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『インド考古研究』第31号 抜刷

インド考古研究会
2010年7月

Transformation of the Goddess T豆r豆

with Special Reference to the Iconographical Features

Jae- Eun SHIN

IND 0-KOKO-KENK YU
IStudies in South Asian Art andArchaeology Vol. 3 1 (2009-2010), Of軸rint

lndian Archaeological Society (JAPAN)

it is very di組cult to assert any clear identityof Taripi in the AkAa-ida-jdu. One of the early evidences of the Tar豆cult may be traced in the AhAa-dh67dz7 in which Tari申appeared as one of epithets of Devi [Sukthankar 1933-押ふう. the name Tar豆means carrying across. In many cases. but the available text in its present fbm is not earlier than the 8th century. Bhattacharyya 1999: 1 95]・ However. She is noted as the personification ofkaTLZPa. however.studies in South Asian Art and Archaeology No. The initial composition of this text may be assigned to the 5th century. especially in East India from the 7th to 15th century with a special reference to her iconographical features・ 2. 710]. Some scholars. Kinsely 1987: 165]. Instead of searching for a primordial image of goddess T豆ra. Initial Development of T豆r豆Worship Derived from the causative form of Sanskrit root Jtri. Without any mythologlCal explanations or iconographical features. pp.Transformation of the Goddess Tarえ ーwith Special RefTerence to the Iconographical Features SHIN Jae-Bun Kiyose-shi 1.(compassion) of Avalokite菖vara (dev1-a-a-9ivBJokl'tes'var9- INDO-K∂KO-KENKYU . Whether it designates a distinct independent female divinityor not is not so clear. helping over a difGculty. her orlgln is veiled in obscurlty Which has given rise to considerable controversy・ A general oplnion is that T豆r豆is orlglnally a Buddhist goddess because her distinct features mainly appeared in Buddhist texts and sculptures [Shastri 1925: 12. transfigured and crystallized in the course of time. I would like to trace the historical process through which various . (200912010). On the other hand. the connection ofTara with Tibet or China was significantly postulated lShastri 1925: 23.identities of goddess T豆ra were made. the origin of a particular deity has been `consciously'Constructed fわr authenticatlng Or COnteStlng a Certain religious identlty Of a deity. no claims of origin are uncontestable. Ghosh 1980: 17].even inconsistent and contradictory . The descrlPtlOn Shows that T豆ra is closely associated with Avalokite岳vara in the initial development. claimed that Buddhists borrowed the conception of Brahmanical Tar豆who is identical with the goddess Durg豆[Dasgupta 1967: 117. in the uneven history or goddess(es). rescuing and saviouress.1 7132 17 . Introduction Though the goddess T豆r豆figures prominently in Buddhist traditions. There is little evidence to suggest the appearance of goddess Tar豆before the 5th century in Buddhist traditions・ The AI・y3-Mall∼J'LZS'H-mH-hkalpa is probably one of the early Buddhist texts containlng an elaborate descrlPtlOn Of T豆r豆.31. 物. appendix.

the late 6th century lGhosh 6th century [Ghosh 1980: Fig・6]            1980: Fig. that often appear as the lotus-bearing female images in the caves at Aurangabad. seated in the paTyHPkH-saDaり. Tar豆. Another image of the late 6th century which was found in the Nalanda stdpa 3 demonstrates the typICal features of Tar豆as were described in the Ab(a-MaQkfrf-mH-/abzz/pw (Fig. is preserved. Nalanda. which centers on a Buddha. From the 6th century onwards we can trace the nascent forms of T豆r豆. 2). For example. there.81 18 . isflanked by two similar reliefs of lotus-bearlng female with a Fig・ 1 ・ Avalokite孟vara and T豆r豆. is well decorated with omaments. Nalanda. the entrance to the main shrine in Cave 7. 2. None of caves ofAjanta of the 5th century bears the sculptural representations of T豆ra and Buddhist feminine divinities.1). The sparsely-bejeweledfigure is badly damaged. which has survived in the north wall of the main temple ofNalanda (Fig. should have a side glance towards Avalokite昌vara・ It also furnishes her characteristic features・ Thus holding a blue utpala2). We and T豆r豆standing on the left side of Avalokiteivara. the stalk of which is in her left hand. Although the face and bust of the figure are damaged. but fわrtunately an坤。α. she is neither too young nor too old [Ghosh 1980: 11]. The early development ofTar豆worship is also noticed in the series of caves in Deccan where the substantial number of Buddhist images were preserved. holds an utpala in her left hand and exhibits the varada-mudra with her right palm. Her close association with Avalokite畠vara was attested by an image of the period of the late 6th century..kdTLZP3-Hz a-1・ya-t3-1:a-41) and it is enjoined that she. the late Fig. the figure shows that she is seated in thepalyaPka-sand. she wears all omaments and displays the varada-mudrd3)・ Her complexion is noted here as golden・ Ofthin waist.

