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NEBOSH IGCPaper 1 Health & Safety Foundations
After reading this chapter, you student should be able to:

Outline the scope and nature of occupational health and safety

Explain briefly the moral social and economic reasons for maintaining and
promoting good standardsof health and safety in the workplace.

Outline the role of national governments and international bodies in formulating a
framework for theregulation of health and safety

Identify the nature and key sources of health and safety information

Outline the key elements of a health and safety management system.

Q1.

Explain
using an example in
EACH
case, the meaning of the following terms;
(i)
Hazard
(ii)
Risk
Answer:
(i)
A hazard is the potential of a substance, person, activity or process to cause harm.
Hazards takemany forms including, for example chemicals, electricity and working
from a ladder.
(ii)
A risk is the likelihood of a substance, person, activity or process to cause harm and
its resulting severity.
Q2.Outline
the sources of published information that may be consulted when dealing with
health and safety problem at work.
Answer:
The internal and external sources of information may be consulted when dealing
with health and safety problem at work are as follows;
Internal Sources

Accident and ill-health records and investigation reports;

• European Agency for Safety and Health • Work Safe (Western Australia). • Health and safety legislation • European and British standards • International Labor Organization (ILO) • Occupational Safety and Health Administration (USA). • Specialist Technical and legal Publications.Absence records • Inspection and audit reports taken by the organization and by external organizations such as HSE • Maintenance. . • Health and Safety magazines and journals. External Sources are. risk assessment and training records • Documents which provide information to the workers • Any equipment examination or tests reports.

Q3. EHS. • The internet and encyclopedias.• Information and data from manufacturers and suppliers and. Identify sources of information that may be available to help reduce the risks to the workers. employers organizations and TradeUnions . information from manufacturers. national and international standards such as ISO. An organization has had an increase in the number of manual handling accidents and associated ill-health. Dubai Municipality guidelines. national enforcement agencies such as 1 the Health and Safety Executive. Answer: Sources of information that may be available to an organization to reduce the number of manual handling accidents include International agencies such as the ILO. professional health and safety bodies such as IOSH .

(ii) Outline SIX costs of a workplace accident that might be uninsured. Answer: (i) The purpose of Employers’ liability insurance will enable employees to meet the cost of compensation for your employees’ injuries or illness whether they are caused on or off site. (ii) Six costs of the workplace accident might be uninsured as follows. • Product and material damage • Legal costs • Emergency supplies • Cleaning of site • Production Delays • Temporary labor • . Q4..(i) Explain the purpose of employer liability insurance. and consultation with the workers .

recruitment and/or rehabilitation costs. loss of orders. • payment for work not performed. There are also indirect costs related to poor staff morale and high staff turnover and the damage to the organization’s reputation. Answer: (i) These are the four possible direct costs when a serious accident occurs in an organization.Lost orders • Investigation time • Fines • Loss of expertise etc Q5. enforcement actions and fines. An organization has been found to have inadequate standards of workplace health and safety. replacement and cleanup activities. sick pay. Answer: The direct costs include loss of production. civil claims from the injured parties and higher insurance premiums. production delays. and a subsequent decrease in its profitability.Identify FOUR possible direct and FOUR possible indirect costs to an organization following a seriousaccident at work. . Identify the costs that the organization may incur as a result. time spent for subsequent investigations. Q6. plant damage.

• a new worker has to be trained and given time to adjust. (ii) These are the four possible indirect costs when a serious accident occurs in an organization. • increased training expenses and administration costs. • Damage of buildings. • reduction or a temporary halt in production. • the injured/ill worker has to be replaced. • possible reduction in the quality of work. . • Negative effect on morale in other workers.• medical and compensation payments. • repair or replacement of damaged machinery and equipment. equipment or vehicles • The absence of employees • Any attributable production / or general business loss. • Claims on employer and public liability insurance.

• accidents often arouse the concern of fellow workers and influence labour relations in anegative way. • Production delays • Extra overtime payments.• it takes time before the new worker is producing at the rate of the original worker. • poor health and safety conditions in the workplace can also result in poor public relations . • Recruitment or replacement of staff. Q7. • A cumulative business loss. to the writing of reports and filling out of forms. • Product or process liability claims. 2 • time must be devoted to obligatory investigations. • Loss of goodwill and a poor corporate image.(i) Identify .

• the pain and suffering of the injury or illness • the loss of income. (iii) Outline the actions an enforcement agency may take the following an accident at work. Answer: (i)(a) The possible consequences of an accident to the injured worker are . • the possible loss of a job. • Health-care costs.the possible consequences of an accident to: (a) The injured worker (b) The employer (ii) Identify the direct and indirect costs to the employer of accidents at work. • Loss of salary .

