFICATION OF MATTER BASED ON ITS CONDUCTIVITY


(3 CLASSES OF SOLIDS)
1. INSULATOR OR NON CONDCUTORS (Very Poor Conductivity)
- High resistant to movement of electrons, because electron do not move freely, because the
forbidden gap between the valence and conduction band is large.
- Example is oil, plastic, rubber and glass and ceramic material.

2. SEMI CONDUCTORS (Intermediated Conductivity)


- In a pure semiconducting material such as silicon, the forbidden gap is small. Under these
conditions, therefore, a semiconductor behaves like insulator and does not conduct electric
current.

3. CONDUCTORS (Excellent Conductivity)


- Electrons can be made to drift readily from part because they allow a free flow of electrons;
because there is no forbidden gap between the valence band and conduction band. In fact the
bands overlap, enabling electrons move easily between the valence and conduction bands. They
are exemplified by metals such as silver, copper and aluminum.

LAWS OF ELECTROSTATICS/ FUNDAMENTAL LAWS OF ELECTRONS


A. Like charge repel each other and unlike charge attracts its other
B. When the electrostatic force between two charges is directly proportional to the product of their
quantities and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.
C. The force maybe attraction or repulsion depending whether the charges are different or alike.
D. Electric charges resides only on the external surfaces of a conductor
E. The concentration of charges on a curved surfaced of a conductor is greatest when a curvature is
greatest.
F. Only negatively charge (electron) can move in solid conductors
G. The positive charges are actually charges atoms which do not drift in solid conductors.
ELECTRODYNAMICS/ELECTRIC CURRENT
- The science of electric charges in motion consists of a flow of charged particles.
NATURE OF AN ELECTRIC CURRENT OCCURS UN THE FOLLOWING CONDITIONS:
a. In a Vacuum
b. In a Gas
c. In a Ionic Solution
d. In a Metallic Conductor
ELECTRIC CUIRCUIT
- Defined as the path over which the current flows.
TWO MAIN SOURCE OF ELECTRIC CURRENT
Two main types of devices:
1. CELLS OR BATTERIES
- It converts chemical energy to electrical energy
2. DYNAMO OR GENERATOR
- It converts mechanical energy to electrical energy
Other Sources:
SOLAR ENERGY (SUNLIGHT)
ATOMIC ENERGY
STEADY DIRECT CURRENT (DC)
- A current of constant strength flowing always in the same direction.
This includes:
a. Potential Difference
b. Current
c. Resistance
A. POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE
- It represents the amount of work expanded in a moving charge from one point to the other.
VOLT
- Unit of Potential Difference
B. CURRENT
- Refers to the amount of electric charge flowing per second.
AMPERE
Unit of Current

C. RESISTANCE
- Property of the circuit which opposes or hinders the flow of electric current.
OHM
- Unit of Resistance
ELECTROMOTIVE FORCE (emf)
- It applies to the maximum difference potential difference between the terminals of a battery or
generator.
- This is not really a force but rather a quantity of work or energy needed to move a unit electrical
charge through the circuit.
RESISTANCES OF A CONDUCTOR DEFEND ON THE FOLLOWING:
1. Material
2. Length
3. Cross Sectional Area
4. Temperature
OHMS LAW
George Simon Ohm (1787 1854)
- A German Physicist, discovered that When A steady direct current is flowing in a resistance in
the circuit, there is a definite relation between potential difference (volts), current (amperes),
resistance ohms).
- This is expressed in OHMS LAW which states that the valve of the current in a metallic circuit
equals the potential difference divided by the resistance.
It expressed as:
I=V
R
WHERE IN:
I = Current in amperes
V = Potential Difference in volts
R = Resistance in ohms