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Leo VI, Emperor of the East, 866-912.
[Tactica. English & Greek]
The Taktika of Leo VI I text, translation,
and commentary by George Dennis.
1st ed.
p. em. - (Dumbarton Oaks texts; 12)
Greek text and English translation on facing pages;
notes and commentary in English.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 978-o-88402-359-3 (hardcover: alk. paper)
1. Military art and science-Early works to 1800.
2. Tactics-Early works to 18oo.
3. Military art and science-Byzantine Empire.
4. Byzantine Empire-History, Military-527-1081.
I. Dennis, George T. II. Title.
Ul01.L42313 2010

In accordance with the rules adopted by the

International Commission
for the Edition of Sources of Byzantine History,
the text and translation of this volume have been verified
by John Duffy, John Haldan, and Alice-Mary Talbot.



About Tactics and the General

Constitution 2: About the Qualities Required

in the General



Constitution 3: About How It Is Necessary to

Make Plans
Constitution 4: About the Division of the Army and
the Appointment of Officers


Constitutions: About Weapons


Constitution 6: About Armament for the Cavalry

and the Infantry


Constitution 7: About Training for the Cavalry

and the Infantry


Constitution 8: About Military Punishments


Constitution 9: About Marches


Constitution 10: About the Baggage Train


Constitution 11: About Camps




About Advance Preparation for Battle



Constitution 13: About the Day before Battle
Constitution 14: About the Day of Battle


Constitution 15: About Besieging a City


Constitution 16: About Matters after the War


Constitution 17: About Surprise Attacks


Constitution 18: About the Practices of Various Peoples

and of the Romans in Their Battle Formations


Constitution 19: About Naval Warfare


Constitution 20: About Various Concise Sayings






Byzantine Measurements




Persons Mentioned



Greek proper names


Greek terms









My dissertation director, Raymond-J. Loenertz, OP, once told me that, in old

age, one should not undertake a critical edition of a Greek text. Perhaps I should
have followed his advice. When I began work on the present edition, however,
old age was off in the distant future and I could still distinguish an acute accent from a grave. But, owing to unforeseen circumstances, the work took much
longer than I had anticipated and I came to realize the pertinence of Fr. Loenertz's cautionary advice. Despite our best efforts, there surely remain imperfections and mistakes. That they are not too numerous is due largely to the careful,
time-consuming work of John Duffy in reading and correcting my typescript.
To him I express my heartfelt thanks. My thanks also to John Haldon for his
helpful suggestions and, among other things, his corrections of the equine terminology. My sincere thanks go to Alice-Mary Talbot, ofDumbarton Oaks, for
her kind and constant support and for expediting the production of this book.
My thanks, as well, to Joel Kalvesmaki, a former student, who so efficiently presided over the editorial process, and to Lionel Yaceczko who moved that process
along carefully and professionally.
I must, as any scholar must, acknowledge the gracious, professional assistance of the librarians at Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana, Biblioteca Apostolica
Vaticana, Biblioteca de El Escorial, Biblioteca Ambrosiana, as well as those at
Dumbarton Oaks, The Catholic University of America, and Santa Clara University.

Los Gatos, California

September, 2009

George T. Dennis, S./.


Although he probably never set foot on a battlefield, the Byzantine emperor

Leo VI (r. 886-912) appears to have had a lively interest in military matters and
the conduct of war. He was after all the supreme commander of the Byzantine
or, as he would prefer, Roman armed forces. Successor to Caesar Augustus, Trajan, Constantine, and Justinian, he was expected to be victorious in war and to
subject barbarian peoples to the authority of Rome. He soon realized that he
could not do this without a solid knowledge of military equipment and practice. This is precisely what Leo set about to acquire. The Byzantines had inherited a voluminous series of military treatises from antiquity: diagrams of battle
formations and instructions for improving one's archery, for besieging or defending a city, and for nearly every aspect of warfare. Leo went through all this,
summarized it, and presented what he considered to be an elementary handbook for his officers on how to prepare soldiers for war and how to move them
about on campaign and on the battlefield. The Tactical Constitutions, or Taktika, were the result.
Preceded by a prologue and concluding with an epilogue, the twenty Constitutions, or chapters, offer little that is original. But the Byzantines were not
interested in original compositions; they revered the authority of the ancients.
Apart, then, from sections devoted to the Saracens and to naval warfare, the
Taktika consist largely of adaptations and paraphrases of previous authors, the
most obvious of which are Onasander (first century A.D.), Aelian (second century A.D.), and Maurice (ca. A.D. 6oo). Leo must have compiled the Taktika
during his reign as emperor, for he refers to his father, Basil I, as deceased. As
with any work attributed to an emperor, it is not clear how much was written by
Leo himself (although there are some very personal remarks) and how much by
his secretaries or research assistants. At any rate, copies were made and, sometime before the death of his son, Constantine VII, in 959, it was incorporated


into a large volume of Greek military treatises, a sort of military encyclopedia,

and deposited in the imperial library. This, or a copy of it, is the mid-tenthcentury codex Mediceo-Laurentianus graecus, 55, 4 (M).
This manuscript, written by one hand on good parchment, has been the
subject of several detailed studies.' Alphonse Dain claims that it exemplifies the
first manuscript family, which he designates as the authentic tradition. In its
present state, it is made up of 404 folios, mostly quaternions, although some
folios are now missing, as will be noted suo loco. Each page measures 32.5 x 26
em., 32 lines to a page. The script is a clear and somewhat elegant minuscule,
with the titles in semi-uncial. The ink is dark brown, fading in places, with red
ink used for the titles, which are preceded by ornamental bands.
It seems that not many copies were made of M, and much of its subsequent history is not clear. Early in the fifteenth century, it was owned by a highranking army officer in the service of Emperor Manuel II Palaiologos, De-metrios Laskaris Leontares, who made use of blank spaces to record births and
deaths in his family from 1408 to 1439. His grandson, also named Demetrios,
made further notations for the years 1448 to 1450.2 After the fall of Constantinople, in 1453, the volume found its way to Thessaly, where it was purchased in
1491 by Janus Laskaris and brought to Florence.
The Tactical Constitutions, beginning on folio 281, originally consisted of
sixteen constitutions, which were followed by an assortment of maxims; an epilogue; and three treatises on surprise attacks, siege warfare, and naval warfare.
These three treatises, as well as a collection of concise sayings, were soon incorporated into the main body of the work, as can be seen in the codex Vindobonensis phil. graecus 275 (W), resulting in the following order for the final sections: Constitution XIV, The Day of Battle; XV, Siege Warfare; XVI, The
Day after Battle; XVII, Surprise Attacks; XVIII, Customs of Different Nations;
XIX, Naval Warfare; XX, Concise Sayings; Epilogue. This is the plan, perhaps
the original plan, given in the prologue (lin. 103-19). One should also note that,
in the manuscripts, Constitutions III and IV are in reverse order.
In addition to the above changes in the order of the chapters, W made a few
other changes, mostly minor ones, indicated below. It is, in essence, an expand-



Nl copy of M, a sort of second edition. Although mutilated in the beginning and

at the end, and missing several folios, it must be consulted to establish the authentic text of the Taktika. W is a small (octavo) parchment volume consisting
presently of 249 folios. The script is clear, 24 lines to a page, although the ink has
faded in several places. Especially in the earlier chapters, there are numerous
brief, crudely written marginal notations, perhaps by a later hand, often without
diacritical marks (reproduced as such in this edition), meant to clarify certain
terms in the text. When W was written is not clear, probably early in the second
half of the tenth century.
A thorough study of the two manuscripts indicates that W may have been
copied directly from M or, at least, from a manuscript very closely linked to it.
The differences between the two are minimal, and a survey of the first fourteen
chapters reveals some 220 common errors, such as KOUTou~epvtv and T6A.oov
(seep. xiii below). And, of course, each manuscript has some unique errors, with
W having a few more than M, including some omissions. Both seem to regard
indicative and subjunctive as interchangeable, o <-->- w, et <-->- '1 M tends to present numerals as such, whereas W tends to spell them out, e.g., tW versus
6wOeKa. Both prefer o to w in words such as KoupmiTope<;. In a few instances, W
has the correct reading whereas M does not, but these are usually due to simple
scribal corrections of mistakes in M. W generally adds final v before a word beginning with Kor T.
The second family of manuscripts, as identified by scholars, is headed by codex Ambrosianus B 119 sup. (139) (A), a parchment manuscript consisting of 347
folios, mostly quaternions, 29.5 x 22.5 em, with 31 lines to a page. 3 The Taktika
of Leo begins on folio 189. The manuscript has been dated to early in the second
half of the tenth century. 4 The text, however, is not the same as that found in M
and W, but is a paraphrase, with words often transposed. One cannot therefore
speak of common or unique errors in A with any precision. While it cannot be
ignored, it is, for the most part, not very helpful in reconstituting the original
text; on occasion, when M is faulty or lacking, A provides the correct reading.
A glance at the apparatus of this edition, however, makes it obvious that A has

A. M. Bandini, Catalogus codicum manuscriptorum graecorum Bibliothecae Laurentianae (Florence, 1768), 1:218-38; Dain, "Strategistes," 382-85, with bibliography; also his

3. A. Martini and D. Bassi, Catalogus codicum graecorum Bibliothecae Ambrosianae

(Milan, 1906), 1:157-60. See now B. Leoni, La Parafrasi Ambrosiana della Strategicon di Maurizio: l'arte della guerra a Bisanzio (Milan, 2003).

Histoire, 183-85.
2. P. Schreiner, Die byzantinischen Kleinchroniken, 3 vols. (Vienna, 1975), 1:641-49.

4 C. Mazzuchi, "Dagli anni di Basilio Parakimomenos (Cod. Ambros. B 119 sup.),"

Aevum 52 (1978): 267-318.





much more in common with the third manuscript family than with the first, although it is difficult to be more exact about their relationship. Whether it is a
paraphrase based directly on M or on a common ancestor, or on perhaps a sibling, is not clear.
The third family includes the largest number of manuscripts, but only three
are relevant to our study of the text. Codex Vaticanus graecus 1164 (V) is a
parchment manuscript, 23 x 31 em, with 33 lines to a page, composed of quaternions, and written in a careful, regular minuscule. Only 281 of its original 392
folios remain. Consisting of ancient and medieval military treatises, its copy of
the Taktika begins only at the end of Constitution V. This manuscript is very
closely related to Parisinus graecus 2442 (P) and Neapolitanus graecus 284 (N).
All three were produced in the same scriptorium, that ofEphrem, in Constantinople, at about the same time, probably around 1020. 5
P and the codex Barberinianus graecus II 97 (276) (B) originally formed one
manuscript, but the separation was poorly done and several quaternions were
mixed up in both.6 It is written in a careful minuscule, "Perlschrift," on parchment, 125 folios in P and 240 in B, quaternions, 34 x 26 em, with 36 lines to a
page. It was produced perhaps a bit later than V. The Tactical Constitutions of
Leo begin in B at folio 130.
The third manuscript from the same scriptorium, also divided in two, is
formed by Nand the codex Scorialensis graecus Y-III-11 (E). It is a parchment
manuscript, consisting of quaternions, 22.5 x 14 em, with 38 lines to a page. In
their present states, N consists of 101 folios that do not include the Taktika, and
E of 308, with the Taktika beginning on folio 160. The derivation of this manuscript has been disputed, but there are reasons to think that N E was copied
from V.
Other manuscripts containing complete or partial texts of the Taktika
continued to be produced through the sixteenth century-Vari counted 88 of
them? They are, however, of no use in reconstituting the original text.
The Taktika has been wholly or partially edited before this. A few pages of

J. Irigoin, "Pour une etude des centres de copies byzantins," Scriptorium 12 (1958): 208-

27; 13 (1959): 177-209.

6. Ibid. See also H. A. Omont, Inventaire sommaire des manuscrits grecs de Ia Bibliotheque nationale et des autres bibliotheques de Paris et des Departements, vol. 2, Ancien fonds
grec: Droit, histoire, sciences (Paris, 1888), 262.
7. R. Vari, Leonis imperatoris Tactica, 2 vols. (Budapest, 1917-1922) (= Va), 1:xv-xxix.


:o11stitution IV, as found in codex Monacensis graecus 244, were printed in

in 1552. The entire work, as found in three secondary manuscripts, was
!ll'Nl published by Joannes Meurs (Leyden, 1612). After some mistakes were corand the text compared with M, it was again published by J. Lami (Flor1745). This edition, in turn, was incorporated by J.-P. Migne into his Palrulogia graeca, vol. 107, cols. 672-1094 (= PG). Finally, a critical edition of
prologue and Constitutions I-XIV (to line 228) was published by Vari (see
n, At the top of each page are printed the sources utilized by the author, and
Itt the bottom the paraphrase of Nikephoros Ouranos under the title recensio
~:onstr:mtiniana. He also published Constitution XVIII, together with a Hungartranslation.8

lt is clear that any scholarly edition of the Taktika must be based on M,

with what is found in W. And such is the rationale of the present edition.
although a paraphrase, sometimes provides the correct reading or helps to
clarify the terminology of M. It has therefore been included in the apparatus.
the same reasons, the readings of V B E, although of less help, have also
included. We have indicated the folio numbers of M in the margin and,
where that is missing, those of W or A. In general, we have retained its arrangement of paragraphs and its orthography, including some inconsistencies, such
ns nicppo<; +-> Tpacpo<;. There are some exceptions, such as the sequence of the
hooks, noted above, and the spelling of some words. For example, instead of
l\OUTou~pvtv of MW, we have preferred KOVTOu~pvtv (-10v) of the other manuscripts (a better reflection of the Latin original contubernium), and TouA.oov
rather than the incorrect ToA.oov of MW. There are very few other changes and
the reasons for them should be clear from the apparatus.

Byzantine military writers, just like their modern counterparts, made no efto write in an imaginative or sophisticated manner. In fact, they explicitly
tell us that they have made no pretense of fine writing, of producing literary masterpieces. Leo's Taktika is no exception (cf. Epilogue, 70). Intended for
practical use, it is written in a straightforward and generally uncomplicated
Greek. We have tried to render this in the same kind of English. A very literal,

8. "Boles Leo Hadi Taktikajanak XVIII Fejezete" in A Magyar Honfoglalds Kutfoi, edited
by G. Pauler and S. Szilagyi (Budapest, 1900) (= Va,Hung.).



word-for-word translation may have some advantages, but it would not be readable. Sometimes, therefore, we have altered sentence structure, omitted several
Greek particles (yap, f.lEV, 8), and added a few words in < >, all in an effort to
make the text easier to read and to understand. We believe that the present translation, while not perfect, is nonetheless an accurate, idiomatic rendition of the
Greek original.
Words that have no exact equivalent in English would be awkward if translated literally and so have been left in transliterated Greek, e.g., bandon, tagma,
pentarch, dekarch, merarch. This has special relevance to the names given to
the units and officers of the Byzantine army. Company and regiment are not the
same as tagma or meros; a merarch is not really a colonel. One exception is the
plural of meros: "divisions" seems preferable to mere or meroses. In the manuscripts some numbers are written as numerals and others are spelled out. These
have been regularized in the translation: round numbers and numbers up to
one hundred are spelled out (e.g., tW becomes "twelve"); all others are rendered
in Arabic numerals.
In an effort to clarify some terms and to identify some citations or references, we have appended a few brief notes to the translation. An extended commentary by John Haldon is in preparation at Dumbarton Oaks.





Aelianus' Theorie der Taktik. In Griechische Kriegsschriftsteller.

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Anonymous. "Campaign Organization and Tactics." In Three

Byzantine Military Treatises. Edited and translated by G. Dennis.
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Anonymous. "Chapitres peu connus de !'Apparatus bellicus." Edited
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Anonymous. "De arcus usu." In Griechische Kriegsschriftsteller.
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"Tactics." In Aeneas Tacticus, Onasander, Asclepiodotus. Edited and

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Constantine Porphyrogenitus. De administrando imperio. Vol. 1,

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Constantine Porphyrogenitus. Three Treatises on Imperial Military

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For bibliographical abbreviations see above, Select Bibliography.


Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies




Byzantinische Forschungen


Byzantinische Zeitschrift


Corpus Fontium Historiae Byzantinae


Dumbarton Oaks Papers


Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies


]ahrbuch der Osterreichischen Byzantinistik


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Migne 161 vols. (Paris, 1855-67)


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Travaux et Memoires



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Codex Vindobonensis phil. graecus 275.

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Codex Vaticanus graecus 1164.

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Codex Scorialensis graecus Y-III-11.


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In A Magyar Honfoglalas Kutfoi, edited by G. Pauler
and S. Szilagyi (Budapest, 1900). (= Const. XVIII; see


Patrologiae cursus completus, Series graeca, edited by J.-P.

Migne, 161 vols. (Paris, 1857-66), 107:672-1094.


G. Dennis.


J. Duffy.


suppleta ab editore.













in margine.


omisit, omiserunt.




transposuit, transposuerunt.




1. 'Ev

OVO!lUTl TOU TiaTpoc; KQL TOU Ylou Kal TOU Ay[ou TiveullaToc;, T~c; ayiac;

Kal 611ooucriou Kal rrpocrKUVfJT~c; Tpt0.8oc;, Tou voc; Kal 116vou C:tA.fJ8tvou E>eou
5 ~11wv, Awv, 6 eipfJVLKoc; f.v Xptm(i> aU-roKpaTwp, mcrT6c;, evae~~c;, aetae~aaToc;,
2. Ou ~aatALK~ 8opu<pop[a KQL f.~oucr(a, ou T~c; f.~oucr[ac; 8uvameia Kal
rreptoucr(a, ou T~c; rreptoucr(ac; f.rr[8et~Lc; Kal arr6\.auatc;, OUOEV oaa TWV f.v av8pwrrotc; f.<pTWV Kal Tl!llWV T~V ~llTpav oihwc; U<ppa(Vl ~aatA.dav



10 UTrf]KOWV eip~Vf] Kal Uf]llPla Kal TWV TrOALTLKWV rrpawaTWV ~ 8t' auTWV f.rrl TO

KptTTOV KaTaaTacr[c; T KQL f.rrav6p8watc;. warrep TO f.vaVTLOV ou8f:v OtlTW T~V

~!lWV Kap8(av avt9. Kal AUTrl


~ TWV urro Xetpa 8ucrrrpay(a Kal TWV rrepl

aU-roue; aya8wv ~ 8t' Ct!lAiac; f.Ao.nwatc; Kal KaTarrTWatc;. ei yap evoc; av8poc;
T~c; ~!lWV ~~lW!lEVOU rrpovo(ac; ~ !lEV f.rrl TO KpLTTOV avaveuatc; a<paTOV ~IllY
15 eu<ppocrUVf]V f.pya(e-rat, ~

8' f.rrl TO xeipov arr6veumc; aAyf]OOVa \j!UX~c; avurrp~Af]TOV, Tl OUK av rra80L!lV TOGOUTWV !1Upta8wv T~c; ~!lWV !leTa Eleov ~pTf]!lE
VWV rrpovoiac;


T~v <ppovTi8a Kal f.mllAetav xpewcrToiJvTec;, VUKTwp !lEV

f.rraypurrvoiJ!lV, ~11pac; 8 8ta!lATW!1V rrO.crf]c; !lEV Ctf]8(ac; Kal ~Aa~f]c; i:.A.eu8pouc; 8taTf]picr8at, TrUGf]c; 8t xapac; Kal Uf]llPtac; rrpOGf]KOVTWc; f.rrarroA.auetv;

3 AHa TWV !lEV aAA.wv rrepl T~V TrOALTdav rrpawaTWV lllKpav nva 8e~a!1EVWV '(awe; f.Ao.nwmv ou TocraUTf]V Ka-ravoou11ev T~v ~Aa~f]V, T~c; 8 mpaTf]ytK~c; 11e868ou 8tarrecroucrf]c; TocrouTq> Ka-r6mv Ta 'Pw11aiwv cruvfJA.0.8fJ rrpawa-

Ta, ocrov ~ rreipa TOU vuv XPOVOU rraatv arravm KaT' 6cp8aA!10Uc; 6pw11eva rrap(25



aTf]at rrp68f]Aa.
4. "E8et !lEV yap av8pwrrouc; arravmc;, eLKOVl Eleou Kal Aoyq> TTl!lfJ!1EVOUc;
T~V eip~Vf]V acrrra(ecr8at Kal T~V etc; CtAA~AOUc; rrept8aATrLV ayartf]V KUL 11~

1. In the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, the holy,
tJ!msubstantial, and worshipful Trinity, our one and only true God, Leo, peaceful
l;lUtokrator in Christ, faithful, pious, ever revered Augustus.
2. It is not the imperial pageantry and authority, not the power and extent of
thttt authority, not the display and enjoyment of all that. It is not any of those
things sought after and esteemed by men that brings such joy to Our Majesty as
does the peace and prosperity of our subjects and the setting aright and the
~c:tmstant improvement in those matters that affect our citizens. On the contrary,
nothing so grieves and pains our heart as the misfortunes of our subjects and
1my decrease or failure <in their attaining> the good things due them, because
<someone's> negligence. Now, if an improvement in the condition of just one
person who has been entrusted to our care causes us ineffable happiness and the
worsening of his condition brings us unsurpassed grief of soul, what would we
not suffer with so many tens of thousands depending, after God, on our
providence? Mindful of our obligation to take thought and to be concerned
about them, we stay up at night, and during the day we deliberate on how to
preserve them free of all unpleasantness and harm and on how they may enjoy
all the happiness and prosperity that are rightfully theirs. 1
3 When other matters affecting the state deteriorate to some small degree,
we do not consider the damage to be excessive. But everyone can clearly see,
with his own eyes, how the collapse of strategic knowledge has cast all the affairs
of the Romans down to such a degree as we experience at this very moment.
4 For honored by the image and word of God, all men ought to embrace
peace and foster love for one another instead of taking up murderous weapons

M W (mut.) ABE Va PG 107:672

1-6 A.eovroc; ... auyouaToc; M om. ABE

9 t<pETWV M em8Uf!TJTWV ABE 11 TE Kal

mi8Wf!EV ABE 16-17 ~PTTJf!EVWV M i:KKpEf!Uf!evwv ABE 17 Kal MA Kal T~v BE I
vuKTwp M vuKToc; ABE 22 oaouw MA oaouTov BE 1 KaTomv ... auvTJMSTJ MA a
tnav6p8watc; MA om. BE

15 {j' M Of ABE

pwf!a[wv UUVTJAUSTJ KaT6mv BE

23 viiv MA om. BE

1. Leo and other emperors employ similar words to articulate t~eir overwhelming
concern, "night and day: for the welfare of their subjects. See H. Hunger, P~ooimion: Elemente
der byzantinischen Kaiseridee in den Arengen der Urkunden (Vienna, 1964), 97-99.








Xdpa<; <pov[ou<; KaLa TWV 6f.!OYVWV Ka8on\.[(nv. nw5~ 0 6 em' apx~<; av8pwnoKT6vo<; Ota~o\.o<; Kat Tou yvou<; ~f.!WV ex8po<; Ota T~<; <'tf.!apTta<; taxuaa<; Kma
T~<; [O[a<; (jlUCYeW<; avnaTpaTUW8at TOU<; av8pwnou<; napWKUaCYV, micra a!
vayKf] Tal<; alJTOU ytVOf.!fVat<; Ota TWV av8pwnwv flllxavat<; av8pwnou<; avnmpaTUW8at Kat tot<; 8\.oum noA.f.!OU<; 8vt:m fl~ UXtpwtou<; Ka8[aTaa8at.
ana Tat<; mpaTfJYLKat<; f.!e860ot<; t~V CYWTf]p[av nop[(w8at Kat Ot' aUTWV
<pu\.anw8at f.!EV uno TWV empxOf.!fVWV nOAefllWV, Opiiv 6 KaT' aUTWV oaa
na8etV eKdVot av dev i:i~tOL w<; av eKKonvto<; TOU Ota TWV nOVf]pWv eyxetpOUf.lfYOU KaKOU Kat naVtWV T~V OlKelaV CYWTf]plaV aana(Of.!fVWV ~ ip~Vf] napa niiat
CYTepx8df] Kat no\.muotTO.
s."Ew<; f.!EV yap, w<; EOLK, TaKaTa noAtf.!OU<;'Pwf.!a[ot<; ev eUTa~l\l OVTa etuyxav, T~<; T en' OUK 6\.[you<; xpovou<; 8da<; an\.au ~Of]8eta<; to KpaTO<; Kat Tft
eUTa~l\l KtpVWfleVO<; TWV aptmwv 6 novo<;, TO Aaflnpov T~<; VLKf]<; ent nAtov
eTatVLOUTO. vuv 6 T~<; TaKTLK~<; T Kat mpaTf]YLK~<; KaTaCYTUCYeW<; en' OUK
6\.[you<; XPOVOU<; afleAOUf.!fVf]<;, [va fl~ Ayw Kat d<; navTeA~ nt:pte\.8ouCYf]<;
A.~8f]V, W<; flf]OE auTa Ta npoxetpa TOU<; CYTpaTfjydv eyxetpouvm<; en[maa8at,
nona Ouaxep~ Ota<p6pw<; 6pWf.!V CYUfl~a[vovm. T~<; yap no\.Awv aya8wv
npo~vou bnaT~flf]<; OtanWOUCYf]<;, oawv Ot' auT~<; ~ 'Pwf.!a[wv noAtTda
eUf.!Olpf]CY, TOUvavt[ov 6pWflV T~V 8t:[av anouaav Uf.lfVLav Kat T~V auv~8f]
T~<; 'Pwfla[wv noAtTta<; VlKf]V TWV aywvt(Of.!fVWV a<ptTITaflfVf]V. KaTa fllKpov yap
afleAOUf.!fVf]<; T~<; KaTa noA.flOU<; t:uTa~[a<; Kat yuflvaa[a<; <JUVf]flA~8f], w<; iiotK,
Kat TWV aptmwv ~ U'!JUXla. dm noT flEV ayUf.!VU<Jtav ~ avavop[av ahtWf.!e8a
<JTpanWTWV, nOT 8 ant:tp[av ~ on\.[av KaTaflefl(jlOfle8a CYTpaTf]YWV, ev[oT 6
<Ot'> a<Ja<petav T~<; TWV apxa[wv TaKTLKWV Otayvw<JeW<; af.!eAOUfleV. TaUTf]V ouv
44 ab eSt' aut~~ inc.
27-28 loan. 8:44.

40-78 Strat., praef.10-35.

27 xTpac; <pov[ouc; M <pOVlKU<; xTpa~ ABE 28 Ota~OAO~ ABE cSta~OAlKO~ M I icrxucrac; MA

icrxupac; BE 33 opav M rrpanetv ABE 34 rra8lv ... dev M KeTvot rra8eTv eicriv ABE
35 rraat M TIUVTWV ABE 36 crtepx8d!] M ayarrlje~ ABE 37-38 wc; ... huyxave M oi
PWf.!a"LKol TIOAf!Ol tv Uta~[a tyivovto (tyevovto BE) ABE 38 T ... xpovouc; M om. ABE I
cmeA.aue MAB cmeA.a~e E 38-40 Kal. .. -rmvtoiho M om. ABE 39 aptatewv Va
aptcrtdwv codd. 40 n: M om. ABE 40-41 err' ... xpovouc; M trrl xpovouc; OUK oA.iyouc;
ABE 42 ta ABE om. M 45 ei>f!oip!]cr MABE ei>f!oip!]crev W I touvavtiov MW to
tvavtiov ABE 47 we; eotK MW om. ABE 48 ayuf!vacriav ... aitu.Of!e8a MW aittwf!8a
ayuf!Vacr[av ~ avavopiav ABE 49 tviot MW TIOAAUKl<; ABE 50 <'it' ci. Du om. codd. I
acra<petav ... Ctf!AOUf!V MW t~V TWV apxaiwv taKtlKWV <'itayvwatv we; acra<p~ Kal OUOKOAOV
rrapopWf!V ABE I taKttKWV W ABE om. M

In their hands to use against their own people. But since the devil, the killer of

1mn from the beginning, 2 the enemy of our race, has made use of sin to bring

men to the point of waging war against their own kind, it becomes entirely
llt~eessary for men to wage war making use of contrivances of the devil,
tlt'Veloped through men and, without flinching, to take their stand against those
nntions that want war. They must then make provision for their security by
military means, employing them to defend themselves against the onslaughts of
enemy, to take action against them, and to make them suffer what they may
wdl deserve. In this way, the evil brought about by those wicked people will be
t!Kdsed. With everyone embracing his own safety, peace will be cherished by all
tmd will become a way of life.
5. For, so it seems, as long as the armed forces of the Romans were in good
order, the state enjoyed divine assistance for not a few years, and the toil of the
most valorous was mingled with discipline and, for the most part, was crowned
with the splendor of victory. But, for many years now, the pursuit of tactics and
11trategy has been neglected, not to say fallen so completely into oblivion that
those assuming the command of an army do not understand even the most
t>bvious matters. 3 We may observe that this leads to quite a number of different
problems. For with the disappearance of this knowledge, productive of so many
good things, and by means of which the commonwealth of the Romans
flourished of old, we behold the opposite; divine favor is absent and the
accustomed triumph of the Roman commonwealth has flown away from its
fighting men. For, along with the gradual neglect of military discipline and
training, the courage of our brave warriors, so it would seem, has also declined.
Sometimes we attribute the cause to the lack of training and the cowardice of
the soldiers; sometimes we place the blame on the inexperience and timidity of
their commanders; and sometimes we neglect the clear teaching of the ancient
tacticians because of its obscurity. Wishing, therefore, with God's help, to restore


John 8:44.

3 See Strat., Preface 10-35.

6 Prologue

Prologue 7

avaawaaaeat (JUV 8e{i> Kal olav anwcr8eicrav EK

T~<; 'Pwlla'[K~<; ~!lWV TIOALTe(a<; avaKaAcracr8at ~OUAO!leVOl, OUK WKV~Ga!leV
crnouofi TOGauTn avaM~acrem !li::V ioiw<; n6vov, KOlV~V oi:: TOt<; UTIT]KOOl<; xap(cracrem T~V W<pfAetaV.
6. Tat<; yap apxatat<; Kat 0~ Kat Tal<; VeWTfpat<; GTpaTTJYLKat<; Te Kat TaKnKat<;
E!l<ptAoxwp~cravTe<; !le86oot<; Kal -rai<; O.Hat<; KmaJ.oya<'ifJv vTux6vT<; imopim<;, Kal e'( Tl KaTCt xeipa<; oo~e XP~OlflOV TWV v TIOAE!lOl<; avayKa(wv, EKetElev
avaAe~U!leVOl Kal oiov pavwa!leVOl, oaa Kal Ola !leTPta<; ndpa<; nl TWV pywv
auTwv av~::llaeo!lev T(il KaEl' ~!lii<; Katp{i> Kal Tfi vuv Kmamacret np6crcpopa T Kai
6o ap!lOOla, TQUTQ U!llV KaTCt TO ouvaTov (JUVTOflOV Te Kai I ClTIA~V T~V wcp;\nav nl
TWV npawa-rwv xov-ra w<; O.Hov npoxnpov VOflOV napaOtOOa!leV, v npa~eOl
!liiAAOV ~ Af~e(Jl TO GeflVOV Kai xpnwOe<; napeXOfleVOl, olov dcraywy~v nva
TaKTlK~V TOL<; ~lle-rpot<; unompa-r~yot<; Kai TU<; TIOAe!llKU<; f!lTI11l(JTD!lfVOl<;
xpeia<;, <'it' Ui-!WV unayopeUOVTe<; w<; eUKOAOV EVTeUElev elvm TOt<; ~OUAOflfVOL<;
65 Kal nl TU fleL<w TWV rraAatwv EKelVWV TaKTLKWV Kai apxaiwv <EleWPTJ!lUTWV>
Ta~n nvl Kal ~aElfl{i> npo'lvm, <ppacrew<; fli::V aKpt~ou<; ~ KO!lnou PfJflUTWV
OUOefllUV TIOlf]GUflVOl <ppovTIOa, npUYflUTWV oe !liiAAOV Kal O"U<pf]Veta<; A6you
KQL Af~eW<; ClTIA~<; Tie<ppOVTlKOTe<;. o8ev TQUTU<; naAatU<; T~<; TQKTLK~<; TIOAAUKL<;
'EAAT]VLKU<; fll::v EO"U<pf]VlO'UfleV Af~et<;, 'PWflU.lKU<; oi:: 0LP!lfJVeUO'afleV, Kat TLO'LV
70 hpm<; aTpanwnKft auvf]Eleiq. AeAeYf.lfVat<; EXPTJO"U!le8a ;\~wtv eveKev T~<;
aacpov<; KUTaA~\jfeW<; TWV EvTuyxav6vTWV, flOVOV TWV OUK avayKa(wv OtaTa~eWV
e~nPTJflEVWV Ota T TO nepmov KUL ~v axpfJGTLQV Kat ~v TWV auyypafl!lUTWV

51 OVT)OLf.lWTU<T)V MW wcpeALf.lWT<iTT)V ABE I anwcr8dcrav MW <'mootwx8ETcrav ABE 55 Kal

o~ MW om. ABE 56 Ef.lq>LAoxwp~crav<e~ MW <ptAon6vw~ tnuxov<e~ ABE 56-57 Tat~ ...
icr<opiat~ MW TU~ iiHa~ icr<opia~ avepeuv~crOVTE~ AB TU~ iiHa~ KUTUAoy<'toT)V EVTUXOVTE~ E
1 scr. mg. apptavou ml>.iavou JtAono~ 6vT)cr<'tvopou f.lT)VO. nol>.ua(vou cruptavou nl>.ou<apxou W
57 l n WBE eh MA I KUla xETpa~ MW om. ABE I EOO~ XP~Olf.lOV MW trsp. ABE
58 6.vaA~Uf.lVOl MWA tmAe~Uf.lEVOl BE I Kail ... tpavtCfUf.lEVOl MW om. ABE I ocra Kal MW
trsp. ABE I OlU f.lETpta~ MW ot' OAlYT)~ ABE 6o CfUVTOf.lOV ABE CfUVTOf.lW~ MW 61 w~ ...
VOf!OV ABE npoxeipou <a~tv v6f.1ou MW 62 dcraywy~v MW etcrooov ABE 63 noAEf.lLKa~
MW noAmKa~ ABE 65 f!Ei~w MW f.ld~ova ABE I 8ewpT)f.lUTwv ci. Va om. codd.
66 npottvat MW npoxwpe1v ABE I cppacrew~ ... pT)f!Ct<wv MW Kal>.Aou~ f!Ev A6you ABE
67 notT)OCtf!EVot cppovtioa MW trsp. ABE 67-68 cracpT)vda~ ... taum~ MW(o8ev Kal)
cruvt6f!OU Kal UK6Aou ot!]y~crew~ cppon(cravte~ Stu touto ABE 68 tii~ ... noHaKt~ MW
At~et~ <ii~ <aKttKii~ ABE 69-71 KaL .. tvtuyxav6vtwv MW Kal ttepat~ At~emv
txp1Jcraf!E8a tv crtpa-rtwnKii cruv118eia l>.eyof.lEVat~ npo~ to EiiKoAov dvm -r~v ot~yl]crtv toT~
evtuyxavoucrtv ABE 71-78 f!Ovov ... ta~tv MW om. ABE

!his most profitable knowledge and, after it had been almost driven out of our

Roman commonwealth, to call it back into being, we have not hesitated, with
seriousness, to take up this task ourselves and, in this way, to graciously
bestow a common benefit upon our subjects.
6. After devotedly giving our attention to the ancient, as well as to the more
recent, strategic and tactical methods, and having read about further details in
other accounts, if we came across anything in those sources that seemed useful
ft)r the needs of war, we have, as it were, gathered it up and collected it.4 Those
things, moreover, that we have learned from our own limited experience of
11ctive duty and that are applicable and serviceable in our day and in the present
situation, we now pass on to you as best we can. We offer them as a modest
tlSSistance in these matters, succinctly, as another Procheiros nomos, presenting
In practice rather than in words what is useful and worthy of respect. It is a sort
of introductory book on tactics for our subcommanders and those who have
been entrusted with the responsibilities of combat. 5 We assure you that this
should make it easier for those who wish to advance in an orderly manner and
by degrees to a better knowledge of those old tactical authors and ancient
theories. We have paid no heed to the strictures of good diction or fine-sounding words. Our concern, rather, has been with practicality, clarity of expression,
and simplicity of style. With this in mind, we have frequently clarified the
ancient Greek tactical terms and we have translated the Latin ones into their
Greek equivalents. We have also employed certain other expressions in common
military usage to make it easier for the reader to understand them. The only
thing we have done away with are formations that are no longer needed because
they are superfluous, useless, and their description is not clear. Thus, those who
desire to command troops may have ready access to a great store of experience
concerning the requirements for combat and military campaigns. This manual


4 In the margin of W, someone (perhaps the scribe) has written the names of Arrian,
Aelian, Pelops, Onasander, Menas, Polyaenus, Syrianus, Plutarch.
5 Subcommander: hypostrategos, also lieutenant general (see 4.8-9). At one time all
generals were called lieutenant generals, the emperor being considered the one supreme
general, with the others as his delegates. In Leo's time, the term was applied to the senior



JtOAE!lOU<; Kat EK0Tpan:[ac; avayKa[wv T~V n:dpav, ou A.6yq> !lOVOV TO XP~<Jl!lOV

7; exouaav, aA.A.a 0~ Kat auTolc; pyote; n:apa
axptc; ~!lWV, ei Kat ll~ pyote; auTolc; ole;


rraA.mwv yyullvaa81aav Kat

Ta 'Pwlla[wv

ET!t llya ~p8Tj OUVCt!lfW<;,

rrapam:!l<p8daav, aAA.' ouv Tole; A.6yOLc; Ot' dJv avaA.a!l~CtVETaL Kal ava!lt!lV~(JKf
TaL Ta A.~ en rrapaT!f!l<p8vm Kat eic; T~V apxaiav T!CtAtV UT!OKa8[ama8at TCt~LV.
7 AAA.' <p' OCJ(jl !lEV v Tole; pT]8Tj00!1EVOL<; TO DXPTJ0TOV avaoetx8fi, xaptc;

Ttp T!CtVTWV aya8wv OOT~pt Xpt0Ttp, Ttp ~aCJLAfL TOU rraVToc; Kat ee(il ~llWV, Ttp
Kat TOte; ~!lETEpOLc; A.6yotc; 0WpT]0a!lEV(jl T~V xaptv. ei o nc; Kat npoc; Ot' aUT~c;
T~c; ET!l!lfAflac; Kat m[pac; KpeLTTova T01JTWV <peupn, xaptc; Kat oihwc; Ttp rrava-

ya8q> ee(il, auyyvW!lTJ o ~IlLY T~c; rrpo8u!l[ac; EVfKfV.

