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NEBOSH IGCPaper 1 Health & Safety Foundations
After reading this chapter, you student should be able to:

Outline the scope and nature of occupational health and safety

Explain briefly the moral social and economic reasons for maintaining and
promoting good standardsof health and safety in the workplace.

Outline the role of national governments and international bodies in formulating a
framework for theregulation of health and safety

Identify the nature and key sources of health and safety information

Outline the key elements of a health and safety management system.

Q1.

Explain
using an example in
EACH
case, the meaning of the following terms;
(i)
Hazard
(ii)
Risk
Answer:
(i)
A hazard is the potential of a substance, person, activity or process to cause harm.
Hazards takemany forms including, for example chemicals, electricity and working
from a ladder.
(ii)
A risk is the likelihood of a substance, person, activity or process to cause harm and
its resulting severity.
Q2.Outline
the sources of published information that may be consulted when dealing with
health and safety problem at work.
Answer:
The internal and external sources of information may be consulted when dealing
with health and safety problem at work are as follows;
Internal Sources

Accident and ill-health records and investigation reports;

• Health and safety legislation • European and British standards • International Labor Organization (ILO) • Occupational Safety and Health Administration (USA). • Specialist Technical and legal Publications. • Health and Safety magazines and journals. risk assessment and training records • Documents which provide information to the workers • Any equipment examination or tests reports. External Sources are. .Absence records • Inspection and audit reports taken by the organization and by external organizations such as HSE • Maintenance. • European Agency for Safety and Health • Work Safe (Western Australia).

national and international standards such as ISO. Answer: Sources of information that may be available to an organization to reduce the number of manual handling accidents include International agencies such as the ILO. EHS. Q3.• Information and data from manufacturers and suppliers and. • The internet and encyclopedias. Identify sources of information that may be available to help reduce the risks to the workers. national enforcement agencies such as 1 the Health and Safety Executive. employers organizations and TradeUnions . Dubai Municipality guidelines. information from manufacturers. professional health and safety bodies such as IOSH . An organization has had an increase in the number of manual handling accidents and associated ill-health.

(i) Explain the purpose of employer liability insurance. and consultation with the workers . (ii) Six costs of the workplace accident might be uninsured as follows. • Product and material damage • Legal costs • Emergency supplies • Cleaning of site • Production Delays • Temporary labor • . Answer: (i) The purpose of Employers’ liability insurance will enable employees to meet the cost of compensation for your employees’ injuries or illness whether they are caused on or off site. (ii) Outline SIX costs of a workplace accident that might be uninsured.. Q4.

time spent for subsequent investigations.Identify FOUR possible direct and FOUR possible indirect costs to an organization following a seriousaccident at work. . Answer: The direct costs include loss of production. An organization has been found to have inadequate standards of workplace health and safety. civil claims from the injured parties and higher insurance premiums. plant damage. recruitment and/or rehabilitation costs. Identify the costs that the organization may incur as a result. Q6. There are also indirect costs related to poor staff morale and high staff turnover and the damage to the organization’s reputation. enforcement actions and fines. replacement and cleanup activities.Lost orders • Investigation time • Fines • Loss of expertise etc Q5. and a subsequent decrease in its profitability. Answer: (i) These are the four possible direct costs when a serious accident occurs in an organization. loss of orders. production delays. sick pay. • payment for work not performed.

• reduction or a temporary halt in production. • Negative effect on morale in other workers. • the injured/ill worker has to be replaced. • repair or replacement of damaged machinery and equipment. • Claims on employer and public liability insurance. • possible reduction in the quality of work. • a new worker has to be trained and given time to adjust. . (ii) These are the four possible indirect costs when a serious accident occurs in an organization.• medical and compensation payments. • increased training expenses and administration costs. • Damage of buildings. equipment or vehicles • The absence of employees • Any attributable production / or general business loss.

(i) Identify . • Loss of goodwill and a poor corporate image. • A cumulative business loss. • poor health and safety conditions in the workplace can also result in poor public relations . • Recruitment or replacement of staff. to the writing of reports and filling out of forms.• it takes time before the new worker is producing at the rate of the original worker. • Product or process liability claims. Q7. 2 • time must be devoted to obligatory investigations. • Production delays • Extra overtime payments. • accidents often arouse the concern of fellow workers and influence labour relations in anegative way.

• the pain and suffering of the injury or illness • the loss of income. • Health-care costs. • Loss of salary .the possible consequences of an accident to: (a) The injured worker (b) The employer (ii) Identify the direct and indirect costs to the employer of accidents at work. • the possible loss of a job. Answer: (i)(a) The possible consequences of an accident to the injured worker are . (iii) Outline the actions an enforcement agency may take the following an accident at work.

