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NEBOSH IGCPaper 1 Health & Safety Foundations
After reading this chapter, you student should be able to:

Outline the scope and nature of occupational health and safety

Explain briefly the moral social and economic reasons for maintaining and
promoting good standardsof health and safety in the workplace.

Outline the role of national governments and international bodies in formulating a
framework for theregulation of health and safety

Identify the nature and key sources of health and safety information

Outline the key elements of a health and safety management system.

Q1.

Explain
using an example in
EACH
case, the meaning of the following terms;
(i)
Hazard
(ii)
Risk
Answer:
(i)
A hazard is the potential of a substance, person, activity or process to cause harm.
Hazards takemany forms including, for example chemicals, electricity and working
from a ladder.
(ii)
A risk is the likelihood of a substance, person, activity or process to cause harm and
its resulting severity.
Q2.Outline
the sources of published information that may be consulted when dealing with
health and safety problem at work.
Answer:
The internal and external sources of information may be consulted when dealing
with health and safety problem at work are as follows;
Internal Sources

Accident and ill-health records and investigation reports;

• Health and Safety magazines and journals. • Specialist Technical and legal Publications. • Health and safety legislation • European and British standards • International Labor Organization (ILO) • Occupational Safety and Health Administration (USA). risk assessment and training records • Documents which provide information to the workers • Any equipment examination or tests reports.Absence records • Inspection and audit reports taken by the organization and by external organizations such as HSE • Maintenance. . • European Agency for Safety and Health • Work Safe (Western Australia). External Sources are.

EHS. national enforcement agencies such as 1 the Health and Safety Executive. Identify sources of information that may be available to help reduce the risks to the workers. employers organizations and TradeUnions . Answer: Sources of information that may be available to an organization to reduce the number of manual handling accidents include International agencies such as the ILO.• Information and data from manufacturers and suppliers and. professional health and safety bodies such as IOSH . An organization has had an increase in the number of manual handling accidents and associated ill-health. Q3. • The internet and encyclopedias. national and international standards such as ISO. Dubai Municipality guidelines. information from manufacturers.

(i) Explain the purpose of employer liability insurance. Answer: (i) The purpose of Employers’ liability insurance will enable employees to meet the cost of compensation for your employees’ injuries or illness whether they are caused on or off site. and consultation with the workers . (ii) Outline SIX costs of a workplace accident that might be uninsured. • Product and material damage • Legal costs • Emergency supplies • Cleaning of site • Production Delays • Temporary labor • . Q4.. (ii) Six costs of the workplace accident might be uninsured as follows.

civil claims from the injured parties and higher insurance premiums. . There are also indirect costs related to poor staff morale and high staff turnover and the damage to the organization’s reputation. Identify the costs that the organization may incur as a result. • payment for work not performed. plant damage. sick pay. Q6. and a subsequent decrease in its profitability. loss of orders. An organization has been found to have inadequate standards of workplace health and safety.Identify FOUR possible direct and FOUR possible indirect costs to an organization following a seriousaccident at work. Answer: The direct costs include loss of production. recruitment and/or rehabilitation costs. enforcement actions and fines.Lost orders • Investigation time • Fines • Loss of expertise etc Q5. replacement and cleanup activities. time spent for subsequent investigations. Answer: (i) These are the four possible direct costs when a serious accident occurs in an organization. production delays.

• repair or replacement of damaged machinery and equipment. • possible reduction in the quality of work. • Damage of buildings.• medical and compensation payments. equipment or vehicles • The absence of employees • Any attributable production / or general business loss. • Claims on employer and public liability insurance. (ii) These are the four possible indirect costs when a serious accident occurs in an organization. • reduction or a temporary halt in production. . • the injured/ill worker has to be replaced. • increased training expenses and administration costs. • a new worker has to be trained and given time to adjust. • Negative effect on morale in other workers.

• it takes time before the new worker is producing at the rate of the original worker. 2 • time must be devoted to obligatory investigations. • poor health and safety conditions in the workplace can also result in poor public relations . • A cumulative business loss.(i) Identify . • Loss of goodwill and a poor corporate image. • Recruitment or replacement of staff. • Product or process liability claims. • accidents often arouse the concern of fellow workers and influence labour relations in anegative way. to the writing of reports and filling out of forms. Q7. • Production delays • Extra overtime payments.

• Loss of salary . (iii) Outline the actions an enforcement agency may take the following an accident at work. • the possible loss of a job. • the pain and suffering of the injury or illness • the loss of income.the possible consequences of an accident to: (a) The injured worker (b) The employer (ii) Identify the direct and indirect costs to the employer of accidents at work. • Health-care costs. Answer: (i)(a) The possible consequences of an accident to the injured worker are .