8. IT<ivTwc;

0 xp~, ehe ET!t T!AEOV ehe err' A.anov, muc; ~OUA0!1EVOU<; mpa-

TTjydv Talc; TaKTLKalc; Tf Kat cnpmTjytKalc; evOtaTpl~flV !lfAETatc;. oM yap, we;

TtVf<; TWV arre[pwv exoum, Ota T!A~8ouc; avopwv Kat 8paaouc; ol T!OAf!lOt Kp[vovTaL, aAA.a Ot' fU!lfVeLac; ewu Kat 0TpaTT]yiac; Kat T<i~ewc;, ~c; !lCtAAOV ET!l!lfAT]TEOV
~ au:\Aoy~c; T!A~8ouc; aKa[pou ~ !lEV yap Kat aCJ<pUAftav Kat w<p:\aav ayet Tole;

KaA.wc; auTfi KfXPTJ!lEVOL<;, ~ 0 Kat auvTpt~~v Kat m(~!lt0V oan:CtVTJV.


9. 'Dan:ep yap ouK aTtv 6:\Kaoa rreA<iyTJ Otarrop811euw8m Ku~epVTJTLK~c;

ET!LCJT~!lTJ<; I xwp[c;, oihwc; ouo T!OAf!llOU<; Kamywvi(w8m T<i~ewc; Kat mpaTTjyiac; KT6c;, ot' ~c; ou 116vov Tou iaopporrouvToc; rrA.~8ouc; Twv rroA.e11iwv rreptyeva8m auv 8e(il OuvaTOV ECJTLV, aHa Kat TOU T!OAAtp T!AEOV Ttp apt8!l4J dmep>~UAAOVTO<;. warrep ouv O.Hov TtVa rrpoxapov VO!lOV DilLY,

we; e'lpT]TaL, mpaTTj-

95 ytKov T~v rrapouaav rrpay!laTeiav urrayopeuovTec; rrpoaexwc; T Kal mrr6vwc;

aKouav ~11wv n:apaKAfUO!l8a.

10. Xpeov Toivuv rrp6Tepov 11v imoyp<i\jiat T~v v rroA.11mc; TaKTtK~v, Kat Ti
an 0TpaTTjy6c;, eha Tiva Kat OT!OLOV TOY mpaTTJYOV elVaL Oe'i Kat orrwc; Mov

~ouA.euw8at, ~~c; o T~V eic; apxovTac; Kat apxollvouc; TOU 0TpaTOU Ota8lvat

Ota[pemv, T~v Tf aAAT]V arroaKeu~v Kal TWV orrA.wv KaTaaKeu~v Kat T~v eK<iCJTou
90-96 Strat., 7.A.1.

79 e<p' ... avaonxe~ MW d !lfV XP~<H!lU TCt rrap' ~!lWV p!]6!]00!lVU <pUVW(Jl ABE 82 Kal
rrdpa~ MWA om. BE I e<pup!] MWA om. BE I oihw~ MWA oihw BE 83 Of: MWA om. BE
86 TLV~ ... xouat MW TWV a7!dpwv {mOAU!l~UVOU(Jl nv~ A {JTIOAU!l~avoum nv~ TWV
arrdpwv BE 87 ot' U!lVia~ MW OlCt <ptAav6pw1![a~ ABE I ETil!lA!]TEOV MW E1ll!lAicr6at
XP~ ABE 88 iiyn MWBE EXl A 90 6\Kaoa MW rr\o1ov ABE I 8ta7!op6!lU06at MW
OLUTIpiiv ABE 90-91 KU~pV!]TLK~~XWPl~ MW xwpl~ KU~pV!]TlK~~ emcrT~!ll]~ ABE
92 icropporroiiVTo~ W icropporrowiivTo~ M 'lcrou ABE 93-94 rr\eov ... ~O.HovTo~ MW
1!Aiovo~ ABE urrp suppl. Lami (PG) 94 v6!lov ABE om. MW 95 11pocrqw~ ABE v61lov
rrpocrxw~ MW

97 XP<'>v MW xpda ABE 98 Tov MW A om. BE

thrives its usefulness not only from what has been written down but also from
!he fact that it has been put into practice by ancient authorities and has been
transmitted down to our own day. Even if it had not been accompanied by those
at~tions that had raised the situation of the Romans to great power, at least the
words that had been consigned to oblivion have been brought back to life,
remembered, and again restored to their ancient position.
7 To the extent that something useful may be discovered in what we are
~:~bout to say, thanks be to Christ, the giver of all good things, the king of all and
our God, who has bestowed his favor upon our words. If anyone else, through
his own diligence and experience, should improve upon these words, likewise,
thwks be to the all-good God, and may we be pardoned for being so
8. It is absolutely essential, to a greater or less degree, that men who intend
to command troops should spend their time in tactical and strategic exercises.
For it is not true, as some inexperienced persons may hold, that wars are
decided by a multitude of men wd courage, but by the favor of God and by
generalship and discipline; one must be concerned about this rather than assembling an unreasonable multitude. For the former brings safety and advwtage to
those who make good use of it, while the latter brings trouble wd harmful
9. Just as it is not possible to sail a ship over the sea without knowledge of
navigation, neither is it possible to overcome the enemy without discipline wd
generalship. 6 Whereas, with these, and with God's help, not only is it possible to
prevail over an enemy force of equal strength but also over one which greatly
outnumbers yours. We submit the present treatise on generalship, as we have
said, like another Procheiros nomos and we earnestly advise you to listen to us
attentively and very seriously.
10. First, it is necessary to outline the tactics employed in warfare. Then,
what is a general? Who and what sort of person should he be? How should he
make his plans? After that, explain the division of the army into officers wd the
troops they command, as well as their equipment, the weapons provided them,

6. Cf. Strat. 7.A.L




TWV f.WXOflEVWV OTIAL<HV, itpO<; T01JTOL<; T~V itpo TWV CtATj0LVWV aywvwv TOU
a-rpaTOU YUflVU<J(av, emma o Kal TCt KlflVa imavayvwae~vm tmTLfllU. ha
itpt ooomop(a<; dTIlV Tfj<; T tv Tfi tOL<;l Kat Tfj<; tv Tfi it0Afll<;l, itp( T TOU
AYOflEVOU TouA.oou Kal o~ Kal itpl CtTIALKTWV Tf]<; T itpOKata<JKU~<; Kal Tiapay105 yAta<;. Kat Tl Oct ycva0m itpO Tfj<; TOU itOAtflOU ~flpa<; Kat oaa tv Tfi TOU

TIOAtflOU ~flp<;t tTiocpdA.nm; Kal ETL itpl TIOALopKia<;, ha Kal Ta flETCt TOV
itOAflOV 6<pLA0flVa Kal TCt<; ot' tvtopwv CtOOK~TOU<; tcp6oou<; TWV T ~flTEpwv
Kal TWV TIOAflLWV. Kal tTil TOUTOL<; otacp6pwv TiapaT6.~wv flAEta<; t0vLKWV T
Kal 'Pwfla"iKWV. dm itpo<; TOt<; dpT]flEVOL<; Kal itpl vauflax[a<; otaT6.~m flTptw<;.

Kal brl TouToL<; <litam yvc.ilfla<; Ttv<':t<; TaKTLK6.<; T Kal a-rpatT]YLKa<; io[w<; tv tK0<JL auvayaylv, oaa<; OT]AOVOTL KaTCt xwpav tvT6.~m TO U<JUVOTITOV Kal itpOXLpov TWV OlaTCt~WV ou auyxwpl, acp' wv 6pf1WflVOV aocpov OVTa Kal 6~uv Tfi
otavo(<;t Tov mpmT]yov ao<pWTpov ycvtaem tA.Tii(of1V.

Kal itpWTOV flEV apKTEOV tvTU0V.

the armament of each one of the fighting men. In addition, the training of
lht: army before actual combat. Then, the official reading of the penalties in
There follows a discussion about the army on the march, both in our own
in hostile territory, and about the so-called baggage train and, of course,
about preparation and instructions regarding encampments. What must be
done the day before battle and what has to be done on the day of battle? Further,
about siege warfare. Then, what is to be done after battle? What about unexpectattacks and ambushes both of our own troops and of the enemy? In addition
t(l these, training in various battle formations, foreign and Roman. Our compilation is then followed by a limited exposition of naval warfare. Concluding all
this, certain tactical and strategic maxims have been collected and set forth
Individually, those, that is, that the summary, handbook nature of the chapters
does not permit to insert in their place. We hope that the study of these will lead
the wise and sharp-witted commander to become even wiser.?
11. We must first begin here.


ad yevcr8m des. W I inter ff. 2 et 3 remanet fol. pars exigua, in qua }egitur: recto: rrpo
E<V> ... E7IO<p<iATUL> ... <TrOAl>OpKLU~ ... rr6A. <qwv> ... 8t' e<vellpwv> ... TWV .. .
WV ... rr ... T. verso: <<JT>pctTTlYOU ... TrOAEf.llKWV ... 1tOA!.llKct\. .. <a[> I) I; KUTU ... <<JTpUTI]Yl>K~ .. .


T~<~> .. .oaa

KUL Kl <V~<JEWV> ... aya <BWV> ... <f.!EA>ETI] ... <<JTpUTI]Yl]f.l<lT>WV.


Prov. 1:5.

Twv' MWAB om. E lrrpo Twv MWA rrpo~ Tov BE 102 crTpaToii Va crTpm!]you codd.
rroAEf.!LU MWAB rroAf.!LU y~ E 104 Kal 6~ MW om. ABE 106 rrocpLA.nm W
imocpLA.nm MABE I Ta MA om. BE 107 v6pwv M eyKpUf.!f.!UTWV ABE I MoK~TOu~ M
arrpocrlloK~TOU~ A arrpocrlloK~TW~ BE 108 f.IEAETU~ MBE f.IEAETUL~ A 109 rrpo~ M errl
ABE I Kal rrepl ABE om. M I OtaTa~m f.!ETpiw~ M Elrrdv ABE 110 cmam M om. ABE



110-112 tlliw~ ... cruyxwpe1



7 Proverbs 1:5.




About Tactics and the General

Ilepl -raKnK~~ Kal mpaTJwou


TaKTLK~ E<HLV ETtl<H~flT] TtOAefllKWV KlV~ereWV KLV~erw; o TtOAeflLKal

oma(, a[ flEV KaTa y~v, a[ 0 KUTU eaA.aererav.

2. TaKnK~ eerTt TXV'l mpat'lYLK~ rcapaTa~t:wv Kal 6rcA.terfl<Dv Kal Ktv~ert:wv
3 LTpaTTJYLK~ o ern erTpaT'lYWV aya9wv eruvaerKf]CYL<; ~youv fleATT] Kal
yuflvaer(a flETCt mpaTTJY'lflCtTWV ~TOL Tporca(wv eruva9poterf.16<;.
4 LKOTCO<; Tfl TaKTLKfl OLU TWV EVOXOflVWV empoA.wv Kal rcpa~eWV VLK~erat



Tou<; rcoAefllou<;.
s. Xp~CYLflOV 0 ern Tfl TaKTLKfl TOot' ellTCtKTOU <em>9erew<; erUflTtAKw9at
TOi<; TtOAeflLOL<;.
6. TA.o<; Tfl mKnKfl KaTa vOx6fleVov O.vt:mA.~mw<; otata~m To erTpaTeufla.
7 A[ 0 ei<; wu<; rcoAflOU<; TALat rcapTOLflaer(m ouo t:ier(v ~ flEV KaTa y~v
Tte(LK~, ~ oe KaTCt 96.A.aererav vaunK~. rtepl flEV oi>v T~<; vaunK~<; i\erTepov pouflV. TWV o KaTCt y~v ercl rcoAflOU<; 0.9pot(OflVWV O.vopwv TO TtA~9o<;, TO flV
ern flCtXLflOV ~youv TtOAefllKOV, TO o OLU TU<; TOUTOU xpda<; eruvepx6fleVOV
<'iflaxov. Kal rcoAeflLKov flEV -ro rcapaTaerer6flevov rcpo<; -rou<; rcoAefllou<; mpanwnK6v Uflaxov o TO AOLTCOV, oiov iaTpwv, OOUAWV, EflTCOpwv, Kal <'iAA.wv, oerOL OL<l
Ta<; Urtf]pw(a<; ercaKoAou9oumv. TOU o flaXLflOU flpou<; ~youv TtOAefllKOU erTpaTOU TO flV eerTL Tte(LKOV, TO o KapaAA.aptKOV. Kal TO flEV io(w<; Tte(LKOV TO ercl y~<;
LaTCtfleVOV, TO o KapaAA.aptKOV TO ercl TWV LTCTCWV OXOUfleVOV. ~v 0 TCOT Kal ercl
apflCtTWV arcA.wv KUL apflCtTWV opercav'lc:p6pwv Kal ercl EAe<pCtVTWV rcupyou<;

Tactics is the science of movement in warfare. Movements in warfare are

twofold, those on land and those on sea. 1
2. Tactics is the military skill <that is concerned with> battle formations,
1\rmament, and troop movements.
3 Strategy is how good commanders put their military training into practice, their drilling with stratagems, and putting together ways of defeating <the
enemy>. 2
4 The aim of tactics is to defeat the enemy by all possible means of assaults
and actions.
s. The usefulness of tactics lies in engaging the enemy in combat by means
of a well disciplined attack.
6. The purpose of tactics is, inasmuch as possible, to draw up the army in an
unassailable formation.
7. Complete preparation for warfare is twofold: infantry on land and naval
forces at sea. About naval warfare we will discourse later. Of the mass of men
mobilized for warfare on land, one part consists of fighting men or warriors, the
other of non-combatants who are to see to their needs. The fighting men are
drawn up as an army confronting the enemy. The rest are noncombatants such
as doctors, slaves, merchants, and others, all those who follow along to provide
services. Of the fighting units, that is, the army in the field, some are infantry
and some cavalry. The infantry, specifically, take their stand on the ground, the
cavalry are mounted on horses. There was a time when war involved plain
chariots and chariots armed with scythes, as well as elephants carrying towers

M A B E Va PG 107:68o

3-25 Aeliani Tact. 7heoria, 2.1.

TIOAEfllKWV TiapaaKeuwv MA om. BE I a' MB 11pw-r!] AE 4 Olna[ M Mo ABE 5 ea-rt
MA eanv BE 9 VlK~OUl De KlVTJOUl codd. 11 eon MA eanv BE I emSeaew<; De etaew<;
codd. 13 avemA~mw<; M Ctf!Ef!mW<; ABE 14 TIOAEf!OU<; A TIOAef![ou<; MBE 19 oiov MA
olot BE 1 ia-rpwv ... iiUwv De ia-rpwv oouAwv Ef!Tidpwv Kal iiAAwv M ia-rpol oouAot Ef!7tOpot
Kal iiUot A ia-rpol oouAOL Ef!1!dpot Kal iiAAOL BE 20 ETIUKOAouSoiiatv M eJtaKoAouSoiiat
ABE 21 Ka~aUaptK6v ABE Ka~aAMptov M 23 Kall M Kal eJtl ABE



Much of this chapter is derived from Aelian, Tactical Theory,

AnonStrat, 4-5.


See also AnonStrat, 14.




filled with men. But we will not discuss these now because such armament is no

axpfJaTlUV KUL T~V 1tUVTA~ apyiav TWV TOlOlrtWV Jtapa<JKUWV.

8. T~c; oDv mKTlK~~ !1Tpiw~ rrwc; oihw~ unoypa<pd<Jf]~ 6[ KUL TOV <JTpUTf]-

longer employed and has gone completely out of use.

f:~ouaiav xwv 11na Tov ~amA.a.

10. ITpaTfJYO~ E<JTlV 6 TOU uno xLpa mpaTtWTlKOD e!1UTO~ Kopu<pato~

apxwv, I EK ~a<JlAEW~ !lfV rrpoxapt~0!1VO~, TOU~ o urr' auTOV apxovm~ TOU~ !lfV
'\f~<p<.p Tfi auTOU, EK ~(l<JlAEW~ 6 KUmlt!11t0!1EVOtJ~, TOU~ o f:~ouaiq ioiq

ll."Iotov 6 <JTPUTfJYOD TO Kpdnova dvat TICtVTWV TWV UltO xLpa <ppov~<Jl

35 Kal avopiq Kal OtK(llO<JUVn Kal aw<ppoauvn, TO d~ auTOV ava<ppwem T~~ KaT'
QUTOV f:napxia~ TCt~ OlOlK~<Jl~, O<Jat T mpaTtWTtKal Kal O<J(ll iOtWTtKal Kal
Of]!lO<JlOl, TO napaA.a~6vTa aTpa-rov amKTOV EKTCt~at 00VTW~ KUTU T~V ap!16~ouaav n:p Katp(i> mKnK~v Otam~tv.


<pp6VTWV 1tA~pt~ avopwv, ana TOlrtWV oUOlc; ~!llV A.6yo~ vuv Ota T T~V

yov avaoaxe~vat. Tl TE E<Jll Kal Tl~ 6 T~~ TOlUUTf]~ yxap~<JW~ a~tO~;

9 ITpUTfJYO~ TOtVtJV E<JTLV 6 T~~ urr' UUTOV CtltCt<Jf]~ f:napxia~ lld~ova JtCtVTWV

Tactics and the General

12. LKOTIO~ 6 mpaTfJYli> TO !lfV urr' UUTOV ee!la au~~(Jat Kal a~Aa~~ an6 T
1tOA!1lWV Kal TWV UAAWV CtOlKf]!lCtTWV Kal 0~ Kal QT(l~lWV Kal <JTCt<JWV Ota<pUACt~at, TOU~ 6 noA!1iou~ rravTl Tp6n<.p, ~ JtOAE!l<.f) ~ <p60ot~ CtOoK~Tot~, mrrtvwaat, Kal arrp 1t0l~<Jl KUTU TWV exepwv, mum <puA<i~aaem, 11~ rraedv em'

13. TA.o~ T(i> OlpaTfJYli> T(i> U00Kl!l~<J(lVTl Ota JtCtVTWV T~~ T eda~ Kal
45 ~(l<JlAlK~~ QJtOAUUlV UVOta~ ~ KUTOAtywp~aavn TWV np1tOVTWV KUL apllo~6v
npo-runw0d<Jf]~ ElKOVO~ 01 Ka0anp Ota XPW!lCtTWV ~!lii~ ava~wypa<p~<Jat T~V
TouTou rrot6TT]m Kal &i~m <pavpw~ Ti~ Kal nomno~ lvm 6<piAL Kal 6noio~

LVat 6 T~~ TOtaUTT]~ f:~ouaia~ npoXlpt~0!1VO~ apxwv.

I rrw~ ME om. AB I oihw~ ABE oihw M 27 tan MA tanv

BE 1 T~~ BE om. MA 28 o ABE om. M 1 trrapxia~ ABE urrapxia~ M 30 aTpm!]yo~ tanv
ABE tan M 31 apxovm~ De apxovT~ codd. 32 i:aUTOU M aUTOU ABE I KamT!Ef.lT!Of.lEVOU~ ABE KaTartf1TtOf1VO~ M 33 rrpo~aAAOf.LEVou~ De rrpo~aAAOf1Vo~ codd.
34 TO Kpdnova MA Tw Kpdnw BE I dvm rravTwv MA trsp. BE 40 a8tK!]f1UTWV Kal Mom.
ABE 44 TW UOOKlf1~aavn BE To EUOOKlf.l~am Ta M TO EUOOKlf.l~aavm A
45 KaTOAtywp~aavn Va KaToA.tywp~aavTa codd. 46 TU~aElm wu tvavT[ou Va TU~aa8m
wu vavTiou M TU vavT[a rra8Tv ABE I oihw M oihw~ ABE 47 XPWf.lUTWV BE XP!]f16.Twv
MA 48 Kal rroTarro~ dvm ABE om. M 48-49 Kal orro1o~ clvm M om. ABE 49 o MA 6

26 ouv mKTlK~~ M trsp. ABE

d~ BE I T~~ TOlaUT!]~ ~oua[a~ M T~V TotaUT!]V ~oua[av ABE

8. After this more or less brief outline of tactics, it is necessary to present the
What is he? Who is fit for such an undertaking?
9 The general is the person who, after the emperor, has greater authority
than anyone else over the entire province subject to him.
10. The general is the chief officer of the military theme under his command.
He is appointed by the emperor; as far as the officers under him are concerned,
tome are promoted by his decision, although sent to him by the emperor, and
tlthers directly on his own authority.
11. It is characteristic of the general that he be superior to all under his command in practical wisdom, bravery, righteousness, and discretion, reserving to
himself the administration of the province assigned to him, including military,
private, and public matters. Having received an undisciplined army, he must
dutifully dispose it for battle according to the tactical formation suited to the
12. The goal of the general is to strengthen the theme under his command
and to preserve it free from harm caused by enemies and from other wrongdoing, especially from disorder and mutiny. He is to bring down the enemy by
every means, whether by battle or by unexpected attacks. Whatever action he
will take against the enemy, he must be on his guard so that he does not suffer
the same thing from them.
13. The ultimate objective of the highly esteemed general is to enjoy in all
things the divine and the imperial favor rather than, by paying little account to
fitting and suitable matters, to arrive at the opposite. So then, having made this
preliminary sketch of the general, we must now paint his qualities as though it
were a portrait in color. We must demonstrate clearly who and what sort of
person he ought to be and what should characterize the officer who has been
entrusted with such authority.

Tirpl TOU oiov dvm


o1 TOV a-rpanwov

About the Qualities Required in the General

1. KAUOf.1V TOLVUV dvm TOV mpa-rfjyov aw<ppova rrt:pl TO OWflU, rrt:pl T~V
OlaLTav tyKpaT~, Vfj<j)CtAlOV Kal typ~yopov, AlTOV Kal cmpmov Ttepl -rae; XPiac;,
5 <pt:prrovov rrt:pl -roue; tmK6rrouc; KailaTouc;, VO~flOVa Kal <pp6vt11ov, flLOouvTa
<ptf..apyup[av, EVOO~OV Ttepl T~V <j)~flfjV, fl~T VfOV fl~T ypovTa, LKUVOV 0 KUL
rrpoc; TO A.yLv arro OTOilaToc; tv f.lfO<.p A.aou, av -ruxn 0, Kal rra-rpa rraiowv, fl~
tflTtOpdac; <ptAOUVTa ~ Tl TOlOUTOV, flfjOE fllKpO\I'DXOV, we; Kal TWV O!llKpwv
rrpawa-rwv tm9Uf.1tV, Kal cmAwc; t:uyt:v~ Tft \I'DXft, i ouvaT6v, Kal TtP OWflUTl Kal
10 tv iirram ilfYUAO\I'DXOV.
2. Iw<ppova flEV Yva I fl~ Tate; T~c; <pUCiwc; KaTaaup6f.1VOc; ~oovatc; arro.\drrn
T~V Ttepl TWV avayKaiwv <ppov-rioa Kal tmf.1fAlaV.
3 'EyKpaT~ 0 trrt0~ TfjAtKaUTfjc; apx~c; f.1fAAl TDYXCtVlV. a[ yap CtKpan:tc;
Kal CtKOAUCiTOl 6pf.1Ul, o-r' ilv rrpooAa~wm OUVafllV KaT' t~ouoiav TOU rrotdv a
1 5 ~OUAOVTat, CtKpCtTfjTOl yiVOVTal rrpoc; Tac; tm9uf.1[ac;.
4 Nfj<pCtAlOV 0 Kal typ~yopov orrwc; trraypurrvft tv Tate; f.1YlOTatc; rrpa~WlV.
tv VUKTi yap, o-r' ilv ~ \I'DX~ ~P1-lft flCtALOTa, TtOAAaKtc; ~ TOU OTpaTfjyou yvWilTJ
Kal arreu9uvTat Kal TAlOUTat.
s. AtTOV o Kal arrptTTOV rrt:pl -rae; xpdac; Kal yap Ka-raoarravwmv a[ TtOAU20 TAdc; Kal 1tOAAal 9t:parrdat Kai XPOVOV anpaKTOV Kat avayKa[ac; t~ooouc; de;
T~V TWV apxovTWV TpD<p~V.

M W (mut.) ABE




We insist that the general should be discreet in bodily matters and

self-control in his mode of life. He should be sober and vigilant, frugal
'nd unpretentious when it comes to necessities, bearing up under the toil of
heavy labor. He should be endowed with intelligence and practical wisdom, a
man who hates avarice and is of excellent repute, neither a youth nor an old
man. He should be capable of speaking extemporaneously in the midst of his
troops. Let him also be, when it so turns out, a father of children. He should not
be overly fond of commerce or anything of that sort, nor should he be niggardly,
iS if setting his heart on petty matters. 1 Quite simply, he should be noble in soul
and, if possible, in body and, in every respect, greathearted.
2. Let him be discreet and not so dragged down by physical pleasures that he
neglects to attend to necessary matters and shows no concern about them.
3. As a man entrusted with such great authority, he will exercise self-control.
Unrestrained and licentious impulses, when combined with the power and
ability to do whatever one wants, become uncontrollable in seeking gratification.
4 Let him be sober and vigilant so that he may remain alert when dealing
with truly important projects. It is often at night, when the soul is more at rest,
that the plans of the general assume their final, definitive shape.
s. Let him be frugal and unpretentious regarding his needs. Very costly and
continual attendance upon the luxurious tastes of commanders wastes time
without accomplishing anything and eats away at necessary expenses.



PG 107:681

3-70 Onas. 1.1-14.



oeuntpa A

4 VT]<jlCtALOV M VT]<jlUAEOV ABE I Kal amtprrrov M om. ABE

5 <pEptltovov M UTIOj.Htvov-ra ABE ITiepl ... KUj.!CtTOU<; M Tou<; TI6vou<; ABE

6 TIEpl. .. <p~j.!T]V

M om. ABE

8 Ej.lTIOpda<; M 1lpUYf.laTELa<; ABE I <jllAOUVTa M ayamiJVTU ABE I Gj.llKpwv M

f.lLKpwv ABE

9 T~ \jlux~ M T~v \jlux~v ABE I Tw crwj.laTL M To ABE


14 Mvaj.!LV MA OUVCtj.l<E>t<; BE I KaT' ... TIOLELV M trsp. ABE

VT]cpaAtov ABE

19 Kal amtptnov Mom. ABE


TIEpl MA om.

16 VT]<jlCtAtov M

For this chapter cf. Onasander, 1.1-14.



Qualities Required in the General

6. cDrpbtovov 0 tVa f.l~ np<ino<; TlDV 0TpaTUOf1EVWV Ta<; avaJtaUOfL<; m(tFft, O.A.\a yivnm mho1<; f.!i'L\.f.ov riKwv npo<; To yrvva[w<; imo<pprtv -rou<;
7. No~f.lova 8 Kal <pp6vtf.!OV 6~uv yap dvm 8r1 -rov mpmf]y6v, nav-raxou
nrpw-rpE<jlOVTCt TOY OKOJtOV 8La -raxu-r~Tet \jiDX~<;. JtOAAC1Kl<; yap QVUJtOVOT]TOL
Tapaxalnpoanwouam naprveu TO GUf.l<jlEpov mvo1v avayK6.(oumv.
8. 1\<ptAo.pyupov 8. Kal yap ~ U<jlLAapyup[a TOU a-rpaTT]yOu 8oKLf16.(nm, o-r'
UV 6.8wpo8oK~TW<; Kat f.leyaAO<jlpOVW<; npo"fOTaTCtl TWV npaYf.lCtTWV Kat 8t' ap30 T~V f.!OVT]V 8wprav npo~CtAAT]TaL Ta<; apxa<; TOU im' a{nov 0Ef1aTO<;. JtOAAOL yap,
KQV av8p1o[ rim Tft \jiDXft Kal PWf.laAEOl T0 OWf.laTl KaTa TWV xOpwv, O.A.\' o-r'
av avn~AE\jiW0l npo<; xpua6v, Uf.laupouvTm Kal OKOTt(OVTCtl. 8rtvov yap OJtAOV
KaTa a-rpaTT]yOu <~> <jlLAapyup[a Kat 8paa-r~pLOv rl<; TO VLK~Om TOUTOV Kat

6. Let him endure toil and not be the first among the soldiers to seek rest.
Hnther, let him be a model to them in nobly bearing up under hard labor.
7 Let him be intelligent and wise. The general must be sharp-witted, fastthinking, with his gaze turned in every direction. Unsuspected disorders fre\jUently arise and force him, on the spur of the moment, to come up with a way
In remedy the situation.

8. Let him be free of avarice. In particular, the commander's freedom from

avarice is tested and proven whenever he presides over affairs in an incorruptible and magnanimous manner and makes appointments to positions of command in his theme freely and on the basis of virtue alone. Many men, even
though courageous in spirit and strong of body in facing the foe, find that, when
they gaze upon gold, their sight is darkened and they become blind. Avarice is a
terrible weapon when used against the general and very effective in defeating
and overthrowing him.


9. Ou-rr 0 vov dvm ouT ypovw, 1m8~ 6 f.!EV vo<; limmov EXL Kal
fUKAOVT]TOV TO <ppOVT] 8ta T~V VfOTT]TCt, 6 8 ypwv aaerv~<; an T0 OWf.laTL,
Kai oU8-repo<; mhwv aa<paA~<;. 6 f.!EV [va f.l~ Ttmaion 8ta -r~v aA6yta-rov -r6A.f1av wanrp Opaau<;, 6 8 ypwv Iva f.l~ 8ta T~V <jlDOLK~V aa0evLav Udnn ri<; Ta
Movta -rwv npaYf16.Twv. KpaTtatT] 8 EKAOY~ -rou f.!Eaou, f.l~T vou ov-ro<; f.l~T
40 yepov-ro<;. Kai yap -ro 8uva-rov Kai pwf.laAeov tv T0 f.lEO<p yryT]paK6n, -ro 8
<pp6vLf.lOV Kai awOfJpov v -r0 f.l~ vra(ovTL. oYnvr<; yap ~ toxuv awf.!ato<;
livw <ppov~arw<; \jiDXLK~<; ~ \jiDX~V <pp6VLf.lOV livw OWf.laTLK~<;
8vVCtflW<;, ouoev EVOT]Oav I nepa<; aya06v. Kai yap ~ UOTep~aaoa 8UVCtf1E.W<;
<pp6Vf]OL<; oMv 8trvo~OT] Kpr1nov ~ Udnouaa <ppov~arw<; Mvaf.!L<; oMv
45 -rrf.dwaev.

3 7 ad 6u1 de novo inc. W

I scr. mg. arrpoaxw W

22 cpeperrovov 6e M urrofltvovra mu.:; n6vou.:; ABE 23 yive-rat M ytvT]mt A yivT]mt BE

25 6E MAB om. E 26 m:ptatpe<poVTa M rrept<pepovta ABE I avunov6TJ<Ot ABE
UVUTIOVOT]tat M 27 avayKa~ouatv M avaKU~OUat ABE 28 toU ABE om. M 31 Kiiv MA
Kal BE 33 ~ ci. Va om. codd. I 6paat~ptov M evepyeatmov ABE 35 exet MAB exetv E
36 euKAOVT]tov M iiamtov ABE 37 oMtnpo.:; Va ouod.:; codd. I n MAE om. B
39 Kpatia<TJ MW KaAA.ia<TJ ABE 40 pwflaA.tov MW taxupov ABE 41 am8TJpov MWBE
crta8epov A I vea~ovn ABE vea~oVTt Kal flVTot MW I yap ABE om. MW 43 m'pa.:; MW
teA.o.:; ABE I ~ MW ~ <pp6Vf]<Jl<; ABE 44 oMev OlVo~e'l MW oMev w<pEAT]GV ABE I
tAA.dnouaa ... OUVUfll<; MW OUVUfll<; atepf]8taa <ppov~aew.:; ABE 45 eteA.eiwaev MWA


9 He should not be a young man or an old man. A young man's mind lacks
confidence and is easily confused because of his youth, whereas the old man's
body is feeble. Neither of them offers security. The young man is impulsive and
may err by reckless daring. The old man is weak physically and may neglect
something that has to be done. The ideal choice is between the two, neither
young nor old. Vigor and strength characterize the man who has not yet grown
old, while wisdom and stability mark the man who is not too young. There are
those who marvel at physical strength that exists without mental discretion or,
on the other hand, who are impressed by a wise mind but one lacking in bodily
strength. In their reasoning these people have not reached a correct conclusion.
A mind deficient in physical strength has never conceived anything worthwhile;
neither has strength deprived of intelligence ever accomplished anything.


Constitution 2

Kat <pLAOlJflVOV 8 napa n:Vv DTITJK6wv Tov aTpaTT]yov u8oKLf1(1JTpov

'laf1V yivw8m Kat yap fly6..\.a TOU~ apxof.!EVOU~ W<pA~aLv. OVTLVa yap
liv8pw7tOL <pLAOUaL, TOtmp mTCtTTOVTL f.!EV TaXU ni8ovTaL, .\.yovn 8 Kat
auvn8f1EV<.p OUK amaTOUaL, KLV8UVUOVTL 8 auvaywv[(ovTaL. TOLOUTOV yap ~

ay6.JtTj, TO n8vm T~V '!JUX~V unp TOU <pLAOUflEVOU.

11. Timpa 8 nai8wv npoKptVOf1V f.!&.AA.ov ~ linm8a, oM Tov livw nai8wv
napatTOUflVOL av aya86~ an Kat yap 6 na18a~ exwv aTpaTTJYO~, i f.!Ev VT]JtLou~, 8pflOTpO~ yivTUL 7tpt T~V anou8~v T<DV v ~[<.p npaYf.!CtTWV UJtEp T~~ TWV
nai8wv <pLAta~ Kat U7tpayia~ aywvL(Of1VO~. d 8 TEALOL fiat T~V ~ALKiav,
55 aufl~ou.\.OL Kat auaTp6.TTJYOL Kat mmot DTITJPETat yv6f1VOL auyKaTop8oum T<.}J
JtaTpt Ta flTaXLpt(6f1Va unp KOLV~~ aWTT]pia~ np6.YflaTa 8t' wv fl&.AAOV 8oK1
Tou linm8o~ 6 nai8a~ xwv nponf16Tpo~ dvm.
12. AyLV 8 Kat 8T]flTJYOp1v iKav6v ~yol>f.!at yap Ta flytaTa w<p.\.dv 8tu
TouTo To aTp6.TUfla, 6.v T yap napm6.aanm npo~ f.!CtXTJV mpaTT]y6~, 8ta T~<;
60 TOU .\.6you napaKAUaw~, TWV f.!EV yap 8LVWV JtOAACtKL<; Kat auTOU eav6.TOU
notd KaTa<ppovdv, Twv 8 Ka.\.wv Kat ~8wv m8uf11v. oux ouTw<; yap v11xouaa
a6..\.my~ aKoa1<; ~yipn '!Juxac; fie; KtVT]aLV f.!CtXTJ<; w<; A6yo<; flTa <ppov~aw<;
AYOflVO~ npoTpnnm i<; apn~v Kat vaywv[ou<; Jt0ll TOU<; CtKOUOVTa<; Kal
~avtaT(t npo~ Ta 8tva T~v 8t6.vOLav. uv 8 TL aufl~ii ma1afla npt To mpaT665 n8ov, ~ Tou .\.6you napT]yopia Ta<; '!Juxac; avappwvvun. Kat no.\.u 8~ XPTJGLf.lWTp6<; tan mpmT]you A6yo<; 8uvaTo<; waT napaflue~aaaem mpaTon8ou
auf1<pop6.c;, fli'i.\.Aov Twv mf1AOuf1vwv Ta TpauflaTa impwv. oi f.!EV yap eKFivouc; flOVOU<; TOU<; TpaUflaTLa<; 8pa7tUOUGL Tal<; iaTptaL~ Kat 8ta xp6vou Taxa
n.\.dovoc;, 6 8 napweu Kal Tou<; novouvTa<; Kat TOu~ KCtflVOVTa~ u8uf1oTpou<;
70 JtOLfl, Kat TOU<; eppWflEVOU<; CtVLaT(t npo<; av8piav Kal fU'!Juxiav.