• Loss of overtime payments • Medical. • Lost business opportunities • Productivity losses • Salary of the absent injured employee • Expenses reimbursed to the injured employee • Repair. travel or other expense • Compensation received • Lost savings • Retraining costs • Pay differences from any new employer (i)(b) The possible consequences of an accident to the employers are. rental or replacement costs • .

• increased training expenses and administration costs. • Negative effect on morale in other workers. • medical and compensation payments. 3 Indirect costs . • possible reduction in the quality of work.Insurance premium changes and legal costs • Additional training or supervisory costs (ii) The direct and indirect costs to the employer of accidents at work are: Direct costs are: • payment for work not performed. • repair or replacement of damaged machinery and equipment. • reduction or a temporary halt in production.

• it takes time before the new worker is producing at the rate of the original worker. • Acts • Mandatory regulations • Codes of practices . • accidents often arouse the concern of fellow workers and influence labor relations in anegative way. • time must be devoted to obligatory investigations. • a new worker has to be trained and given time to adjust. to the writing of reports and filling out of forms.for employers are: • the injured/ill worker has to be replaced. • poor health and safety conditions in the workplace can also result in poor public relation (iii) The enforcement agency may take the following actions while an accident at work are as follows.

Replacement and repair of damaged equipment is a cost that an organization may incur followingaccident at work. • Loss of production • Staff absence • Sick pay • Repair of damaged plant and equipment • Damage to products • Investigation and remedial actions • additional administration incurred.• National and International Standards Q8. • an increase in insurance premiums. • fines and compensation awarded. . Identify EIGHT possible costs to the organization following a workplace accident. Answer: Eight possible costs such as associated with are as follows.

Answer: Eight possible costs of an organization when employees are absent due to work related ill-healthare as follows. Q9.Identify EIGHT possible costs to an organization when employees are absent due to work related illhealth. • Also relevant are the intangible costs arising from a loss of business image and thedetrimental effect on worker morale resulting in reduced productivity. • Internal Audit • Decrease of the production • Quality losses • Training of new staff • Technical disturbance • Organizational difficulties • Increased of production costs • Increased of Insurance premium .• and court and other legal representation.

2.fines and even prohibition of thework.Outline reasons for maintaining good standards of health and safety within an organization. Legal :-It’s also legal obligation by the country’s law that employer should provideanenvironment that is totally safe for working just like HASAWA (Health and safety atwork etc.Moral2.3. M oral :-It’s moral obligation of theemployer to provide a safe Environment to theEmployees where they can enjoy their work and feel happy while returning home. Everyone who goes out for work is because of economic necessity and not consents with injury and accident.Financial 1.1.Legal3.Q10. Non-compliance to the legal binding can result in penalties. Act) 1974. Answer: 4 There are three reasons for promoting and maintaining Good safety standards in work place. F inancial . Injury and accident leads to pain and suffering not only to victim but to familyandfriends.

such as production loss.Indirect costs incl ude production delay. personal allocated to investigatethe accidents. Accident cause a great deal of money specially when we add damage caused by some accidents. • The legal reasons are focused on to protect employees and others. from occupational hazards and risks.(i) Explain . loss of reputation and loss of good will. compensation payouts. The reasons for promoting and maintaining good standards of health and safety in the workplace are themoral. • The financial reasons include the financial losses incurred with accidents and their investigations. damage to equipment. Q11. • The moral reason includes the responsibility of the employer to protect workers. legal and financial. others and neighbors.:-A work place without good safety working standards can lead toaccidentswhich have direct and indirect financial impacts.Direct costs include fines.So maintaining a good and safer working environment is more cheaper in longer terms . by issuing prohibitions and fines. medical costs and sick pay etc. and high insurance premiums. employee absence.

(ii) Outline the part that each element of the HSG65 model plays within the health and safetymanagement system.reasons for maintaining and promoting good standards of health and safety in theworkplace. Answer: (i) . Answer: (i) Q12. (ii) Outline TWO components of the health and safety management system. (i) Draw a flowchart to identify the main components of the health and safety management systemdescribe in the HSE publication Successful Health and Safety Management (HSG65).(i) Draw a flowchart to show the relationships between the six elements of the health and safetymanagement model in HSE’s successful health and safety management (HSG65). (ii) Identify sources of information that an organization may use to help maintain and promote goodstandards of health and safety in the workplace. (iii) Outline possible reason why good standards of health and safety in the workplace may not beachieved. Answer: A hazard is the potential of a substance Q13.

1 Health & Safety Foundations Health_and_Safety_11-10-2010 . 5 Similar to A.The flowchart (ii) The components are: • Setting policy: to show commitment of management of health and safety and to set clear aimsand objectives.

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