• Lost business opportunities • Productivity losses • Salary of the absent injured employee • Expenses reimbursed to the injured employee • Repair.• Loss of overtime payments • Medical. rental or replacement costs • . travel or other expense • Compensation received • Lost savings • Retraining costs • Pay differences from any new employer (i)(b) The possible consequences of an accident to the employers are.

• reduction or a temporary halt in production. • Negative effect on morale in other workers. • increased training expenses and administration costs. • possible reduction in the quality of work. 3 Indirect costs . • repair or replacement of damaged machinery and equipment.Insurance premium changes and legal costs • Additional training or supervisory costs (ii) The direct and indirect costs to the employer of accidents at work are: Direct costs are: • payment for work not performed. • medical and compensation payments.

for employers are: • the injured/ill worker has to be replaced. • poor health and safety conditions in the workplace can also result in poor public relation (iii) The enforcement agency may take the following actions while an accident at work are as follows. • it takes time before the new worker is producing at the rate of the original worker. • a new worker has to be trained and given time to adjust. • Acts • Mandatory regulations • Codes of practices . • accidents often arouse the concern of fellow workers and influence labor relations in anegative way. to the writing of reports and filling out of forms. • time must be devoted to obligatory investigations.

Answer: Eight possible costs such as associated with are as follows. .• National and International Standards Q8. • Loss of production • Staff absence • Sick pay • Repair of damaged plant and equipment • Damage to products • Investigation and remedial actions • additional administration incurred. Replacement and repair of damaged equipment is a cost that an organization may incur followingaccident at work. • fines and compensation awarded. • an increase in insurance premiums. Identify EIGHT possible costs to the organization following a workplace accident.

Identify EIGHT possible costs to an organization when employees are absent due to work related illhealth.• and court and other legal representation. • Also relevant are the intangible costs arising from a loss of business image and thedetrimental effect on worker morale resulting in reduced productivity. Answer: Eight possible costs of an organization when employees are absent due to work related ill-healthare as follows. • Internal Audit • Decrease of the production • Quality losses • Training of new staff • Technical disturbance • Organizational difficulties • Increased of production costs • Increased of Insurance premium . Q9.

Answer: 4 There are three reasons for promoting and maintaining Good safety standards in work place.1. M oral :-It’s moral obligation of theemployer to provide a safe Environment to theEmployees where they can enjoy their work and feel happy while returning home.2.fines and even prohibition of thework. F inancial . Injury and accident leads to pain and suffering not only to victim but to familyandfriends.Q10.3. Everyone who goes out for work is because of economic necessity and not consents with injury and accident. Act) 1974.Financial 1.Legal3. Legal :-It’s also legal obligation by the country’s law that employer should provideanenvironment that is totally safe for working just like HASAWA (Health and safety atwork etc.Moral2. Non-compliance to the legal binding can result in penalties.Outline reasons for maintaining good standards of health and safety within an organization.

loss of reputation and loss of good will. and high insurance premiums. personal allocated to investigatethe accidents.Direct costs include fines. Accident cause a great deal of money specially when we add damage caused by some accidents. • The moral reason includes the responsibility of the employer to protect workers.(i) Explain . such as production loss. employee absence. • The financial reasons include the financial losses incurred with accidents and their investigations. others and neighbors. legal and financial. compensation payouts.:-A work place without good safety working standards can lead toaccidentswhich have direct and indirect financial impacts. Q11.Indirect costs incl ude production delay.So maintaining a good and safer working environment is more cheaper in longer terms . The reasons for promoting and maintaining good standards of health and safety in the workplace are themoral. medical costs and sick pay etc. from occupational hazards and risks. by issuing prohibitions and fines. damage to equipment. • The legal reasons are focused on to protect employees and others.

(i) Draw a flowchart to identify the main components of the health and safety management systemdescribe in the HSE publication Successful Health and Safety Management (HSG65). Answer: (i) . Answer: A hazard is the potential of a substance Q13. Answer: (i) Q12. (iii) Outline possible reason why good standards of health and safety in the workplace may not beachieved. (ii) Identify sources of information that an organization may use to help maintain and promote goodstandards of health and safety in the workplace.reasons for maintaining and promoting good standards of health and safety in theworkplace. (ii) Outline TWO components of the health and safety management system.(i) Draw a flowchart to show the relationships between the six elements of the health and safetymanagement model in HSE’s successful health and safety management (HSG65).(ii) Outline the part that each element of the HSG65 model plays within the health and safetymanagement system.

The flowchart (ii) The components are: • Setting policy: to show commitment of management of health and safety and to set clear aimsand objectives. 1 Health & Safety Foundations Health_and_Safety_11-10-2010 . 5 Similar to A.

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