59 cum crtpatTJ des. W (fol. desideratur)


Qualities Required in the General

l.o. We know that a general who is loved by his subjects will be more highly
N~t~l'<:tea and be very helpful to the men under his command. When men love
itli'U~one, they are quick to obey his commands, they do not distrust his words
promises and, when he is in danger, they will fight along with him. For love
Uk~ this: to lay down one's life on behalf of the person one loves. 2
u. We prefer a man who is a father of children rather than a childless one,
~t.hough I would not turn away a childless one if he is a good man. The general
has children, if they are infants, becomes more enthused and serious about
concerns as he struggles out of love for his children and their welfare. If
""'". "'''"" are adults, on the other hand, they become advisors and colleagues in
~-~~~ {l!~;>tn.m~mct and faithful servants; they help in bringing to a successful conclusion
tasks on behalf of our common salvation entrusted to their father. For these
t:tasons, it seems better that a man who has children is to be preferred to him
who has none.
12. He should be capable of speaking and exhorting in public. I think that
.this ability is of the greatest benefit to the army. If the general, when he is
drawing up his troops for battle, should encourage them by his words, he will
t"iten induce them to despise the terrors, even death itself. At the same time, he
n1akes them eager to obtain the good and pleasant rewards. A trumpet blast
<!choing in one's ears does not stir the soul to move into battle as effectively as a
11peech, delivered in high spirits, urges one to valor, instills a martial spirit in its
hearers, and arouses them to face terrible dangers. Moreover, if some calamity
should befall the army, an encouraging speech will give new strength to the
men's spirits. A skillful address by the general is far more useful in providing
consolation for a defeated army than the care of the doctors for the wounded.
For the physicians provide medical treatment only for the wounded, and it
might take a long time, whereas the speech immediately raises the morale of the
weary and disabled and arouses bravery and courage in the healthy.

Ioan. 15:13.

46 <plAO\JflEVOV MW ayam.Df.!EVOV ABE 47 L<Jf.!EV MW OLOUf.!eV ABE I Kal. .. W<pA~<JlV

MW om. ABE 48 <ptA.oiicrt MBE <ptA.oiicrtv W A 49 cruvtt6f.!EVW MW imtcrxvouf.!EVW ABE
51 ~ iinmoa MW om. ABE I iiveu naiowv MW fl~ exovta naToa~ ABE 52 aya66~ E<Jtl M
aya66~ E<JTlV w trsp. ABE 53 tv MWAB EV tW E 55 YVOflVOl MW YlVOf.!EVOl ABE
57 iinmoo~ MW naToa<; fl~ exov-ro<; ABE 59 napatacrcretat MW napatacrcrfJtal ABE
6o yap MBE om. A I autoii M autoii TOU ABE 61 ~OEWV Va ~6wv M yA.uKEWV ABE
62 UKOUL<; ... f.!UXTJ<; M taT<; UKOUL<; eydpel '!JUXU~ ei~ f.!UXTJV ABE 64 tl MA om. BE 65 0~
M om. ABE 67 tpauf.!ata MA npayf.!ata BE 68 tpauflatia<; M tpauflattcr6vta<; ABE
70 ppwf.1vou<; Va ppouflvou<; M icrxupou<; ABE



John 15:13.



Qualities Required in the General

13. "Evoo~ov 8, Ert10~ CtT]Ot(ETat Kat aaxa!..Aet

nA.~eoc; {moTaTT<)flEVOV. oMdc; yap


tv TOLe;

a86~otc; TO

tett..wv UJtoflEV1 TOY xdpova KUptOV au-rou

ava8Exwem Kat ~YEflOVa. OOKEL OE flOL on niiaa avayKT] TOY TOLOUTOV euptaK6flEVOV I a-rpmT]y6v, wa-r EXELV apnac; -roaau-rac; oaac; e'ipf]Ka a-rpaTT]you Kat
v8o~ov dvat. ~ yap -roaaUTT] apET~ ctaT]flOV avepwnov OLaflEVELV tmnoA.u ou

14. <t><iflEV Oi:: Kat fl~T n!..oumov, tav fl~ xn -rae; TOU a-rpmT]you apnac;,
npoxetpl(w9m a-rpmT]yov Ota Ta XP~flaTa, fl~T TOY TrEVT]Ta, tav aya96c; tan,
napam1a9at Ota T~V nev(av Kat EVOELaV. ou fl~V oi:: TOY TrAOU(JLOV anoOOKlflUSo (OflEV on TrAOU(JLO<;, a!..A' tav -rae; np <JTpaTTJYc.iJ npenouaac; fl~ KEKTT]Tat apnac;
oMi:: TOY TrEVT]Ta aipOUfleea on TrEVf]<;, aA.A' OTt a-rpaTT]YLK~V T Kat yevva(av
EX1 \j!UX~V. OUOETepov yap Ota T~V TUXTJV anoOOKlflU(OflEV, aA.Aa flCtAAOV Ota TOY
-rp6nov Ctfl<pOTEpouc; npo~aAOUfl9a. oMi:: nA.oumoc; aya9oc; wv -roaounp
8tacpepet mu yevvalou nEVT]Toc; oaov ai tnapyupot Kat Kmaxpuaot navonA.Iat
85 TWV Ka-raxaAKWV Kat atOT]pWv a[ fli::V yap -rc.p Aaflnpc.iJ KOafl<p TrAEOVEKTOU(JLV, a[
oi:: tv au-rc.p -rc.p opaaTT]pl<p Otaywv((ovTat. TrEVT]Ta 8E <pf]fll yevva1ov tav fl~
XPllflana-r~c; tan Kat owpoA~TrTT]<; TOY yap XPTJflaTL<JT~V ouo' av nA.oumuna-roc;
WV TUXn aUfl<pEpet TrOTi:: npoxLpt(w9at <JTpaTT]y6v. a!..Aa flf]Oi:: fllKpoA6yov nva
Kai 6~oA.oA6yov nepl -ra KEpOT] ~ EflTropov ~ napanA.~m6v n -rmou-rov rrpa-r-


13. We call for a man of good reputation. 3 An army becomes disgusted and
when placed under the command of a man who is not respected. Nobody
willing to submit to or accept a master or a leader who is a worse man than
Ulll::~>'t:u. It is absolutely necessary, in my opinion, that the general be recognized
Ill such a man and that he should possess all those character traits of a general
)hat I have listed, and be of good repute. Truly great virtue does not permit a
ft'lan to remain unnoticed for long.
14. We say that a wealthy man must not be appointed general because of his
fiches unless he possesses the virtuous qualities of a general. Neither should a
poor man, if he is a good man, be excluded because of his poverty and need.
Indeed, we do not reject a rich man because he is rich, but only if he lacks the
good qualities befitting a general. Neither do we select a poor man because he is
poor, but because he has the noble soul expected of a general. We do not reject
either one because of his fortune in life, but we promote both because of their
manner of life. A wealthy general who is good differs from a poor but noble one
only to the degree that armor inlaid with gold and silver differs from that of
bronze and iron. The former has the advantage of brilliant ornamentation, the
latter proves superior in action. We consider a poor man to be noble if he is not
a dealer in money and greedy for gain. It is better never to promote a financier
to the rank of general, even though he be the richest man around. Neither
should he be a miserly man or one making a profit with petty cash or a

So ab Tat apna<; de novo inc. W

71-113 Onas. 1.17-25.

I Uf)Ol(ETUL ... EV M ayavaKTEl ABE' 71-72 TOt<; ... nA.ijSo<; M

ULJTOU ABE 74 etpf)KU GTpUTf)YOU M eip~KUflEV AVa 75 iiGf)flOY M acpaYij KUL iiyYWGTOY
BE 81 OTL 1 MW EGTL ABE 82 OUOETEpOY MW OUOfYU ABE I UT000KlflU(OflEY MW ABE scr. mg. UOOKLflOY Kai ano~Af)TOY A.oyt(6fleea W 82-83 TOY Tp6noY
MW T~Y ABE 83 npo~aA.ou11eea Va npocrKUAOUflESa MWA npoKaAOUflESa BE I
o\JO M 6 oe WABE 1 TOcrouTw MW TocrouToY ABE ss GLOflpWY ABE GLOflpEwY MW I aP
MW AE om. B 1 ad TIAWYEKTOUGLY scr. mg. um:pxouGLY W 86 ad opacrTf)piw scr. mg. TW


OUYUflEYW EYEpy<EIY> w I Cj>f)fll MW A.tyw ABE 87-88 XPflflUTLGT~<; ... TUXTl MW EGTLY
87 ad XPflflUTLGT~<; scr. mg. XPflflUTWY ETL<flEAOUflEYO<;> W I ad XPflflUTLGT~Y scr. mg.
oiKelOU A.aou KUL nepi Ta KEpOf) crnouoa(OYTU UYUYKI] yap TOY TOLOUTOY fllKpOq>WYOY (TOU<;
TOLOUTOU<; fllKpOq>WYU<; B TOY TOlOUTOY fllKpOCj>WYU E) elYm KUL nepl TO KEpOo<; crnouoa(ovm
Kal nepl T~Y cruAA.oy~y TWY XPI]flUTWY O.yaSoY ETLT!]Oeuecrem ABE 88 ad flLKpoA6yoy scr.
mg. aliquid nunc evanidum W 89 TOLOUTOY M TOY auTOY W


3 Cf. Onasander 1.17-25.


Qualities Required in the General

Constitution 2

TovTa. avayKfl yap Tou<; TOLouTou<; fHKp6cppova<; dvm Kal m:pl To Kpoo<;
btLOflflEVou<; Kal flflplf.1VflflEVou<; 1Tpl T~v ouHoy~v Twv XPll!l<'mvv Kal flflOEV
xovm<; Twv KaAwv 7TLTf10Wf.1Cilwv.
lS.'Eav o npoy6vwv ECJTL AUf.11tpwv KUL1Tpt06~wv cm6yovo<; ayamiv flEV od
TOUTO, ou !l~V 0 TI<lVTW<; E1Tl~flTLV T~V TOlQUTflV uyvtav anouoav oM oui
wonp yap Ta ~4Ja ano Twv iolwv npa~wv Kal ~ewv ~na~o!lv uyv~ f) ouoyv~, oihw XP~ CJK01TELV Kal T~V TWV avepwnwv uyvLav, OUK ano TWV npoy6vwv, aU' aTIO TWV io[wv npa~WV Kal Kmop8Wf.1UTWV. Kal TIW<; yap OUK
anpTI<; Kal ana(OEUTOV TOU<; flEV AlTOU<; mpanwm<; Ol<X Ta<; io(a<; aptoTla<; Kal
100 TOU<; aywva<; Tl!lUV, ou TOU<; EK npoy6vwv AUf.11tpou<;, aHa TOU<; QUTOXlpt<;t Tl
AUf.11tpov pyov 1T1TOlflKOTa<;, TOU<; o CJTpUTflYOU<; Ota LOU<; npoy6vou<; mAyaem, KUV iCJLV axpf10TOl, aHa fl~ Ota T~V iolav auTWV apT~V, KCtV fl~ ano TOU
yvou<; AUf.11TpuVmt; npoo6vTwv 11v o~ TOUTq> Kalnpoy6vwv Aa!lnpwv UTUX~<;
6 OTpUTflYO<;, aTIOVTWV o TWV apnwv, KCtV napfi Taum, anpaKTO<;.
16. Taxa o Tl<; EA1TLCJl I Kal Kplnova<; oCJ8at CJTPUTflYOU<; LOU<; OUK xovm<; ano TWV npoy6vwv CJf.1VUVCJ8at. ol flEV yap E1TL yovUCJl oo~a~OflVOL Kal
T~V an' EKlvwv xovT<; i)KAlaV 1TOAAaKl<; pa8Uf.10Tpov Kal aflAECJTpov
OlOlKOUCJlV ol o !lflOEflLUV 06~av npoy6vwv xovT<;, OUTOl T~V EK 1TaTpwv
EAaHWCJlV 8:\ovT<; avaTIAflpWCJat Tfi [O[<;t npo8Uf.1l\t Cj>lAOKlVOUVOTpov E1TL Ta<;
uo npa~t<; KtvouvTm. Kal Ka8anp olnvmpot mnov<.i>Tpov flUAAov Twv U(To9o

96-102 Cf. Arist. Pol., 1.6.1255b.

90 fHKp6cppovm; M fUKp6cpovo~
om. ABE


merchant or man engaged in any business of that kind. Men such as these are
bound to have petty minds; they are excited by the prospect of gain and anxious
ibout collecting money, and they are without any noble habits.
15. If the man is descended from illustrious and highly regarded ancestors,
then this must be in his favor but, if this is lacking, we should certainly not
require such noble birth. Neither should we use this as a criterion to judge a
t'tlan unworthy of being general if he clearly possesses the ability to assume that
l'IOsition. For just as we evaluate the good or bad pedigrees of animals by their
individual performance and disposition, so we must also view the noble lineage
of men, not from the perspective of their forefathers, but from that of their own
performance and accomplishments. 4 Is it not improper, even stupid, on the one
hand to honor simple soldiers for their individual valor in combat who are not
from illustrious families but who have performed a brilliant deed by their own
effort, and, on the other hand, to select a general because of his ancestry, even
though he is incompetent, and not because of his individual virtue, even if he
does not come from an illustrious family? Of course, if a general has a brilliant
lineage in addition to these other qualities, he is fortunate. Still, even if he is of
good birth, without the virtuous qualities he is useless.
16. Perhaps one might expect that those who cannot take pride in their
ancestors would become even better generals, for men who glory in their forefathers and appropriate their good reputation to themselves often prove to be
careless and negligent administrators, whereas those who have no ancestral
renown desire to make up for the obscurity of their lineage by their own enthusiasm and are moved to undertake more dangerous activities. Just as poor men

93 7tEpt06~wv MW evM~wv ABE 6.n6yovo~ MW

93-94 Oel1'0trro MW Kai 1'0U1'0V ABE

94 fl~V ... miv1'W~ MW 1t(lV1'W~ oe ABE

6.nouaav MW eav fl~ np6awnv ABE scr. mg. fl~ ouaav

a~tov W ava~tov Kpivetv ABE I KEK1'T]1'Ul MW A KEXPil'm BE


96 Kal ~ewv MW om. ABE

I 1wv2 BE om. MWA

98 uno MW tK ABE 100 aywva~ MW 1'U 6.vopaya8~flU1'U ABE I ou MW Kai fl~ ABE I
AUfl7tpou~ MW AUflnpwv ABE I auoxetp[a MW om. ABE I scr. mg. Ota 1wv tOLWV XEtpwv W

96-97 ouayev~ ABE ouaxep~ MW

97 oihw MW AB oihw~ E

100-101 n ... epyov MW ipyov n Aaflnpov ABE

101 oe MWA

0 fl~ BE

npoa6V1'wv scr. mg. T]youv exovm~ <Y1'pU1'T]you Kat npoyovou~ AUfl7tp<ou~> W

103 ad

104 ad Kiiv

scr. mg. Kiiv euyev~ unapx11 W I ad iinpaK1'0~ scr. mg. aOoKLflO~ W 105 ad 101>~ scr. mg.
1'0U~ flll OUVUflEVOU~ eyKauxaaem et~ euytvetav w 106 ad yoveum scr. mg. oi eappouvT~
eyKUUXWflEV<Ol> d~ 1'0 yevo~ w 107 ad Ei)KAElUV scr. mg. Oo~av w 108 OlOLKOU<JlV MW
OtaKElVTUl ABE 108-109 1'~V ... eJ..anwmv MW 1'~V 1'WV nmepwv O.Oo~[av ABE
109 t8tJ..oV1'~ 6.va7tAT]p<i>am MW 6.va7tAT]p<i>am ABE

epxovml ABE Kai MW A om. BE lnVE<J1'Ep0l MWA 7tEVT]1'~ BE


110 Ktvounat MW
4. Cf. Aristotle, Politics 1.6.1255b.




Qualities Required in the General

pw-rpwv tnl T~V -roD ~[ou KTJlGlV 6pf1WVTat, TO t\.Aelnov CtVTCtVCtTtAT]pGlaat -rf}c;
n>x c; anouM(ov-rec;, oihwc; oi fl~ tK nmpwv KAT]pOVOfl~aav-rec; M~av 8La -rwv
i8iwv npa~ewv cmouM(oumv oiKeLwaaaem M~av.
17. L'ua mD-ra ouv npoxapL(a9w f.!EV a-rpetTT])'O<:; aya96c;, euyev~c;, n/..oumoc;, fl~ ano80Klf1Ct(eaew 8 T(fVTj<:; fleTCt apnf}c;, d Ketl fl~ ano ACtf11tpWV Ketl tv86~wv npoy6vwv KCtTayn -ro yvoc;.



8. Ke< 8 dnelv, XP~ -rov a-rpet<T]y6v, ei 8uvmov e'LT], Kal -ro aGlfla

eunpmii Ketl PWflCtAeOV Ketl qJLAOTtOVOV Ketl O~UTCtTOV Ketl T~V )'VWflT]V av8pelov
KCtt qJLAOTlflOV Kett (JT(OUOCtLOV Kett qJLAOKtVOUVOV Kett flCtALGTCt TOD 9e[ou Kett nepl
TCt eela npCtYflaTCt tmf1AeGTCtTOV, ~oovwv o TWV flEV -roD GWflCtTO<:; tyKpet-rf},
TWV () -rf}c; )'VWflTj<:; aTtAT]GTOV T Kett aK6pea-rov tnl Ttp tnaivc.p TWV aya9wv
npa~ewv, (JUVLOeLV 0 TO oeov en tv Ttp acpavel, av 0LVOV T Ketl 6~uv, tK TWV
6nA.iam Ketl KOGflTJGCtl ffl1tLpov, AO)'Ol<:; oi:: CtVlaTUV TCt T(1tTWKOTCt cppoV~flaTCt
-roD a-rpmoD Ketl tA.niowv tf111AJlGCtl ayaewv Ketl ETOlj.lOU<:; npoc; KLVOUVOU<:;
napaaKUCt(JCtl 8uva-r6v, Ketl TCt auvn9flEVCt 8 ~ Of10AO)'OUf1VCt qJUACt~Ctl
~~m6-repov, j.l~ 6./..wvm 8 napa TWV tv AO)'Ol<:; ouva-rwv, ole; tKetVOl napAKlV
-roD Ket9~KOVTO<:; teA.oumv. elvm 8l aacpaA.f], XPllflCtTWV Oi:: etc; flEV ~8ovac; -rae;


:j:Cf. Onas. 1.1.


will endure more than rich men in their quest to obtain a living and in their eagerness to supply what fortune has not provided, so men who have not inherited
~ncestral glory strive to achieve glory on their own by their own deeds.
17. For the above reasons, then, that man is to be appointed as general who
is good, well born, and wealthy, although a qualified poor man is not to be
rejected even if he is not descended from illustrious and renowned ancestors.s
18. To sum it up, the general must, inasmuch as possible, be physically impressive, strong and hardworking, very quick in action, courageous, respected,
serious, and ready to face danger. 6 He should especially be most attentive to
divine matters and his relationship to God. When it comes to bodily pleasures,
he should exercise self-control. But in matters of the mind he is insatiable and
never satisfied in his efforts to bring about successful actions. While the situation is still unclear, he realizes what has to be done. Clever and quick witted, he
is always right on target in estimating what is hidden from what is visible. He is
experienced in arming and drawing up an army in battle array. His words are
able to resurrect the morale of the army when it is low, fill it with fine expectations, and prepare it to confront dangers. He should be very strict in observing
agreements or promises, not swayed by clever speakers who want to drag him
away from his duty. He must be steadfast, parsimonious in expenditures on his

:j:Onas. 2.1.

ad i:Jrl scr. mg. em TO KT!]OLV eunoptav W I avmvanA.!]p<ilam MW avanA.!]p<ilam ABE

ouTw<; MWAB ouTw E 11 3 lolwv MWA olKdwv BE 114 ouv ... J.lV MW J.lEV ouv
npoxupt(eaew ABE 115 MW ano~aA.A.taew ABE scr. mg. ano~A!]TO<; Kat
aOOKlJ.lO<; A.oyt(ecr8w w 117 e'l!] MW EOTlV ABE 118 pwJ.laA.tov MW avopeTov ABE
8avopeTov ... qnA6TlJ.lOV MW yevvaTov ABE scr. mg. TOV <ptA.ouvm et alia evanida W
119 TOU 8iou MW eeoae~f] ABE 120 TWV J.lEV MW A om. BE
121 TWV ... Tf]<; ABE Tf]<;
o MW 121 _ 122 iinA.!]at6v ... npa~ewv ABE na[vou aA.!]8ou<; nl npa~ecrtv aya8aT<;


anA.l]aT6v TE Kal aK6pecrTov MW 122 auvtoeTv MW 8tavo~aaa8m ABE scr. mg. rrpovo!]OUl
OUJ.l<pEpov TOU Katpou w I av MW 0 BE om. A I scr. mg. OUVUTOV w I 6~uv wABE o~u M
aoxa(ecr8m mnxammv MW uaoxw<; aoxa(6J.levov ABE la~m 0 MW liJ.lnupov
o TCt~Ul ABE 124 Ejlnetpov MW om. ABE I A.6yot<; ... UVlOTUV MW OUVUTOV o Oul A6ywv
&eydpm ABE la BE om. MWA 125 Toii ABE om. MW I npo<; MW npo<; Tou<; ABE
6 ad 6J.loA.oyouJ.leva scr. mg. T~v Kupw8eTaav ~ouA.~v W
127 6.A.wvm MW napaaupecr8m
ABE scr. mg. ~youv J.l~ U...Taaem napa ouvaJ.lEWV et alia evanida W I napa MW uno ABE I
ol<; MW o1' wv ABE 1 napeA.Ketv MW naptA.Ketv auTov ABE 128 Ka8~KovTo<; MW
npoa~KOVTO<; ABE I 8tA.ouatV MW etA.ouatv aAA.' ABE 128-129 ~oova<; ... EaUTOU MW
Ta<; auToii ~oova<; ABE


5. Cf. Onasander 2.1.

6. Cf. Onasander 1.1.

Qualities Required in the General



auToiJ cpiowA.6v T Ka't




de; of cn)f!nvowv TWV nA.fla[ov Kal f!CtAt<JTa

T~c; imfp TOU KOlVOU oanUVflt; acp8ov6v T Kal ~nAWf!EVOV.


19. TOlOUTOV TOLVUV ovm TOV npoxLpt<6f!EVOV mpaTf1y6v, olov 6 A6yoc;

unypmjiV Tft T <pU<J1 KaL TOle; ~8CJ[ T Kat f11lTf10EUfla<Jl, OEL T~c; upx~c; nlAflflf!EVOV iht KUL XPfl<JTClV dvat, eunpocr~yopov, ihOLf!OV, UTapaxov, fl.~ ODTWc;
mLK~ T Kal npaov wcrT KaTa<ppovLcr8at, f!~T f!~V ouTw I cpo~epov wme
!.U<JEL<J8at, '(va fl~T OlCt f!ElAtxtat; EKAU<Jn TO <JTpm6neoov Kal navm TOV uno


xelpa A.a6v, fl~T OlCt TOV cp6~ov Tfjc; auTOU uyanllc; a.A.Amptwcrn.
20. TO. o' iiA.Aa ocra XP~ TOUTOV E11lTf10EUlV v Tate; ad KaTCt f!Epoc; Ef111l11TOU(Jalc; emKatpOlc; OlOlK~O"E<Jl Kal
napacpuA.anw8at, vuv fJ.fV OlCt TO nA.~8oc;
cruvwTdAaf!EV, v Of T(ij nA.aT1 T~c; nap' ~f!WV f:KTt8f!EVflc; TaKTLK~c; Ka8'



Kama f!Vfl f!OVEUO"Of!EV, O<Jfl OUVUfllc;.

21. TOlOUTOV Of ovm Kal OUTW OtUTflpODf!EVOV TOV napa T~c; ~amA.eiac; ~f!WV
npOXELPl<Of!EVOV mpaTf1y6v, t:A.n[<Of!EV auTOV Kal T~c; TOU E>wu <'moA.aulV
EUf!EVELac; Kal T~c; ~f!ETpac; euvo[ac; Kal T~c; TOU KOlVOU O"WTflp[ac; KUL Tfjc; napa.
11UVTWV EU<pflf!Lac; KUL T~c; KaTCt TOV ~[ov \Jflf!Ep[ac; v XpuJT{i) T{ij f!OV<.p TWV
oA.wv aiwv[<.p Kal O.Otaoox<.p ~amA.el. a.H' ouTw !lfV T~v ToiJ mpaTflyou KaTacrTacrtv (mapT[O"aVTEc;, cpp TOUTOV OLOVEL KaT' ocp8aAf!OUc; T~c; ~f!ETpac; napacrTflO"Ct!iEVOl ~amA.lac;-TCt dKOTU Kat np6acpopa Tft <JTpUTflYlKft T Kat TaKTLKft

mcrT~f!n-otu T~c; e<pE~~c; ~f!WV napaKADO"Wc; napatVEO"Wf!EV.

131-136 Onas. 2.2.

129 cpdowA.ov n: MW cpelOOflEVOV ABE

I OAlyapK~

MW EV 6A.iy0lc; apKOUflEVOV ABE

OUfl7lVOlUV ... 7!A!]OLOV MW TO euepyneTv Touc; im' UUTOV ABE

oaml.V!]<; MW oamlV!]V ABE



132-133 e7letAT]flflEVOV


XPIJOTov MW aya8ov ABE scr. mg. <flevo>v ev Tal<; lOlal<; W

MWBE fl~ o A I fl~V MW om. ABE I oihw MW o{\Twc; ABE

T~v O.fleA.dav


MW om. ABE

w I T~<; apx~c; MW ei<; T~V apx~v ABE scr. mg. ~youv Ta


afleA.eiac; MW ola

pleasures, and satisfied with very little. He must be ungrudging and

~tratghtforward in working together with his neighbor, especially in expenditures for the common good.
19. The man to be appointed as general, therefore, should be such as this
trac~ate has sketched regarding his nature, his character, and his way of life.?
HaVIng assumed command, he must in addition be trustworthy, approachable,
<always> prepared, and unperturbed; he should not be so lenient and gentle as
to be despised or so severe as to be hated. Otherwise, his kindness might loosen
t~e discipline of the army and all the troops under his command, and fear of
h1m might turn the army away from loving him.
2o. All the other things that he must put into practice in his timely management o~ the details :hat always devolve upon him, as well as the things he must
be on h1s guard agamst, on account of their great number, we have here summari_zed. In particular sections of this compilation of ours we will, as best we can,
discuss them in greater detail.
21. We hope that the general promoted by Our Majesty will indeed be such a
man and that he will remain such. We hope that he will enjoy the favor of God
and our own goodwill, that he will share in our common salvation and will be
hi~~y regru:ded by everyone, as well as find happiness in his life. May he find all
thts m Chnst, the only eternal and unchanging emperor of all things. Having
thus brought to an end our discussion of the condition of the general, let us now
advise him and offer the following recommendations-placing him as it were in
front of Our Majesty-in those matters that are applicable and relevant to
strategic and tactical science.

T~<; MW
eic; T~V ABE I

132 imypa1jleV MWA U7!ypa1jle BE






134 Te MW om. ABE

135 OlU flElAlXLa<; Va Ol'

I aTpm67!eoov MW aTpaTeufla Kal etc; KaTacppov!]OlV

-1 6 Kal...A.a6v MW om. ABE 136 T~c; ... a\AoTplwaiJ MW flWeTv

35 3
aUTOV 7!apaaKEUUOI] ABE 137 o' MW o ABE I XP~ MW 7!pOO~KEl ABE lael. .. flEpO<; MW

ayayl] ABE
om. ABE

138 div MW oaa ABE

147 eiKoTa MW 7!pE7!0VTa ABE

137-138 Efl7ll7!TOU0al<; MW 7!apef17ll7!T01J0Ul<; ABE

MW 7!apacpuA.anea8m XP~ ABE 141 oiJTw MW oiJTW<; ABE

144-145 T<i>V oA.wv MW om. ABE 145 oiJTw MW oiJTw<; ABE I flEV M flEV Kal WABE
146 a7!apTiaavTe<; MW TEAElWOUVTE<; ABE scr. mg. TEAElWOa<vTe<;> w I olovd MW wa7!ep



I KaT'

ocp8aAflOU<; MW 7!p0 ocp8aAf1WV ABE

7!p6acpopa MW


apflO~OVTa ABE scr. mg. TU apfla~o<vm> w I TE MW om. ABE

7 Cf. Onasander 2.2.



Qualities Required in the General

wCHpaTf]y, rrpWTf]V (JOl TalHf]V rrapaKEA-

22. Before everything else, 0 general, we propose this to you as our very first

8eoqHAria~ Kat OlKatO<JDVf]~ mf1Ad<J8m Kat oiov 6piiv Olf]VfKW~ rrpo 6<p8aAf1WV Tov E>rov Kat <po~da8m mhov Kat
ayarriiv ~ OAf]~ T~~ Kapoia~ <JOU Kat ~ OAf]~ T~~ \lfUX~~ <JOU Kat f.ld EKelVOV
rwa~, Kat n':t~ a"lnou EKTAdv vToAa~ Kat T~v Krivou ruf1vrwv vTru8rv
rrpo<JAaf.l~avw8m 'lva-ei Kat T0Af.lf]POTpov e'irrw-v Kmp{il mpl<JTQ<JfW~ w~
<plAO~ <plAlp T{il KOlV{il owrroTn 8appwv ITfJ10l80TW~ rrpO<JfDXn Kat T~~ <JWTf]pta~

subject of exhortation and advice: 8 be concerned about the love of God and
r_ighte~usness in such manner that you constantly have God before your eyes.
h~ar him. Love him with all your heart and all your soul and, after him, us!
Keep his commandments and, in turn, you will receive his favor, so that-if I
may speak rather boldly-in difficult situations you may with confidence and
trust pray to our common Lord as a friend to a friend and you may request the
salvation you hope for from him as from a friend. That one is not a liar who
said: The Lord will do the will of those who fear him and he will hear their
prayer and save them. 10

22. ITpo f.lEV TWV ii:\Awv amivTWV,

U<JlV Tf Kat rrapaivrmv ITOlODf18a, wme


Ta~ Arrioa~

xwv TaDTf]V nap' auTou

<ptAiw~ ~arrmTft~. a\lfeu8~~

yap anv 6

firrwv 8Af] Twv <po~ouf1vwv auTov rrot~<Jfl KDpto~ Kat T~~ oe~aew~ auTwv
ei<JaKODfTat Kat <JW<Jfl aUTOD~.
23."Ia8l yap on 8eia~ Uf1Vela~









KaAW~ KaTop8w8~vm ~ourrrptyrva8m, KUV ao8rvd~

EKelVOl VOf.ll(WVTaL, Ola TO J1QVTa EV Tft rrpovoi<;t TOU ewu Kft<J8m Kat auTa Ta
A.aXt<JTa ooKouvm T~V auTou rrp6vmav OlOlKft<J8m.
24. "Oarrrp yap KU~fPV~Tll~ TIAOLOU, KUV navu apt<JTO~ E<JTl, TWV UVEf.lWV

ai<J(W~ f.l~ TIVfOVTWV anpaKTOV EXfl T~V TEXVf]V. av o TODTOU~ npo<JAa~llTal Kal


"t~V "tfXVf]V EXfl <JUf.lTipUHOU<JaV, OlTIAOUV "tOY op6f10V 1-rou TIAOLOU <JUV a<J<paAel<;l TIOlfLTQl oihw Kat aptmo~ mpaTf]YO~, av "t~V Uf1EVflaV "tOU E>rou vou0f]1"Ul Kal -rn -ra~fl Kat Tft aTpa-rf]yi<;t auv aypunvi<;t Kal mf1rAd<;t XP~<JllTm
- 2 Strat., praef.36-69. 152 Deut. 6:5; Matt. 22:37.
149 19
161-162 Matt. 6:25-28; Luc. 12:22-26.

bring any plan to a successful conclusion, however intelligent you may seem to
be; it is not possible to overcome the enemy, however weak they may be
thought. Everything lies in the providence of God, that providence that takes
care of even those things that appear to be the least.u
24. Aboard ship, now, a helmsman, even the best, finds that his skill is
useless when the winds are not blowing favorably, but when he has them with
him and also puts his skill to use, he has no difficulty in doubling the ship's run.
So it is with the best general. He will be dad with the favor of God and, ever
alert and diligent, he will make good use of his tactical and strategic skills. He

157-158 Ps. 144 (145): 19.

rrpo ... rrowufleea MW rrapaKeA.eu6fleea oilv aot w a-rpanw rrp<,lrr11v -rau-r11v

149 150
rrapaKeA.euO"Lv Kal rrapalveO"Lv ABE 150 Seoq>tA.ela<; MW rrpo -rwv iiA.Awv amiv-rwv
eeoae~ela<; ABE 151 olov ... Seov MW -rov Seov EXELV rrpo oq>SaAflWV ABE
KaP ... ~fli'i<; MW om. ABE 153 tv-reiiSev MW EK -rou-rou ABE 154 ei. .. drrw
152 153
MW om. ABE 155 cplA.w MW cplA.w el Kal-roAfl'1Pov ABE lrrmot66-rw<; MW om. ABE
156 exwv ... t~arram'j<; MW d<; au-rov exwv T~V au-roii ~o~6laV EJtlO"JtUO"ll ABE 157 KUplO<;
MWA om. BE 159 laSt MW ylvwaKE ABE scr. mg. <y>tvwaKE W I on WABE n M I
Sela<; ... EKTO<; MW om. ABE I EO"Tl MABE EO"TlV w 159-160 ~OUA~V MW ~OUA~V xwpl<;
-rfJ<; Sela<; q>tA.avSpwrr[a<; -re Kal XP!10"LOT!1to<; ABE 160 ean MABE eanv W
161 rrpovo[a ... KetaSm MW TOU eeou KetaSm rrpovo[a ABE 161-162 au-ra ... rrp6votav
MW rrap' au-roii OlOlKetO"Sal Kal atJLCt -ra A.axta-ra ABE 162 OtOlKelO"Sat ABE OlOlKElV MW
6 rrA.olou MW om. ABE 164 aia[w<; W ai-r[w<; M KaAw<; ABE scr. mg. EltlT!10EtW<; W
1 3
164-165 Kal. .. EXEl MW EXEl o Kal T~V TBXVI1V ABE 165 O"Uf11tpanouaav MW
auvepyouaav au-rw ABE 166 oihw MW oihw<; oilv ABE I EUflBVElaV ... eeou MW TOU Seoii
q>tA.avSpwrr[av ABE 166-167 voua11Tat MW EXEl Kal -r~v ~o~Setav ABE 167 Kal'
mpa-rlly[a MW TU~ll o KUAW<; TO a-rpaTEUflU Kal ABE I EltlflEAEla MW Eltlf!EAE[a Tfj
a-rpa-r11yla ABE

23. For you must realize that, apart from God's favor, it is not possible to

8. Cf. Strat., Preface 36-69.

9 Deuteronomy 6:5; Matthew 22:37.
10. Psalms 144 (145): 19.
11. Matthew 6:25-28; Luke 12:22-26.



Qualities Required in the General

KUAW<;, KULTOV maTUOflVOV m>T4J a-rpaTOV aa<paAW<; OtOlK~Gl Kai Tft reotKLAn
yvwfl.n TWV x8pwv avna-rpaLUW8at MvaTat. ~ yap TOU

ewu rep6vota Ta


repo<; TO GUfl<pEpov, Ta o repo<; aya8ov repa<; areoTAEGl. TOlOUTO<;

TOLVUV, UG~~<; fl.EV repi T~V re(a-rtv, OLKULO<; o repi Ta<; repa~l<; 1mapxwv,

warep 8flAl4J aya84J Kai aaaAtl1'4J reotKOOOfJ.t Kai Ta aAAa aya8a.

Will safely manage the army entrusted to him and will be able to counter the
Vltrious machinations of the enemy. The providence of God will teach him those
things that are beneficial and will bring them to a successful conclusion. He
!ihould be the kind of man who is orthodox in his faith and just in his deeds. As
t1t1 a .firm and unshakable foundation he will build the other good qualities. 12

25. Tipao<; YVOU Kai aTapaxo<; TOt<; EVTuyxavoum TO yap ayptov TOU ~Sou<;
fl.WTJTOv Kat <pUKT6v. ALTO<; T Kat cmAoi.i<; replT~v oimTav Kai TO evoufla ~ yap
175 reoAUTEAta Kai reOLKlALa TWV ~pWfJ.CtTWV Kat EVOUfJ.CtTWV Ta<; avayKa(a<; oareava<;

i<; fl.CtTatOV e~avTA1. aypurevw<; o Kai E1HflAW<; TOt<; avayKatot<; repawamv

m~aUwv, Kai fl.~ pa8uf!w<; Kat aflAw<; ~ yap mfJ.EAta Kat ~ mfl.OV~ KaiTa

reavu OUGXP~ TWV repUYfl.UTWV pqoiw<; Kmop8ot Kai 6 KaTa<ppovwv repUYfJ.UTO<;

KaTU<ppOVTJ8~aTat tJTC'



26. 'Erei OE TOt<; fl.EYUAOl<; Kat avayKatot<; TWV repaYfl.CtTWV flfJOEV xwpi<; ~ouAi)<;
Otarepanou. d Taxa 0 Kai ~pa0w<; ~OUAucrn, aUa TO ~OUAU8v auvTOfJ.W<;
Kai acr<paAW<;, w<; OuvaTOV, ETClTEAl, &arep rei TWV VOGTJfl.CtTWV o[ iaTpoL
27. AHa Kai TOt<; apxofl.EVOl<; '(aw<; repocr<ppou, fl.TJOEV KaLa repoawreOATJ'VLUV
pya~OflVO<;, ana reamv '(aw<; KaLa T~V TOU OlKa(ou <puatv ure~PX0flVO<;.


28. MTJOE xauvw<; Kai pa8Uf!W<; 0tUKlGO rei TOt<; area KUKLa<; ~ aflAia<;
CtfJ.UpTaVOUfl.EVOl<; Ola TO OOKELV dvat KaMv. ouo yap KaA6v EGTl TO auvpydv
KUKL<;t Kai pa8Uf!L<;t, fl.CtAlGTa rei TWV Katp[wv Kai avayKa[wv repayf!UTWV. fl.TJOE
reaAlV 6t' EV0l~lV aUaTTJpia<; reporeTw<; Kai aOtaKptTW<; Ta<; re~AUGl<; reotoi.i.
EKtVO fl.EV yap rept<pp6VfJaLV Kai arei8tav <ppn, TOUTO o fllGO<; d)Aoyov Kai
172 Cf. Matt. 7:24.