Sahajay豆na and Kalacakrayana. Sircar 1967: 130]・ According to T豆r豆natha's account on Candragomin. It lS. 31 pair of fTemale attendants lHuntington 1985: 265-67]. It is considered as 'a precursor of T豆ra rather than T豆r豆herself'[Shaw 2006: 3 14]. which assumed three differe. viz・ Vajray豆na. emblems par excellence . 3). She stands on the right side ofAvalokitegvara by holding a lotus bud instead of an utpala in her left hand. 1990: 199-209]. Cave 8 at Ellora. wrote his stotra (hymn of praise) of Tara. The prevalence of T豆ra worship around the 6th century in East India may be suggested by the fact that the celebrated Buddhist grammarian Candragomln. East India remained as the last stronghold of Buddhism・ Buddhism under the Palas appears in a fわrm very different even from the Buddhism which Hsiuen Tsang described・ This new form of Buddhism isknown under the generic name 'Tantrayana'or `Mantrayana'. but merely shows the back of her right hand. suggested that the image of Tara with her Fig. Moreover. however. the females have no identifying traits.varada-mudra and utpala the late 6th to the 8th century (from The . From the early images ofTar豆and textual evidences it is highly probable that the cult of T豆r豆arose in easternregion and gained its popularityamong the circle of Buddhists befわre she fわund her way Into Brahmanical traditions. An image from Cave 8 at Ellora which was dated from the late 6th century may show an initial evolvement ofT豆r豆figure in Deccan (Fig. It is only the 7th century and afterwards that we find the fully evolved image ofT豆r豆in West India lGhosh 1980: 31]. 0007498) the 6th century when the figures ofT豆r豆Were still in an experimental stage of iconography in Westem Indian caves.was fully evolved at Nalanda monastery site around Huntington Archive Scan no. from the middle of 8th century to the early 12th century. The goddess Tara 19 . very probably inspired by the goddess of CandravTpa lMajumdar 1971 : 299 note 2. therefore. it seems that he established a stone image of T豆r豆and Avalokite孟vara in a temple at Candravipa [Chattopadhyaya et al. 3. the worship ofT豆ra as a companion of Avalokite畠vara appears to have been widespread at Nalanda and its adjoining area in the first half of 7th century lBea1 1994 (VIII): 103]. entitled . her right hand does not exhibit the varadamudr占.irp-LdraTnf23V:4a/11′励'. Developed and Various Forms ofTar豆 During the four centuries of P豆la's rule. As a Chinese monk Hsiuen Tsang noticed. 3. Who is said to have settled in candravipa4) and is called Dvaipa. Avalokite孟vara and T豆r豆. whereas Avalokite孟vara displays the varada-mudra-.インド考古研究31 INDO-KOKOIKENKYU No.nt varieties in this period. Apart from the lotus.

She was cast in the role of savior丘om `eight great perils '(as. 1) A!tamahabhaya Tara : Tara. serpent. The forms of T豆r豆have so developed in this period that it is not easy to classify them. the 12th century (Courtesy of the 2006: Fig.which indicate the function to be performed and identifytheir respective kulas or families associated with five Dhy豆ni-Buddhas and five cosmic elements lBhattacharyya 1958: 306-9]. prison and demon . Cuttack District. Dacca District. the late 8th to the early ヮth century [Shaw Bangladesh. 5. Fig.mTaDda/7 Was highly emphasized.2] Bangladesh National Museum. yellow and blue . Astamah豆bhaya Tar豆.wAld719r and . Ratnagiri. conflagration. and philosophical speculations of Vajrayana were formulated under the influence of other religlOuS traditions. gradually shed her sole association with him and began to acqulre an independent and exalted position. enraged elephant. Dacca) 20 . Astamahabhaya T豆ra. The Fig. Orissa.Occupied a slgnificant position in Vajray豆na tradition where the importance of mystic ritualism including mantra. pantheons. the character and attribute of T豆r豆have also undergone important changes.five forms ofTar豆 Were classified based on the colours . . red. 17.Shipwreck.tamaha-bhayH) . In course of her conceptual development. 4. Somapada. Among them.green. As religious practices. she had absorbed within herself a number of divinities representlng different aspects of the Goddess. To some extant.which were initially associated with Avalokite孟vara lMitra 1957: 20]. four important forms ofT豆r豆 Will be discussed for understanding the change of iconographical feature and its implication. brigand. pouncing lion. who had been a companion ofAvalokite畠vara. white.