• Lost business opportunities • Productivity losses • Salary of the absent injured employee • Expenses reimbursed to the injured employee • Repair. travel or other expense • Compensation received • Lost savings • Retraining costs • Pay differences from any new employer (i)(b) The possible consequences of an accident to the employers are. rental or replacement costs • .• Loss of overtime payments • Medical.

• medical and compensation payments. • Negative effect on morale in other workers. • possible reduction in the quality of work. • reduction or a temporary halt in production. • increased training expenses and administration costs. 3 Indirect costs .Insurance premium changes and legal costs • Additional training or supervisory costs (ii) The direct and indirect costs to the employer of accidents at work are: Direct costs are: • payment for work not performed. • repair or replacement of damaged machinery and equipment.

• a new worker has to be trained and given time to adjust. to the writing of reports and filling out of forms.for employers are: • the injured/ill worker has to be replaced. • accidents often arouse the concern of fellow workers and influence labor relations in anegative way. • it takes time before the new worker is producing at the rate of the original worker. • Acts • Mandatory regulations • Codes of practices . • time must be devoted to obligatory investigations. • poor health and safety conditions in the workplace can also result in poor public relation (iii) The enforcement agency may take the following actions while an accident at work are as follows.

. Answer: Eight possible costs such as associated with are as follows. • Loss of production • Staff absence • Sick pay • Repair of damaged plant and equipment • Damage to products • Investigation and remedial actions • additional administration incurred. • an increase in insurance premiums. • fines and compensation awarded. Replacement and repair of damaged equipment is a cost that an organization may incur followingaccident at work.• National and International Standards Q8. Identify EIGHT possible costs to the organization following a workplace accident.

Q9. • Internal Audit • Decrease of the production • Quality losses • Training of new staff • Technical disturbance • Organizational difficulties • Increased of production costs • Increased of Insurance premium .Identify EIGHT possible costs to an organization when employees are absent due to work related illhealth.• and court and other legal representation. • Also relevant are the intangible costs arising from a loss of business image and thedetrimental effect on worker morale resulting in reduced productivity. Answer: Eight possible costs of an organization when employees are absent due to work related ill-healthare as follows.

Legal :-It’s also legal obligation by the country’s law that employer should provideanenvironment that is totally safe for working just like HASAWA (Health and safety atwork etc. Act) 1974.1. Answer: 4 There are three reasons for promoting and maintaining Good safety standards in work place. F inancial .Moral2.2. M oral :-It’s moral obligation of theemployer to provide a safe Environment to theEmployees where they can enjoy their work and feel happy while returning home. Non-compliance to the legal binding can result in penalties.fines and even prohibition of thework. Everyone who goes out for work is because of economic necessity and not consents with injury and accident.Outline reasons for maintaining good standards of health and safety within an organization.Financial 1. Injury and accident leads to pain and suffering not only to victim but to familyandfriends.3.Legal3.Q10.

damage to equipment.:-A work place without good safety working standards can lead toaccidentswhich have direct and indirect financial impacts. • The legal reasons are focused on to protect employees and others. compensation payouts. from occupational hazards and risks. Accident cause a great deal of money specially when we add damage caused by some accidents. • The financial reasons include the financial losses incurred with accidents and their investigations. • The moral reason includes the responsibility of the employer to protect workers. The reasons for promoting and maintaining good standards of health and safety in the workplace are themoral.Indirect costs incl ude production delay. loss of reputation and loss of good will. and high insurance premiums. employee absence. others and neighbors. legal and financial. Q11. medical costs and sick pay etc. personal allocated to investigatethe accidents. by issuing prohibitions and fines.So maintaining a good and safer working environment is more cheaper in longer terms .(i) Explain . such as production loss.Direct costs include fines.

(ii) Outline the part that each element of the HSG65 model plays within the health and safetymanagement system. Answer: (i) Q12. (ii) Identify sources of information that an organization may use to help maintain and promote goodstandards of health and safety in the workplace. Answer: A hazard is the potential of a substance Q13.(i) Draw a flowchart to show the relationships between the six elements of the health and safetymanagement model in HSE’s successful health and safety management (HSG65).reasons for maintaining and promoting good standards of health and safety in theworkplace. Answer: (i) . (i) Draw a flowchart to identify the main components of the health and safety management systemdescribe in the HSE publication Successful Health and Safety Management (HSG65). (iii) Outline possible reason why good standards of health and safety in the workplace may not beachieved. (ii) Outline TWO components of the health and safety management system.

5 Similar to A. 1 Health & Safety Foundations Health_and_Safety_11-10-2010 .The flowchart (ii) The components are: • Setting policy: to show commitment of management of health and safety and to set clear aimsand objectives.

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