178-179 Prov. 13:13.

169 yvli>fl!] ... tx6pwv MW trsp. ABE I MvaTat MW &uv~anat

AE &uv~O!]Tal B 170 nepac; MW TEAoc; ABE 172 ETIOlKOOOf!EL .. ayaea MW Kat TU iiAA.a
ayaea ETIOlKOOOflel ABE 173 EVTuyxavouat MABE eVTuyxavouatv w 174 fllOI]TOV ...
<pEUKTOV MW Kai fllOEiTat Kat anoaTpe<pETal ABE I OlatTUV ... EVOUf!U MW Tpo<p~V Kat T~V
v&umv ABE I ad OlatTav scr. mg. Tpo<p~v W I ad v&uf1a scr. mg. TI]V ev&uatv W 175 ad
noA.uTeAeta scr. mg. <bv Tate; Tpu<paLc; Kat <Tat>c; ev&Uaem noA.ue<iO>ov W I Kat ev&uf!aTwv
ABE om. MW 176 t~aVTAet Va t~avTAa MW KaTavaA.1aKet ABE 177 m~aAA.wv MW
yxetpwv ABE 178 ad &uaxepfi scr. mg. <O>uaKoA.a WI pa&1wc; MW euK6A.wc; ABE quod
etiam scr. mg. w 180 tni ... fll]OEV MW fl!]OEv 0 TWV f1YUAWV Kat avayKalWV TIPUYflUTWV
ABE 181 ~ouA.eueev MWA ~ouA.eu6v Kai M~av eivat OUfl<pepov BE I auvTOf!WC: MWA
OUVTOflWC: E1tlTAel BE 182 &anep ... iaTpo1 MW om. ABE 183 apxof!EVotc; MW
imoxetp(otc; ABE 1 tawc; MW tawc; niicn A niicnv tn1a!]c; BE 184 Tou MW A om. BE
185 TOLe; MW TOLe; Ctf!apT~flUOt mic; ABE 186 KaMv 1 MW KaA.oc; ABE 187 KUKla ...
pa6uf11a MW Tij pa6uf11a Kat Tij KUKla ABE I Katp1wv W Katpwv M fleyaA.wv ABE 188 ad
tne~eA.euaetc; scr. mg. Tac; Tlf!Wptac; W 189-190 KaP ... KpeiTTov MW om. ABE
168 KaA.wc; MW om. ABE


25. You should be gentle and untroubled to those you encounter, for a savage

temperament is hateful and to be avoided. You should be plain and simple in

matters of food and clothing. Extravagance and ostentation in food and raiment
llt}Uander the funds for necessary items to no purpose. The general should be
tireless and painstaking in attending to necessary matters, not slack or careless;
care and persistence will easily carry him through the most difficult situations.
If he shows no concern for a problem, that problem will show no concern for
him. 13
26. You should take no action regarding serious, unavoidable problems without deliberation. You may perhaps be slow in coming to a decision, but once you
have made your decision, carry it out quickly and safely, as far as possible, just as
physicians do in treating illness.


~ou should appear even tempered to those under your command, doing
nothmg m respect of persons, but going out to meet everyone on an equal basis,
as expected of a just man.
28. You should not be lackadaisical and too easygoing in dealing with those

who have committed offenses out of wickedness or carelessness in order to give

the impression of being a good commander, for it is not good to cooperate with
wicked and careless men, especially in emergencies and perilous situations. On
the other hand, you should not punish hastily and without due investigation in
order to show how strict you are. The first leads to contempt and disobedience,


Cf. Matthew 7:24.

13. Proverbs 13:13.

34 Constitution

Qualities Required in the General

the second to well-deserved hatred with its consequences. The better course is

TOU~ ~ auTOU Kaprrou~. Kpt:1HOV yap 6 jlt:Ta OlKatOCYUVT]~ <p6~o~ Kat ~ jleTa T~V
yuj.tvwmv T~~ ah[a~ d.\A.oyo~ ne~D.. eum~, ~Tt~ ou aAA.a aw<

t11 Join fear with justice; after proof of guilt, impose a fitting punishment. Rea-

TOl~ t:u<ppOVOUCYl f..oy[(nat.

29. Tipo miVTWV oi:: ntnOAEj.tOU~


6nA.t(6j.tVO~ anoaK6net OtKa[av elvm T~V

apx~v TOU TOlOUTOU noAEj.tOU Kat j.t~ X1pa~ aO[KOU~ n[~aA noT KaTa noAt:j.tlwv d !l~ np6Tepov EKlVOl Ota T~~ auv~eou~ auTWV aae~da~ KmpaTUlV
anap~Ctj.tV0l T~V ~j.tnpav KataOpCtj.tWCYLV. I
30. 'Hj.tWV yap ad T~V eip~VfjV Kat npo~ TOU~ unfjKOOU~ Kat npo~ TOU~
~ap~apou~ Ota XptaTOV TOY Kae' OAOU ~amAta Kat eeov aana(Oj.tEVWV, Uiv Kat
Ta 8vfj TOUTO <ptAOUCYl T01~ [O[Ol~ yxaALVOUj.tVa opot~ Kat j.tfjOEV aOtKelV




auTO~ au Kat' auTWV Ta~ xLpa~ CYUCYTlAOV Kat alj.taCYl T~V

y~v j.t~T' Ej.t<pUALOl~ j.t~T ~ap~aptKOl~ KaTUXpatv. Ct yap yKaAECYl~ T01~ x8po1~
~youv !l~ anapxwem xnpwv aO[KWV oMi::v uno aoii UOlKOUj.tEVOU~, TaiiTa apa
Kat aU-ro[, j.tfjOi::v vavT(ov opwvT~ KaTa TWV unfjKOWV T~~ ~j.tWV ~amA.da~, aAA.'
ipfjVUOVT~ yKaAaoua( CYOl. 01 yap ~jlii~ ad TOU~, d OuvaTOV TO ~ ~jlWV, naVTWV av8pwnwv dpfjVt:UOVTa~, TOt~ eipfjVUlV ~OUAOj.tEVOl~ 8veat Kat
j.tfjOEV aOtKelV TOD~ unoxetp(ou~ ~j.tWV, W~ T~V dp~VT]V aet TWV UAAWV npOTlj.tWV- Kat

TU~ cmaVTWV, auvetpT]VUlV EKlVOl~ KalnoAEj.tWV antxwem.

31. Ei o ye il~ aw<ppov1 TO avT(naA.ov, aAA.' aU-rol T~~ UOlKta~ anap~OVTat

T~V ~j.teTEpav KaTaTpxovT~ y~v,


TOT apa

OtKa(w~ ah(a~ npoKetj.ttVT]~ w~ Kal

eapaaAtw~ Kat CYUV npoeu-

UOtKOU nOAEj.tOU napa TWV vavT[wv anapxoj.tEVOU,

190-192 Strat., praef.6s-68

1 o yap 6 M ouv 6 W 6 yap ABE 190-191 -r~v yu11vwmv MW cpavepwmv ABE

191 brE~EAEUCH<; ABE imE~EAEUOl<; MW 192 eucppovoiim MW KOAW<; cppovoiim ABE

t!Otlable men regard this not as chastisement but as correction.t4

29. Above all, when mobilizing for war, make sure that the cause of this war
just and never take up arms against the enemy unjustly unless they, because of
their accustomed impiety, have first initiated hostilities and are invading our
30. We must always embrace peace for our own subjects, as well as for the
barbarians, because of Christ, the emperor and God of all. If the nations also
thare these sentiments and stay within their own boundaries and promise that
they will not take unjust action against us, then you too refrain from taking up
arms against them. Do not stain the ground with the blood of your own people
or that of the barbarians. For while you are making accusations against the enemy, saying that they who have not been injured by you should not begin to take
up arms unjustly, they may bring the same charges against you, claiming that
they have not engaged in any hostile act against the subjects of Our Majesty but
have been living in peace with them. We must always, if it is possible on our
part, be at peace with all men, especially with those nations who desire to live in
peace and who do nothing unjust to our subjects. We must always prefer peace
above all else and we should be at peace with those nations and refrain from
31. But if our adversary should act unwisely, initiate unjust hostilities, and
invade our territory, then you do indeed have a just cause, inasmuch as an
unjust war has been begun by the enemy. With confidence and enthusiasm take

arro~AEJtE A arre~A.erre BE 194 err[~aA. MW err[~aAAE ABE

~!lETEpav MW ~!1Hepav xwpav ABE I Ka-raopa!lWOlV MABE Ka-raopa!loiiv-raL w

193 curocrK6rrEL MW



Eip~VI]V acrrra~0!1EVWV


198 Ka8' OAOU MW TWV oA.wv ABE

acrrra~O!lEVWV MW om. ABE 199 TOUTO <pLAOUOl M TOUTO ayarriilm




~-rE ABE


opOL<; MW opoL<; E!1!1EVOVTa ABE scr. mg.

1 KataxpmvE

eyKaAE<JEl<; cru ABE


MW Ka-ra116A.uvE ABE scr. mg.

~youv ... UOLKWV MW

om. ABE


w TOUTI]V ayarrwm
wp<aiov> w 201 f.L~t'

f.L6A.uvE W I eyKaAtcrEL<; MW

I ad

arrapxecr8m scr. mg.


w I ouof:v ... UOLKOU!lEVOU<:; MW UOLKOU<Jl !l!]OEV aOLKO!lEVOL<:; urro

<JOU ABE I iipa MW om. ABE 203 opiiJVTE<:; MW JtOLOUVTE<; ABE idem scr. mg. w I ad
Ult!]KOWV scr. mg. uno TWV urr6 XEipa w I ~!1WV ~amA.da<:; MW trsp. ABE I aU' MW om. ABE
204 eyKaAe<JOU<JL MABE eyKaAe<JOUOlV w I Ei ... ~!1WV MW om. ABE 205 8vEcrt MBE

rrpw-ro<; rrp6<; JtOAE!lOV 6p!lii

8vEcrtV W A

208 ye ... av-rirraA.ov MW ol evav-r[OL 11~ awcppovoiimv ABE scr. mg. l]youv OL

rroAE!lLOL W

209 Ka-ra-rpexov-rE<:; yijv MW yijv Ka-ra~A.amov-rE<:; ABE scr. mg. KoupaeuovtE<:;

W 1 iipa cSLKaiw.:; MW euA.oyou Kal 0LKaia.:; ABE I Kal MW om. ABE scr. mg. v8apawc; W

14. Strat., Preface 65-68.



Qualities Required in the General

!ll\l TOU KaT' alJTWV yxlpl TtOAe!lOU, U.H:; EKeLVWV TCt<; ah[a<; n:apa<JXO!lEYWV KaL

~!liV apa!lvwv Kal 8appl TOT w<; Kal TOY

E~l<; ~Of]8ov, Kal 1"0U<; un:i::p CtOA<pWV avaOXO!lYO<;

<':t<SLKOU<; xeipa<; KaTCt TWV UTtOTAWV


OtKatO<JUVT]<; E>eov

aywva<; n:avaTpan(/.





OlCt TOUTO ouv n:poTpTtO!l8a

T~V (J~V

OlCt n:avTWV QT(O(JKOTtdV OtKa[a<; Ttoti<J8at TCt<; apxa<; TOU TtOAe!lOU,

Kal TOT TCt<; xdpa<; (m:\[(lV KaTCt TWV CtOlKOUVTWV.

32. 6.t<':t n:avTWV oi:: Kal v iin:a0l Kpdnova (JWU1"0V TWV un:oxLp[wv avaod-

~at otaywv[(ou

Kal KaT'


d<; T


i<; 00V Ttl<JTlV Kal

Kal TCt<; AOtn:Ct<; apna<;. TOi<; yap TWV apxovTWV


8w8at TO apxo!lVOV,


T~V U<JE~laV

<plAi n:w<; (JUVOla1"[-

w<; av KaTCt T~V n:apOl!llaV !l~ EAa<pOl AOV1"WV apxou0lV

ana A.ov1"<; tM<pwv.

33 Kal TaUTa !lEY (JOl,

wmpaTT]y, w<;

v (JUVO\jll

T~<; ~a0lAlK~<; ~!lWY

owTa~ew<; n:apayy:\1-la-ra, iin:ep TO T~<; auvTo!l[a<; XPLWO<; n:l n:Atov TEW<; ouK
e(/. n:apKTlvw8at.


o (JOl Tai<; 1" n:ap'


EK1"8l!lEYat<; lo[q. yvW!lal<;

ev npo T4J <JUVTUY!lan Kal n:poan -rai<; Ka1"Ct n::\am<; <JUVlAY!lEYat<; ~!liY EV 1"ft

n:apaAA~A<.p TWV TaKTlKWV !l0YO~t~A4J T~V i::K18V 1"WV (T]TOU!lEYWV TtAiova Kat

apKOU<Jav n:oplaaa8at W<pEAtav. I

34 ToMwv ouv EXO!lYO<; au~lV Kal n:poan8vat mi<; aya8oi<; epym<;



n:po8u!l~8T]n, 'iva n:oA.Aan::\a0la(wv Tfl an:ouoalq. yvw!ln TCt KeA.euo!lva, n:pw-ra

!li::v E>eov e~n<; en:atVETT]V TWV n:pa~WV, n:ma oi:: Kal1"0 ~!lETpov Kpa1"0<;, ypa
TWV n:ovwv en:a~ta Ot' Ct!l<flolV KO!ll(O!lYO<;.

up nrms against them. It is they who have provided the cause by unjustly raising
!htir hands against those subject to us. Take courage then. You will have the
{!nd of justice on your side. Taking up the struggle on behalf of your brothers,
you and your whole force will be victorious. For this reason, therefore, we call
upon Your Excellency always to make sure that the causes of war are just. Only
then take up arms against men who act unjustly.
32. At all times and in all circumstances you should work hard to show
yourself superior to those under your command, especially in your faith in God,
your reverent worship, and the other virtues. Subjects somehow tend to be
11tlected by the resolute spirit of their leaders. As the proverb has it: Deer ought
not to rule over lions, but lions over deer.1s
33 And so, 0 general, we present you in summary form with these instructions of our imperial constitution, about which the practical form of a summary
does not, at this time, permit further elaboration. For questions <that may
ttrlse> you can obtain for yourself further and sufficient help both from the
precepts that we have set out individually in the present compilation and from
those that we have collected in greater detail in the corresponding single volume
of the Tactics.I6
34 Holding fast to these precepts, then, be eager to add to your successes, so

that, by your seriousness of purpose and by building upon these ordinances of

ours, you might first have God praising your deeds and then our own authority
1md, from both, you will receive the rewards merited by your labors.

220-221 Plut. Mor., 3.187.3; cf. Theognis Eleg., 1.949; 2.1278c.

211 tyxipe1 MW cmapxou ABE I -rae; ahiac; MWA -rate; ai-rtat<; BE 212 tJ7!0"tAWV ~f!lV
MW imoxe1plWV ~f!WV ABE I eapp1 MW eapcr1 ABE 214 aywvac; MABE aywvoc; w I
navcr-rpa-r 1a MW -ri]v cr-rpanav ABE I -r~v 1 ~1<; MW v1K~<J1<; ABE 218 lc; ABE om.
ad -rotc; scr. mg. <~>youv oloc; 6 apxwv <i>crt1 <p1A.oum Kat ol <ap>xof!EVOl
Ofl0lOU<J8a1 w I <p1Al MW O.el ABE 219-220 (JUV01atl8ecr8at MW cruvbtml8etat ABE
iipxoucr1v MW iipxwmv ABE 222 cro1 MWPE -ro1 A I ~amA.1Kfj<; MW om. ABE
ouK til MW ou cruyxwp1 ABE 224 Kt8If!EVat<; ... yvwf!at<; MW ioia tK-r8lcra1
223 224
yvwf!a1c; ABE 22 5 auv1Aeyf!evatc; MW cruv118po1crflevatc; A cruvTjOpo1crflevatc; BE
nopicracr8at MW cruvayayetv ABE 228 tx6f!evoc; MWA EXOfleva BE 229 tva ABE
we; iiv MW I noA.A.anA.amO.(wv MW tnau~avwv ABE I crnouoa[a MW crnouoaia crou ABE
yepa ... tna~1a MW nf!a<; tna~iac; -rwv novwv ABE scr. mg. af!01~ac; Kat ttf!a<; W
230 231
231 bt' b.fl<potv MW t~ b.fl<po-repwv ABE

15. Cf. Plutarch, Mor. 3.187.3; Theognis, Elegies 1.949; 2.1278c.

16. Undoubtedly refers to the Sylloge tacticorum.





Tiepl-rou rrw<; XP~ pouAeuw8m


About How It Is Necessary to Make Plans

'Em:to~ of: rrpo T((XGTJ<; rrpa~EW<; ~OUA~V ~yeicr0at XPEOV-OLOLKTJGL<; yap

artpo~oUAWto<; OUK Ctcr<paA~<;, KCtV EK TOU rtapaxp~flCt TL<; auxft TtOAACtKL<; KUTOp-

0wcra[ Tl W<; Uf!U Kal ~OUAEDGCtf!EVO<; Kal rtpa~a<;, an' ou VOflO<; TO GTtCtVLOV-,
OL<l TOUTO KUL rtpo TWV a:\Awv rtapaKEAEDOfleea
Kai flCtAta-ra rtOAEf!LK~<; ~ou:\euw0a[


TtCtOTJ<; rtpa~EW<; avayKa[a<;

ae rtp6Tepov f!ET<l -rwv OOKOlJVTWV crot

LKUVWV rtepl TUUTTJV apxovTWV, OLOV TOUpf!apxwv Kal TWV f<jlE~~<;, trtav of: TO
OOKOUV trtl ~E~a[ou Myou OTft, TOTE TO epyov 0!' Ortep t~OUAEUOW, crrtouoft Kal

ETtlflEAeL<(l flETUXELPLOCtf!EVO<; et<; rtpa<; ayayEiv, dye flTJOEV CtTtUVT~OOl tvaVTLOV,

w<; Ta rto:\Aa e'lwee,

rtpoeu 11 ~e 11 Tt. T~<;

KaTopewcret<; TUUTTJV acrcpaAW<; ~OTJ



~ou:\~<; To doo<; -ri T tcr-rtv Kal



2. Bou:\~ ta-rt otacrKE'!'t<; rtepl Toil rtpCi~a( Tt ~ fl~ rtpCi~at. Kal El f!EV 11~ rtpCi~at, 29~
aty~ TO fVTEU0Ev. Ei of: rtpCi~at, TtW<; rtpCi~at ~youv TOY -rp6rtov T~<; rtpa~EW<;, TtOU

rtpCi~at ~youv Tov -r6rtov -r~<; rtpa~ew<;, rt6Te rtpCi~at ~youv -rov Katpov T~<; rtpa-

~ew<;, Tt rtpCi~at ~youv TO rtpuwa -ro rtpaTTOflEVov, T(<; rtpCi~at ~youv TO rtp6crw-

rtov TO flEAAOV ~v ~OUA~V Ei<; rtpa<; rtpa~EW<; ayayeiv, Ota Tl rtpa~at ~youv T~V
aiT[av 0!' ~v ~ rtpCi~t<; o<petAEt yevaem.

Va PG 107:695

Constitutionem tertiam constitutio quarta in codd. antecedit. edd. praevios secutus
transposui et ego. I TIOAEfHKWV napaoKeuwv MA om. WBE I y' Va PG O' codd.. 3 xpe6v W
xpewv M XP~ ABE scr. mg. xp~oq.tov cmarroi:iv W 3-4 OLOiKl)Ot<:; ... anpo~ouft.wro~ MW ~
yap npo~ouft.wro~ (cmpo~ouft.wro~ A) OLOiKT)at~ ABE 4-5 K ... n MW Kauxw-r6 (Kauxa-rai
A) -rt~ auVT6f.!W~ n KatopSwam ABE 6 npa~ew~ avayKaia~ MW trsp. ABE 8 nepl...
apxov-rwv MW tv tal~ ~OUAUl~ elvat ABE I E<pE~fJ~ enav MW AOlTIWV ETIElOUV ABE scr. mg.
~youv o-rav ~ ~OUA~ KupwSfJ w 9 OOKOUV MW KlVOUf.!EVOV ABE I ETil... a-rfj MW ~E~atwSfJ
w~ aUf.!<pEpov ea-r\ ABE I -ro ... ~ouft.euaw MW om. ABE 9-10 anou&fJ ... ETilf.!EAEia MW
f.lE"tU anou&fj~ Kai emf.!EAda~ ABE 10 f.!EtaXEtptaaf.!evo~ MW om. ABE I nepa~ MW -reft.o~
A n\ayo~ BE scr. mg. El~ tEAO~ w I ayaydv MW ayetv auto ABE 10-11 elye ...
rcpoSuf.!~Sl)n (w~ W wa-re M) MW om. ABE scr. mg. w~ noft.A<iKt~ auf.l~a(vet W 13 npa~ai
MW A npa~at nw~ BE I f.l~ 2 MW A om. BE 14 ~youv ... npa~ew~ MW A om. BE
16-17 -ro3 .. f.!EAAov MWA -ro f.!EAAov rcp6awnov BE 17 rcepa~ MW -reft.o~ ABE scr. mg. Et~
-reft.o~ W I npa~ew~ MW om. ABE

Before every action it is necessary to consider a plan. It is not safe to carry

t1Ut anything that has not been planned ahead of time, even if some individual
!1\lght claim to ha~e straightened things out several times on the spot, making
plans and puttmg them into action at the same time.' But what happens
r!lrely is not a law. For these reasons, above all else, we strongly recommend to
you that before every necessary action, especially a military one, you deliberate
!lbout it with those officers whom you consider qualified, such as tourmarchs
~U1d those next in rank. When your opinions result in a firm decision, then
!leriously and carefully take in hand the action that you have been deliberating
about and, if you should encounter no obstacle, which is usually the case, exert
yourself to bring it to fulfillment. But now I shall set before you the nature of
deliberation, what it is and how you can bring it to a successful conclusion.
.2. Deliberation is an investigation about whether to do something or not to
do tt. If the decision is not to do it, there is no further discussion. If to do it,
the~ how to do it or the manner of doing it, where to do it or the place in which
It will be done, when to do it or the time of doing it, what to do or the action to
be taken, who is to do it or the person who is to bring the planned action to its
conclusion, why do it or the reason for which the action ought to be taken.


Cf. infra, Const. 5, n. 7


3 '0

oe ~OUAUOflVO<; Kae' eam:ov ~ avayKTj<; rrpWTOV T~V OlCtVOlUV A.ue-

pav txTw TWV anwv cmavTWV, flCtAlGTU o TWV aVT]KOVTWV d<; TO rrpiiyfla 1tpl

~OUA\JTat, dT exepa<; ~ <plAta<; ~ nvo<; anou rraeou<;.

4 Eha flT]OE f.!OVOV TO d.\KOAOV OOKOUV EKAyou KUL TOUTO rrp6aX, ana

rrp6~A1t '(aw<; TWV rrpayfl6.TWV auTWV flTa T~V

vap~lV urro~anof.!EVWV KUL aA.Awv urro~aA.A6vTWV KUL aA.Ao n GUfl<pOpWTpov

rravTa Ta ouvaTa yvaeat




Constitution 3


orrp rrapA.m<;.
5 El o fl~ lo[w<;


rrapaA.a~LV rrpo<; T~V

OlCtGK\IIlV ~OUATJeElT]<;. (JUUTOV Of.!OlW<; ETOlfla<YOV arrae~. W<; dpT]TUl, W<J1tP d
KUL Kae' eauTOV ~oUAU<JW, TOU<; o <YUfl~OUAOU<; rrapaACtfl~UV Ef11tdpou<; TOU
rrpayflaTo<;, rrpoopanKou<; Kal. aToxamtKou<;, auflrraeci<; Kal. 6~ci<; d<; TO vo~aat
KUL aa<<;, OUT ao[, T{il ~OUAU<YOflEV<p, UT(ElKOVTU<; KUTa xaptv, OUT T{il
aA.Aa KUL Tpou<;

aAA~AOl<;, Atyovm<; o TO <patVOflVOV, aKpa[ou<; T

Ta<; yvWf.!U<; KUL arrpoaKAlVL<; KUL f1TjOfllUV tm~OA~V ~ eauTWV rrapxovm<;,

Kup[<p TOU rrp6.Yf1UTO<; OUT

ana Tfi auTfi wpq. TO <YUfl<pOpWTpov OOKlflCt<YUVTU<;.

6. Eial. yap TlV<; tauTOL<; n tvopwvT<; '(otov <YUfl<pEpov
35 mv

~ tTpot<; ou<; ayarrw-

~ K~oovTat Kal maKorrouvTat T~V Kp[mv wu rrp6.yflaTo<; KalrroA.A.6.Kt<; ouK

EVOLOOVT<; rrapaTpE1tOU<Yl T~V yvWflfJV i<; 0 ~OUAOVTat.

7. 'Errl o TWV arropp~TWV KUL KpU1tLWV rrpayflCtTWV Kal m<YTOU<;
V KUL tyKpaTl<; KUL flU<YTT]p[wv <pUAUKU<; Kal



T~V Tpwv ~oua[av

D.w8epav scr. mg. ~youv \eu8epav txb:w ano x8pa<; ~ <pLAta~ W 20 niiv .
anavrwv MW 1!UVTWV TWV iiAA.wv ABE 21 TLVO~ iiAAOU MW trsp. ABE 22 TO ... OOKOUV
MW TO ooKoiJv euKoAov ABE I TouTo MW TOUTW A TOUTWV BE 23 Yaw~ MWAE om. B I
mhwv MWAE TWV B 24 imo~aAAOflEVWV ... ii\Awv ABE om. MW I ii\Ao TL MW ii\Aa nva
ABE I GUflq>Op<impov Va GUflq>Ep<impov MW GUflq>Epovm ABE 25 onep MW iinep ABE
26 ~ou\eucraa8at MWE ~ou\euaaa8at 8e\e1~ AB 27 ~ou\118d11~ aeauTov MW aeauTov
f!EV ABE 1 ad ana8fj scr. mg. 'lva fll1ov nm~a11~ &' x8pav ~ <pt\iav W I wanep MWA Ka8w~
BE 30 ~ou\wcroflevw MWE ~ou\eucraf!evw A ~ouAWOflEVW B 31 Te MWBE om. A
a poaKAtve1~ MW fl~ npoana8ouvm~ ABE scr. mg. fl~ penovra~ np6~ Ttva~ fll'\OE
npoana8ouvTa~ W 1 m~o\~v ... naptxovm~ (m~ou\~v A) MW A ~ ainwv napexovTa~
em~o\~v BE 33 GUfl<pop<inepov Va crufl<pep<impov MWA GUflq>Ep6Tepov BE
34 EUUTOl~ ... OUflq>Epov MW ~ LOLOV eaUTOL<; GUflq>Epov npoopwVTE<; ABE 34-35 ayanwmv
MWA ayanwat BE 35 ~ ... npO.yflaTo~ MW om. ABE 36 ev0t06vTe~ WABE evlhoouvTe~
M I yVWfll'\V MW ~OUA~V ABE 37 cmopp~TWV ... Kpumwv MW Kpumwv Kal flUGTlKWV ABE




38 T~V MW om. ABE

. 3 The person responsible for devising the plan must necessarily begin by
fi'<:Cing his mind of everything else, especially whatever may be connected with
action that he is deliberating about, whether of enmity or friendship or any
feeling he might have.
4 You should not limit your choice to what seems easy and concentrate on
tbllt, but consider all the possibilities. After getting under way, perhaps the
t'Ourse of action itself will give rise to suggestions. Others too may make suggestit>ns about some other more suitable procedure that you may have neglected.
5 If you do not make plans by yourself but wish to include others in your
dtliberations, you must still keep yourself indifferent, as was said, as though you
Wtre devising the plans by yourself. To assist in planning, employ men who have
jome experience of the matter, men who can look ahead and form a good
tJstimate, who interact well, and who are quick-witted and trustworthy. They
sbould not give in to you as you go about your deliberations or to the one in
charge of the action or to one another simply to curry favor. But they should
t!!Xpress their opinions and be objective in their views, not inclined one way or
t.he other, not presenting any proposals of their own but, at the same time,
giving their approval to what is more beneficial.
6. There are some who look at what is beneficial only for themselves or for
others whom they love or care about, and they make this the deciding factor in
considering the proposal. Frequently, unwilling to give in, they alter the plan to
what they want.
7 In the case of secret and covert projects, invite men who are trustworthy,
possessed of self-control, and who can keep secrets. They should not be under

Planning 43

Constitution 3


ovmc;, a:\.Awc; n: flf10E T~c; xpriac; TaUTflc; nA.~8ouc; 00f1EYf1c; OlCt TO iJUOTlK(tJT40

8. Kal

~OUAfUOU f1EY ~paowc;, i il~ nc; xpfia TO nixoc; cmaml. Ta o ~ou-

A.ru8vm OOl, i f1f10Ev !':iJnooi(rt, mxewc; m-rA.n.

9 Kmpov 0, we; dpf1TUl, KaL -r6nov OflOLWc; EKAyou Kal KaTaOKUa( TlV
npayiJaTl oiKLOV, nA.~v il~ !':ni OOl f10Y4J I ava<pep T~V nrpl TOUTWV Kpiatv, aH'
45 !':nl nav-rac; -roue; KOlVWYOUVTac; Ufla ooL KaL Tl flEY oov Of np<i~at OKEJ1TOU Kal
f1WX nA.n6vwv ~OUAUOU, a o np<i~at ~ouhuon ouv 6A.iyOLc;. T~V o KaA.Aiova
yvWf1f1Y mA.r~af1Yoc; KUTX napa awu-r4J, Yva il~ TOLe; !':vav-riOLc; Kam<pav~c;


Kal; yvf1Tal.

10. Tao npayiJaTa nA.dovac; XOPflYOUOl -roue; OKOTIOuc; '(owe; Ttc; nrpiommc;
so EK navTWV TWV flepwv <pavrpa yrv~oTat TOLe; ouyKKAflf1EVOlc; !':v Tft ~ouA.ft,
0Ufl~aAAOf1EYf1 Tft yvWflTI T~c; OUfl~OUA~c;.
11. ITavmc; 0 XP~ pl':rrav KaL OUVTPEXflV de; <ptA.aA.~8rt Kal anae~ ou(~TflOlY

Kal Kf10f10Y[av Kal rrp6vOLav -rou ouyKaA.aavmc;.

12. TA.oc; o T~c; ~OUA~c; eaTW OOl TO rupr8~vat i Tl rrpa~ac; Kat rrwc; rtpa~ac;
55 Kal rrou Kal n6-rr, d 0 il~ npa~ac;, Kal ota -ri apa ou npa~etc;.
13. 'Ev ole; o ~ouA.euon Kal !':v TOLe; EiJnimouat Tft ~ouA.ft OKOnoLc; auv-rpxav
o1 Ctfla Kat TO ouvaTOV Kat TO OUfl<pl':pov TOUTWY yap dvm il~ ouvaiJEYWY
ao8ev~c; ~ ~OUA~ Kal !lamia au-r68ev ouoa KaTavoeiTm Kat wanep !':v O'Jfl ~

au-r~c; aA.oy(a ~Atrrnm.

14. Ei yap il~ OUfl<pEpH

OOl orrep av ~ouA.euon, ou flOYOV OUK W<pA~Oflc;

aHa iJUAAOV Kat ~ACt'JfLc;. i o' au TIUAlV ou ouvaom Ta ~ouA.eu8vm npu~m,
41-42 Strat., 8.1.5.

43-48 Strat., 8.2.23.

a:>..Aw~ ... JlUGTlKOJTpov bis scr. MW JtA~V OUOE ~ xpeia UU1'fl JtAElG1'0U~ Bexnat 6ta 1'0
ua-rtKW1'epav dvm ABE scr. mg. ~youv on ouoh GUJlcpBpet noUou~ dvat Bta -ro
cpuMnw6at -ro ua-r~ptOv W 41 d MW av ABE !-ro ... cmam1 MW Ka-rmdyfl cruv-r6Jlw~
~OUAEUGaa6at ABE 43-44 1'W npayJlUTl MWAE 1'WV npUYJlCt1'WV B 44 Jl~ ... avacpepe
MW om. ABE I Kpimv MW Kpimv Jl~ Eltl GOt JlOVW avacpepe ABE 47 Ka-racpav~~ MW
cpavepa ABE 4 8 Kal... yevfl1'at MW yevfl-rat Kal euK6A.w~ tltt~ouA.eu6~ ABE
49 xop!]yovm ... GKOJtOU~ MW trsp. ABE I '(aw~ MW Kal -raxa ABE 50 cpavepCt MW A
cpavepa GUJl~UAAOJlEV!] -r~ ~ouA.~ BE I yev~crnat MABE yevfl1'at W I cruyKeKAflJlBVOt~ .. .
~ouA.~ MW v -r~ ~ouA.~ (cruJl~OUA!] B) cruyKaAOUJlEVOt~ ABE 51 O'UJl~UAAOJlEV!] .. .
GUJl~OUA~c; MW om. ABE 52 nav-ra~ MWAE JtCtV1'U B I penetv ... cru~~l]O'IV MW Kal
cruv-rpexetV de; cmae~ Kal UAfl6~ (aA!]6~ Kal anae~ A) O'U~~1'flGIV pEJtEIV ABE
53 K!]6EJlOVlUV MW d~ cppov-r[6a ABE 54 1'0 eupe6~vat MWA om. BE I d w d~ M d OAW<;
ABE 55 d M ~ WABE \Be MW om. ABE 57 dvat MW olJlat ABE 61 6' au MW BE




!hr authority of others, and there should not be many of them, the better to
matters secret.
H. Take your time in making your plans, unless some necessity requires
Immediate action. 2 But once you have decided on something, unless there is an
11h~tacle, carry it out quickly.
9 In like manner, as was said, select the time and place and make preparations appropriate to the action.' Still, do not refer the decision about these
!hlngs to yourself alone, but to all who are privy to the action together with
yourself. Investigate and deliberate with a large number about what it is
necessary for you to do, but make your plans about what you are actually going
ttl do with only a few. Once you have opted for the better proposal, keep it to
yourselflest it become manifest and exposed to counteraction by the enemy.
10. The affairs themselves furnish many points of view. Perhaps some
circumstance from all the parts will clarify matters for those called together for
the consultation, contributing to the resolution of the discussion.
11. It is necessary for everyone to be favorably inclined to take an active part
In the truth-loving and unbiased inquiry, as well as the concern and foresight of
the one who has called them together.
12. Let the purpose of the deliberation be for you to discover if you will do
something, how you will do it, and where and when, but if you will not do it,
then for what reason will you not do it.
13. In the matters on which you are deliberating and in the objectives that
form part of your deliberation, it is necessary for the possible and the beneficial
to concur. A deliberation about things that are not possible has no strength and,
for that very reason, is rejected as useless, and its irrationality is seen at a glance.
14. If whatever you may be deliberating about is not beneficial for you, not
only will you not be helpful; rather, you will cause harm. Again, if you are not


Cf. Strat. 8.1.5.

3. Cf. Strat. 8.2.23.


Planning 45

Constitution 3

!lala[a ~ ouiaK\jil<; d<; av6vrrrov TEAO<; OtCt T~V CtOUVU!llUV KUTUVTWaa. !lCtAlGTU
o XP~ <puAa.nwem Ta<; Ttpoxdpw<; !l<ppo!lva<; tv To1<; 11pawam ~A.a~a<;. Kal
yap oi 11oAA.ol Tm!lo[ dm -ra1<; !lEV <ppovT[mv u<ppa[vtv t:auTou<;, TO o E!1Tt[6s

mov T~<; ~ACt~!"]<; 11~ 11po~ATtnv.

1 . Xpl"]at!lwT6.TT"] ouv anv v-rauea ~ Ttav-raxoev TIEptaK\jit<; Kal TtavTwv

TWV yveaem OUVUTWV 6 11pl T~V aKE\jilV avaA.oyta!-16<;. ou yap Ttpoowan<;

awuTov 11poTITtQ. Tu<pA.ft ouo Ta1<; tmeu!l[m<; Twv 11p6.~wv yA.tx6!lvo<; i<;
11poo~A.ou<; Ktvouvou<; E!lTttan<;.


16. I16.AlV OE TO 0lAOV TOU ea.paou<; xwpl<; OUK aTlV Ct~AU~E<; <p0~0D!lVO<;
yap Ta aA.oya TtapaTITW!lUTU KUL Ta vavT[a am OOKOUVTU TtapaA6yw<; 1tpay!laTUO!lVO<; TtoA.A.aKL<; TWV au!l<pp6vTwv aot 11pay116.Twv KUTT"]!lEAT"]aa<; Kal T~<;
auTwv cmeaTT"]<; 11pa~W<;.
17. Oihw !lEv ouv am ota ~paxtwv,


a-rpaTT"]y, TIEpl ~ouA* Ot~A.e6vT<;

~~<; KUL T~<; TWV TtOAE!llKWV pywv T KUtTtpa~W<; TUKTLK~<; Ct11Up~W!lea.

!!hit to turn your plans into action, deliberating about them serves no purpose
because of the impossibility, ends up accomplishing nothing. It is particunecessary to guard against the damages that readily occur in taking action.
are prepared to find happiness in their thoughts but not to foresee the
uu~et of harm.
15. In these matters, then, the examination of every aspect is absolutely
fll~ential, as well as a reconsideration regarding the examination of everything
can possibly occur. For <in that way> you will not give yourself up to blind
headlong haste, nor in your great eagerness for action will you fall into
obvious dangers.
16. Again, fear without courage is not without harm. By fearing irrational
*"Makes and unreasonably busying yourself with matters that you think are
l,:Uiltrary to your interests, frequently you will have neglected matters which are
f~ally in your best interests and you will have turned away from putting them
17. So then, 0 general, we have briefly gone through the subject of delibera-

tion, and we will begin next about the tactics of military works and action.