She is seated in the lalitL5sana on a lotus pedestal.(part of A!tamah豆bhaya of protection) (Fig・ 6). 3) a fettered man is in the clutches ofa person. It shows a life-sized figure of T豆r豆standing with a graceful posture on a double-petalled lotus.5). preserved in the Bangladesh National Museum (no. The central figure shows a typical image ofT豆r豆. depicts the A亨tamah豆bhaya T豆r豆with a variation (Fig. Each scene has a miniature figure of T豆ra saving devotees from perils . 4) a man attacked by a charglng elephant・ Beginnlng at the bottom panel of proper right. 5). Dacca District. standing between two panels of vignettes depictlng the eight perils・ However. we find the following scenes: 1) a man engulfed by names. hunger. thief. 2) a man assailed by demon. the 12th century (Courtesy of the Bangladesh National Museum. 2) a man is target of an arrow of a brigand who draws his bow to the full. shipwreck and fetter. Dacca) . 15). reinforclng the role of the goddess as a powerful protector [Lee 2009: 102]・ 21 Tar豆in Fig. 4) a man standing in front ofa snake・ All men in the eight great perils pray for deliverance to Tar豆depicted immediately above in a miniature form・ From the loth century onward. the Astamah豆bhaya Tar豆often appeared in a seated posture・ An image of black stone from Somapada in Dacca dated to the 12th century. lion. Bangla- desh. The miniature Tar豆image appearlng ln each scene of eight great perils unusually makes the abhaya mudra (gesture Fig・ 6・ A miniature figure of T豆ra displaylng the abhaya mudra.fire. Although the religious and artistic conceptions Of Astamah豆bhaya T豆r豆Were patterned on those ofAvalokitegvara. the panel is so badly damaged that it is very difGcult to discem the scenes of eight great perils・ An image from Ratnaglri in Orissa that is asslgned to the late 8th or the early 9th century has survived with many of its details intact (Fig. One can discem the fbllowlng scenes: I) three men in sinking boat.snake. 31 reliefs ofAstamah豆bhaya Avalokite孟vara were mainly found in Deccanfrom the 5th to the 7th century. holding a half10Pened utpala in her le氏 hand and making the varada一mudrd by her right hand・ On either side of back-slab of Tar豆are depicted the scenes of eight great perils. 4). instead of the regular varada mudrd. holding the stalk of an utpala in her left hand and displaylng the varada-mudr∂ in her right hand・ On two sides ofT豆ra are depicted the scenes of eight great perils and eight small images ofT豆ra seated in the meditation posture・ Beginning atthe bottom panel of proper left. 3) a man attacked by a charging lion.インド考古研究31 INDO_KOKO_KENKYU No. elephant. her popularityin this role superseded that of male Bodhisattva from the 8th century onward lShaw 2006: 318]・ The iconography ofA!tamahabhaya Tar豆evolved influx for several centuries・ The earliest representation was found at Cave no・ 9 ofEllora・ It is ascribed to the middle of the 7th century・ The relief portrays her in the same manner as Avalokite畠vara.

Lalitaglri. Rajshahi District. new no. 7. Nevertheless. The location of temple construction does not precisely correspond to the place where the image of Astamahabhaya Tara in a seated posture in Fig. Durgott豆rini T豆ra. which was associated with Avalokite孟vara till the 7th century. taking important roles as the upholder of cosmic order and the supreme saviouress in the Devil-JWa-Aw-tmya galned in a great popularity during the early medieval period. One of important manifestations of the Mahd Devt. Kolkata) paSa (noose) and an aLkzda (elephant-goad) in her upper le氏and right hand respectively. she is seated in the lalitasana on a Fig. 6956.8)]. it leaves little room for doubt that the idea of deliverance from the eight great perils.especially the attributes in her four hands I 0f Durgottarini T豆ra that were described in the Sadhanamafu- [Bhattacharyya 1968 (γol.5 was found. T豆r豆. ⅠⅠ): 237]. Bangladesh) for dispelling entirely the eight great perils lMajumdar 1984: 99 (V. Cuttack lotus pedestal with calm expression (Fig. T豆ra) at Somapura (modern Paharpur. It suggests Avalokitegvara's active functions and attributes were completely absorbed by his female counter part lMitra 1957: 22]. the llth century (Courtesy of the Indian Museum. The theologlCal framework of the Mahd Devffrom which all goddesses emanated as her manifestations was constructed and promulgated in the Devt-mahatmya around the 6th century lCoburn 1997: 1-9]. The goddess Durg豆. 2) Durgott豆ripi Tar豆or Durgot-T豆ra Etymologically her name Durgottari申(Dul:g3--Htt3-1'1417 means who makes one across the difficulties. Orissa. The period when Tar豆galned in popularlty coincides with a remarkable development of Saktism in Brahmanical traditions. An image from Lalitaglri in Orissa exhibited in the Indian Museum (old no. Durg豆's impact on the Tara worship IS also discernible in the iconographical representation of Durgottarin了T豆r豆. She holds a District. While her lower le氏 hand 22 . Decorated with various ornaments. It is probably inspired by the name of goddess Durga. A 24130) precisely confirms the iconographical traits . continued in the fold ofTar豆cult in easternregion during the early medieval period. a benevolent saviouress became a strong protector against the great dangers. 7). Thus.e. a great protector as well as a formidable warrior.A Nalanda inscrlPtlOn dated first half of the 12th century refers to a monk Vipula孟rimitra with the construction of temple of T豆ripi (i.

