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NEBOSH IGCPaper 1 Health & Safety Foundations
After reading this chapter, you student should be able to:

Outline the scope and nature of occupational health and safety

Explain briefly the moral social and economic reasons for maintaining and
promoting good standardsof health and safety in the workplace.

Outline the role of national governments and international bodies in formulating a
framework for theregulation of health and safety

Identify the nature and key sources of health and safety information

Outline the key elements of a health and safety management system.

Q1.

Explain
using an example in
EACH
case, the meaning of the following terms;
(i)
Hazard
(ii)
Risk
Answer:
(i)
A hazard is the potential of a substance, person, activity or process to cause harm.
Hazards takemany forms including, for example chemicals, electricity and working
from a ladder.
(ii)
A risk is the likelihood of a substance, person, activity or process to cause harm and
its resulting severity.
Q2.Outline
the sources of published information that may be consulted when dealing with
health and safety problem at work.
Answer:
The internal and external sources of information may be consulted when dealing
with health and safety problem at work are as follows;
Internal Sources

Accident and ill-health records and investigation reports;

Absence records • Inspection and audit reports taken by the organization and by external organizations such as HSE • Maintenance. . • European Agency for Safety and Health • Work Safe (Western Australia). External Sources are. • Specialist Technical and legal Publications. • Health and safety legislation • European and British standards • International Labor Organization (ILO) • Occupational Safety and Health Administration (USA). risk assessment and training records • Documents which provide information to the workers • Any equipment examination or tests reports. • Health and Safety magazines and journals.

EHS.• Information and data from manufacturers and suppliers and. Answer: Sources of information that may be available to an organization to reduce the number of manual handling accidents include International agencies such as the ILO. Dubai Municipality guidelines. employers organizations and TradeUnions . information from manufacturers. national and international standards such as ISO. Identify sources of information that may be available to help reduce the risks to the workers. national enforcement agencies such as 1 the Health and Safety Executive. • The internet and encyclopedias. An organization has had an increase in the number of manual handling accidents and associated ill-health. Q3. professional health and safety bodies such as IOSH .

and consultation with the workers . Q4.. • Product and material damage • Legal costs • Emergency supplies • Cleaning of site • Production Delays • Temporary labor • . Answer: (i) The purpose of Employers’ liability insurance will enable employees to meet the cost of compensation for your employees’ injuries or illness whether they are caused on or off site. (ii) Outline SIX costs of a workplace accident that might be uninsured. (ii) Six costs of the workplace accident might be uninsured as follows.(i) Explain the purpose of employer liability insurance.

Lost orders • Investigation time • Fines • Loss of expertise etc Q5. enforcement actions and fines. Identify the costs that the organization may incur as a result. There are also indirect costs related to poor staff morale and high staff turnover and the damage to the organization’s reputation. . and a subsequent decrease in its profitability.Identify FOUR possible direct and FOUR possible indirect costs to an organization following a seriousaccident at work. An organization has been found to have inadequate standards of workplace health and safety. production delays. Answer: (i) These are the four possible direct costs when a serious accident occurs in an organization. replacement and cleanup activities. civil claims from the injured parties and higher insurance premiums. Answer: The direct costs include loss of production. • payment for work not performed. Q6. plant damage. loss of orders. recruitment and/or rehabilitation costs. sick pay. time spent for subsequent investigations.

(ii) These are the four possible indirect costs when a serious accident occurs in an organization. • possible reduction in the quality of work. • increased training expenses and administration costs.• medical and compensation payments. • a new worker has to be trained and given time to adjust. • Negative effect on morale in other workers. equipment or vehicles • The absence of employees • Any attributable production / or general business loss. • Damage of buildings. • repair or replacement of damaged machinery and equipment. • reduction or a temporary halt in production. • the injured/ill worker has to be replaced. • Claims on employer and public liability insurance. .

• accidents often arouse the concern of fellow workers and influence labour relations in anegative way. Q7. • Product or process liability claims. • Loss of goodwill and a poor corporate image. to the writing of reports and filling out of forms.(i) Identify . • Production delays • Extra overtime payments. • poor health and safety conditions in the workplace can also result in poor public relations .• it takes time before the new worker is producing at the rate of the original worker. • A cumulative business loss. • Recruitment or replacement of staff. 2 • time must be devoted to obligatory investigations.

• Loss of salary . (iii) Outline the actions an enforcement agency may take the following an accident at work. • the pain and suffering of the injury or illness • the loss of income.the possible consequences of an accident to: (a) The injured worker (b) The employer (ii) Identify the direct and indirect costs to the employer of accidents at work. Answer: (i)(a) The possible consequences of an accident to the injured worker are . • the possible loss of a job. • Health-care costs.