62 av6v'l-rov MW avw<peA.e<; ABE idem scr. mg. W

63 Ejl<pt:pOjlEVa<; MW Ejl<patVOjlEVa<;

67 yevea6m ouva-rwv MW trsp. ABE 68 aeau-rov ABE eau-rov MW 1-ru<pA.~ MW

-ru<pA.~ Kal aneptaKemw ABE I yA.tX6ilevo<; MW om. ABE 70 -rou W Kal MABE
70-75 xwpl.; ... anap~wjle6a MABE om. sed scr. mg. i)youv <po~oujlt:Vo<; Ctjle-rpw<; -ro 11~








71-72 npawa-reu611evo<; MA npawa-reu611eva BE

73 CtTIEO"T'l<; MAB cmaT'l<; E


71 aA.oya



72 KUT'ljlEA'laa<; MA KUTUjlEA'lO"L<; BE

75 -re M om. ABE

anap~wjlt:6a M anap~6jlt:6a A



Tiepl Olatpaew<; mpatou KUL Kataaniaew<; apxovtwv

About the Division of the Army and the Appointment of Officers

KAUOf.1V to(vuv tfi afi voo~6t'lll Kata t~V livw9v Kat ~ upx~c; auv~9t:tav touc; atpanwmc; Kal touc; apxovmc; a\.mov mA.~aaem, ouc; iiv OOKlf.iUOnc;
LKavouc; dvm rrpoc; t~V tOU TCOAEf.iOU xpLav. EKAE~n ot atpanwmc; cmo rravtoc;
tOU UTCO 0 9f.1atOc;, fl~T rraioac; fl~T ypovmc;, uA:\a uvopiouc;, UpW<rtouc;,
u'f!uxouc;, t:urr6pouc;, &at autouc; v t(j) ~rroin!l ~youv v tfi auvaywyfi tou
<poaaatou de; t~V [o(av atpatdav UOXOAOUf.iEVOUc; XLV v tote; io(otc; o'iKotc;
tpouc;, touc; yt:wpyouvtac; Kal ta rrpoc; arraptlOf.iOV Kai ~6rr:\tmv tOU atpatLWtou xoP'lYIv ouvaf.1vouc;, Of]A.ov6n A.cu9pouc; -roue; o'iKouc; xovtac; twv
liAA.wv cmaawv tOU 0'lf.100lOU OOUALWV. ou yap ~OUAOf.19a tOV ~f.1Etpov
auatpatLWTf]V-Othw yap yw KUAW tOV uptatULV flEAAOVta urrp t t~c; ~f.iWV
~amA.dac; Kal t~c; <ptA.oxpiatou -rwv 'Pwf.iaiwv rroA.miac; v toic; Kata rr6Af.10V
pyotc;-rrA.~v f.iOVOV tOU Of]f.iOOlOU tA.ouc; tp<;t tJTCOKda9m olq.o~rrot oouA.dq..
2. t.tmpia9w toivuv 6 mic; im6 a atpatoc; t:ic; tayf.iata ~youv ta A.t:y6f.1Va
~avoa ota<popa Kal ht urrootmpia9w t:ic; 0Kapxiac;, Kal KataatT]<r<itwaav de;
ta AYOf.1Va KOVtou~pvta. mum 8t ytvaewaav Kai urro TCEVt TCOAAUKtc; Kal
arro OEKU uvopwv ~youv Kata 0Kapxiav ~ ev KOVtoU~pvtv ~ Mo.
3 Kal 6 f.1V atpatoc; oA.oc; Otatpt:iaew outwc; ic; tUYf.iUta Kal de; OcKapxiac;.
mat~tWOUV Of: autotc; apxovtc; KUta ~avoa KUL Opouyyouc; Kai tOUpf.iU<; KUL
tac;; owuaac; upxac; oi LKUVWtatoL ~youv 0001 Kai matol Kal UYVWf.10Vc;
<pa(vovtat tfi 'Pwf.ia"iKfi ~flWV TCOALttq., f.1Uptupouvtm 8t KUL uvopt:t6tpOL. ouotv
ot KWAU1 Kal UTCopwtatouc; au-roue; LVUL Kai UyvIc; KUta t tO yvoc; Kai t~V

We order Your Excellency, in keeping with the custom going way back to
beginning, to select the soldiers and their officers whom you judge qualified
1t1eet the requirements of warfare. Select soldiers from the entire theme under
command, neither boys nor old men, but men who are brave, vigorous,
and financially well off. While these men are occupied with their
IW11 military service on the campaign or, rather, the assembling of the army,
must have others in their households who do the farm work and who are
to provide the required items for the complete equipping and arming of a
This means that the heads of those households should be free from all
services owed the state. For we do not wish our fellow soldier-thus I call
man who goes forth to strive valiantly in warlike deeds on behalf of Our
M~tJesty and the Christ-loving commonwealth of the Romans-with the sole
tl~::eption of the public tax, 1 to be subject to any imposition whatsoever.
l. Let the entire army under your command be divided into various tagma~\lso called banda. Let it be further divided into dekarchies. Then let the so!,'ldled squads be set up. These may often be composed of five men, as well as of
tim, so that each dekarchy will have one or two squads.





M W A B E Va

J. In this manner, let the entire army be divided into tagmata and into
t!ekarchies. 2 Let officers be put in charge of them according to banda, droungoi,
~t!id tourmai, and the other appropriate units. They should all be extremely comlldent, faithful, and loyal to our Roman state; they should also give evidence of
bravery that is above average. There is nothing to prevent their being very

PG 107:697

19-29 Onas. 2. 3-5.

1 noA.q.ttKWV ... otc:'tta~u; y' (tpLTTJ A) MWA otaTU~l~ y' 7tEpl TrOAEfllKWV napacrKeuwv BE (nepl
om. E) I o' Va PG y' codd. 6 eupwcrtou~ MW tcrxupou~ ABE 7 ad EU\jluxou~ scr. mg.
npo6uf.!OU~ tOAf.lTJpou~ W. 10 OTJAov6n A.w6epou~ bis scr. MW trsp. ABE 11 anacrwv
MW nacrwv ABE 12 oi.\tw MW oi.\tw~ ABE 16 KataUTTJcrc:'ttwcrav MW Katacrt~twcrav
ABE 17 Kovtou~epvta MABE KOutou~epvta W 18 Kov-rou~epvtv M Kou-rou~epvtv W
Kovtou~epvwv AE Kouvtou~epvwv B 20 Kal toupf.!a~ MW om. ABE 22 ~f.!WV noA.m(a
MWA 7t0AlTELa Uf.!WV B 7tOAlTELU ~f.lWV E 23 autou~ dvat MW AE trsp. B



See "demosion;' ODB.

Onasander 2.3-5.


Division of the Army and Appointment of Officers

Constitution 4

l~~ \j!UX~~ ape-r~v T~V j.lEv euyvLav EXflV, tva eiol np6xLp0l tv O~UH]Tl Katpou

nepl-ra~ KfAfUOj.lEVW:; au-roT~ npa~L~, T~V 8 eunopiav, tva OUVWVTat -roT~ mpal
nw-rm~ K nepLOuoia~ noHaKt~, ei 8e~oOL, xopT]yeTv. Kal yap Kal 6f.iyT] -raxa
xopTjyta an6 TWV ~YOUj.lEVWV apx6v-rwv np6~ TOU~ UTIOTaHOj.lEVOU~ ytVOj.lEVT]
euvouma-ra Kal <piAta npo~ au-rou~ napaoKeua<L -ra nf.~ell Kal ouvaywvi<wem

-Kal j.lEXPl KaLTEAOU~-tv -roT~, w~ elKO~, fj.l11l11lOUOl KlVOUVOl~.

4 Ol 8 j.let<ove~ au-rwv Kal vnj.16-ra-rot Kal ouve8peuooum -r4> o-rpmT]y4J, o'i

8 Kalnapoov-rat Kal j.19E~OUOl ouv au-r4J 11Ct0T]~ ~OUA~~ Kal KOlVWV~OOUOl 110U
Kal yvWj.lT]~, ei TUXOl, Kal anopp~-rou Kal Kpum~~- Kal yap Tl~ -raxa Kal aptOTO~
wv vvoeT j.lEV n XP~Otj.lOV, ~e~a[w~ 8 -ra au-rou j.l6vo~ ouK olKetou-rat. yvWj.lT]
yap ~ ~OUA~ EKCtOTT], ~ j.lEV a~o~9T]TO~ ouaa nepl T~V l8iav eupwtv j.lOVT]V
35 Q110~AE11fl, ~ 8 uno Kal aAAWV 110AAWV mj.1ap-rupTj9e1oa 11lOTOUTUl Kal ava<pa[VHUl j.1Tj8v xouoa o<paAep6v.
5 Tipnov ouv fOTlV dvatTOV o-rpa-rTjy6v-tva KaLTICtAlV 00l11pl-rwv au-rwv


napatVEOWj.lfV-j.l~Tf oihw~ ao-ra-rov T~V 8tavotav tva aUTO~ au-r4J naVTfAW~

amo-rft, j.l~Tf OUTW~ au9a8Tj Kat j.lOVWTaTOV W~ jl~ ~OUAW9at nap' -rpwv KCtAAlOV Tl VOTj9v aVaj.la9eTv. avayKT] yap aU-rov ~ T((lOl -roT~ aAAOl~ KULa navm
npoaexovm Kal Ka-ra j.1Tj8v au-r4J mo-reuov-ra nOAACtKl~ nona Kal UOUj.l<j>Opa
npCtHLV, ~ j.1Tj8v 6Aiywv QKOUOVTU nav-ra o au-r4J KaTU11l0TfUOVTa, noAAa

30-36 Onas. 3 1-5.

24 ei0l MWA

MW 0~01

wm BE



MW om. ABE


w I to1<; WABE om. M

26 OE~00l

Wt:althy or noble as far as their birth and virtue of soul is concerned. If they
11hould be of noble birth, at crucial moments they will be quick to put into
1\t:tion what they have been ordered to do; if they should be wealthy, then, when
called for, from their abundance they will often be able to devote some funds to
soldiers. Even a small expenditure made by a commanding officer for the
benefit of his troops renders the rank and file much better disposed and friendly
lt)Ward him and ready to fight along with him, even to the end, in the dangers
likely to confront them.
4 The higher-ranking and most respected officers should sit in council with
the general; they should be at hand and participate with him in every deliberation and somehow share in his decision, even if it might be kept hidden and
*ecret. 3 For an individual, the very best perhaps, may think of something benefichtl, but one man alone should certainly not limit himself to his own opinions.
livery decision or deliberation that is unsupported looks only at its author's
Ingenuity, but the decision that has the additional testimony of many others is
reliable and may be presented without any uncertainty.
5. It is, therefore, fitting for the general to be-we are still giving you advice
~tbout the same matters-neither so indecisive in mind that he has absolutely no
confidence in himself nor so opinionated and self-centered that he is unwilling
t.o learn from others anything that has been better thought out. The man who
always pays attention to everyone else and never relies on himself will surely
make many and frequent errors in practice, whereas the one who never listens,

26-27 nixa xop!]y[a MW 0001<; ABE

I {momTTOJlEVOU<; MW unoxe1p[ou<; ABE

28 UVOU0TUTU ...

n\~81] MW UVOLUV Kai ayani]V TOU n\~8ou<; O.nepya~Tat ABE scr. mg. ayani]T1KU

w I Kai TEAOU<; MW eavatou ABE I W<; ... K1VOUV01<; MW



napa0Kua~1 ABE 30 0uveopeu0oum MW 0uyKa8eopo1 0ovtm ABE

29 Kai' MABE om.

31 napE00VTUl ... 0UV MW

K01VWV~00U0l scr.



<~>youv 'lva Wat

Kai autoi

autw MW AB

0UJl~OUA01 Kai

autwv E

ei<; tu<; KpU<jHWtEpa<;



3 2 Kai tuxo1 MW om. ABE 1 Kai Kpum~<; MW JlU0TlK~<; t KaianoKpucpou ABE I
Kai4 Kais MW KUV ABE 33 wv ... XP~01JlOV MW wv & 0tpatl]yO<; vvod JlEV n Kai

~OUAUTU1 XP~0lJlOV ABE I ~e~a[w<; ... olKlOUTUl MW T~V o io[av ~ou\~v ~~atW0Ul ou
ouvatat ABE 34 ~ ... eKa0tl] MW om. ABE 34-35 nepl. ..\en1 MW 0cpa\Anm

T~V io[av Up01V ABE 35 uno Kai MW Kai uno AE Kai B 37-38 dvat ... nap-

atVE0WJleV MW om. ABE

38 o1avmav MW o1avotav dvat tov 0tpm!]yov ABE

JlOVwtmov Va Kai JlOVwtato<; MW om. ABE

MW A om. BE

39 Kal

41 npo0txovm MW A npo0txovt1 BE I Jl!]&v

m0tuovta MW A m0tuovn BE

42 npaTT1V MW A npanea8a1 BE

no\AaK1<; MWBE om. A

I Jl!]&V M




o AB



I eautw
3. Onasander 3.1-5.


Division of the Army and Appointment of Officers

Constitution 4

TIOAACtKl<; Kat flYUAa Otaflap-ravav. TOUTWV o oihw<; x6v-rwv np6-repov flEv

E~OVOflUO"OflEV O"Ol cmA.w<; TOU<; Ka8LO"TaflEVOU<; apxov-ra<;, ele' oihw<; Kal Ta
45 yvwp[aflaTa a1nwv w<; v auvT6fl4J einelv OLOpta6fle8a.

6. TipWTf] Ke<paA~ 6 a-rpaTf]y6<;, Kat fle-r' aUTOV oi flepapxm Kat oi TOUpflapXUl, eha opouyyaptol, eha oi KOflf]Te<;, ~youv oi TWV A.eyOflEVWV ~avowv apxovTe<;, eha oi Kev-rapxOL, <pe~~<; oi OEKapxot, ~youv oi npw-rot -rwv A.eyoflvwv
aKtwv, el-ra oi nev-rapxm Kal <pe~~<; oi -re-rpapxm, ohtve<; Kal ota -ro axa-rou<;
so TOU a-rlxou TOU KaTa TO ~aeo<; ~TOl TO naxo<; T~<; napa-ra~ew<; -raaawem aU-roil<;
Kal oupayol EKaAOUVTO. 6 yap eaxa-ro<; TOU OAOU a-r[xou ~youv T~<; UK[a<; W<; nl
TTJ<; oupa<; aUTf]<; oihw<; 'iaTUTUl.
7 Kal at-rat flEv ai OVOflaO"Lal TWV apx6v-rwv. eial o Kat i!TepOl Ka8' i!KaO"TOV
-rawa ~Tot ~avoov Otwptaflvot, olov ~avoo<p6pot, aaA.myK-ral ~Tot ~ouKtva55

TOpe<;, eepaneu-ral ~ ia-rpol oi Kal OenOTUTOl, Kal flaVOUTWpe<; Kat napaKA~Tope<;,

oi Ota A.6ywv Oteye[povTE<; TOV a-rpa-rov npo<; TOU<; aywva<;, OU<; oi npo ~flWV,
VEWTEpOl o TWV aA.A.wv, TUKTlKOL 'Pwfla"ia-rl KaVTUTWpE<;


Kat hepo[

TlVE<; npo<; Ta<; avaKumouaa<; xpda<; a<pwplO"flEVOl, oiov O"Kpt~WVE<; Kal oi AOlnoL nav-ra yap Tfi vuv T[OALTEL<;l yvwpl(e-rat Ta OVOflaTa TWV naA.mwv atyf]8v6o

TWV, linep KUTU xwpav UTIOflV~O"OflEV.

8. L-rpa-rf]y6<; mlvuv npoaayopeue-rm 6 -rou nav-ro<; a-rpa-rou Kopu<pa16<; -re
Kal ~YEflWV, unoa-rpUTf]yO<; o 6 T~V oeu-rpav TOUT(JJ TU~lV EKTIAf]pWV. OLflal o

w<; oi naA.m6-repOL ~flWV unoa-rpa-r~you<; flEV KaA.ouv mu<; a-rpa-rf]you<; Ota -ro
a-rpaTf]yov cmav-rwv Kuplw<; elvm TOV ~aatA.ea, EK npoawnou 0 au-rou elvm

Kae' i!KaO"TOV etfla TOV a-rpaTf]y6v, Kal Ola T~V TOlaUTf]V ai-r[av 6 OTpaTfJYO<;
unoa-rpUTfJYO<; EKaAeLTO, a-rpaTf]yO<; o KUptw<; Atye-ro 6 EK npoawnou TOU
~aatA.ew<; nav-rwv KE<paA.~ UTIOO"TEAAOflEVO<;, exwv unoa-rpa-r~you<; TOU<; TWV

8Ef1UTWV o-rpaTfJYOU<;, onep EO"TLV aptaTOV.

9 Nuv o imoaTpUTf]yO<; ou yvwpi(ETal, ei fl~ Tl 6 KaAOUflEVO<; flEPUPXfJ<;.

10. Kal -roupflUPXfJ<; a-rlv

o noTE KaAOUflEVO<; flEPUPXfJ<; ~TOL 6 -rou flEpou<;

-r~v apx~v flnemmeuf1vo<;.

61-122 Strat., 1.3-5.

46-47 Kal2 . TOUpJ.uipXat MW om. ABE 49 ad ctKLwv scr. mg. -rwv opcSivwv W I TO MWAE
-rou B 54 cStwpt<JflEVOL MW AE cStwpt<YflEVOV B I craA.myKml MWAB craA1lT]YIJTUl E I ~Tot2
MWAE ~youv A 55 ~ MWA om. BE I cSmo-rit-rot MW cSmo-rit-rat AE cSamo-rit-rot B
56-57 ouc; ... eKitA.ouv MW om. ABE 6o iim::p ... U1lOflV~crow::v MW om. ABE 62 -rou-rw
-rit~tv MWAE trsp. B I OLflUL MW ABE 64-65 dvat2 i:'Kacr-rov MWAE trsp.
B 69 n MW om. ABE I flepitpXIJ<; MW AB flVCtpXIJ<; E 70 Kal ... flepitpXIJ<; MW om. ABE
71 -r~v apx~v MWA -rijc; apxiic; BE


to a few others, but trusts only himself is likewise bound to make many
mistakes. This is how these matters stand. Now, we will first simply give
the titles of the officers to be appointed; then we will define, in summary
fl!~h!on, their characteristics.
6. At the very top is the general and, after him, the merarchs and the tourtllt\rchs, then the droungarioi, then the counts, that is, the officers of the sobanda, then the kentarchs and, in order, the dekarchs, that is, the first of
so-called files, then the pentarchs and, after them, the tetrarchs who, because
are lined up last in the row, according to the depth or the thickness of the
line, are also called ouragoi, for the last man of the whole row or file is
'nl!itioned as though at its tail.
7 These, then, are the titles of the officers, but there are also other men astlgtled to each tagma or bandon. Such are the standard-bearers, tile trumpeters
~~r buglers, the medical attendants or doctors who are also called deputies, the
h~ralds and the exhorters whose task it is to exhort and arouse the army for
t<)mbat, whom those before us, the more recent tactical writers, called by the
ttttin term cantatores. 4 Other men are assigned to various needs as tlley occur.
Such are the skribones and the rest.' These names, about which the ancient
uuthors are silent, are those recognized by the modern state and which we will
discuss in due order.
8. First, the head and leader of the whole army is called the general.6 The
man who ranks second after him is the lieutenant general. I am aware that our
predecessors used the term lieutenant general for general since the general who
.:ommands everyone is specifically the emperor, and the general for each theme
Is his delegate. For this reason the general was called lieutenant general. General
then became the title for that man who was exclusively designated as the delegate of the emperor, the head of all the troops, and the generals of the themes
became his lieutenant generals, all of which is excellent.
9 But, at present, the term lieutenant general is not acknowledged except for
the one called merarch.
10. The tourmarch is the officer formerly referred to as merarch, that is, the
one entrusted with the command of a meros.


4 See Strat. 2.19.

5 Also called skribantes, cf. infra, n. 7

6. Strat. 1.3-5.

Division of the Army and Appointment of Officers

Constitution 4


11. t.pouyyapto<; 0 A.eyTat 6 f.Llii<; f.LO[pa<; apxwv, ~ll<; uno 1'0 f1Ep0<; TOU
coupf.Lapxou Tannm. f1po<; yap anv


Toupf.La, To K cptwv f!Otpwv ~youv

~TOl 8pouyyo<; 1'0 fK mwa~tOl apt0f1WV ~ ~av8wv TWV A)'0f1EVWV KOfl~TWV auyKdf1VOV nA.f]0o<;.

8pouyywv auyKlf1VOV a.epotOf.LU, f!Otpa 0 anv

75 TWV

12. K6f1Tj<; 8 eaTlV 6 TOU vo<; TCtYflaLO<; ~TOl ~av8ou Ct<pTJYOUf1VO<;.

13. Kvmpxoc; 8 faLlV 6 EKUTOV av8pwv apxwv ~TOl EKUTOVTCtPXTJ<;, oan<;
14. t.EKCtPXTJ<; 8 eanv 6 TWV 8Ka npwco<;, wanp KUL nVTCtPXTJ<; 6 TWV
So nevL, oan<; KUL f.LEOO<; '(ataTat Tf]<; aK[a<;.

15. TnpapxTJ<; 0 anv 6 KUL <pUAU~, 6 AYOf1VO<; oupayo<; KUL1'AUlat0<;

[atCtf1VO<; Tf]<; CtKlU<;. 6 yap nuKV01'pO<; TWV apxovTWV 8tUf1plOf10<; KUL nA.dova<; 8tKVUt Tou<; yvva[ou<; Kal av8plou<; mpaTtwta<;, Kal DXPW<; unaK01JlV

KUL fK1'AlV notci Ta KAU0f1VU.

16. Kal ~av8o<p6po<; f.LEV anv 6To OTJfldov ToiJ ~av8ou ~ama(wv.
17. LlTjnOTCttOl 8 npoaTjyopUOV1'0 oi vuv A)'0f1VOl aKpt~WV<;,
ohtv<; napaKoA.ou0ouvT<; Tfl napaTa~t Toi.J<; v Tfl f!CtXn cpauf.LaT[a<; yvof1EVOU<; O.vaAUf.L~CtVOVLal w<; lacpol KUL npl1tOlOUVLal.
18. MavMcwp<; 8 latv oi Ta f1UV0Ct1'U uno TWV apxovTWV npo<; LOU<;


acpanwm<; 6~w<; <'itaKOf.Lt(ovT<;. I

19. Aoxayo<; 8 A.ynm 6 npwco<; ToiJ m[xou

~youv ToiJ 6p8[vou Kata TO

~aeoc; 6 aMo<; 8 A.ynat Kal nptf.LO<; Kal npwcoataTTJ<;.

20. LKOiJv8o<; 8 A.yTat 6 8U1'po<; Tf]<; CtKlU<;, 6 AYOf1VO<; maTCt1'Tj<;.
21. Oupayo<; 8 A.eyTat 6 6n[aw TOU OAOU OTLXOU ~youv Tf]<; oupii<; TOU

6p8[vou ian'tf1VO<;.
22. Koupawp<; 8 HyovTat ~youv np6f1axot oi npocpexovT<; Tf]<; napa-

Ta~w<; v Tfl OUfl~OAfl TOU noAEf.LOU KUL TOt<; <pUyoumv x0pot<; 6~w<; nm0f1VOl ov<; KUAOUOL npoKACtOta<;.
23. Llt<pevawp<; 8 oi TouTou<; f.LEV naKoA.ou0ouvT<;, fl~ KcpxovT<; 8 Kal

AUOVT<; t~V TCt~lV, O.AA.a OUVTLUYf1EVW<; npl1taLOUV1'<; npo<; K8tKT]aLV TWV

72 1:0 f!EpO~ MWA TOU f!Epou~ BE 73 -ranemt MW -raaaemt ABE 75 apt8f!WV ...
~av6wv Va av6pwv codd. 77 EKUTOVTOPX'l~ MW A EKUT6vmpxo<; BE 79 6eKapm<; MW A
6Kapxo<; BE 1 Kal MWA om. BE I rrEv-rapX'l<; MW AB rrtv-rapxo<; E So aKia<; MW AB
aKUKlU<; E 86 6rpto-ra-rot MW 6amo-ra-rot B 6mo-ra-rot AE I rraAUl MW 1:0 JTUAatOV ABE
87 -rpaUf!UTia<; MW -rpaUf!UTL~OflEVOU<; ABE 87-88 yevof!EVOU<; WBE ytVOflEVOU<; M om.
1 6. AB om. MWE 92 rrpw-roa-raT!j<; ABE ema-ra-rlj<; MW 93 ad -r~<; aKia<; scr. mg.
-rou 6p6ivou W 94 6e BE om. MWA I Atye-rat MWA om. BE 100 rrpo<; eK6iKljatv MABE
rrpoae6[K!jOLV W


Droungarios is the term for the commander of one moira, that takes its
below the meros of the tourmarch. Meros is the tourma that is comof a grouping of three moirai or droungoi. A moira or droungos is the
unit made up of tagmata, arithmoi, or banda, <whose commanders> are
1 2. The count is commander of one tagma or bandon.
13. Kentarch is the officer over a hundred men, also called hekatontarch, and
nmked just below the count.
14. Dekarch is the first over ten men, just as the pentarch is over five and
his position in the middle of the file.
15. Tetrarch, also known as the guard, is called ouragos and stands last in the
'Ibis rather detailed division of officers results in a larger number of noble
brave soldiers and readily makes for obedience and the implementation of
16. The standard-bearer is the one who carries the standard of the bandon.
17. The term deputy was previously used for those now called skribones.7
'I hey follow behind the battle line and, like doctors, recover and look after those
wounded in battle.
18. Heralds are the men who quickly convey the commands of the officers to
19. Group leader is the term for the first man in the row or the line accordto its depth; he is also referred to as primos and protostates.
20. Sekoundos is the term for the second man of the file, also called
21. Ouragos is the term for the man behind the whole row, whose position is
ill the end of the line.
22. Assault troops, also called promachoi, are those who move out ahead of
the line when battle is joined and swiftly bear down upon the retreating enemy;
they are also called proklastai.
23. Defenders are those who follow after them, not charging out or breaking
1 1.


7 Medical corpsmen, cf. Strat. 2.9. Deputy (Lat. deputatus). Greek transliteration varies:
1\uro-ra-ro<;, 6!jrr-, 6m-, 6am-. Skribon, skribas (kribas), is from Lat. scriba, a scribe. Cf. Sylloge
tacticorum, 35.1; LBG, s.v. (forthcoming). The Suda (L 696) claims that the Latins use the term
tor "foremost among the bodyguards:'

Division of the Army and Appointment of Officers


KOupawpwv, e'(ru::p a.trt01J<;,

w<; lKO<;, tpa.n~va.t <JUfl~O.LT), oi.\anep OlKO.LWc; av nc;

24- M[vawp<; o Hyovta.L oi ta UTIALKtO.



Constitution 4

~tOl ta cpoacrata. f1Etpouvt<; Ka.l

Ka.8LatWVt<; ou<; fllV<JOpatwpa.<; VUV KO.AOU<JLV.

25. AvtLKEV<Jwpa.c; Ot aA.A.ou<; nva<; A.eyov oi na.A.a.tol 'PWflO.LOl oi.\c;, we; OLfla.l,
vuv toic; f1Lvaop6.twpm auvtaaaovtec; io[wc; ouK 6vof1<'t(oumv. outm 0 dmv oi
npoA.a.f1~6.vovte<; tv ta.i<; 60omop[mc; Ka.l tac; tnLTTJOE[a.c; Moue; Ka.l-rou<; -r6nou<;
avepwv&vtec; tv ole; ta UTIALKta. y[vwem 6cpdA.ou<JL KO.L ta.\Jta.<;, 6no1a.[ dm,

but marching in good order to provide support for the assault troops in
they should happen to fall back; one might justly call them avengers.
24. Surveyors is the term for those who measure and set up the camps or the
lttcampments and whom they now call minsoratores.
25. The ancient Romans called certain other men antikensores, who, as I am
~ware, are now lined up with the minsoratores and are not given a special name.
Wllen the army is on the march, they go ahead to assess the condition of the
toads and to search for ones that are suitable and for places in which to pitch


26. LKOUA.KCttWp<; o oi Ka.ta<JKOTIOl A.yovta.t OltlVc; f10.v86.vovt<; -ra tWV
txepwv ana.yyA.Aoumv.
2 . TIA.a.ywcp\JA.a.K<; 0 dmv oi npoc; cpuA.a.KfJv -rwv nA.a.yiwv t~<; npwtT)<;
t6.~ewc; -ra.tt6f1VOL.
28. 'YnepKt:pa.ata.l o oi npoc; tO nepLAO.~ElV to tWV TIOAf1LWV Kpa.<; ta.tt6-




. "Eveopm 8 oi npo<; tyKpVflfla.ta. Ka.ta t~c;<; -rwv txepwv
30. Nwtoq>UAO.K<; o oi OTIL<JW tfjc;; na<JTj<; ta.<J<JOflEVOl 11plna.t1V.
31. Ka.l-rouA.o6v t<JtlV ~ CtTIO<JKEUTJ KO.L xpda. niiaa. tWV <Jtpa.tLWtWV, tout'
E<JtlV na.Toec; t Ka.l imo(\JyLa. KO.L ta A.oma (q>a., KO.L '( tl etepov npiiy!la. npo<;
unT)pw[a.v -rou cpoacratou tmaupna.t.
32."E<Jtl o KO.L ~ tOU atpa.tfjyou npoi\.eu<JL<; i(c; nva.<; apxovta.<; OLa.lpOUflEVT), oiov t6v t KOflT)ta. -r~c; K6ptfJ<; a.U-rou Ka.l-rov -rou<; OOflE<JtLKOV Ka.[,
anA.&c; dndv, d<; toi>c; A.omouc; t~ 8ouc; tfJ<; npoei\.e\Jaewc; a.utoii U11Tjpta.c;, ouc;
neptttov ~youf1t:8a. Ka.ta.A.ynv.


W cruf!~a[vf] M cruf!~~ ABE 102 Ka\tcrot MW KUAE<JEL ABE 103 oi. ..

MW om. ABE 104 f!lVGOp6:rwpa<; A f.llVGopcnopa<; MW f!lVGapcrrwpa<; BE
na\atol MWA mi\m BE 1 w<; MWA om. BE I olf!al MW \mo\af!~avw ABE
108 o<petAOU<Jl MABE o<pdAOU<JlV w 111 anayyt\Aoumv WA cmayyt\Aou<Jl M
cmayye\oum BE
mn6f!EVOL MW -racrcr6f!EVOL ABE 114 nept\a~eiv MWAE \a~eiv
B scr. mg. KUKAwcrm w 11 4 -115 mn6f!evot W -racrcr6f!evot ABE 116 npo<; MW npo<; -ra
-rou-r' ecrnv M -rou-recr-rtv WAE -rou-recr-rt B 121 ad naioe<; scr. mg. oou\ot
120 121
w I ad \mo~uyta scr. mg. a\oya crawapta w 122 UTIT]pecr[av WA unepecriav MBE 125 ei<;
MW AB et E 1 un pt-ra<; MABE i>nT]pe-rou<; W 126 nepmov MW neptcrcrov ABE I
Ka-raAtyetv MW Ka-rapt6f!eiv ABE



Spies are called skoulkatores; they learn what is going on with the enemy
!lnd mform us.
27. Flank guards are the troops assigned to guard the flanks of the first line.
28. Outflankers are the troops assigned to envelop the enemy's wings.
29. Ambushers are the troops prepared to set up ambushes against the battle
line of the enemy.
30. Rear guard designates the troops assigned to march behind the entire
battle line.
31. The baggage train consists of the supplies and everything else needed for
the soldiers, that is, servants, pack animals, and the other beasts, as well as
anything else that is brought along for the service of the army.
32. The entourage of the general is composed of certain officers, such as the
count of his tent, the domestic of the theme and, to put it succinctly, the rest of
the assistants ordinarily in his entourage, but we believe it is superfluous to list




Division of the Army and Appointment of Officers

Constitution 4

33 '0 yap npWTOVOTCtplOc; TOU 8jlaTOc; Kctl6 xapTouA.Ctpwc;, npoaeTl 8 Kctl6

npa[Twp ~youv 6 Toii 8jlctToc; 8tKctGT~c;-6 jlEV Tf\c; noA.mKf\c; an 8totK~aewc;
apxwv, 6 8 npoc; T~V TOU aTpctTOU Kctlct)'pct<p~V I Te Kctl uva<~n]atV, 6 8 Tac;
8lKctc; nov 8tKct<OjlEVWV 8tctADet-OUc; ei KcttT<jl mpanw<Jl v TlatV unoTanea8ctl
XP~ uH' ouv Toile; A6youc; nov i8tKWV ctlJT<.DV 8tOlK~m:wv npoc; T~V paatAeLctV
~jlWV u<popav, Wale 8t' ctlHWV jlctV8CtVelV TCtc; Te n:iJv noA.tnKWV KcttTWV mpanwllKWV npct)'jlCtTWV KctlctGTCtGetc; Kctt8lOlK~Getc; UG<pctAEaTepov ~)'0Djle8ct.
. Tov tv ouv aTpctTov oA.ov, wmpctTfly, 8tmp~cretc; eic; 8ta<popa TCt)'llctTct
Kctt maT~aetc; ctlJTOtc;, we; e'ipflTctl, apxovTctc; <ppOVLjlOUc; Kctt uv8pelouc; Kctt
npoa<p6pouc; mho1c;.
. 1\no 8 Toii TCt)'llctToc; ~Tot ~av8ou Toile; eKmovTapxac; <ppovl35
11ouc; Kctl yevva[ouc; eic; uv8pelctv, ehct Toile; 8eKapxac; Kctl aMoilc; yevva[ouc; Kctl
a\noxnpac;, ei 8uvaTov 8 Kctl To~euetv eiMmc; Kctl 1-1na Toile; OeKapxac; Kctl
nevTapxac; Kctl Tnpapxac; 61-1olwc; KctlT6Te Toile; <puA.aKctc; Twv uKtwv ~youv Twv
KctTCt TO naxoc; Tf\c; napctTCt~ewc; 6p8lvwv, o'i Kctl 8eKapxlm KctAOUVTctl, ouo uno
fKCtGTflc; UKlctc;, we; ylvea8ctt Toile; ETilAEKTOuc; fKCtaTflc; UKtctc; av8pctc; nevTe Kctl
Toile; unOjlEVOVTctc; 6p8tVeUGctl eic; TCtc; UKlctc;, TtctActlODc; Te Kctl vouc;, UVctjlLKTOUc;,



OGOl av eiat KUTU TO jlETpov TOU nA.~8ouc; TOU mpctTOU.

36. LT~aac; 8 KcttTODTOUc; Toile; UTtOjlEVOVTctc; TOTe wile; ETilAEKTOUc; mpaAetc; KctTCt 8tct<popav npoc; T~V fKCtGTOU TtOlOTfllct ~youv <pUatV Kctl ODVctjllV, wile;
jlEV Kpelnovac; Ejl1tpocr8ev, wile; 8 A.omouc; uvaA.6ywc; oma8v Te Kctl8t0. jlEGOU.
37 ~DO 8 jlctVOCtTwpac; uypunvouc; Kctl <ppOVLjlOUc; ETilAe)'f\Vctl Mov Kctl ouo
pav8o<p6pouc; uno eKCtaTOU TCt)'llctTOc;, T~V 8 TOlctDTflV ETilAO)'~V KctL op8tVetctV
note1a8at v Tote; KOVToupepvlotc;, TOUT' anv v Tcttc; uKlmc;.

127-136 Strat., 1.4.

137-154 Strat., 1.5.

8 rrpah:wp ~youv MW A rrpah:w pl)youv BE

flfV tan B 129 apxwv MWA 6 apxwv BE
MWAB cr-rpa-rl)you E


I ad OtKacr-r~~ scr. mg. Kpi-rl)~ W I flEV MW AE

I 61 ava~~l:l)O'LV MWAE om. B I cr-rpa-rou

1 3 0 urro-ranw9at MW urro-racrcrcr9at ABE

&otK1 W

131 ad iotKWV scr. mg.

132-133 KaL .. cr-rpanwnKwv MWA om. BE



Ctpf16~ov-ra~ ABE 137 arr6 ... -rawa-ro~ MWA om. BE I ~avoou MWA om. BE I
i:Ka-rov-rapxa~ MWA i:K-rapxo~ BE 138 Ka\ 1 MWA om. BE I d~ avopciav MWA om. BE I
OEKapxa~ ABE OEKapxou~ MW 139 au-roxetpa~ MW icrxupou~ ABE scr. mg. EUTOAflOU~ w I
OEKapxa~ ABE OEKapxou~ MW 140 Ka\2 M -rou~ wABE 144 Eicrt MBE dmv W A






em~aA.t MW erri~aA.ov BE om. A 147 avaA.6yw~ MWA aA6yw~

apf16~ov w 150 KOVTOU~EpVtOl~ MWAE KOUVLOU~pVl0l~ B

148 ad otov scr. mg.