Therefore. the corresponding right hand makes the varada. a number of Buddhist deities.O:aSda:. and perhaps displays the act of bowing in her middle right hand. i. contain the Saiva Tantric traits in their iconic forms. It became an important attribute of the terrible goddess Camu叫豆[Brighenti 2001 : 248150]. The image of Durgott豆rini Tar豆from Lalitagiri shows the ever expanding concept of T豆r豆that 23 .m udra-. (image of the destruction of the elephant demon). while the pas'a and ahdw'a are the weapons of Durgえーhat assure her triumph over demons.sTh. At the command of the goddess people let loose her fettered devotees [Ghosh 1980: 54]. The significance of ahb2W'a is the command subjugatlng all beings. the pds'a denotes the bandhana (bond or fetters) from which devotees are relived by T豆r豆. Bhairava lFlood 2003: 212]. both objects have a metaphysical significance in the hands ofTar豆.e. Orissa. Kolkata) the left side shows the several traits of Tantric traditions (Fig. Most of attributes in the six hands of the fierce-looking female image are from Saiva Tantric traditions・ The khat吻a and kapdla were the representative symbols oeflKma%ikaarewfhr.irel三秘勉 the ferocious fom of畠iva. there had been an approprlation of Saiva Tantric tradition by Buddhists. especially emanating from the Dhyani Buddha Ak!obhya. The object (probably kapdla) in her middle lefthand is indistinct.tT(a-dga in her lowest right hand5). Above her head is an elephant-hide held by the two uppemost hands. Her lowest left hand is in the tarjant-. 31 holding the stalk of an utpala rests on the lotus pedestal. 8).7) cult ofTara. which resulted in the extensive parallels between their texts. According to the Visnudharmotkm4 Pur句la aS quoted by Mallar Ghosh.wd714 near the chest6). they have different implications. The elephant hide was also associated with ferocious畠iva depicted in 'Gajasura-saqlhara-mu-rti. It is apparent from the aforementioned image that there was Tantirc influence on the Figl 8・ A fierce-looking female figure demonstrating Tantric infhence (part of Durgottari申T豆r豆in Fig. However.a. She holds a kha. the 1 lth century six a-S standing the below or lotus pedestal on (Courtesy orthe Indian Museum. As noticed by Sanderson. Afiercellooking femalefigure with Lalitagiri. The p∂S'a and ah4zu'a were often found in the hands of Durga in her various forms. religious practices and symbols [Sanderson 1990: 678- 9].インド考古研究31 INDO-KOKO-KENKYU No. Cuttack District.

The image is asslgned to the latter part of llth century based on a dedicatory lnSCrlptlOn that was dated the second year of king R豆mapala of the Pala dynasty. closely agrees with that of Mah豆cinat豆r豆・ The terrifying appearance of Ekajata or Mah豆cinatar豆has been reason for her epithet Ugrat豆r豆. A polished black stone statue from Tetrawan preserved in the Indian Museum (old・ No1 3824. The iconographical traits of Ekajat豆standing on the left side of Khadirava申Tar豆(Fig・ 9) almost correspond to the description of the SL5dhanama/a. Ratnasambhava and Amit豆bha. Ⅰ): 176]. 3) Khadirava申Tara and Ekajat豆 According to the S∂dhanamala-. Ekajat豆had very little role as an independent goddess in the early history. By the right side ofT豆r豆is Agokak豆nt豆M豆rici standing with a benign face. Desplte the fact that it is not entirely clear whether Ekajata is identical to Mah豆cinatar豆or not. two goddesses are considered as more or less same in terms of iconographical features and mantra employed for both goddesses lBagchi 1975: 41]. intro): cxli]. Amoghasiddhi. By the left side of Tara is two armed Ekajata standing in the pratyLi(i-471a POSture7). 9). Very luxuriantly decorated with jewels and draped in a long s∂dl-. Though several geographical places were suggested for Khadiravaqa. lt is still not easy to identify it with any particular locality in present condition.absorbed various attributes from different relig10uS Creeds . She has two arms displaylng the varada mudra with her right palm and carrylng an utPala with her left hand. Brahmanical and Saiva Tantric - and brought about a more complicated fbm of the goddess.Buddhist. she was gradually Incorporated into the Tar豆cult and became the most favorite companion of T豆r豆after 9th century.Tar豆of the forest (vana) of Acacia catechu (khadira). However. The colophon of sadhana of Ekajata in the Sadhanama/a. was introduced by Nagarjuna in the middle of the 7th century [Bhattacharyya 1968 (vol. Khadiravapi Tara is an emanation ofAmoghasiddhi.II.A孟okak豆nta Mar盲C7 0n the right and Ekajata on the left [Bhattacharyya 1968 (vol. or Tara of a locality which had a wood ofkhadira [Ghosh 1980: 66]. new No. Around the top edge of polnted-arched back-slab are carved the seated five Dhydni-Buddhas . She is standing on lotus pedestal. She makes the varada-mudrd by her right hand and holds a stalk of utpala in her left hand.Vairocana. I): 267]. She can be recognized by the figures of two attendant female deities .lBhattacharyya 1968 (vol・ I): 266]・ With 24 . As regards the etymological meaning of Khadirava申Tar豆various opinions were postulated .4 dA卿jhldj647:/22:W) lBhattacharyya 1968 (vol. worshipped by inhabitants of Tibet probably professlng the Bon religion of Tibet.states that N豆garJuna took the worship of the goddess from the inhabitant of Bhota (drya-nagzt77bwapa-gal. The description of Ekajat豆which is found in six sa-dhanas of the Sddhanamald. Bhattacharyya identifies Bhota (Tibet) with Mah豆cina and suggests that the goddess Ekajat豆(or Mahacinatar豆). Aksobhya. A 25 1 58) shows the typical iconographical feature of Khadiravapi T豆ra (Fig.