• Lost business opportunities • Productivity losses • Salary of the absent injured employee • Expenses reimbursed to the injured employee • Repair. rental or replacement costs • .• Loss of overtime payments • Medical. travel or other expense • Compensation received • Lost savings • Retraining costs • Pay differences from any new employer (i)(b) The possible consequences of an accident to the employers are.

• increased training expenses and administration costs. • Negative effect on morale in other workers. • medical and compensation payments. 3 Indirect costs .Insurance premium changes and legal costs • Additional training or supervisory costs (ii) The direct and indirect costs to the employer of accidents at work are: Direct costs are: • payment for work not performed. • reduction or a temporary halt in production. • possible reduction in the quality of work. • repair or replacement of damaged machinery and equipment.

• time must be devoted to obligatory investigations. • poor health and safety conditions in the workplace can also result in poor public relation (iii) The enforcement agency may take the following actions while an accident at work are as follows.for employers are: • the injured/ill worker has to be replaced. • Acts • Mandatory regulations • Codes of practices . • a new worker has to be trained and given time to adjust. • it takes time before the new worker is producing at the rate of the original worker. • accidents often arouse the concern of fellow workers and influence labor relations in anegative way. to the writing of reports and filling out of forms.

. • an increase in insurance premiums. Replacement and repair of damaged equipment is a cost that an organization may incur followingaccident at work.• National and International Standards Q8. • Loss of production • Staff absence • Sick pay • Repair of damaged plant and equipment • Damage to products • Investigation and remedial actions • additional administration incurred. Answer: Eight possible costs such as associated with are as follows. Identify EIGHT possible costs to the organization following a workplace accident. • fines and compensation awarded.

• and court and other legal representation. • Internal Audit • Decrease of the production • Quality losses • Training of new staff • Technical disturbance • Organizational difficulties • Increased of production costs • Increased of Insurance premium .Identify EIGHT possible costs to an organization when employees are absent due to work related illhealth. Answer: Eight possible costs of an organization when employees are absent due to work related ill-healthare as follows. Q9. • Also relevant are the intangible costs arising from a loss of business image and thedetrimental effect on worker morale resulting in reduced productivity.

F inancial .1.Moral2.Outline reasons for maintaining good standards of health and safety within an organization. Legal :-It’s also legal obligation by the country’s law that employer should provideanenvironment that is totally safe for working just like HASAWA (Health and safety atwork etc.Legal3. Act) 1974.2.Financial 1. Injury and accident leads to pain and suffering not only to victim but to familyandfriends.3.Q10. Non-compliance to the legal binding can result in penalties. Everyone who goes out for work is because of economic necessity and not consents with injury and accident. M oral :-It’s moral obligation of theemployer to provide a safe Environment to theEmployees where they can enjoy their work and feel happy while returning home.fines and even prohibition of thework. Answer: 4 There are three reasons for promoting and maintaining Good safety standards in work place.

from occupational hazards and risks. damage to equipment. legal and financial. and high insurance premiums. others and neighbors.:-A work place without good safety working standards can lead toaccidentswhich have direct and indirect financial impacts. The reasons for promoting and maintaining good standards of health and safety in the workplace are themoral. Q11.(i) Explain . Accident cause a great deal of money specially when we add damage caused by some accidents. employee absence. compensation payouts.So maintaining a good and safer working environment is more cheaper in longer terms . • The financial reasons include the financial losses incurred with accidents and their investigations. • The moral reason includes the responsibility of the employer to protect workers. by issuing prohibitions and fines. medical costs and sick pay etc.Indirect costs incl ude production delay. loss of reputation and loss of good will. • The legal reasons are focused on to protect employees and others.Direct costs include fines. personal allocated to investigatethe accidents. such as production loss.

(ii) Identify sources of information that an organization may use to help maintain and promote goodstandards of health and safety in the workplace. (i) Draw a flowchart to identify the main components of the health and safety management systemdescribe in the HSE publication Successful Health and Safety Management (HSG65).reasons for maintaining and promoting good standards of health and safety in theworkplace. Answer: (i) Q12.(ii) Outline the part that each element of the HSG65 model plays within the health and safetymanagement system. (ii) Outline TWO components of the health and safety management system. Answer: (i) . Answer: A hazard is the potential of a substance Q13.(i) Draw a flowchart to show the relationships between the six elements of the health and safetymanagement model in HSE’s successful health and safety management (HSG65). (iii) Outline possible reason why good standards of health and safety in the workplace may not beachieved.

5 Similar to A. 1 Health & Safety Foundations Health_and_Safety_11-10-2010 .The flowchart (ii) The components are: • Setting policy: to show commitment of management of health and safety and to set clear aimsand objectives.

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