33 Then there is the protonotary of the theme and the chartoularios and, in
addition, the praetor, who is the chief legal officer of the theme. The first is an
official in the civil administration; the second sees to the registration and
inspection of the army; the third adjudicates the penalties of those who are
accused. Even if they must necessarily be subject to the general in some things,
nonetheless they are obliged to give an account of their own administration to
Our Majesty. We believe that through them we will more surely learn about the
condition and administration of civil and military affairs.
34 You will divide the entire army, 0 general, into various units and over
them, as was said, you will appoint intelligent, brave, and competent officers.
35 From the tagma or bandon select hekatontarchs, men of sound judgment, courageous, and brave, then the dekarchs, courageous and good at handto-hand fighting and, if possible, good shots with the bow. After the dekarchs, in
like manner, the pentarchs and tetrarchs. Then the guards for the files or of the
rows, that are called dekarchies, according to the thickness of the battle line.
There should be two of these for each file, resulting in five specially rated men in
each file. The rest of them, veterans and recruits together, that is, all the men,
should be assigned places in the files, depending on the size of the assembled
36. After placing these men in their positions, assign the specially rated
troops, keeping in mind the different qualities of each man, that is, his nature
and ability. The better men should be in front and then the rest in relative order
behind and in the middle.
37 Two alert and intelligent men must be selected as heralds and two as
standard-bearers from each tagma. Selection and assignment of this sort ought
to be made in the squads, that is, in the files.


Division of the Army and Appointment of Officers

Constitution 4
38. Kat vEla,



TCtHWElm KaLTIO<JQl Kal T!OtaL apl<JTepq au-ro\J.

40. Ta~elc; of:: Kal TU KOVTOD~Epvta ~ KaTU TIEVT, we; e'lpf]TaL, ~ OEKa avopac; ~
KaTU TE<J<Japac; ~ OKTW ~ oeKaE~, we; av YLVW<JKnc; TO KaTa Kmpov XP~<Jlf10V, Iva
Tft <JDVf]Elelq Oe<Jf10Uf1VOL KUL imp UAA~AWV tv Tate; f1CtXaLc; aywvL(Of1VOl
XPfJ<Jlf1WTPOl npoc; avopdav yvwv-rm. I EXLV o au-roue; KOLV~V Kal T~V xpe[av
Ka9' fKa<JTOV KOVTOD~EpVlOV, we; ~Of] 7tpOOlWpl<JGf19a.
41. <I>poVlfl(tJTepov o 1t0l~<Jetc; tav Ta~nc;, ei TUXOL, aoeA.<pouc; f.leTU aoeA<pWV
Kal <plA.ouc; f1TU <p[A.wv, f1GAl<JTa tv Tate; T~c; f!CtXf]c; napa-ra~WlV. o-r' av yap t<JTl
<0 KlVODVUOVTl 6 JtATj<JlOV npoo<ptAE<JTaToc;, avayKf] TOY ayanwvm <ptAOKLVouv6-repov {mp TOU JtAf]<JlOV Kal <ptAODf.lEVOD aywv[(w9m. Kal 0~ nc; aioouf1VO<; !l~ anooouvm xaplv <0 <p[A<.p
7tE1tOV8e <ptALKWV, ai<JXUVeTat KaTaAl1telV


TOY euepye-r~oavTa Kalnpw-roc; au-roc; ap~aoem <puy~c;.

42. Ta 0 KOVTOD~Epvta, we; ~Of] e'l7tOf1V, OlU TOUTO ano naA.mwv Kal VEWV
o-rpaTLWTWV oe1 yivwem, Iva flf]OE oi naA.mol Ka9' au-roue; Ta<J<JOf1VOl ao9eve1c; ei<JL Kal aouvaTOl, f.lf]OE oi ve<.inepol UTQKTOl eupe9w<JLV we; anelpa<JTOL. ol
f!EV yap, ei Kal YTJPULOl ana 7te7ttpaf1EVOl, oi o ei Kal vea(ov-rec; Kal avopdot


UAAU a7tetpo[ el<JlV.

43 Ou-rwc; ouv -rwv mwa-rwv ~youv ~avowv otmpouf1vwv t<p' au-ra, XP~
tmo-rf]vm au-ro1c; apxovmc; -roue; AYOf1EVOUc; KOflf]Tac;, auv[maoem o fKa<JTOV
-rawa uno avopwv TptaKO<JlWV KaTU TOY f1E<JOV TOTIOV. fl~Te 0 JtAEOV -re-rpa-

155-167 Onas. 24.

168-172 Strat., 2.7.

152 ~ MWA de; E ~ i B


38. Then, in the likely event that no servants are present, the poorer soldiers

we; eiK6c;, Jtatoec; OUK eio[, -roue; imo8eempovc; TWV mpanw-

n"ilv de; TU oayf!Ctpla Ct<popi(etv, TOUT' onv eic; -rp[a ~ TE<J<Japa oawapla avopa
va, Kal Tep6v nva -rwv tHoy[f!WV t~ al>Twv mpaTLw-rwv XP~<JLflOV f.leTU
mweiov, 4JnvL TO oA.ov -rouA.oov ~youv -ra oawapta aKoA.ou8dv 6<pelA.oumv.
39 'Opioetc; o Kal -rae; UKiac;, JtQ(JQl Kal JtOtQl 6<petAOD<Jl Oe~LQ. TOU ~avoou


should be detailed to the pack animals, that is, one man to three or four animals.
Another man from among the soldiers, highly regarded and able to carry the
standard, should be chosen, whom the whole baggage train or the pack animals
must follow.
39 The commander must then determine how many and which files are to
form on the right of the standard and how many and which on the left.s
40. Arrange the squads, as was said, by five men, by ten, by four, by eight, or
by sixteen, however you think useful at the time. As a result, bound by close ties
and struggling in battle on behalf of one another, they will prove more efficient
and valiant. They should have common duties in each squad, as we have already
41. You will act very wisely if you line up, depending on the situation,
brothers with brothers and friends with friends, especially in combat formations. For whenever the very close friend is near his friend who is in danger, he
will feel compelled to embrace danger himself to fight on behalf of his friend
next to him. Indeed, a man is ashamed not to return a favor to his friend for
those he has received out of friendship, and he is ashamed to abandon his
benefactor and be the first to take flight.
42. The squads, as we have already said, should be made up of old and young
soldiers so that the old men in formation by themselves may not be weak and
powerless, and the younger men may not turn out to be inexperienced and
disorganized. 9 The former, even if they are old, have a good deal of experience,
while the latter, even if young and brave, still have no real experience.
43 Once the various tagmata or banda have been properly lined up, it is
necessary to appoint officers, called counts, over them.1o Each tagma should
consist, on the average, of three hundred men. You should insist that the tagma

173-209 Strat., 1.4.

154 ~youv ... crawapta MW om. ABE

156 Tanw8m MW Tacrm:cr8m ABE


155 116crm ABE 11ot~crat

KOVTou~pvta MA KouTou~pvta W

KOUVTOU~Epvta B KOVTOii ~pvta E 159 KUL ABE om. MW 160 auTOuc; WABE auTolc; M
KovTou~pvtov MWAE KOUVTou~pvtov B I 11po0twptaaf.!E6a MWAE 11poc5twptcr6f.!E6a B


165 ad cS~ Ttc; scr. mg. l]youv EVTpE110f.lEVO<; TI]V ayaTI!]V I]V EXEt
11poc; auTov 6 c:ptA.oc; auToii W 165-166 aicSouf.!EVOc; MW aicrxuv6f.!Evoc; ABE 166 c:ptAtKwv
MWA c:ptA.wv BE 167 auToc; Va auToii MW om. ABE I iip~acr6m c:puy~c; MW c:puyelv ABE

162 i n!xot MWE om. AB


KOVTou~pvta MAE KOUTOu~pvta W KOUVTOU~pvta B I ~cS!] MW om. ABE 170 eim

MWA wat BE

171 y!]palot MW ypovTec; ABE

175 TptaKocriwv MWA T' BE

173 ec:p' !':auTa MW om. ABE


8. Onasander 24.
9 Strat. 2.7.

10. Strat. 1.4.


Division of the Army and Appointment of Officers

Constitution 4

KOO'LWV avopwv TO niyfla exnv 6p[crn<;, KCtV n:oA.uv atpa-rov EXL<;, fl~n:


\moKaTw TWV otaKocr[wv, Kav ecrTtv 6A.lyo<; 6 crTpaT6<;.

44. Taura 0 Ta Tawa-ra auva~et<; ei<; xtA.tapx[a<; ~Tot flOipa<; Ta<; A.eyofltva<;
opouyyou<;, Kat ETtlO'T~O'et<; auTOL<; flOtpapxa<; XPflO'lflOU<; avopdq. Kal <ppov~cret
Kat eu-ra~[q., ei ouvaTOV, Kat euyevdq. Kat eun:op[q. TOU<; AYOflEVOU<; opouyyap[ou<; ou<; note xtA.tapxou<; K0.A.ouv oi n:aA.moL
4S Ta<; o flOtpa<; -raU-ra<; ~TOt TOU<; opouyyou<; O'UVCt~et<; ei<; flEPfl ~youv
Tol>pfla<; Kal mcrT~crovTm aU-roi<; yvwfln T~<; pamA.da<; ~flwv flepapxm, oi
A.ey6flevo[ n:oTe Kat O'TpaTfJACtTat, vuv o Tfi O'UVfJ8dq. KaAOUfleVot TOUpflO.pxm
Kat ToU-rou<; <ppoVLflOU<; Kal euTaKTOU<; elvm Kat vaptTou<; Kat Efln:e[pou<;, ei
ouvaTOV, ei06-ra<; Kat ypO.flflaTa, Kat flCtAlO'Ta TOV LOU flEO'OU flEpou<;, TOV A.ey6fleVOV un:ocrTpCtTfJYOV, 6<petAOVTa, ei xpda YEVfJTUl, EV n:aO'l TOV TOU O'TpaTfJYOU
T6n:ov avan:A.fJpouv.
46. TauTa o TU flEPfl Tp[a O'UO't~Vat, <p' ol<; Kal Tpet<; ETtlO'T~O'OVTat TOUpflCtPXat, el<; eKaO'TO<; io[ou flEpou<; lipxwv, wa-re elvat TOU n:aVTO<; O'TpaLOU T~V
CtVWTCtTfJV TOfl~V Tp[a icrO.pt8fla flEPfl ~youv TOUpfla<;, TOUT' EO'Tt I flEO'OV, aptcrTepov Kal oe~t6v TaUTa o n:otd T~V n:acrav tO.~tV T~V un:o T4J O'TpaTfJY4' Te-rawtVfJV.


47 Xpi) Ot, W<; e'lpfJTUl, fl~Te TCtYfla n:A.tov TWV TeTpaKOO'LWV avopwv y[vecr8at ~youv TO LOU KOflfJTO<; po.voov, fl~Te opouyyov n:A.tov TWV TptO'XtALWV fl~Te


TOUpflaV n:A.tov Twv ~aKtO'XtA[wv.

48. Ei o O'UflPft n:A.Eov TOU A.exStvTo<; flETpou elvat TOV O'TpaTOV, KCtAAtOV
EO'Tl e~weev TWV flepwv ~TOt TWV TOUpflapxtwv EV oeuTtpq. TCt~l Ka8[crTa0'8at,
~youv v Tft omcr8ev T~<; n:poflCtXOU Ta~ew<; n:apaTay~vat EV un:opofJ8dq. Kal ei<;
q>UAaKT)V tWV n:A.ay[wv flepwv Kat ei<; VWTO<pUAaKa<; Kat ei<; vtopa<; ~TOt yKpUflflaTa Kal ei<; KUKAwaet<; TWV n:oAefl[wv.
49 Kat fl~Te TU<; TOUpfla<; fl~Te toil<; opouyyou<; flel~OU<; n:otdv, '(va flil W<;
fleyO.A.a Kal mn:oA.u EKTetVOfleVa an:et8~ n:po<; TU n:apayytAflaTa Kat cruyKexu-


flEVa eupe8wcrtv.
so. 1\AA.a Kal -rep6v crot XP~O'lflOV n:apmvtcrw, waTe flil n:O.v-ra Ta TCtYflaTa
~TOt po.voa ETtlTfJOeUet<; n:avTW<; '(aa n:oteiv, Iva flil EK LOU apt8f10U TWV po.vowv
178 auva~w;

MWBE awra~EL<; A

auva~et<; BE auvTa~et<; MWA

npwT!]V Kal flEytaTIJV cSta[peatv ABE



198 TOUpflUPXL<ilv




180 etmop[a
189 ole; MWA

191 avwTaTIJV


I iaaptSfla flEPIJ MW trsp. ABE I TOUpfla<; PG ToupflaL

191-192 aptaTepov


202 fld<ouc; MW fld<ovac; ABE

MW eunop[a cSta<pepovTE<; ABE

w BE


199 napaTayfjvm



205 fl~ MW AB fl~ naVTW<; tva notelv E






not have more than four hundred men, even if you have a very large
!lrtny, and not below two hundred, even if your army is small.
44 You should bring these tagmata together into chiliarchies or moirai, also
t~~tlled droungoi, and place over them competent moirarchs, noted for bravery,
good judgment, discipline and, if possible, also noble birth and wealth. These,
whom the ancient authors called chiliarchs, are now called droungarioi.
4S You should bring these moirai or droungoi together into divisions or
tourmai and let merarchs be appointed over them, with the approval of Our
Majesty. These officers were formerly called stratelatai but now are usually called
tourmarchs. They should be men of good judgment, disciplined, virtuous, experienced and, if possible, able to read and write. This is particularly important for
the commander of the second meros, called lieutenant general, who has to, if it
becomes necessary, assume all the duties of the general.
46. There should be three of these divisions and over them three tourmarchs
should be appointed, each one the commander of his own division. As a result,
the topmost division of the whole army is that of three divisions or tourmai of
equal strength, that is, center, left, and right. These then make up the entire
formation that is lined up under the general.
47. It is necessary, as was said, that the tagma, the bandon of the count,
should not be more than four hundred men or the droungos more than three
thousand or the tourma more than six thousand.
48. But if the army should happen to exceed the aforesaid size, it is better to
station those men outside the divisions or tourmarchies in the second line, that
is, behind the main battle line as a support force and also to guard the divisions
on the flanks, and as rear guards and for ambushes or traps and for encircling
the enemy.
49. Do not make the tourmai or the droungoi too large. Otherwise, as they
become larger and much more extended, they may end up confused and inattentive to the commands.
so. Let me give you another useful bit of advice. Be sure that you do not
bring all the tagmata or banda up to the same strength. Otherwise, the enemy


Division of the Army and Appointment of Officers

Constitution 4

euapt8f1T]TO<; TOt<; tx8pot<; 6 OTpaTO<; YEVT]Tat, onep JTOAACtKt<; fley6.A.a<; npo~VEl

Ta<; pMpa<;. ana TOlJTO q>UAUTTLV, flT]Of TWV TTpaKOOLWV avopwv, W<; c'iTIOflV,


nA.tov flT]Of TWV OtaKOOLWV avopwv 6A.ty<.inepa yivw8m aUTCt.

51. L1t6 noAAaKt<; Kat Ka8' EKaOTOV TCtYfla tav ouo pavoa eUTpmi<n<; avaoiKVU<J8at

tv T(il Katp(il T~<; TOU

JTOAEflOU OUflPOA~<; OUK axpflOTOV i<; TO KaTa-

JTA~~at Toil<; noA.efliou<;.

52. Xp~ o acpopto8~vat ano EKCtOTOU pavoou Ei<; Ta<; avayKa[a<; xpLa<;, w<;

c'ipT]Tat, TOU<; flaVOCtTwpa<; aypunvou<; Kat OUVTOU<; Kal yopyou<; Kat eucpwvou<;,

i06ta<;, i ouvaT6v, Kal otacp6pot<; yA.woom<; A.aA.etv, Kal pouKtv6.Twpa<; ohtv<;


Katp(il Ta ouv~8T] oaATILOOUOL, OaflLCtTWpa<;, TO~OJTOLOU<;, oaytTTOJTOLOU<; Kat

TOU<; A.omou<; npo<; T~v t~ 8ou<; ota-runwmv.

53 ITpooa<pop[ot<; o Kat nva<; TOU<; 6cpdA.ovTa<; Ta eUptOKOflVa TWV


anoAADflEVWV ouvayetV Kat anoot06Vat TOL<; KDptot<; auTWV.

54 'Donep 0 tnl TOU TOUAOOU TWV KapaA.Aap[wv avayKatOV 6piom TOU<;
6<petAOVta<; tmo-r~vat apxovTa<;, oihw<; Kat tnl TOU TOUAOOU ~TOt TWV Ufla~tWV

T~<; ne<tK~<; TCt~eW<; acpop[01<; nva<;, oi<; 6cpetAOUOL nei8w8m o[ TOU AYOflEVOU
55 Kapayo<; yap A.tynm 6 Ota TWV

Ufla~wv Kal Tptp6A.wv Kat TWV aA.Awv fllll

xavwv ytVOfleVO<; 1teptoptaf10<; i<; aocpaAtUV TOU OTpaTOU.

56. Kal Ka8' EKaOTOV flEpo<; eva npwTOV TOV apxetV 6cpfA.ovTa Kat OT]flelOV,

w<; tnl TWV LTITIWV, tv-r8~vat d<; Ta<; pou<;, '(otov EKUOTOU apt8flOU Iva eiolv
eUOTJAOt Kal cpavepal Tot<; ioiot<;.
57 . KaA.w<; 01:: Kal T~<; n<tK~<; Ta~w<; tnf1V~08T]flV. 8et yap Kal TaUTTJ<; T~v

8taipeotV unoypa\jfat Kat TOU<;


auTfi TUTTOflEVOU<; apxovTa<; T Kat aA.Aou<;

can easily estimate the size of the army by counting standards, often resulting in
l!erious harm. However, carefully observe our prescription that they should not
~::onsist of more than four hundred men or fewer than two hundred.
51. If you arrange to have each tagma frequently display two standards at the
time when battle is about to be joined, it will be helpful in confusing the enemy.
52. In each bandon men must be set apart for necessary chores, as was said,
Including two heralds, alert and intelligent, with vigorous, pleasant voices and
who, if possible, know how to speak severallanguages. 11 Trumpeters who sound
the customary signals at the proper time, weapon makers, bow makers, arrow
makers, and the rest according to the customary regulations.
53 You should also assign certain men the duty of collecting whatever lost
articles have been found and returning them to their owners.
54 Just as in the cavalry baggage train it was necessary to decree that officers
had to be placed in charge, so for the baggage or wagon train of the infantry
formation you should designate certain officers whom the men in the baggage
train, also called karagos, must obey.
55 Karagos is the term for the barrier formed by the wagons, caltrops, and
other devices for the protection of the army.
56. In each division one man should be first in command. Just as with the
horses, a special mark should identify the oxen which belong to each arithmos
so the men can easily recognize them as their own.
57. It is well that we have kept the infantry in mind. For it is necessary to
describe its various units and to appoint the officers assigned to that arm as well
as the other leaders, both of higher and lower rank, and to make clear their

~Yfl6va<; flLKpou<; T Kal fley6.A.ou<; Kamm~vm Kal Ta<; aMwv OflAWom 6vofla213-312



toT~ tx6po1~ MW om. ABE 1 crtpato~ ABE crtpatl]yo~ MW 208 tetpaKocriwv MWA
u' BE 210-211 ava8eiKvucr6at MW ava<paivw6at ABE 212 noA.qtiou~ MABE
tvavtiou~ w 214 -21 5 yopyou~ ... ei86ta~ MW yp!]y6pou~ Kat KaAA.t<pwvou~ ytvwcrKOVta~
ABE 215 8ta<p6potc; yA.wcrcrat~ MW trsp. ABE 216 tv MW tv tw ABE I craA.nicroum MW 1 BE A 218 npocra<popicret~ MW a<popicrw; AE 6.<pop~crL~ B
221 outw~ MW outw ABE 1 ~tot. .. Ct!la~twv MW om. ABE 222 ol MW A 6 BE
Kapayoii MW Kapayou ~tot rwv alla~twv ABE 224 yap MWA 81: BE 227 'Lnnwv
MWA lnnwv BE 1 vte6ijvat AB vte8dvat MW vn6ijvat E 227-228 eicr\v ... Ka\ MW EK
tij~ xp6a~ TOU Gl]!lelOU AE EK tij~ xpeiac; TOU G!]!lelOU B 228 i8iot~ MW i8iot~ EKUGtal
yivwvtat AE ioiot~ EKUGTOL yivwvtat B 230 taTTO!lEVOU<; MW taGGO!lEVOU~ ABE I aAA.ouc;







Division of the Army and Appointment of Officers

64 Constitution 4





a[ar:,, OTrWC, T Trepl mh~c; fK TWV TraAatWV rrapAU~OflV TaKTlKWV Kal OTrWC, ol
V(inpot flxptc; ~flWV Thv a1nwv Km~[v T Kal KmaaTamv rraprrfl\lfUVTo.
s8. Ol flEV yap apxa10l TrOAUTrAT]8iac; lmopouvTC, '{awe; mpaTEUflUTWV TWV
TOU OVOflaTOC, Ola ThY ayav T~c; TaKTlK~c; flEAeTT]C, Kal rrpa~WC, CtflAdac; rrapa
fllKpov rrapa TrUVTWV ayvoOUflfVOU, muTa ouv Ta TUYflaTU TWV <JKOUTUTWV arro
OeKa~ CtKlWV trro[ouv, avopwv OlQKO<JlWV vr:,', TOUT' E<JTLV, EKU<JTT]V aK[av
avopwv tr:,' UT0 TTpaywv(JJ apt8fl4J. Upt<JKTat o tv fKdvmc; ~ cpaA.ay~ Tr(wv
avopwv ,09(,', ~v fKUAOUV <JTpaTT]yiav Kal TOY f<j>l<JTUflEVOV auTfi mpaTT]y6v.
59 Thv o TAiav rrapaTa~lV trro[ouv TUYflUTWV ~o', CtKlWV XlAlWV KO',
avopwv flUp[wv ,(,TT0', \lflAWV 0 TWV AYOflfVWV aaytTTmwpwv Kal CtKOVTl<JTWV
Kal <J<pV00~0Al<JTWV, avopwv rTJP9W ~youv ~fll<JlQV TWV \lflAWV dvm Thv TU~LV
lrrrrewv ~TOl <JUflfllKTWV Tfi TrE(tKfi TU~1 avopwv Ka~aAA.ap[wv ,09(,'. Kal TOUTWV
6 ~YOUflEVOC, Ayno mpaTT]y6c;.
6o. Kal muTa flEV Eflept(ov oihwc; T<l o TUYflaTU TWV <JKOUTUTWV Eflrrpoa8V de; rrp6flaxov TU~LV rrapemaaov KaTCt TWV tvavT[wv Kal TaUTT]V ic; o'
'iaa flfpT] fTrOlOUV, Oe~LOV, apt<JTp6v, flf<JOV aptan:p6v, flf<JOV 0~LOV.
61. Ta o TWV \lflAWV TUYflUTa io[q., Ota TO yopyouc; dvm Kal A.acppouc; ~
flrrpoa8v de; tmoiw~tv nvv tx8pwv mTTov ~ de; Ta n:A.ayta ~ trrl Tou vwTou
T~C, rrpWTT]C, rrapmay~c; ~ we;~ xpda ~n:a[m, Trpt WV KaTa xwpav p0UflV.
232 i'mw~ T MW w~ ABE

233 j.lEXPl~ ~j.lWV MW om. ABE

Ka-raa-ramv MW Ka-racr-ramv 11expt~ ~11wv ABE

urrorropoiiv-re~ taw~

MWBE -ri:t -ri:t A

ave;' ABE

MW om. ABE

tl!les. We have taken the material about this and about their deployment and
{'ormation from that which the ancient tactical authors and the more recent ones
to our own time have transmitted. 12
58. The ancients were fortunate enough to have large numbers of men in
their armies, especially those once called hoplites and now called skoutatoi.
Actually, nobody even knows those terms because of the grave neglect of the
ltUdy and practice of tactics. Those authorities formed the tagmata of heavy
btfantry from sixteen files, 256 men, that is, each file of sixteen men making up
i foursquare body of troops. Among those the phalanx of foot soldiers is numbered at 4,096; it was also called a strategia and was commanded by a general.
59 The ancient writers formed the complete battle line of 64 tagmata or
1,024 files, for a force of 16,384 men, in addition to 8,192 light-armed troops,
tmch as archers, javelin throwers, and slingers. They assigned half of the light
infantry to the formation of the heavy infantry, <once> called hoplites or
skoutatoi. The horsemen lined up in formation with them or mixed in with the
infantry formation came to 4,096 cavalry. The leader of these was called general.
6o. This is how they divided the units. They stationed the heavy infantry
companies in a forward position as a first line of battle against the enemy, and
they divided this into four equal divisions, right, left, right center, left center.
61. They stationed the light infantry companies off by themselves, because
they were lightly armed and fast, either out in front to pursue the enemy or on
the flanks or to the rear of the first battle line or wherever need dictated. We will
speak about these in the proper place.

234 rroA.urrA.118ia~ ... rcrw~ W rroA.urrA.118ia~

M rroA.U rrA.~8o~ xov-re~ ABE

aj.ltA.etav -r~~ mKnK~~ ABE


236 iiyav ... Uj.lEAda~ MW rrav-reA.~

237 rrapa MWA rrapi:t -roii BE

I mum MWA mii-r'


I -ra

238 oeKa~ MW tc;' ABE I aKtwv MW aKtwv ~youv A.oxwv ABE I vr;' MW

239 v MWA om. BE

239-240 rre(wv avopwv MW trsp. ABE

MWBE -re-rpaKtaXtA.iwv vev~Kovm A


I <ptaTUj.lVOv


240 ,OQc;'

MW mDHJ~ ~you11evov ABE

242 ,c;-rrro' MW E~UKlOXlAlWV -re-rpaKocr[wv oyoo~Kovm

-recrcrapwv A e~aKtaXlAlWV -re-rpaKOcr[wv rro' BE

243 cr<pevoo~OAlOTWV MW cr<pEVOOV~TWV A

cr<pevoovtcr-rwv BE I 11P9W MW 6KmKtaXtA.1wv i:Ka-rov vev~Kov-ra .SUo A 6KmKtcrxtA.1wv P9W

B OKTUKLOXLAtwv eKa-rov 9W E I -rwv ... dvm MWA trsp. BE

245 ,OQc;' MW -re-rpaKtcrxtA.1wv

I Atyno MW AE A.eyno 6 B 248 o'

MWBE -recrcrapa A 249 tcra j.lEPI"J MW trsp. ABE I 11tcrov aptcr-rep6v MW A om. BE
250 -rawam MWA -rawa-rwv BE 251 mnov MWA E-racrcrov BE I -ri:t MWA om. BE I
rrl ... vw-rou MW orr[crw ABE 252 rrapa-ray~~ MW rrapa-ra~ew~ ABE I ~rra[-ret Va ~rrem
MW U1l~Tel ABE I KUTU xwpav MW EV TW O.pj16(ovn T01!W ABE scr. mg. I"JYOUV El~ TOV T01!0V
vev~KOVTU ~ A OQc;' BE



246 6 MWA om. BE


Especially Aelian and Arrian.


Division of the Army and Appointment of Officers

Constitution 4
62. Toi.><; 01:: Ka~aUapiou<; ei<; ouo flEPfl 8u:A6vn:<; KaTa Ta rrAityta T~<; TWV

m:(wv rrapma~ew<; -ranov I ~o118oi.><; Kat 6~w<; mn6e11vou<; -rot<; vav-rim<;.


63."Iva ouv ll~ Ka6' Kamov A.eyw rrt A.em(ii -rwv -re Mxwv Kat -rwv -ra~ewv


62. They divided the cavalry into two groups and stationed them along the
tlinks of the infantry line to support it and to launch rapid attacks against the

Kat TWV Eq>taTaflEVWV au-rot<; TOT apxovTWV TU<; OVOflaaia<; 8ta T~V vuv mhwv

63. Now then, in order that I may not have to discuss in detail the nomen-

axpf!aTiav Kat napa mlm TOt<; a-rpaTEUOflEVOl<; axe86v rrou auTWV aaacpetav T

t:lature formerly in use for the files and the formations and the officers who were
pllced over them, because they are not in use today and practically nobody
l'rving in the armed forces has any clear understanding of them, and in order
not to waste time inopportunely, I will touch upon the other essential matters
clearly and succinctly. For, so it seems, those companies of cavalry and
infantry existed when the armies were large and the soldiers proved to be
numerous, noble, and brave.
64. But now, 0 general, if our units are small and not even equal in strength,
indeed much less, it is not easy to fix a definite number for a tagma, whether
among the cavalry or among the infantry-it could end up with a number of
men in excess of 2 56 having nothing to do or, if inappropriately assigned to
serve in other tagmata, they might turn out to be disoriented and useless.
65. It is better to form the companies for each unit in accord with the needs
of the army and the manpower at hand, depending, of course, on the capabilities
of the troops available at that time. Each unit should have its own standard and
officer or count, a noble man of sound judgment, brave, and good at hand-tohand fighting.
66. Make sure that the files of each infantry tagma are sixteen deep, with the
men organized according to their duties in combat. Form the battle line in
proportion to the numerical strength of the army as it is found there.

Kat UKaTaAf!'J!LaV, Kat '(va ll~ UKaipw<; 8arraVWflV TOV Katp6v, TWV avayKato-repwv w<; aacpw-repwv Kat auvTOflW<epwv mA.~'J!Oflat. Ketva flEV yap, w<;
260 eotKe, -ra

-re -rwv Ka~aUapiwv 8ta-rawma Kat -ra -rwv rre(wv, rrA.~eou<; ~v a-rpa-

na<;, wa-re Kat TOaOUTOU<; Kat yevva[ou<; KaT' av8petaV eup[aKW8at aTpaTtWTa<;.
64. Nuv 8,

wa-rpa<f!yE, euapt6fl~TWV

OVTWV Kat llf!8 '(aov x6v-rwv TO

flETpov, flUAAOV 8 Kat rroA.i.> :\anov, OUK eanv euxep<; 6piam TO flETpov TOU
-rawa-ro<; oihe v -rot<; Ka~aAA.apiot<; oihe v TOt<; rre(ot<;, tva fl~, w<; eiK6<;, ~ <oi>
265 rreptTTUOVT<; TOU rroaou TWV ave,' av8pwv apy~awmv ~ TIUAlV, av aKaipw<;
UAAOl<; TUyfla<Jl rrpoa-reewmv, W<; UTUKTOl avwcpeA.d<; eupeewmv.

6s. 1\A.A.a Ta flEV -rawa-ra TIOlelV ei<; EKaa-rov apt6flOV W<; arrav-r~aet ~ TOU
rrA.~eou<; xpeia Kat TO rroaov TWV rrpoa6VTWV av8pwv KaTa T~V OUVafllV TOU

KaTa TOV Katpov euptaKOflEVOU A.aou Kat ~av8ov exnv 'l8tov EKaaTOV aUTWV Kat
270 apxov-ra ~TOt KOflf!Ta yevvaiov Kat q>pOVlflOV Kat av8pdov Kat KaTa xe'ipa

11axwem 8uva11evov.
66. Ta<; flEVTOl aKia<; EKUaTOU TUYflaTo<; TWV ne(wv rrapacpuA.anetv arro

8eKa~ av8pwv 6p8tveueaem ei<; -rov <~<; flUXfl<; KaflaTov, -r~v 8 rrapa-ra~tv rrpo<;
TO flETpov TOU euptaKOflEVOU a-rpa-rou rrotdv.
253 OleA.6vte~ W tA6vTe~ M Olaxwpi~ov-re~ ABE 255 A.tyw ... A.emwABE A.tywv bnA.emw
MW I Mxwv ... TWV2 WABE Mxwv Te Kal M scr. mg. TWV opOlVWV w 255-256 Kal...
apxovTWV MWA om. BE 256 !':qncrTUflEVWV WABE Ct<plOTUflEVWV M 256-257 T~V ...
axpTJOT[av MW TO axpTJOTa elval ainu viiv ABE scr. mg. TO !::lVUl viiv avevtpyf]TOV w
257-259 rrapa ... !':mA.~'\'OflUl MW fl~ o rrapa nvo~ Twv crTpaTeUOflEvwv ylvwcrKecr9m Ta
avayKm6Tepa Kal cra<pecr-repa Kal OUVTOflWTepa AE~W ABE 257 ad acracpeuiv scr. mg. TJYOUV
Ola TO alilayvwa-rov W 259 ad cra<pecrTpwv scr. mg. T]youv eKelva w~ yvwplflwTepa A.eyelv
W 259-260 w~ eolKe MW om. ABE scr. mg. w~ <pa[ve-rm W 260-261 a-rpana~ BE
crTpaTelU~ MWA 261 KaT' MWAE KaTa B 262 euapl9fl~TWV MW oA.iywv ABE scr. mg.
OAlYWV w 263 flUAAOV ... Kal MW aAA.a Kal A aAA.a BE I euxep~ MW eUKOAOV ABE
264 ad eiK6~ scr. mg. w~ ecrnv !':voexoflevov W I oi ci. Va om. codd. 265 rreplneuovTe~ MW
rreplcrcreuovTe~ ABE I apy~crwcrtv MWAE apx~crwmv B I CtKaipw~ MW om. ABE 266 w~ ...
eupeewmv MW CtKaipw~ avw<peA.ei~ eupeewmv w~ ii-raKTOl ABE 268 TO rrocrov MW ~
7!000TT]~ ABE 269 TOV MWA om. BE 270 KaTa xeipa MW arro xelpO~ ABE
271 fl<'txeaem ouvaflevov MW trsp. ABE 272 rrapa<puA<'tnelv MW om. ABE 273 OeKa~
MW u;' ABE iopOlveuecr9m MW opOlveum ABE 274 flETpov MW flEpo~ ABE






Division of the Army and Appointment of Officers

Constitution 4

67. TaUTr]V o d~ Tooapa 'Loa flEPJl OlaVEfllV, t~ oowv cmavT~Ol TaYfl<iTWV

Kal CtKLWV, w~ dpf]Tal flOl Kai avw8V, Tofn' onv [~ 0~u)v ou apxl 6 Oc~lO~
flpapXJ1~ ~TOl mpatf]AaTf]~ ov TOUpflaPXJlV KaAOUflV, d~ aptmpov ou apXEl 6
lH.OVUflO~ TOUpflapxJl~, Kai d~ Ta hpa Mo flEOa flEPJl 6f1oiw~, tv oi~ 'ioTaTm
Kal To Tof> oTpaTJlyou ~avoov.
68. 6ov o tonv tK npl000U T~~ napaTa~W~ <pUAa1'TlV 6A.iyou~ Kal
OKOUTaTOU~ Kal 1JilAOU~ tv uno~Of]8i<:t Kai apxovta exlv 'LOtov ~ napa oou TOT
Ka8toTaflVOV 'iva, tav XPia yVf]Tal, d~ TU aKpa T~~ napa-ray~~ ~wev TWV
Ka~aAA.apiwv ~ d~ Ta~ Ctfla~a~ ~ i~ Tpou~ T6nou~ flTU TWV iOtKwv auTWV
69. Xp~ o, tav 0AlYWTp0~ tonv 6 OTpaTo~ TWV I KO' XlAlCtOWV n~WV, fl~
n0lLV 0' flEpf] T~V napata~lV, aAA.a y', tv T(i> flE<J<.p 0 f1Epl Taoow8m TO TOU
oTpa-r11you ~avoov, 4J Kal ndewem Ta A.oma ~avoa 6<piA.oumv.
70. I1p6Tcpov 0 xwpiol~ [~ 1JilAOU~ TOU~ L00Ta~ TO~U0al ~ Kal fla8LV
OUVaflEVOU~, Kal yopyou~ Kal VWTpou~, iKaVOU~ nf]Oi'iv onou ~OUAOVTal. tav
flEV unp Ta~ KO' XlAlaOa~ dol TO ~fllOU flEPO~, L o 6A.tywTPO~ TWV KO' XlAlaowv, TO TpLTOV flEPO~ tv EKaonp apl8fl4> Kai TOT 6pOlVU8~vm mhou~, w~ nov
Kal QVWTEpw dnOflV, L~ OEKapxia~ Kal tmoT~Val UlJTOl~ OEKapxa~ XPJlOlflOU~
Kal apxovTa eva, TOY AYOflVOV apxtoaytnaTwpa ~youv apxlTO~OTf]V.
71. To o flEVOV OtflOlpov flEpo~ ~ ~fllOU OlaVlflal d~ QKLU~ ano avopwv lf]',
naA.mwv 1' Kal vtwv. QKLal 0 AtyovTm, w~ flOl dpf]Tal, TCt AYOflVa KOVTOU~pvta. Kal Tou~ fll:v Mo auTwv, Tou~ uno0<JTpou~ ~Tot Tou~ nA.dova~ TWV t<;',
d~ TU~ Ctfla~a.::; Kal d~ ETEpa~, w~ ELKO~, xpda.::; aoxoAto8m, TOU~ 0Ka~ oi:
275 ei<; Tiaaapa MWAB o' E I OtaVEf1tv MW &axwpi<etv ABE scr. mg. Otafiept<etv W I
aTiavT~aet MW iiv aTiavT~O!] ABE 276 w<; ... iivw6ev MW Ka6w<; avwTEpw e'Lp!]Tat ABE
278 Mo flEOa MW flEOa MoAB flEOa WE 280 ad oov scr. mg. apflo<ov W I 6 MWA om.
BE 281 Kai2 MW om. ABE I xetv MW exoVTa ABE 282 Tiapamyfi<; MW TiapaTa~ew<;
ABE 283 iOtKwv MW ioiwv ABE 284 auvTpexovT<; ~o!]6wmv MWAB auVTpexovTo<;
~0!]6Wat E 285 eOTlV MWA imapx!] BE 286 {j' MW Teaaapa ABE I y' MWBE Tpia A
287 wMW wnvt ABE 288-290 7!p6Tepov ... flEpo<; MW eav flEV ouv imp TU<; KO' XlAtaOa<;
eiaiv (wmv BE) oi aTpaTEUOflEVOl TO iifltaU flEpo<; xwpiaet<; ei<; '\flAOU<; TOU<; ei06m<; TO~eiiaat ii
Kal f1U6lv ouvafit'vou<; yopyou<; Kal vewTepou<; iKavou<; 7!!]6i'iv oTiou ~ouAoVTat ABE
290-291 XtAta6wv MW XtAtaowv eialv A XtAtaowv eial BE 291-292 w<; ... e'lTIOfleV MW
om. ABE 293 apxovm MW A apxovm<; BE 294 flEVOV MW lJ1l0Alfl1lUVOf1VOV ABE I ii
ABE om. MW I Otaveiflat MW Otafiepiam ABE I aTii:J MWA om. BE 295 T ABE om. MW I
w<; ... e'ip!]Tal MW om. ABE 295-296 KOvTou~pvta MAE KOuTou~tpvta W KOUVTou~tpvta
B 296 Mo MW AB E I fiTot ... t~' MW eKaOTI]<; aKia<; ABE 297 w<; elKO<; MW om. ABE

I OeKa~ MWBE 6 tc;' A

297-298 6 aTfivm MW YaTaa6m ABE


67. Divide this line composed of all the tagmata and files present into four
Qqual units, as I mentioned above, that is, right under the command of the right
merarch or stratelates, whom we refer to as tourmarch, left under the command
of the left tourmarch, and likewise for the other two middle divisions, in which
the standard of the general is flown.
68. A few soldiers, both heavy and light infantry, not really needed in the
battle line, with their own officer or one to be designated by you at the time,
1hould be held in reserve so that, if it becomes necessary, together with their
own officers, they may hasten to the support of either of the flanks on the line
beyond the cavalry or the wagons or other places.
69. If the army consists of less than twenty-four thousand foot soldiers, you
must not form the battle line into four divisions but into three. In the center
meros raise the general's standard, which the others should use as a guide.
70. First, for the light-armed troops, you should select men who know how
to shoot with a bow or who are able to learn, young and vigorous men, capable
of leaping wherever they wish. If there are more than twenty-four thousand
men, the archers should be half in each company; if fewer than twenty-four
thousand, then a third. They should be organized, as we mentioned someplace
above, into dekarchies with competent dekarchs placed over them and one
commander known as the chief archer or chief bowman.
71. Divide the remaining half or two thirds into files of eighteen men, both
veterans and recruits. Files, as I have said, are also called squads. Two of those
men, somewhat less qualified, that is, in addition to the other sixteen, should be
assigned to the wagons or to other tasks as needed. Have the remaining sixteen


Division of the Army and Appointment of Officers

Constitution 4

m~vm v Tfi rcapa-ra~L Kal mm~vm auToi<; Tou<; -\oxayou<; Ayoflvou<;, yv-

va[ou<; Kal XPTJGlflOU<;.