but the 'lefthand'(vdma) path called kulac0-7.a Or Cikdc0-71g. the Buddhist land where Atharva Vedic ritualism is ever in vogue.インド考古研究31 INDO_K∂KO_KENKYU No31 flame-like hair rislng upwards. Patna District. Her fiery nature is indicated by names covering her back. 4) Vajra Tara Vajra Tar豆1iterally means the Tar豆of the adamantine essence. The Brahmaya-mala narrates a story that Vasistha. Tetrawan. Fig. In C了na he encounters the Buddha practicing the Tari申(T豆r豆) cult which involves five makaras (meat. Kolkata) borderland of India or Indian Tibet whence T豆ra was introduced into India via Nepal.who is omnlPreSent. Several scholars postulate the fわreign orlgln Of goddess Tar豆based on Shastri's oplmion. mudrd and sexual intercourse) known as caw-ca-jZT and is initiated in this path [Kinsely 1998: 96]. 9. Khadirava申Tara with A孟okak豆nt豆M豆rTchi on Shastri advocates the forelgn Orlgln Of Tara by arguing that it was possibly …Indo-Tibetan the Right and Ekaja申on the Left. Nevertheless. iconographical evidence does not support this hypothesis because no images of Ugrat豆r豆earlier than the loth century have been found. vajra. The inclusion of foreign goddess such as Ekajata (or MahacinLat豆r豆) and other many minor deities in Tar豆pantheon demonstrates the further expansion of the concept of Tara from a benevolent saviouress / a strong protector to the universal goddess like Brahmanical Mahd Devl. Based on this story and other evidences. Bihar. the latter part of 1 lth century (Courtesy of the Indian Museum. is equated with 25 . OmnlPOtent and omniscient. While the right hand holds near the shoulder a vajra-kartari (knife with vajra on the top)・ She stands in the pratyalt4ha posture ・ The several Hindu Tantras emphasize that the worship of this fierce form of Tara follows not the established 'Vedic'way. In its technical sense. who was advised by Tar豆to go to C了nade畠a." [Shastri 1925: 15-6】. the early lmageS Of T豆r豆from West and East lndia and textual evidences attest to the fairly continuous development ofT豆r豆cult from the 6th century.fish. liquor. which is the symbol of the ultimate reality of Vajray豆na. In her left palm is a kapa-la (skulllCuP). the absolute of Vajray豆na. the pot-bellied and dwarfish deity is fierce looking with three round eyes and teeth displayed. As was discussed.

The s∂dhana further describes the ten deities constitutlng the mandala. Ⅰ): 179]8). cannot be pierced. and Gandhatara (north). a pds'a (noose). Sarnath.rmapdala) has four faces and eight arms and bears on her crown the figures offive Dhy豆ni Buddhas. Dhapat豆ra (south). she radiated reddish light・ She holds in her right hand a vajra (thunder bolt). Bhagalpur  (courtesy of the National Museum. and in her left a vajra-fubU'a (elephant-goad marked with a thunderbolt). cannot be changed. Each of them carries a garland. a lamp and a conch of scents respectively・ In the second circle are also four goddesses . In the first circle are four goddesses . nothingness)・ According to the Vajay豆nist. She is resplendent in her blooming youth and wears gold kundala・ Seated on the full-bloomed lotus. Kolkata) 26 . Vajra-Tar豆in the centre of the circle of mothers (marl. and Vajraghapt豆(north) holding the goad marked with vajra. Vajrasphot7 (west). Fig. ll. cannot be burnt and cannot be destroyed [Ghosh 1980: 82]. cannot be penetrated.Pu!pat豆r豆(east). an utpala and a dhanus (bow) the fourth hand being in the tarjant-mudra lBhattacharyya 1968 (γol. the noose marked with vajra. New Delhi) District. According to the Sadhanamada-.S'iiqJtZA4 (void. the 12th century Chandipore close to Patharghata. the 12th century (Courtesy of the Indian Museum. Vajrap誠(south). Vajra Tara. Uttar Pradesh.Vajr豆品ku畠i (east). an incense stick. a s'aR'lAa (counch-shell) and a s'ara (arrow). the chain marked with vajra and the bell marked with vajra respectively・ The goddess occupylng the upper Fig・ lot Vajra T豆r豆in the mandala often goddesses. S'iLqJalaL is designated as Vajra because it is firm. DTpatar豆(west). Bihar.