72. 'EK TOUTWV o nov u:;' <TOU<;> XPTJGlflWTpou<; OKTW fflTCpoa8v ~ 6ma8v
T~<; aK[a<; ~TOL TOU Mxou KaTaaT~Vat-T~V yap TWV L<;' avopwv aK[av Mxov

KaAouv oi rca,\mo[-m~am 0 auTou<; d<; Tov rcpwTov T6rcov Kal d<; Tov
0uTpov Kal d<; Tov Tp[Tov Kal d<; TOV T-rapTov Kat d<; Tov ~Kat0Ka-rov Kal d<;
Tov TCVTKatOKaTov Kat i<; TOV TwaapLGKat0tKmov Kat d<; Tov TpLaKmoKa305 TOV, tVa Kat flEXPL TWaapwv avopwv flEpl(OflEVOU TOU ~a8ou<; ~TOL TOU rcaxou<;
T~<; aK[a<; v OUVUfll EGTt Kat ~ oupa auT~<; Kat TO flETWTCOV. TOU<; oi;: AOLTCOU<;,

TOU<; tJTCOOEWTpou<;, v T4> flEG4J auT~<; TU~at.

73 TouTOU<; oi;: TOU<; L<;' OVOflUGUL eva reap' eva arco rcptf.!WV Kal GKOUVOWV
~TOL rcpWTOO"TaTWV Kat ETClGTQTWV. TOU<; o DUO v aUTOl<; OLWVUflOU<; dvm, Kat

310 TOV flEV rcpwTOV KaAE"ia8m Aoxayov Kat rcpif.!OV ~youv rcpWTOaTUTT]V, TOV oi;:

OEUTpov OEKUPXTJV Kat O"Koflvoov ~youv maTUTT]V, Kat ~~<; OflOLw<; wau dvm
Tov 6,\ov aTixov K rcpwToamTwv Kal mma-rwv auyKdflVO<;.
74 "Iva oi;: Kal apxw8m UXPW<; DUVaVTUL Kal Ctpf.!OOLW<; GUVOLUYLV aU~
AOL<;, KaAAL6v aTL flCtAAov TOUTOU<; d<; DUO flOVa KOVTOu~pvLa yivw8m, [va o[
315 flEV TCplflOL ~youv oi rcpwTOGTUTat LGL flETU TOU Aoxayou, o[ oi;: GKOUVOOL ~youv

maTaTm flT<'t Tofl OKapxou oihw flEVTOL waT, Kav v Tfi 6Laywyfi I Ol!lPTJVTm,
aU' ouv v Tfi TU~l ~VWflEVOL OVT<;, oi OKae~ Tfi ~ou,\fi Kat yvwfln TOU AOX-


their place in the battle line and appoint courageous and competent men,
n\Ued group leaders, over them.
72. Of these sixteen, station the eight most competent in the front and in the
l'tt\r of the file or lochos-the ancients called the file of sixteen men a
h::lchos 13 -station them in positions one, two, three, four; and sixteen, fifteen,
t\'1urteen, thirteen. In this way, even if the depth or thickness of the file is
rttiuced to four, its front and rear will still be strong. Line up the remaining
f:fli:!n, the weaker ones, in the middle of the file.
73 Designate these sixteen men one by one as primoi or sekoundoi or
protostatai and epistatai. Two should bear a double designation, that is, call the
first one leader and primos or protostates, call the second dekarch and
1ekoundos or epistates. Likewise, in due order, the whole row will be made up of
protostatai or epistatai.
7 4 To make it easier to command them and get them to operate more
harmoniously with one another, it is really better to arrange them in two squads.
The primoi or protostatai go with the group leader and the sekoundoi or
!!pistatai with the dekarch. In this manner, even though they are separated by
this arrangement, still these sixteen soldiers are united in formation and are
subject to the decisions and will of the group leader. As a result, good order is
maintained and the men can be easily commanded.

ayou T(t80VTUL EVTU8v yap Kal ~ TU~l<; <pUAUTTTaL Kal UKOAW<; apxwem

300 t<;' MABE oeKa~ WI T01J~ ci. Va om. codd. 301 T~~ ~Tot MW om. ABE I ad A6xou
scr. mg. Tov opotvou W 302 auTou~ MABE auToi~ W 303 i:~KatOEKUTOV AE t<;' B
i:vKatOEKaTov MW 304 TwcraptcrKmoKaTov MW AE to' B 304-305 TptcrKmoKmov
MW AE ty' B 305 flEXPt MWAB flEXPt nilv E 306 eaTl Kal MA EOTLV Kal w innipxTJ BE
308 t<;' MWBE OeKUE~ A 309 QUO MWAB
E I OtWVUf!OU~ elvat MW uno ouo
xetv OVOflUTWV ABE 310 nptf!OV ~youv MW om. ABE 311 creKoiivoov ~youv MW om.
ABE I Kal 2 Of!OlW~ MW om. ABE 313 euxepw~ MW EUKOAW~ ABE I OUVUVTat MWA
OUVWVTat BE I Upf!OOlW~ MW Ctpf!O~OVTW~ ABE 314 ean MAB eanv WE I ouo f!OVU
315 npif!Ot. .. oP MW om. ABE I eial MW &at ABE I Tou MWAE om. B I creKoiivoot ~youv
MW om. ABE 316 ouTw ... waT MW om. ABE I Kilv MW Kilv yap ABE I ot~pf]VTat Va
&dpf]VTat MW Otl]pf]flEVOt eialv AB Otatpf]flEVOt eialv E scr. mg. f]youv Kav ev Tf]
auvavaaTpocp~ OtaKexwptOf!EVOt wcrtv W 317 TU~Et MW napaTa~a ABE I oeKa~ MAE t<;'
WB I Kal MWBE Kal T~ A 318 cpuMnTat MWA c:puMacrTat BE 319 ouvavmt MWA

13. "Lochos" originally meant an ambush, a group of bandits. Their chief, "lochagos;' is
here translated as group leader.


Division of the Army and Appointment of Officers

Constitution 4
75 Xp~m11ov 8 tanv, tav taTI ouvaT6v, !l~ 116vov KaTa nm6n]La ~youv

7 5. It is useful, when possible, to arrange the sixteen men in each file of

lJ\jtUXLUV 6p01VU1V 1'0U<; 1<;' Ka0' EKCtaLTjV aK[av 1'WV GKOU1'Ct1'WV, UAAU Kat KU1'U

heavy infantry not only according to their qualifications and good attitudes but
iUSo according to stature. By stationing the taller men in front, the whole battle
line will look much better ordered. But if it cannot be done according to stature
and bravery, then certainly it is necessary, as we have said, to station the more
motivated and valiant men of each file in the front and rear positions, with the
weaker ones in the middle, in the manner we have sketched.
76. For this reason, therefore, the ancients fixed the depth of the infantry
files or rows in combat at sixteen men. This provides an adequate number of
troops that should not be exceeded, and in emergencies it can be divided
quickly and in an orderly fashion and reduced to only one man. These,
therefore, are what we have determined concerning the division of the army and
the assignment of both higher and lower ranking officers to be lined up with it.

~AIK[av, '(va ol !laKp6Tepo1 !lnpoa0ev maa611evm U1'UK1'0Tpav T~V napaTa~lv

cmood~wmv. i OE !l~ anav1'Q. npoc; ~AIKLUV KUL avopdav, TtCtV1'Wc;, we; e'iTtO!lV,
Toil<; U'\fUX01'pouc; Kal yevvawTpouc; EKCtaLTj<; aK[a<; Otov taTlv de; Toile;

!lnpoa0ev Kal 6ma0ev Tonou<; Taaawem, Toile; of: imooeeaTpouc; de; To


auTWV, Ka0' ov ip~Ka!lV 1'p6nov.

76. 'Dme ouv OIU 1'0U1'0 Kal ol apxatOI ano u:;' avopwv 1t~WV 1'0 ~a0oc; 1'WV
UKIWV ~1'01 1'WV 6po[vwv wplaav tv m1c; !laxmc;, tTt10~ KUL 1'0 !1E1'pov apKOUV
taLIV, 01tp U1tp~a[vnv ou XP~ KUL tv Tate; xpLmc; ULQK1'Wc; KUL GUV1'0!1Wc;


!lPl~1'UI Kal A1t1'UV1'Ul !lEXPI<; tvoc; avop6c;. maaul'a !lEV ouv KUL1tpl1'~c; 1'0U
a1'pa1'0U 01atpaewc; 1' Kat KULaaLCtGWc; KUL1'WV tnl1'0ll1'WV 1'1'UY!lEVWV apx6v1'WV !l1Kpwv Te Kal 11eyaA.wv o1wp1aa!leea.

320 an ouvm6v MW votxnm ABE

scr. mg. eutOAf!LUV W

320-321 Jtot6np:a ... etnJJUXiav MW avop[av ABE

321 Ka8' ... crKoutatwv MW om. ABE I aK[av WABE aKtWV M

322 eutaKtotepav Va einaKtwtepav MW (corr. wino W) cpo~epwtepav AE cpo~epotepav B

323 arravta rrpo~ MW votxnat Kal Kata ABE I Kal avopdav MW Kal KUtCt avop[av

tOUtOU~ tacrcrea8at ABE 324 EU'JIUXOtipou~ MW rrpo8Uf!Otipou~ ABE I otov ecrtlv MW

om. ABE 325 tacrcrea8m MW om. ABE 326 eip~KUf!EV tp6rrov MW trsp. ABE
327 wcrte ... toiito MW OlCt toiito OE ABE It<;' MABE OEKUE~ w 327-328 tWV ... ~tOl MW
om. ABE 328 Wptcrav MW wp[cravto ABE I tv ... J.UlXUL~ MW om. ABE 329 imep~a[vetv
MWA ~a[vetv BE I eutaKtW~ MWBE GUf!f!Etpw<; A
331 toutwv M toutw WBE toiito A

I Kal GUVLOf!W~ MW om. ABE



ITepl onA.wv

About Weapons

K/..n)o 11Ev Toivuv Tft u11wv tvoo~6Tf]n Twv d<; Toil<; not..11ou<; auvTEtv6vTwv OTtAWV TE Kat Ct7to<JKEUWV TCE~lKft TE Kat Ka~a/../..aptKft mpan(t q:>pOVTl<Jat,
5 W<JTE Taum otallEVELV CtOL<lAT]TCTa Kal npo<; T~V KaTETCE[youaav T<P Katp<P xpdav
fTOLila, TOUTO oi; TCOLELV-TO lli::v OLCt (JOU aUTOU, TO oi; OlCt TWV un6 <JE apxovTWV
lllKpWV Kal llYCtAWV-Ei<; 011Al<JlV Kal DTCllPE<J[av TOU uno TO <JOV etlla llaXL!lOU

2. Oiov To~apta !lETa 9f]Kap[wv auTwv, aay[na<; !lETa KouKoupwv, ana9[a

~KOVT]f.U~Va Kal <JE<JallLW!lEVa, <JKOUTapta Kal ETEpa <JKOUT<ipta llYCtAa, anep

t..tyovTat eupw[, ETEpa <JKOUTapt<JKLa TWV T(~WV TQ TCOTE AY0!1EVa TCEATat,

ETEpa <JKOUTCtpta <JlOfjp<i, <JTpoyyu!..a, <JE<Ja!llWilEVa, KOVTCtpta lllKpa, OKTUTCT]Xa
-~aav 8 TCOTE 'Pwlla[ot<; Kal MaKEOO<Jl KOVTCtpta axpt 11f]XWV OEKai::~ anep ~
vuv xpda ou KaAd, TO yap KaTCt T~V EKCt<JTOU TWV !iETUXElpl~OilEVWV ouvallLV
5 ont..ov au1111ETP6v TE Kat xp~mllov-ptKTapta, T~tKoupta Kal eTepa T~tKoupta
Ct!l<pl<JTO!la, tq:>' v llEpo<; oiovel ana9[ov, tnl oi:: TO -repov oiov ~[q:>o<; Kovmp[ou,
!lETa 9f]Kap[wv auTwv OepllaT[vwv Kal ~amay[wv, napa11~pta, 11axaipa<; !leya-


!..a<; !lOVO<JTO!lOU<;.
3 Awp[Kta llEXPL <JTpaya!..ou, avaaup6!1EVa OlCt t..wp[wv Kal KplKEAAlWV, llETU
TWV 9TjKap[wv aUTWV OEpllaTLVWV Kat, d OUVaTOV, navm CtAU<JlOWTCt, d oi:: ll~YE,

nva aunilv Kal OlCt KEpaTlVTj<; UATj<; ~ ~ou~at..dwv KaTa~~pwv OEP!lCtTWV tm!..wptKCt i!laTta, KAt~avta m8f]pC:t ~ Kal t~ Tepa<; 1.\/..Tj<;, w<; dpf]Tat, Kaaa(oa<; Te!..da<;,
M W A V (mut.) BE Va
9-30 Cf. Strat., 1.2.

PG 107:717

Now then, we command Your Excellency to turn your attention to the

weapons you must employ in war, as well as to the equipment for the infantry
and the cavalry forces. 1 There should be a steady supply of them and they should
ready at hand for whatever pressing needs may arise. You are to see to the
armament and service of the combat troops from your theme, some of it by
yourself and some by your subordinate officers, higher and lower in rank.
2. Such are bows with their carrying cases, arrows with their quivers, swords
sharpened and brightly shining, regular shields as well as the larger ones called
thyreoi, other small shields, formerly called peltasts, for the foot soldiers, other
shields of iron, round and well polished. <They should have> small spears eight
pecheis long. At one time, though, the Romans and the Macedonians had spears
up to sixteen pecheis long, but those are not called for in the present circumstances.2 A weapon is appropriate and serviceable if it matches the strength of
the person who is to wield it. Also small throwing spears, regular axes as well as
double-bladed axes, like a sword on one side and like the point of a spear on the
other, together with their leather carrying cases and other packs. Daggers. Large,
single-bladed swords.
3. Body armor down to the ankles that can be caught up with straps and
rings, as well as leather carrying cases for them. If possible, the armor should be
made completely of chain mail, but if not, some of it may be of horn or dry
cowhide. Surcoats over the armor. Breastplates of iron or of some other material,
as mentioned. Full helmets, foot coverings, and gauntlets of iron or some other

12-15 Cf. Anon. Strat., 16.31-39.

rroAEf.lLKWV rrapacrKeuwv MWA om. BE I e' MWA om. BE 3 Uf.IWV MWAE ~f.IWV B
4 Kal2 MWBE Kal T~ A 5 Tw Kmpw MW Tou Kmpou ABE 6 ToiiTo MW AB Tou E
9 8'1Kapiwv MWAE e'lKUpta B 11 aKoumpicrKta MWA GKOUTUpla BE 13 ~aav MWAB
~ ~aav E I OEKUE~ M OEKU Kal ~ w L<;' ABE 14 ou KUAel MW OUK cmaml ABE 15
pLKrapta MW ptmapta ABE I Kal MWA om. BE 16 ev f.1po~ MWA voc; f.1pouc; BE I
arra8iov ABE arra8iou MW 17 f.IETU MWA f.IETU TWV BE 19 aTpayaA.ou MW
aaTpayaA.ou ABE 21 Kal. .. UA'l~ MW EK KEpUTWV ABE I ~ou~aA.Eiwv Va ~ou~aA.iwv MW

~ou~aALKWV ABE I KaTa~~pwv oepf.laTwv MW trsp. ABE

1. See also Strat. 1.2. On weapons and armament, see T. Kolias, Byzantinische Waffen
(Vienna, 1988).
2. Eight pecheis is about 374 m; sixteen comes to 7-48 m. Cf. also AnonStrat, 16.


Constitution 5

material. Let those who do not have neck pieces of iron chain mail be protected

1tptTpax~Ala QAUcrtOWTQ crLOT]pCt, EVOEOUiJEVa crw8ev cmo KVT01JKAOU Kai

by those made of quilted material on the inside and leather on the outside. Men

8 cmo fHVOU, veuptKQ TQ c':mo KVT01JKAWV Ol1tAWV YlVOf1Va Kai aUTO.

4. <DACtf.lOUAa f.ly6.;\a, <pAaiJou;\icma Twv KovTapiwv, ~avoa ota<p6pw<;

who do not have iron body armor should have in its place an outer garment
made of two layers of quilted material, broad quilting, that the soldier puts on
with his weapons. Also arrow guides with short arrows and their quivers.J Slings
as well, large saddlebags, flint and tinder, lasso with thong, hobble, crescentshaped iron horseshoes with their nails, small files and awls, armor for the heads
of the horses, breastplates of iron or quilting for the horses, and similar coverings for their necks.

~~aiJiJEVa, ~OUKLVa f.llKpa Kai f1YCtAa, op1tava, a~(va<;, <pahiota, 1tAeKta,

4 Large pennants, as well as smaller ones for the lances, flags in various

CtVTi AWplKLWV TOt<; il~ exoum crLOTjpii, KEVTOUKAa <papoea, vouovm TOY crTpanWTT]V f1Ta Twv cm;\wv, crWATJYCtpta iJETO. f.lLKpwv craytnwv Kai KouKm)pwv ainwv,
cr<pev86~o;\a, creA.Aoitouyyta f1y6.;\a, rrupeK~o;\a Kai taKa<;, ;\wp6croKKa, 7teOT]-

KAa crAT]va1a crtOT]pa iJETa Kap<p[wv mhwv, j'Hvia, crou~Aia, 7tpOf1Twma I t1t1twv,
30 OTTj86.pta l1t1tWV ~ crLOf]pU ~ arro KVTOUKAWV, 1tptTpax~Ala l1t1tWV OiJOLW<;.

OKE1tapva, Tpl~OAOU<; avaOeOf1Eva<; O<jlf]KWf.lacrL 0eOf1EVOl<; ei<; ~AOU<; TAiou<;.

5 AiJCt~a<; UOTUAel<;, <pepoucra<; ETOlf.lW<; T~V avayKaiav ei<; xpdav Ct1t00KU35 ~V, oiov TCt T ipf]f1EVa pya, Kai XLPOiJUAla Kal7tpt6vta Kal opuya<; Kal crcpupa<;,

mu6.pta, KO<ptVOU<;, KlALKla, Kai e'( Tl liA\o 1tpo<; < ~w8ev <jlUAaK~V Kai
7tpt~oA~v mvoTj8if] T(il crTpaTTJY'i> 8t' ;\a<ppoTpa<; UATJ<; iJEflTJXaVT]f.lEVOV.

6. 'ETpa<; Uf16.~a<; exoucra<; TO~O~OAtcrTpa<;, iJayyavtKU EKaTpw8ev

crTp<jl0f1Va, ~aAtcrTapiou<; Ef11tdpou<; ~TOl f.layyavapiou<; A1tToupyou<;, xah1<;
iJfTQ TWV epya;\dwv aUTWV, hpa<; Uf16.~a<; A6y<p Ctpf.laf.lEVTOU, Tepa<; Uf16.~a<;
TU<; <pepoucra<; 8tmpo<pa<; Kal TU EK 1tptcrcrou lipiJaTa, ocra ~ xpda KaA1, Kal ETl
l>1tO(uyta Kat l1t1tOU<;, craYf16.pta, OKUO<p6pa Kai auTa Kat TU liAAa 1tCtVTa opyava, ocra ~ cruv~8ta TOU <pocrcr6.TOU rrapaKAUTat.
7 Tipo<;


1t000\jiAAa, XLPO\jiAAa crL<STjpO. ~ Kai ~ hpa<; UAf]<;, OlQ TOU<; il~ exovm<;
25 ~w8ev



oe 1tOAlOpKta<; Kal fiayyavtKU Ol6.<popa Kal OKUAa<; ~VALVa<; OUOTA-

AOf.lEVa<; Kal Tepa illlxavtKa opyava, ocra emvo~crt<;.

colors, large and small trumpets, sickles, axes, scythes, hatchets, adzes, caltrops
tied together with cords and hardened into very sharp points.

s. Light wagons ready to transport the essential equipment that will be

needed, such as the items mentioned. Also hand mills, saws, picks, hammers,
shovels, baskets, goatskin matting, and whatever else the commander might
think of getting ready, using lighter materials, to protect the encampment and
its perimeter from the outside.
6. Other wagons carrying bow ballistai, windlass artillery called alakatia that
swivel in both directions, experienced artillery crews, that is, carpenters specialized in artillery, and metal workers with their equipment. Some wagons for the
field armory. Others will transport food as well as the extra weapons that might
be needed. Pack animals, moreover, and horses, other beasts of burden to bear
equipment and all the other implements that are usually required for an army
on campaign.
7. Diverse machines for siege warfare, wooden ladders ready for action, and
as many other mechanical devices as you will think of.

42 ad miv-ra inc. V

23 1t000\f'EAAU A 1t000\f'EAU MW ltOOO\f'EAAla BE I xapO\f'EAAU Va xetpO\f'EAU MW om. ABE

24 eaweev MW eaweev f.!EV ABE I KEVT01JKAOU ABE epiou MW 25 OE arro ABE om. MW I
f'>tvou De A.ivou codd. I KEVTOlJKAwv omA.wv ABE KEVOOlJKAWV MW 26 KEVTOuKA.a ABE
KEvOouKAa MW 28 rrupK~oA.a MA rrapK~oA.a BE I 'LcrKa~ MWA 'LcraKa~ BE 29 aou~A.ia
32 ltEAEKla MW AB ltEAEKU~ E 34 EUOTUAel~ MW EAa<ppa~ ABE scr. mg. eA.a<ppa~ EUKOAW~
cruvn9Ef.!EVU~ w 35 XElpOf.lUAlU MW XElpOf.!UAa ABE I opuya~ MW 6puyta ABE
37 E1tlVOT]9elT] MW E1tlVOT]9~ ABE 38 TO~O~OAlOTpa~ MW TO~o~aAA.icrTpa~ ABE I aA.aKUTlU MW ~AaK6.Tta ABE 39 ~aA.tcrTap[ou~ MW To~o~aAA.icrm~ ABE I ~Tot MW om. ABE
40 A6yw ABE A6you MW 42 ad imo<uyta scr. mg. f.!OUAtK6. W I crKeuocpopa MW A
OKEUO<popta BE 42-43 opyava MW pya AVBE

3 Wooden half-tubes (OWAT]V6.pta), through which small arrows were shot. It is difficult to
describe them more precisely. See Kolias, Waffen, 239-253; G. Dennis, "Flies, Mice, and the
Byzantine Crossbow;' BMGS 7 (1981): 1-5; D. Nishimura, "Crossbows, Arrow-guides, and the
Solenarion," Byzantion 58 (1988): 22-36.
4 See Dennis, "Byzantine Heavy Artillery:'


Constitution 5


8. Ei oe npoc; nOTa!lOUc; ~ AlllVac; Kal vauKEAALa ~youv nA.ola !llKpa ~ ano


KaTCJKUaCJ!1EVa ~ KaLa qn)mv <ppovTLCJLc; oe Kal ETOL!1UCJLc; Kal -rae;

AY0!1Evac; -rvmc; Kal cmy[ac; !lETa T~c; mhwv t~onA.iaewc;, tv aic; Kal UTWV Kal
KaU!lUTWV, em xpe[a, E~Lc; tA.eu8epiav.
9 Tole; oe vaU!lUXOLc; a-rpanwolc; Kal vauc; napaaKeua(Lv t~wnALG!lEVac;, -rae;
!lev llaXL!lOUc;, -rae; oe [nnaywyouc;, -rae; oe CJKUO<p6pouc;, Ulla Tfl nepl aU-rae;
anaan XPLWOl navonAL<;l Kal anoCJKeUfl napaKAUO!leea.
10. Twv oe CtnTjplellllllEVWV CJOL napaGKUWV avw-rpw, TWV Kal 6<pLAOVTWV
nvwv !lfV napa CJOU, TLVWV o napa TWV un6 (J apx6v-rwv Kal a-rpanw-rwv
55 nopi(wem, Ta !lev onA.a E~Lc; de; U!1UVav TWV noA!1LWV, Tao de; <pUAaK~V TWV
llaXO!lEVWV a-rpanw-rwv, Tao de; T~V UAAT]V xpLav au-rwv Kal unTjpW[av.
11. Kal !lclALCJTa TWV 1TOA!1LKWV 01TAWV tmllA~an, we; av 8La<pUAUTTWVTaL
nav-rme A.a11npa Kai -reellwtva npoc; -r~v Ka-ranA.T]~Lv -rwv noA.e11iwv. mum
navm I npoeu-rpe1tLCJLc;, Yva tv hOL!l4J eialv eic; xpdav TOte; unep ape-r~c; xcipac;
6o 6nA.i(oum Ka-ra -rwv noA11iwv, Kal 11~ -rov napa-ra~ewc; Kmpov napaaKeu~c;
Kmpov avayKa(n 1TOLLCJ8aL. mum o Kal ana oaa ~IlLY napaAEAelTtTaL Ola
A~8TjV ~ avayKT]c; 6<peLALc; napaaKeUa(elV. ei o n nAtov eic; onAWV napaGKU~v mvo~aLc; T{il E>e{il xapLc; Kal Tfl Gfl CtYXLVOL<;t.
12. IIpo o nav-rwv Kal !lETa nav-rwv <p6~ov eeou Kal OLUVOLav 6~ciav Kal
65 anouoa[av YVW!lT]V tv nav-rl EXLV Kmp{il Kal T01t4J Kal npayllan, Kal npoc;
anavm ETOL!lOV elvm napaKAUO!leea.



8. If you come to rivers or lakes, you will take care to get ready the skiffs or
small boats, constructed either of leather hides or of ordinary materials, as well
as what we call tents and shelters with their equipment in which, when necessary, you will find relief from rain and heat. 5
9. We command that those generals assigned to fighting at sea are to prepare
fully armed ships, some for combat, others to transport horses, and others to
transport equipment, together with all their required weaponry and equipment.6
10. Of all the preparatory tasks enumerated above some are to be carried out
directly by you and others by the officers and soldiers under your command.
You will see to weapons that ward off the enemy and others that protect the
troops in battle, as well as those that cover their other needs and services.
11. Devote particular attention to the weapons needed in battle. Make sure
that they are always maintained polished and sharpened, so as to terrify the
enemy. You will prepare all these things beforehand so they will be ready for use
by those who, because of their valor, engage the enemy in close combat. By so
doing, you will not be forced to turn the time of taking battle stations into a
time of preparation/ The other matters that we may have omitted, out of forgetfulness, must necessarily be your responsibility. And if you think of something
more regarding the preparation of weapons, thanks be to God and your own
12. We order you, above all and with all, to have the fear of God, a sharp
mind, and serious intent in every time, place, and affair, as well as to be ready
for every eventuality.

59-61 Cf. y'.3-5.

47 Ka-rwKeuaof.utva MW A Ka-raoKeuacrjlva VBE I ~ ... <puatv MWVBE om. A 48 -rvm~
MW -rvoa~ AVBE 1 tv ai~ MW aYnve~ AVBE I unwv MW ~poxa~ AVBE 49 KUUf.l<'tTwv ...
e\eu8epiav MW KUDj.IUm cmavT~OOUatV AVBE 50 ad VUUf.lUXOl~ scr. mg. Tal~ EV ITAOlOl~
f.lUXOf.leVOl~ W ad 50-51 TU~ j.IEV scr. mg. rrpo<; TO f.IUXW8at el1lTt]Oela<:; W 51 ad
imraywyou~ scr. mg. mrrou~ <pepouo<a~> W I ad oKeuo<p6pou~ scr. mg. -ra OKWt] Kat -ra~
xpna~ <pepouoa~ w 53 U11t]pt8jlt]jlfVWV MWA cmapt8jlt]jlfVWV VBE I O<pelAOVTWV MW
6<pet\ouowv AVBE 58 -re8t]Yf.!EVa MW ~KOVt]f.lEVa AVBE I -r~v MW om. AVBE 59 eiolv
MWA ti>atv VBE 59-60 TOt~ ... ITOAej.ILWV MW TWV KUTU TWV J10Aej.ILWV aywvt<Of.!EVWV
AVBE 6o-61 rrapa-ra~ew~ ... Katpov MW Katpov -r~<; rrapa-ra~ew~ Katpov i:Totf.laoia~ Kal
rrapaoKeu~~ A Katpov i:Totjlacria~ Kal rrapaoKeu~~ VBE 61 mum MWAVE mum~ B I
ii\Aa MW om. AVBE 61-62 rrapa\\emmt. .. A.~8t]v MW trsp. AVBE 63 ayxtvo[a MW
<ppov~cret AVBE scr. mg. o~UTt]Tl -r~~ otavata~ W 64 7Tav-rwv 1 MWVBE JTav-ra A jJTav-rwv2
MW JTUVTU AVBE I eeou MW eeou exelV AVBE 65 exm MW om. AVBE

5 Tent: generally written as -rv-ra in MW, and in modern Greek, instead of the variant
-rvoa. The Suda (T 307) defines it as oiK[a EK \ivwv, "a house [made] of linen:'
6. See Const. 19 on naval warfare.
7 Cf. Canst. 3, n. 1.



Constitution 5


wa-rpanw, Ka06aov ~!lTv

13. Therefore, 0 general, we have set before Your Excellency everything that

-rtw~ txwp~yT]aev ~ llY~IlTJ, imeetlleea -rft aft voo~6-rT]<t ~~~ 0 nepl llv
1t(LK~~ Kat <JD!l!llK1"0U -ra~ew~ iJa-repov epOD!lV. VUV 0 01tW~ 01tAt<Jn~ 1"0V
70 Ka0va avopa KapaAAaptov a-rpa-rL<b1"T]V ev -re -raT~ YDilVa<J(at~ Kal 1"0 1"EALOV tv
Katp4J 1tOAE!lOD, Kal onOLa Kanx 1"0 avayKaLOV e'LOT] <ppetv napa<JKUU<Jl~ ~OT]

our memory has provided for us about the preparation of weapons. Subsequently, we will treat of infantry and mixed formations. But for now we shall speak
about how you are to arm each mounted soldier, both for drill and, ultimately,
for time of battle, and the necessary equipment you should prepare for them to

13. ITepl 1-1v oDv ~~ -rwv onAwv napaaKeu~~'


67 cr-rpa<TJYE MW cr-rpa<TJYE inn:pe0f!e0a <~ cr~ voo~6<TJ<L AVBE 68 txwp~y11crev ...

f!V~flll MW trsp. AVBE I <fi ... voo~6<TJ1"l MW om. AVBE 69 ni~ew<; MWA napa-ra~ew<;
VBE 69-70 -rov Ka0tva MW eKacr<ov AVBE 70 -reA.ewv MAVBE -rtA.eov W
71-TJ. napacrKeuacret<; ... poi>f!EV MWA om. VBE




About Armament for the Cavalry and the Infantry

ilepl OITAL<JW<; Ka~aA:\aptWV KUL IT~WV


i1Et TOLYUY OTtAtCJ8~Yat TOU<; G-rpa-rtw-ra<; Ota TWY io[wy aUTWY apxoYTWY

Kal -ra m-r~OLa <eY> -r(il Katp(i'J ehe rrapaxeqwo[ou dn: q>oCJmi-rou rrapaGKU5 6.~wem, -ra rrpo<; <-ra<;> ayayKa[a<; xpe[a<; 1'~<; eKmpa-rda<;, Kal exetY <ainU>
TtCtYLU<; 6.YaA6yw<; apxoYTCt<; 1' Kal apxof!EYOU<;, rrpo<; T~Y EKCtCJTOU TtOL01'1']1'Ct 1'
Kal OUYaf!LY, Kal f!CtALCJTa -rou<; apxoYLa<; UlJLWY 6.rr6 1' 1'0Upf16.pxou Kal f!EXPL
Kt:Y-rapxou Kal-re-rpapxou Kal Ka-re~a[pe-roY CJwu-roY Kal-r~Y im6 CJe rrpoA.wmY.
2."ExetY oi:: au-roil<; Ot:tY TOY Ka8ya iiYOpa OTtALCJLY TOLUUTT]Y ~6.~a<; TEAeLa<;

f!EXPL TOU 6.G-rpay6.A.ou, QYaGUpOf!EYa<; oi:: Ota A.wp[wy Kal KptKt:AALWY, f!ETQ TWY
8T]Kap[wy auTWY. EXLY 01:: Kal KaCJ<J[Oa<; CJLOT]pii<;, (J1'LATtYCt<;, Ota rtaYTO<; exouCJa<;
(iyw8t:Y ei<; TU<; Kopuq>a<; TOU<p[a f!LKpa. TO~apta Oi:: EKaCJlOY KaTU T~Y iO[ay LCJXUY
Kal oux urri::p auT~Y, f!CtAAOY oi:: Kal cmaA.w-repa, exoY-ra 8T]KCtpta rrA.a-ra, [ya y
Katp(i'J OUYUTOY ECJTL THaf!EYa XWpt:tY TQ LO~Ctpta y au-rot<;. EXLY Oi:: KUL KOpOa<;


EK rreptCJ(JOU y TOt<; rrouyy[ot<; aUTWY, KOUKoupa f!HU CJaytnWY Kall CJKETtUCJf!UTWY aUTWY ETtlT~Ot:ta, XWPOUYTa CtrtO A' ~ f!' CJaytnWY. y 01:: TOt<; LO~O~WYLOL<;
ptY[a Kal CJOU~A[a. EXLY 01:: Kal KOY-rapta Ka~aAA.aptKQ f!lKpa, exoY-ra A.wp[a
Ka-ra -ro flECJOY, f!HCt q>Aaf!OUAWY. exetY 01:: Kal CJrta8[a arroKpt:f!Ctf!EYa -rwY Wf!WY
aUTWY Ka-ra T~Y 'Pwf!a'LK~Y 1'Ct~LY, Kal npa rtapaf!~pta ~1'01 !laxa[pa<; OLE~W<Jf!E-

zo YOU<;.

Now then, it is necessary for the soldiers to receive their armament from
their own officers. 1 While in winter quarters or in camp they are to be provided
with the proper equipment they will need on campaign. All the soldiers, both
officers and enlisted men, should have equipment corresponding to their rank
and strength, particularly the officers from tourmarch to kentarch and tetrarch,
with special attention to yourself and the troops marching along with you.
2. Each man should have the following armament. Full coats of mail reaching to their ankles, fastened with thongs and rings, along with their carrying
cases. They should also have iron helmets, polished and always with small
plumes on their crests. Each man should have a bow suited to his own strength
and not above it, more indeed on the weaker side, and cases broad enough so
that, when necessary, the strung bows can fit in them. They should also have
spare bow strings in their saddle bags, suitable quivers, too, with their covers,
holding about thirty or forty arrows. Small files and awls in their baldrics. They
should also have short cavalry lances with small thongs in the middle of the
shaft and with pennons. In addition, they should have swords hanging from
their shoulders, in the Roman manner, as well as daggers or large knives on
their belts.2


M W A VB E Va PG 107:721
1-95 Strat.,



8ta-ra~tc; MWA -ra~tc; VBE I MWVBE i:'Ktl) A 3 au-rwv MWVBE om. A 4 ev ci. Va
om. codd. 5 rae; ci. Va om. codd. I eKa-rpa-rdac; MWA eyKpa-rdac; VBE 5-6 auta rcavmc;
Va arravtac; codd. 9 aU-roue; MW om. AVBE I Ka9eva MW Kacrtov AVBE 10 8t MW
om. A VBE 11 cr-rtA.rrvac; MW Aaflrcpac; A Kal A.aflrcpac; VBE I 8ta rcav-roc; MW om. AVBE
14 EOTl MA EOTlV w ~ VBE I TeTUflEVU AVE teTUYflEVU MBW I au-ro1c; AVBE eauto1c; MW
16 mt~8eta MWA emtl)8dwv VBE I A.' MWVBE tptaKovta A I fl' MW tecrcrapaKovta
AVBE 17 crou~A.ia AVBE crouyA.ia MW I 8e MWA Te VBE I Ka~aAA.aptKa fllKpa MWA

trsp. VBE


Cf. Strat.