. 192.Amitabha. I): 178. destroying). 743dzlHa. 31 region is U叩i!avijaya carrying a cakra (wheel) and the lower region is Sumbh豆holding a . JR. The crownof the rear face bears the figure ofAmoghasiddhi [Ghosh 1980: 86]. Vairocana and Aksobhya. and objects in the remainlng three hands being arrows.(ideas)and JiZjmh-ml (motivation)・ She is conceived as the embodiment of allfive skandhas and the absolute goddessin Vajrayana. 47. The exalted position ofVajra T豆r豆wasindicated by the presence offive Dhyani-Buddhas presiding over the five skandhas or elements of which the universe is composed・ The five skandhas are u3Wa-pw (consciousness). Another example of the image of Vajra Tar豆is the large bust of stone found at Sarnath and now exhibited in the National Museum (acc. These ten deities are stated to be das'ap3-mml't3-S'TByal (the abode of ten perfections) and originating from ten syllables of the T豆ra mantra ((奉加7Hff2m3 7. 27 . jambhana (Crushing. 32) (Fig.インド考古研究31 INDO_K∂KO_KENKYU No. According tothe 5励徴表fw-. the third carries an utpala and the fourth holds a bow・ She is the centre ofmandala.theinscnptlOn Of KumaradevT mayindicate the important presence of the Vajra T豆ra cultinSamath Buddhist monasteryaround the 12th century. no. Vajrap誠. 10). 1981-83: 12 and 19] is somehow probable. 200 and 233]. Each petal bears the image of an attendant goddess. the second bears an elephant goad.(feelings). While eight different goddesses (Pu!patar豆.qa-ga- pdu'a (a noose made of snake). viz. a noose and a conch-shell・ Her lowest left hand is in the tarjant mudra-. it discloses the image of the four faced and eight armed Vajra T豆ra in the centre of lotus with eight petals. DTpatara.uje ⊥協の lBhattacharyya 1968 (vol. nava柳7 (nine chambered -考琴彪/a) lKonow 1983: 325]・ The postulation that 'the monastery buildings wereinsome way a Vajra T豆ra -zp. mohana (causing delusion). ll). When opened. viz. A bronze image ofVajra Tar豆preserved in the lndian Museum (no. Dhdpat豆r豆. two goddesses (U叩丁字aVijay豆and Sumbh豆) are standing on separates lotuses issulng from the foliated stem of the prlnCiple lotus. A 24364/455 1) ingeniously represents the complete ma頑ala of ten goddesses (Fig. Theinscription refers the construction of I(1h-a which consists of nine segments. Jar+h∼W. In addition tothe stone figure ofVajra T豆r豆. It is evident from the factthat she is evokedinthe TantriCrites belonging to the category of坪2udrmw (six acts). though it needs to be verified by more tangible archeological evidences. The cult ofVajra T豆ra seems to have evolved particularly around the acqulSltion of magical powers. Vajrasphoti and Vajragha坤) surround Vajra T豆r豆. are performed with the aid of the manかa OfVajra Tar豆[Bhattacharyya 1968 (vol. I): 1791180].dzz/7'[Woodward. Gandhatar豆. It was found at Chandipore close to Patharghata in Bihar [Bhattasali 2001: 45]. It has fわur head as was described in the Sidtt-ma-fu-I The crown of main head has four triangular projections. six kinds of black magic. 183. Vajr豆丘ku前. The cakra as solar symbol is associated with the sky and the Jqa-gu-jUdu'w is appropriate for a deity of the nether world lGhosh 1980: 80]. each containlng an image of Dhyanl- Buddha・ They are identified as Ratnasambhava. ′勿(form). bandhana (causing imprisonment) etc. Vajra Tar豆holds a vajra in her upper most right hand. It presents the appearance of a lotus bud when it is closed. stambhana (making immobile).

she is adorned with a wreath of heads. she wears a snake as a necklace on her breast and a black cloth around her loins. Bhuvane孟vari. which became strong religious force after the 1 5th century. pravara and Vaidika 畠akカ3. such as the Tantrasarra ofKrsnaHaDda AgamavaglSa and 28 .(the first Vidy豆).4.0f brahmana beneficiaries of land grants. Bhairavi. got formulated in the conjunction of various religious streams during this period. being provided with a conflagration" lSastri 1992: 61. The cluster of ten Mah豆vidy豆S (K豆1i. viz.jZ-jW mentionlng that T豆r豆is another formofK誠describes her iconographic features as follows: "She has four ams and is black- coloured. T豆r豆. the Sena-Varman period. she always wears a wreath of shaven human heads on her head and around her neck. Tara is sometimes called Dvzt7Jw-uLdTJU. Tar豆in the Group ofDa孟a Mah豆vidy豆s The period after the 12th century. she has red eyes. TripurasundarT. The descrlPtlOn made above suggests that T豆r豆incorporated into the Sakta pantheon is not benlgn but ferocious like Ekajat豆or Mah豆C了natar豆is. Goddess Tara has occupied a slgnificant position in this group. Buddhism. and the performance of Vedic and Puranic rites asserting growing influence ofbrahmanas lChakrabarti 2001 : 1 14]. The worship of the Mahav idyas is closely associated with the practice of警a†karmas. she has put down her left foot on the heart of corpse and right foot on back of a lion. T豆r豆nearly always follows the goddess KalT. she is provided with a tiger's skin. The process of assimilation of the Buddha as an atdzlyd of VzjnH had already begun during the late Pala period・ Various female divinities worshipped in the Vajray豆na pantheon also found their way ln S豆kta Tantric traditions. six kinds ofblack magic・ Although some goddesses among the group are traced back to the very early phase of history such as K豆li and Tripurasundali. MatahgT and Kamal豆). In many name lists of the Mahavidy豆S.. the group of Mahavidy豆had been known as a distinctive group from at least the 12th century ln eaStem reglOn aS Was attested by the物励and the De物tdu物[Shin 2007: 120]. she herselffrequently licks the corpse. the most comprehensive由kta Tantric feminine pantheon. was gradually absorbed in the fわld of other religious traditions. While K豆1i is known as AdTJW-T(^{vu. Bagalamukhi.(the second Vidy豆). Dham豆vati. cinnamasta.Pzlj. The Ka/zbz7. was marked by the progressive diffusion of Brahmanism in Bengal society. It is already observed that there was a remarkable similaritybetween the Ja-t{jana of Mah豆C了natara in the SLdjapama-/a.and the LWu(tz-Ha Of T豆r豆as glVen in the later S豆kta Tantric texts. which had been one of the strong religlOuS fわrces in Bengal. an emphasis on the gotra. she laughs shrilly. is utterly horrible and very frightening. The Senas and Varmans consciously propagated Brahmanical religion and enforced the tmpdu'712ma-dharma・ This tendency lS exemplified in three simultaneous developments: the composition of large corpus of texts statlng the essential Brahmanical Injunctions later elaborated in the medieval Smrtl'. 63b-68]. she is more like K豆lT in appearance than any of the other Mah豆vidy豆S. Moreover. she holds a sword and a blue lotus in her two right hands and a knife and a skulトbowl in her two left hands.

the text emphasizes that with him (AkFobhya). While the character. Tar豆in the group often Mahavidy豆S. Nandike孟wari temple. the great goddess of delusion. one of the Saiva traits. Furthermore. The image generally confirms the iconographical features described in the Kallba. The image of Tath豆gata Aksobhya which usually appears on the head of Ekajat豆or Mah豆cinatara is not found in the Mah豆vidya T豆r豆. contain the image of T豆ra in which various Saiva attributes such as snake. 12. Birbhum District. The Todala Tantra offers an explanation for this alteration that畠iva is called a頑10秒(unshakeable). the devotee's perceptlOn Of Tar豆seems to have Flg. the adoptlOn Of a divinlty worshipped in the other religious creed does not take place in a form of simple inclusion.インド考古研究31 INDO_KOKOIKENKYU No. Ugra T豆r豆Temple. T豆ri申. on her head. T豆r豆. It is rather a conscious process through which the former attributes of a deity were intentionally removed or reinterpreted and different traits were superimposed. However. 1 3 Ugra Tar豆. 12). The panels which depict ten Mah豆vidy豆s as the emanations of Sat了. Instead. is engaged in love play [Sastri 1976: 1. West Bengal. 31 the物of Brahmananda・ lBhattacharyya 1958: 190-1]. attribute and role of Tar豆 have undergone the several critical transformations. Guwahati. appears to have been adopted from the Vajray豆na pantheon lBanerjea 1985: 560]. Fig. skull and tiger skin were apparent (Fig. the 20th century because he drank the deadly poISOn Without agltation (a-kFobha). she had a snake. It was found in the Nandike毒wari temple at Sainthiya that is one of the well-known Saktaplz:hw in West Bengal. 4-7ab]. while `the snake is absent in Buddhist images'[B屯hnemann 1996: 475].PzのZ-jW Which was mentioned above. Sainthiya. unknown date . Therefore. the consort of Siva. a great object of veneration in the Sakta Tantra. changed・ One ferocious form ofT豆r豆found at the 29 Assam.

no local people and priest consider her as C豆mund豆I She is said to be the goddess T豆r豆who had been brought by Vasistha from Mah豆C了na. J・N1 1 985 The Development of Hindu Iconography. B・ (ed. Calcutta: University of Calcutta (2nd. 5・ It is the stick generally surmounted bythe vBj+a orkapB-h (skull cup) or tT7iu-h (trident). 30 . B ib lio graphy BAGCHI.). N・N. New Delhi: Aryan Books lntemational (rep. Objects in her hand and so on. New Delhi: Manohar. indicative of offering boon・ The hand (usually right) showing this mudrd hangs down with palm outward and丘ngers stretched downward. index finger raised while the other爺ngers are lockedl 7・ Standing posture in which the lefHeg lS Outstretched and the right is bent at knee・ 8・ There are sixJ脇比r On Vajra T豆r豆in the Sik汲2・71ama-fw-. are also discemable. Ghosh (eds. S・ (tr・) 1994 Si-Yu-Ki: Buddhist Records of the Western WTorld・ Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass (rep. BANERJEA. Baroda: Oriental Institute of Baroda. BHATTACHARYYA. N・N・ 1999 "T豆ra in Historical Perspective"・ in Bhattacharyya. N・K・ 2001 Iconography of Buddhist and Brahmanical Sculptures in the Dacca Museum. who began to appear as a companion ofAvalokite畠vara. Concluding Remarks The goddess Tar豆.):34-44. which cannot be understood in terms of the assumed and simplified binary opposition between `Buddhist/Hindu'and `Tantric/Brahmanical'・ The divergent strands of incompatible religious traditions have been the mutually dependent variety in the historical process・ Notes: 1・ Sitting poshre on couch or seat. GHOSH (eds.) 1999: 190-207. 6・ It is the gesture of threat.). is quite far from any known images ofT豆r豆(Fig.) 1999 Tantric BuddlSm. (2 vols. P・C・ 1975 "On the S豆dhanam豆Ia"・ in his Studies ln the Tantras (vol. New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal Publisher. such as the number of Buddha resting On Crown. 4・ Candravipa was a small principalityat the Bakarganj District in present Bangladesh. the image represents the fierce goddess Camund豆who is sittlng On a copse and has the emaciated belly and sunken eyes・ The image hardly contains any Buddhist attributes・ Nevertheless.) 1 968 Sadhanamala-. but worshipped in 'Hindu'way ln Present times・ 5. B・ 1958 The Indian Buddhist Iconography: Mainly Based on the Sardhanama/a. 13)I Though it is not entirely clear because of the heavy silver gilt on the surface of sculpture.). BHATTACHARYYA. and A. BHATTACHARYYA. N. generally the legs are placed one upon the other with soles hardly visible・ 21 It is a night lotus which opens at the sunset and closes at the sumise. and A. Though many of iconographical features are more or less identical. and was incorporated into S豆kta Tantric pantheon as a consort of Siva・ The dynamic convergence of different religious traditions brought about the comprehensive as well as contradictory attributes of the goddess T豆r豆. I).Ugra Tar豆temple at Ujan Bazar in Guwahati. L. BEAL. became the benevolent saviouress of Mah豆y豆na. transformed into the ferocious great goddess of Vajray豆na.N. Calcutta: Firma K. BHATTASAu. BHATTACHARYYA. Assam. a few differences. Mukhopadhyay.and Cognate Tantric Texts of Rituals. 31 It is a hand-pose. ed.

Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass (rep). Calcutta: Archeological SuⅣey oHndia.D Dissertation submitted to the Universlty Of Delhi.) 1990‥ 128-172. D. KINSELY. 2003 "The畠aiva Traditions". 2010 "S豆kta Pithas: The Making of Sacred Landscape and Religious Nexus inthe Early Medieval Eastern lndia". D.fL7C33ndJ麗'iSl. Patna: N. (ed. Memoirs ofArcheological Survey of India. Journal of the Asiatic Socieo. The Re-reading Early India: Essays in Memory OfD. Jain (With contrlbution by John C Huntington) New York: Weatherhill.E." :thae:(aer: S?. D. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass (rep. unpublished Ph. (ed. Calcutta: Navabharat Publisher. 2001 Saktl Cult in Orissa. 23 (1): 19-22・ Calcutta・ SANDERSON. 1990 "畠aivism and Tantric Tradition".) 2003 The Blackwell Companl0n tO Hiduism1 Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Ltd・ GHOSH. 2006 Buddhist Goddesses of India. H. 2007 "Dasa Mahavidyas in Lower Ganga and Brahmaputra Valleys (7th -1 5th Centuries)''. SHIN. unpublished Ph. ∫. SHAW. MITRA. 1 996 "The Goddess Mahacinakrama-T豆r豆(Ugra-T豆r豆) in Buddhist and Hlndu Tantrism". & tr. KONOW. Sircar (ed.ぢ9 (3): 472-493. MAJUMDAR.) 1971 History of Bengal (Vol.9. in Suchandra Ghosh et al. DASGUPTA. 31 BRIGHENTI. 1983 "Sarnath InscrlPt10n Of Kum豆radevT'. 12-13: 8-24. 1998 Tantric Vision of Divine Feminine: The Ten Maha-vidyas. in Hardy.): Hindu Period. FLOOD.ute (rep . (eds. MA 1984 "Nalanda InscrlPt10n OfVipulasrimitra". P7疹滋W-s ofFive n7thagatas and Bhrzkt77: Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal Publisher. (ed. 9: 319-328. 1 980 Development of Buddhist Iconography in Eastern India 'a Study ofELlyW-.D Dissertation submitted to the Universlty Or Texas. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass (rep. Chattopadhyaya (trs. SASTRI. E. SASTRI. T. CHATTOPADHYAYA.) 2003: 200-228. Flood (ed.-75. Princeton University Press.E. 31 . London: Routledge. P. SIRCAR. FLOOD. M. F. New Delhi: oxford University Press.C. Letters andScience. G. (ed. .). G. I. (ed.) KINSELY. Bulletin of the School ofOriental andAfrican Studies. (ed. BUHNEMANN. C.) 1992 Kadzk一物. New Delhi: Archeological Survey oHndia (rep. Calcutta: University ofCalcutta. London.B. Printworld. F.). V.:ia完崇nCaa諾ehda'三dla9r6k7a:.7S.). L Chimpa and A. ≡LRKCTAHRiNDici Rl. (ed. M. Epigraphia Indica.) 1990 The WTorld's Religion. 1967 "Iconography ofT豆r豆". B.C. Epigraphla IndlCa.) 1967: 115-127.. 21: 971102. D. S. CHAKRABARTI. K. HARDY. MAJUMDAR. 1985 Art of Ancient lndla: Buddhist.S. C Sircar・ Kolkata: a N. the Crystallization of the Goddess Tradition.W 1981-83 "Queen Kummaradevi and Twelfth-Century Samath".). Journal of Indian Society Of OrientalArt. 20. A. 2009 "On Defining Buddhist Art in Bengal: Dhaka Region". Hindu.インド考古研究31 INDO_K∂KO_KENKYU No.K. New Delhi: ArcheologlCal Survey of India (rep. 1997 Devt-MiGu-tmya. SHASTRI. D.) 1990 Ta-rana-thai History OfBuddhism in lndla. F. COBURN.. Bhattacharyya (forthcoming). Delhi: Nag Publishers. J. (ed. New Delhi: D. 1 925 The Origln and Cult ofTE2. The Religions ofAsia. HUNTINGTON. Publication (rep). K 2001 Religious Process: The Puranas and the Making ofa Regional TTradltion. K.).) 1976 Todala Tantra.2r崇:a21'Re s e arch lnst i. in D. in G. SHIN. R. S. LEE. G. 1987 Hindu Goddesses: Vision of the Divine Feminine ln the Hindu Religious Traditl0n. 1957日A亨tamah豆bhaya T豆r豆". H.) 1967 The Sakti Cult and Ta-+ll.P. Delhl: Motilal Banarsidass. WOODWARD Jr.