On weaponry, see Kolias, Byzantinische Waffen.

2. Kolias, 133-160. In the 'Roman manner' the soldier carried his sword on his left side.

84 Constitution 6
3. 'DaOL 8 fl~ o'(8aat TO~ULV VWTpOL, fXfTWCYUV KOVTCtpLa flETa CYKOUTUp[wv n:A.dwv i 8 Kal XLPOf1CtVLKU m8r]p&., a Hynm xnp6\jiAAU, TLVfc; KT~
'lmrwv Kal <pACtf.LOUAU flLKpa navw TWV ~a~wv KaTa TWV Wf.LWV. oaov yap faTLV
25 DCJXfJf10c; v Tfi 6nA.ian miTou 6 aTpanWTf]c;, ToaouTov Kal ainq> npoEluf.L[a
npoayivnm Kal Tote; xElpo1c; 8nA.ia.
4 Ei 8uvaTOV 8 Kal ElwpaKac; exnv, OLTLVc; KUAOUVTUL vuv KAL~CtVLa, Kal
aina anA.nva Kal AUf.LTrpa Kal nEpLKVf]flL8ac;, chtva Hynm vuv TI000\jiAAU, Kal
TITEpVLCJT~pac; fVLOT. EXELV 8 Kal mA.wpLKU, OT xpLa, nv8u6f1Va.
5. ITavTac; 8 Toile; VWTpouc; 'Pwf.La[ouc; axpl fl' fTWV avayKa~wElm, Eh
KUTa A6yov o'l8aat TO~EUCYUL, Eh KUL flETp[wc;, TOU TIUVTWc; TO~O<papnpa <popEtV.
T~c; yap TO~lac; TIUVTEAWc; Ctf.LEAT]Eldaf]c; Kai 8LaTICYOUCYf]c; v Tote; 'PWf.LULOLc; Ta
noAA.a vuv c'iwEl a<pUAflaTU y[vwElm.
6. "Exnv 8 Kal KOVTCtpLa Mo, 'lva TOU v6c;, we; iK6c;, amoxouvToc; exn TO
35 O.AA.o de; XP~aLV. Toile; 8 anLpOTpouc; cmaAWTEpa exnv TO~apta KUV yap OUK
o'l8am TO~ULV, Tq> xpovq> fTrlT'l8UOUal f.LUEldv, OTIP TWV avayKa[wv faTLV.
7 Ei 8 8uvaT6v, Kal CtKOVTLU ~TOL pLKTCtpLa EXLV we; Mo, 'lva v Kmpq> Kal
aKovT[aoL npoxdpwc; KaTa Tou noAEf.Liou, Kal Tov f.LEV inna mpanWTf]V oihwc;
8. Toile; 8 'lnnouc; Kal flUALaTU TWV apx6vTWV Kal TWV AOLTIWV fT(LAfKTWV
1tpOflTWma exnv Kal CYTf]ElCtpLa ~ at8f]p&. ~ ano KEVTOUKAWV, olov vcupLKCt. Kal
aKnwElat Ta aT~ElfJ Kal Toile; Tpax~A.ouc; a1nwv, Ei 8uvm6v, Kai Tac; KotA.iac; 8ta
flLKpwv CtTIOKPEflUCYf.LUTWV ano TWV AYOf.lfVWV a<pAfTpwv T~c; aHac;. f.LEYUAWV
yap mum KtvMvwv noA.A.aKLc; Toile; 'lnnouc; 8waw~oum, Kal 8t' ainwv Toile; n'

22 Aeynm MW A AeyovmL VBE 22-23 nvf:~ KT~<JWVTUL MW KT~<JOVTUl nva~ AB

KT~<JOVTUL nv~ VE 23 Aiav MW navu f:crTl A navu f:crTiv VBE I 6mcr8eAALVWV Va
OTil<JTeAAlVWV MW 6mcr8eAlVWV A omcreev AlVWV VBE 24 (a~wv MW AwplKlWV AVBE
25 eUOXTJflO~ MW eUOXTJflO~ Kai eucrTOAo~ A eU<YXTJflO~ Kai euonAo~ VBE 27 Kal' MW A
om. VBE I ewpaKa~ MW AB ewpaKO~ VE 29 TITepVl<JTijpa~ MW A UTITepVl<JTijpa~ B
unepvtcrTijpa~ VE I BVlOTe ... 6 MW TIOAAUKl~ 6 EXELV AVBE I em ... ETieV6U6f!EVU MW
f:nev6U6fleVU /he XPeLU A nev6UOfleVU OTe xpda YEVTJTUl VBE 30 fl' MW TWcrapaKOVTU
AVBE 31 KUTa Myov MWA KaT' 6Aiyov VBE 32 Ta MW om. AVBE 33 e'lw8e
MWVBE e'lw8ev A 34 Mo MWA WVBE 35 iiUo MWAB iiUov VE 37 ptKTapta W
pfJKTapta M ptmapta AVBE 1 Mo MW A WVBE 38 aKOVTicrm MW aKovTicrTJ AVBE I Toii
noAef!iou MW Twv noAefLiwv AVBE I crTpaTLWTfJV MWAB crTpanwv VE 41 KeVT01JKAwv
AVBE Kev6ouKAWV MW 43 fllKpwv MW A flUKpwv VBE I acpeAETpwv MWA acpeAETpa~
VBE 44 6Lacrw(oum MWVBE 6tacrw(oucrtv A

Armament for Cavalry and Infantry 85

3 All the recruits who do not know how to shoot should have lances and full
~hields. It will be very useful if some can afford iron gauntlets, called cheiropselThey should have small tassels on the hindquarters of the horses as well as
small pennons over the armor around their shoulders. For the more handsome
!.he soldier is in his armament, the more confidence he gains in himself and the
more fear he inspires in the foe.
4 If possible, they should wear breastplates, polished and shiny, that are now
called klibania. 3 Also greaves, now called podopsella, and sometimes spurs. Also
surcoats to put on when needed.
5 All the Roman recruits, up to the age of forty, must definitely be required
to carry bow and quiver, whether they be expert archers or just average. The fact
that archery has been completely neglected and fallen into disuse among the
Romans has caused a great deal of harm nowadays.
6. They should possess two lances so as to have a spare one at hand in case
the first one misses. Inexperienced men should employ lighter bows. With
enough time, even men who do not know how to shoot will manage to learn, for
it is an essential skill.
7. If possible, they should also have at least two javelins or throwing weapons so that, at the proper moment, they may readily hurl them against the
enemy. That is how you shall arm the cavalryman.
8. The horses, especially those of the officers and the other special troops,
should have protective armor of iron or of padding, such as cow hide, over their
heads and breasts. Their breasts and necks and, if possible, their abdomens will
be covered by small pieces of what is called quilting, hanging from the saddles.
These have often preserved the horses as well as those riding on them from great

3. Klibanion meant a baking oven and may well suggest how the soldier felt wearing such
armor. But the etymology is not certain: see Kolias, 44-50.


Constitution 6

Armament for Cavalry and Infantry 87

dangers. In particular, the men stationed in the front line of battle should have
these items.

aunilv OXOUflfVOU<:;. mum o EXlV Kal flUAla-ta -roue; n:poTa<J<JOflfVOU<:; fV Tft

9 Kal ai <JfAAat o exeTw<Jav fn:t<JfAAla oaaea Kal flYUAa, Kal Ta xaAtvapta
auTwv mT~0ta ea-rwaav Kal taxupa.
10. Etc; o Tac; aeUac; Tac; QUO <JlOTjpac; <JKUAac; I Kal Awp6<JOKKOV Kal n:8to
Kal <JAAon:ouyytv, v Katpou KaAouvToc; ouvm6v eaTt Kuv Tptwv ~
TW<Japwv ~flpwv OaiTUVTJV XWP~<Jat, Kal TOUcpta 0 l<:; Ta<:; On:t<J8AALVa<:; Tf<J<Japa, Kal Kopucpaotv Tou Yn:n:ou Toucplv Kal imo yevnov 6f1o[wc;.
11. Tiav-rwc; 0 exnv o1 TOV Ka~aAA<iptov <JTpanWTTJV Kal T~lKOUplV Ol<JTOflOV, TO ev <JTOfla Ta~tv an:a8[ou n:tf1T]K<:; Kal TO ETpov Ta~tv ~[cpouc; KOV55 Tapiou flaKpov Kal6~u, an:oKpflCtflVOV flTa 8fjKapiou OpflaTLVOU fV Tft <JfAA<;t.
12. Ta o LflUTla TWV <JTpaTtWTWV, 'iT AlVa dmv 'iT f~ p[ou h hepac;
UAfj<:;, n:AaTea Ot dvm, Iva fV Tip Ka~aAALKUlV fl~ EfliTOOL~WVTal, ana Kal
<JKfiTWVTat ot' aUTWV Ta y6vaTa aUTWV Kal U<JXT]f10l cpatVWVTat.
13. Xp~ o Kal KfVTOUKAa exnv n:AaTea n:avu, exov-ra flaVLKta n:AaTea, Iva fV
6o Tip OITAL<J8~vat au-roue; Kal cpopLV Tac; ~a~ac; Kat Ta TO~apta, av, we; iK6<:;,
<JUfl~ft ~pox~v YVf<J8at ~ uyp6Tpov TOV aepa fK T~c; op6aou, cpopOUVT<:; aUTa
n:avw -rwv ~a~wv Kal -rwv To~ap[wv cpu;\auwm To lipfla au-rwv Kal ouK Efln:oo[~wv-rm, LT Tote; To~aptOI<:; 'iT Tote; KovmptOI<:; auTwv ~OUAT]Swm XP~<Jaa8m.
E<JTl o Kal UAAW<:; n:wc; avayKata Ta KfVTOUKAa fV Tate; <JKOUAKat<:; ~youv Tate;
65 ~[y;\mc; ou OtacpatVOVTal yap fl~K08v Tote; ITOAf1LOL<:; ai ~a~at un:' aUTWV <JKIT6flVat, CtVTfXOU<Jl 0 Kat n:poc; -rae; ~OAa<:; TWV <JaytTTWV.
14. IJpo<JTCt<J<JOflV OE Ka8' EKa<JTOV KOVTOU~fpVlV Kat opn:ava Kat a~[vac;
EXlV au-roue; Ola TO avayKatOV T~c; XPLac;.
49 Mo MWA

W VBE I A.wp6croKKov

A.wpoaoKa VBE

9 Let the saddles have large and thick cloths, and let there be strong bridles
of good quality.

10. Two iron stirrups should be attached to the saddles along with a lasso
with thong, a hobble, a saddlebag large enough, when the situation so demands,
to hold three or four days' rations. There should be four tassels on the haunch
strap; likewise, one on the horse's brow and one under the chin.
11. By all means, the cavalry soldier must have a double-sided axe, one side
having the long form of a sword and the other the large and sharp form of the
point of a spear. 4 It should be hanging from the saddle in a leather case.
12. The clothing of the soldiers, whether of linen, wool, or other material,
should be loose fitting so they may not be impeded as they ride along; it should
cover their knees and give a neat appearance.
13. They should have a loose, padded mantle with very broad sleeves so that
in arming themselves and wearing the body armor with the bow if, perchance, it
should rain or the dew cause the air to become quite humid, then by wearing
these over their body armor and bow, they may both protect their armament
and not be impeded when they want to make use of the bow or the lance. These
padded mantles may also be necessary in another way on patrol or reconnaissance. When the body armor is covered by them its brightness will not be seen
far off by the enemy and they will also provide protection against being hit by
14. We also order that each squad should carry sickles and axes to meet their
unavoidable needs.

Meursis teste Va A.wp6croKov MW A.wpoawKov A

50 m:A.Aonouyytv M m:A.onouyytv W m:AA.onouyywv AVBE

I Katpou

AVBE Katpw MW I E<JTl MAVBE E<JTLV w I KCtV Va Kal codd. 51-52 TE<J<Japa MWA o'
VBE 52 Kopucpaotv MW Eic; TO Kopucpa0tov AVBE I TOU<plv MW TOU<jllOV AVBE I uno
ytvetov Va unoyevetOV MW eic; TO unoyEVElOV AVBE 53 T(tKouptv MW T<tKOUptov AVBE
54 TCt~tv 1 MW OLKflV AVBE I Ta~tv 2 MW OLKflV AVBE 56 dotv MWA om. VBE I ~ f:p(ou
VBE I f!UVLKta MW f!UVtaKta AVBE 6o (a~ac; Va (wvac; codd. 62 cpuA.Ctnwcrt MAVBE
cpuA.Ctnwcrtv W I Kal2 MWA om. VBE 63 Kovmpiotc; Va <JKoumpiOtc; codd. 64 E<JTt
65 Tote; ... <a~at MWA trsp. VBE I un' MWA VE an' B 66 CtVTEXOl.l<Jl MW ClTIUVTW<Jl AVBE
67 npocrTacrcrof!EV MW A npoTu<J<JOf!EV VBE I KovTou~epvtv M KouTou~epvtv W
KovTou~epvtov AVBE

4 See Kolias, 167-169.


Constitution 6

Armament for Cavalry and Infantry 89

15. Tou.:; 0 -rwv -rayfl<'t-rwv lipxov-ra.:; ~ cnpanw-ra.:; Kat -rwv 8ef1anKwv

15. The officers and enlisted men of the regular units as well as the more

7 o ~<iv8wv -roue; 8uva-rw-rpou.:; 6.vayK<i(eaem XP~ rraT8a.:; au-roT.:; 8ouA.ou.:; ~

aflluent soldiers in the thematic companies must be required to have their own
!lervants, slave or free. At the time of distributing pay and mustering, care must
be taken to register and inquire about the servants and weapons. Should they
pay no attention to the servants, then, in time of battle they might be forced to
detail some of the soldiers themselves to the baggage train, which means fewer
tnen fighting in the ranks. But if it should turn out that some of the men are
unable to afford servants, it is necessary for three or four of the lower-ranking
soldiers to provide for one servant who will be at their disposition. A similar
arrangement should be followed for the pack animals that are needed for their
body armor and their tents.

8pou.:; Kat ETILfleAw.:;


-rc.iJ Katpc.iJ -r~.:; -r p6ya.:; Kat -rou aovouf.t(ou Kat -roue;

rraT8ac; au-rwv Kat -co lipfla cmoyp<i<pea8at Kal KaLU(fj-reTaem, Iva fl~ rtept<ppovouv-rec; -rwv 8ouAeu6v-rwv EV Katpc.iJ TtOAEf!OU 6.vayK<i(wv-rm ~ au-rwv -rwv a-rpanw-rwv a<pop((eaem ei.:; -co -rouA.8ov Kat 6A.iym y[vov-rm oi Komwv-rec; EV -eft
75 flCtXn

ei 8 'CIV<;, we; eiK6.:;,

fl~ eurropoum K-r~aaaem rra18ac;, 6.vayKaT6v EaLIV ei.:;

-roue; Ka-cw-rpouc; a-rpanw-rac; -rpeTc; ~ -caaapa.:; eva rraT8a, -rov UrtfjpHeTv au-roT.:;
flEAAov-ra, mvolv. -rov OflOIOV 8 -rp6rrov TtOlelV Kal eic; -cO. aayfl<'tpta, wv xpe[a
Ka-ra -co avayKaTov 8t0. -rae; (<'t~a.:; Kat -rae; -rev-rae; au-rwv.
16. Tipoa-r<iaaof.teV 8 Kat -rae; Ke<paAO.c; -rwv ~<iv8wv eK<ia-rou -rawa-roc;
so 6f1oxp6ouc; y[veaem, I Kat -cO. q>Aaf.touA.a eK<ia-rllc; -roupf.ta.:; ~ 8pouyyou i8t6xpoa
dvm, Iva 8 Kat -co Ka8' Kaa-rov -cawa euK6Aw.:; mytvwaKn -co '(8wv ~av8ov.

81 -repa i8tK0. GfJfleTa rrpoan8vm -raT.:; Ke<paAaT.:; -rwv


yvwaf1va -roT.:;

a-rpa-rtw-rm.:;, WaLe EK -rou-rou mytVWGKW8at au-ra Kat Ka-ra -rae; -roupf.ta<; Kat

Ka-ra -roue; 8pouyyouc; Kat Ka-ra -cO. ~av8a. rr<iv-rw.:; 8 -cO. -rwv -roupf.t<'tpxwv <~<iv8a> EVfJAAUYf!EVa 81 dvm Kat rrp60f]Aa, Iva EK rroAA.ou 8taa-r~f1a-ro.:; mytvwaKwv-rm -col<; im' au-col<; 'CLaYf1EVOl<;.
17. KeAeVOfleV 8 am, wa-rpa-rf]y, Katlipfla m<ppea8m EK rreptaaou 8t0.
~aa-cay~c; Kat flCtAta-ra -ro~<'tpta Kal aayl-c-ra.:;, Iva -roi.:;,


eiK6.:;, 6.a-roxouatv

orrA.otc; ~ au-rwv av-reta<'tyfJ-rat.



8 -cwv

~otvwv 8TjKap(wv -rwv (a~wv EXLV -roue; a-rpanw-ra.:; cmo

Oepf!Ct'CWV 8f]KCtpta -repa eAa<pp<i, orrwc; ~ EV Katpc.iJ TtOAEflOU ~ EV Katpc.iJ KOUpaou omaeev -rwv 6ma8oKoup~[wv Ka-ra -rae; '!'Ua<; -rwv lrrrrwv ~aa-r<i(wv-rm, Kal



16. We also order that the fields of the flags of each unit should be of the
same color, and the streamers of each tourma or droungos should have their
own color, so that each individual unit may easily recognize its own standard.s
Other distinctive devices known to the soldiers should be imposed on the fields
of the flags; they will thus be recognized according to tourma and droungos and
bandon. The standards of the tourmarchs should be particularly distinctive and
conspicuous so that they may be recognized by their troops at a great distance.
17. We order you, 0 general, to have your supply train carry extra arms,
especially bows and arrows, to replace those weapons likely to be lost.
18. Apart from the leather cases for the body armor, the soldiers should have
other light ones of hide. During battle or on raids they may be carried behind
the cantle across the horse's hindquarters. If, as may well be the case, they
should suffer a reversal-may it not happen-and the men guarding the

we; TIOAACtKtc;-o fl~ yvm-ro--rpon~.:; ytVOflEVfj<;, rrp6.:; fllaV ~flpav

71 n: MW om. AVBE 72-73 rrept<ppovouvn:~ MWA Ka-ra<ppovouvT~ VBE

73 oouA.t::u6vTwv MW oouA.euetv Kal ilrr!]pndv auToi~ 6<petA6vTwv rra[owv AVBE I rroAtf!ou
AVBE rroAEf!WV MW 7 4 y[vov-rat MW KaTUAlf!JtCtvwvmt A KaTaAtf!ITCtvovmt VBE
74-75 KOJtlWVT~ ... f!CtXIJ MW rroAf!Oi!vn:~ AVBE 78 TEVTa~ MW Tevoa~ AVBE
So iotoxpoa MWA iOtoxpova VBE St Kal...eKaatov De Kal TO Ka8eKa<JTOV MW oe
Ka8eKU<JTOV A EKQ<JTOV VBE I lOtOV MWAVE hepov B S2 en:pa MWAVE hepa ~avoa B I
<11Jf!da MW AVE 01Jf!ULVt B I m1~ K<paA.a1~ MWAVE Ta~ KE<paA.a~ B S3 TOl)Tou MW
TouTwv AVBE 84-85 ~avoa2 ci. Va om. codd. 85 rrp60IJAa MW rrpoxetpa AVBE
86 im' auwic; M imaumu~ W \m' auTou~ AVE urr' aumu B 87 aot MWA om. VBE
90 ~otvwv MWVBE ~olwv A 93 we; MW om. AVBE I ytVOf!EVI]~ MW YV0f!EVI]~ AVBE

5 See R. Grosse, "Die Fahnen in der romisch-byzantinischen Armee des 4.-10. Jahrhundert;' BZ 24 (1924): 359-372; Dennis, "Byzantine Battle Flags"; Haldon, ImpEx, 270-274.


Constitution 6

Armament for Cavalry and Infantry 91

a<pavd<; yevtaem TOU<; T~V rrapaGKEU~V xovm<;, fl~ Eim YUflVat al (O.fat Kat
95 <p6e[pwv<m, fl~T Kat Korroum Tou<; mpanwm<; 6tf1VEKW<; mKELflEVat a1no1<;.
19. OM TOUTO 6 rrapaAEL\IIOflEV EV TftOE eft 6taLCt~l, tva ol apxovT<;
eKaawu <<'tyfla<o<; 6wyvwaet<; rrmwmv v


Katp(i> <ou rrapaxEtflaO[ou ~ v

hp(!l apy[a<; Katp(i>, WaLE, av fl~ eurropwmv oi mpanwmt KaTu T~V xwpav
ayopaaat TU EmT~Oeta, <pavepov y[vwem, rr6awv Yrmwv Kat rro[ou doou<; Kat
wo rro[ou lipfla<o<; Otovmt nilv a<panwnilv Kaa<o<;, tva rrapaaKeua(n<;,

GTpaLfjy, muTa v T(i> 6ovn Katp(i> EuTpErr[(w6at 1Ip0<; ayopaa[av auTOL<; arro
Ef1TI6pwv nvwv, Kat fl~T neu6ev ol v<6mot oiK~<ope<; fA.O.mwvTat, fl~T ol
mpanwTat TWV avayKa[wv Ei6wv Kat OJtAWV, Ei o\hw TUXOl, UaLEpOUflEVOl
arropwmv. EJtEl ouv TOV KafaHO.ptov mpaLt<DTfjV E~WJtA[GaflEV, ~~<; Kat orrw<;

XP~ ae Kal Twv rre(ft flaXOflEVWV mpanw<wv T~v Otouaav rrot~aaaem orrA.tmv
~6fj Ae~OflEV.
20. T~<; rre(tK~<;

w[vuv wu a<pa<ou <a~ew<; rraA.m flEv ei<; <pia 6tnPflflEVf1<;

napa TOL<; apxaiot<; TaKTlKOL<;, olov Ei<; OJtALLa<;, OU<; ol VEWTEpot GKOUTCtTOU<;
EKCtAwav, Ei<; \lllAOU<;, OU<; Kat vuv \lllAOU<; <4> auT(i> KaAOUGLV OVOflaLL, Kal Ei<;

rrA.La<;, wv ol Ka6' ~flU<; ou ytvwaKoum flEV T~v KA~mv, 6oK1 f.!Ol 6 Tol<; \jltAol<;

I auyKaTaAE~avTa<;

Mo flOVa<; TCt~El<; JtE(tKOU flVflflOVEUGQl GTpaLOU,

6rrA.t<wv T Kal \jltA.wv. rrept<ou<wv ouv ~fl1<; 6taA.af6vT<; Twv Ta~ewv 6topta6fl6a.
21. 'OrrA.[an<; flEV ouv Tov rre(ov aKou<a<ov, TOV rrO.A.m KaAOUflEvov 6rrA[Tf1V,

WGL EXElV arr0.6fjV, KOVTaptv, GKOUTCtptv, OT flEV xpe[a KaA1, EJtlflTJKE<;, f.!Eya, 0


t:'ttuipment should be missing for a day, the body armor will not be left out in
the open and ruined and the soldiers will not be worn out by the constant
weight of the armor.
19. In this constitution we will not omit the following. While in winter
quarters or at some other period of leisure, the officers of each unit should make
nn assessment, so that it becomes dear how many horses, what sort of
llit}Uipment, and what sort of armament is needed for each one of the soldiers
Md so that, in case the soldiers cannot easily purchase supplies in the region,
you, 0 general, at the requisite time might arrange for these things to be made
ivailable for sale to them by certain merchants. As a result, the local inhabitants
will not be harmed and, if this is done, the soldiers will not be left helpless,
deprived of necessary equipment and weapons. Therefore, now that we have
armed the cavalry soldier, our next topic will be about your obligation to see to
the proper armament of the soldiers who fight on foot.

The ancient tacticians long ago divided the infantry contingents of the
army in three. 6 <Heavy-armed troops or> hoplites, called skoutatoi by more recent tacticians; second, light-armed troops, whom they now call by that very
name. Then there were peltai, a term not recognized by our contemporaries. 7 I
believe that they classified them together with the light-armed troops, recording
only two divisions of the infantry army, <heavy-armed> hoplites and
light-armed troops. Having, therefore, made this distinction, we will now lay
down regulations affecting them.

21. You shall equip the infantry skoutatos, formerly called hoplite, with a

MW -rae; xpdac; AVBE scr. mg. arroaKeu~v w I dat MW A <batv B Wat

VE 95 fl~T De d-ra codd. I Korroiiat A aKerrwat M aKerroum W Korrwm VBE I -roue;
a-rpanwmc; MW AVE LOU a-rpaTlWTOU B I f:mKet[!EVUl MW A fTlKl[!EVOU VBE 96 ouoL.
8ta-ra~et MW om. AVBE lva MW tva 8 Kal AVBE 97 8tayvwaetc; MW Otayvwaetc; Kal
arroypa<pac; AVBE 98 eurropwatv MWA f:Krropwatv VBE 99 ayopaam MWA om. VBE
102 t':[!n6pwv MW rrpawa-reu-rwv AVBE 103 -rwv MW om. AVBE I oihw -ruxm MWVBE
oil-rwc; TUX!] A 104 arropwatv MW AVE O.nopoiiatv B I E~~c; MW E~~c; f:poii[!EV AVBE
105 oeouaav MW om. AVBE I T0l~aaa8m WA VBE TCOl~aac; M 106 ~0!] AE~O[!EV MW
om. AVBE scr. mg. sup. rrepl -r~c; -rwv rre(wv e~orrAtaewc; W 107 -rp[a MWA y' VBE I ad
Otl]p!][!EV!]<; scr. mg. OtaKEXWPLG[!EV!]<; W 109 oilc; ... 6v6[!UTL MW oilc; Kal vuv <ptAouc; A om.
VBE 110; MW rreA-raa-rac; AVBE 111 auyKaTaA~av-rac; MW auvKmaptS!l~aav-rec; A auyKamptS[!~aav-rec; VBE I Mo MW A WVBE I rre(tKoii MA VBE rre(tK~c; W
112 ouv MWA om. VBE I 8taJ.a~6vm; MW om. AVBE 114 cmAtT!]V MW 6rrALT!]V oihwc;
AVBE 115 ami8!]V MW arra81ov AVBE I Kov-raptv MW Kovoapwv AVBE I aKou-raptv
MW aKou-raptov AVE aKou-raptov Kov-raptov B

sword, a lance, and, when necessary, a shield of the kind called thyreos, large

94 T~V rrapaaKeu~v

6. See Strat., 12.B.


Kolias, 90.


Armament for Cavalry and Infantry 93

Constitution 6

KaA.ehm 9upe6<;, mivTw<; 8 <HpoyyuA.ov TAaov. Ta 8 aKouTapta 6f16xpoa

TCUVTWV ~ KaTU apt9f10V ~ KaTa TUYfla. EXELV 8 Kat Kaaai8a TOU<ptV flLKpov

w<; aTtaS'lv,
w<; Kovmpiou ~i<po<;,<6fleva fleTa 9'1Kapiwv 8epflaTivwv

xouaav O.vwSev, mpevM~oA.a, T<tKoupta 8iaTOfla, TO flEV v aTOfla

TO 8 Tepov

~ T<tKoupta Tepa, xovm TO flEV v GT6fla K6mov, TO 8 f:Tepov aTpoyyuA.ov ~

Tepa T<tKoupta 8iaTOfla -ra~tv TteAeKiwv, -roil<; 8 tmAK-rou<; -rfj<; aKia<; xav Kal
<a~a<; ~-rot A.wpiKta, ei flEV 8uvm6v, oA.ou<;, tTCei, Kliv ouo, -roil<; TipwTou<; Twv

UKLWV, Kan':t 8 TWV fl~AWV ~TOL TWV WflWV Tfj<; <a~a<; <pAaflOUAL<JKLa flLKpa. EXELV

8 Kal xetpOflUVLKa TU AEYOflEVa flaVLKfAALa ~ xap6\jleAAa, m8'lp<i ~ ~UAtva, Kal


1tEpLKVTJflL8a<; OflOlW<;,

a Hynm

TCOOO\jleAAa ~ xah6-rou~a, flUAL<JTa T~U<; tv

Tal<; KE<paAai<; Kat oupai<; TWV CtKLWV TETaYflfVOU<;.


Kal -roil<; flEV aKou-ra-rou<; oihw<; OTIAiaet<;,


e'lpfJTUL. -roil<; 8 A.eyo-

flvou<; \j!LAou<; -rov -rp61tov Tou-rov -ro~o<papeTpa tTil -rwv WflWV<o
flEVa, exovm KOUKOUpa flEYUAa, xwpouvm A' ~ fl' aaytnwv, <JWA'lVCtpta

3o ~uA.tva flETa fltKpwv aaytnwv Kal KouKoupwv flLKpwv, aTtep Kal tTtl TtoAu 8taaTTJfla ptTCTOVTat Ota TWV TO~ap(wv, Kat TOi<; tx9poi<; axp'lGTCt el<JL, ~'lpuna<;, a
A.ynm ptK-rapta, -rou<; aTteipw<; Ttpo<; -r~v -ro~e[av xovm<; ~ Kal A.emof1vou<;, w<;
eiK6<;, TO~WV. exetv 8 Kal (JKOUTapta fllKpa, mpoyyuA.a, a<pevM~oAa Kal T<LKOUpta, OflOLa TWV eipT)flfVWV,<OflEVa Kal au-ra ei<; STJKCtpta OEpflUTLVa. TU


8 LflUTLa TWV Tte<wv cmaVTWV emwaav KOVTU flfXPL TWV yovaTWV au-rwv. tav
OUVaTOV, aUTOU<; exnv Kal tmA.wptKa. TU 8 imoO~flaTa aV-rwv fl~ exnv 6~eia<;
<flUTa<;> Ef11tpoa9ev, avayKaiov ot Kal 6:\iyot<; fllKpoi<; ~AOL<; Ka9'1AOU<J9at au-ra
~youv Kapcpiot<;, Ttpo<; TtAeiova imoupyiav. XP~<JLfla yap mum Kal tv -rai<; Mot-

Tiop[m<; flUAL<JTa. Kal TU<; Koupa<; o auTWV KOVTU<; yivwem Kal fl~ a<peivm

oblong in shape but altogether completely curved. 8 All the shields in each
arithmos or tagma should be of the same color. The men should also have
helmets with small plumes on top, slings, double-bladed axes, one side shaped
like a sword, the other like the point of a spear, to be carried in leather cases.
Other axes with one blade for cutting and the other rounded, still other doublebladed axes shaped like the pelekus. 9 The picked men of the file should have
body armor or mail, all the men, if possible, but at least the first two of the file.
Across the plates or the shoulders of the body armor <attach> small pennons.
They should also have gauntlets, called manikellia or cheiropsella, made of iron
nr wood, and in like manner greaves, called podopsella or chalkotouba, especially the men stationed in the front and in the rear of the file.
22. You will arm all the skoutatoi in the aforesaid manner, but the so-called
light-armed troops as follows. They should carry bows on their shoulders with
large quivers holding up to thirty or forty arrows. Also grooved wooden tubes
with short arrows in small quivers, that can be fired a great distance with the
bows and which cannot be used by the enemy. 10 Small javelins, called riktaria,
for men inexperienced in archery or who do not happen to have bows. They
should also have small round shields, slings, and axes, similar to those mentioned, and those too carried in leather cases. Let the tunics of all the foot
soldiers be short, reaching to their knees. If possible, they should also have
surcoats. Their shoes should not have sharp points in front; but they must be
studded with a few small rivets or nails for greater durability. These are particularly suitable when marching.n Their hair should be cut short; it is better if it is
not allowed to grow long.

au-roi<; TEAeta<; -rpixa<; XP~<JlflOV ta-rtv.

133-139 Strat., 12.B.1.

116 navTwc:; MWAE navm VB

117 Kacrcrioa MWA Kacrcrioac:; VBE

n8 iivw6ev MW

I we:; crrra6!]V MW OlK!]V crrra6iou ETlf.l!]KE<:; AVBE 122 errd

T<i>v 1 ~TOt MW om. AVBE I TWV Wf.!WV MW Toile:; Wf.!OU<:; AVBE

iivw6ev TOUCj>lOV f.llKpov AVBE

MW el
124 ~~

oe j.l~ AVBE


AVBE 129 A.' .. f.l' MWVBE TptaKovTa ~ TecrcrapaKovm A

131 Kal... dcrt MW om. AVBE I ad axplJOTU scr. mg.
oil XPlJatf.!euOucrtv W 132 ptKTapta MW ptmapta AVBE 135 KovTa AVBE Kovoa MW
136 auToilc:; exetv MW trsp. AVBE 136-137 f.l~ ... 6A.iyotc:; MW avayKatov eaT\ A
avayKatov ecr-nv VBE 137 f.lUTac:; ci. Va om. codd. I ~Aotc:; MW Kapcpiotc:; AVBE
137-138 auTO. ... Kapcpiotc:; MW om. AVBE 139 KovTac:; MWA KOf.!ac:; VBE 140 n:A.eiac:;
MW f.lUKpac:; AVBE


130 KOUKOupwv MWVBE Koupwv A

8. Kolias, 91.
9. Kolias, 169-170.

Cf. Const. 5, n. 3.


Strat. 12.B.1.






Constitution 6

Armament for Cavalry and Infantry

23. AAA.' ou-rw flEV -roue; m:(ouc; a-rpanw-rac; v8Uaetc; Kal nept<ppO.~etc; Ot'
onA.wv. npoc; o -r~v umlPwiav aun'llv Kal <puA.aK~v I <'tf.!O.~ac; napaaKeuaaLc;
eva-raMie; ~youv A.a<ppac; Kal yopyac; KaTa 0Kapxiav ~TOt KOVTOU~pvtv, flLaV
Kal fl~ 11AEOV, '(va fl~ 110AAOL eic; au-ra uaxoAOUflVOl apy<ilatv. tx-rw 8 EKUGTll
TWV Ctfla~<ilv Xtp0f.!UALV, U~LVllV, 11AEKLV, GKE11apvov, npt6vtv, opuyac; ouo,
a<pupav, muO.pta ouo, K6<ptvov, KtAiKta, <paA.Kiotv, -r(tKoupta, ~apoouKta, flaT(ouKta-'iawc; KUV TOUTWV xpe(a YEVT]Tat Tote; a-rpaTLWTatc;--rpt~6A.ouc; ava00f.lEVac; Ota A.emwv a<pTJKWf.!O.-rwv Kal v ~A.q> atc5TJp4J anoKpa-rouflvac; Ota -ro
hoif.!wc; auvaywem au-rae; hpac; <'tf.!<'t~ac; txovaac; m~o~oA.ia-rpac; Kal aayinac;
au-r<ilv, Kal ~aA.ia-rpac; ~Tot flayyavtKa, -ra A.eyoflva aA.aKana, a-rpe<p6flVa
KUKA08v, Kal flayyavap(ouc;, Amoupyouc;, xa.AKlc;, Kal TOUTOtc; '(Otov apxov-ra
ma-r~aat. -rpac; Ctf.!Ct~ac; <pepouaac; TO Upflaf.!EVTOV EKCtaTOU apt8f.!OU TWV
a-rpanw-r<ilv hpac; Ctf.!Ct~ac;, we; OEKa ~ Kal dKOat, ~aa-ra(ovaac; n(a-rov Kal
na~af.!O.nv Kal aayinac; Kal -ro~apta EK neptaaou.
24. ''Innouc; aayflaTap(ouc; ~ uno(uyta, l flEV EVOEXTat, Ka8' EKUGTOV KOVTOU~pvtv, i 8 fl~y, de; TU Mo KOVTOU~pvta eva, tva, i YEVT]Tat Katpoc;
xwpta8~vat muc; 11(ouc; EK TWV Ctfla~wv Kal npoKa-raA.a~lV T0110V, ~aa-ra(etv
6K-rw ~ oKa ~flpwv oanav11v Kal UKoA.ou8e'lv flEXptc; ou m<p8aawmv al lif.!a~m
upy6-repov 11pma-rouaat.
25. OuK axpTJGTOV 8 f.!Ol 00Kl f.!VllflOVUGat, KUV tv fllKp4J, Kal T~c; apxaiac;
onA.iaewc; TWV 11(wv KUL TWV Ka~aAA.ap(wv, Ka8wc; AiA.tav6c; T Kal ol A.omol TWV
142-149 Strat., 12.B.6.



23. In this manner, then, you will clothe the foot soldiers and provide them
with armor and weapons. Then, for their service and protection, you will get
ready easily managed, that is, light and fast, wagons, one to each dekarchy or
!!quad, no more lest many of the men become so busy with them that they
neglect <other matters>. Let each of the wagons contain a hand mill, an axe, a
hatchet, an adze, a saw, two picks, a hammer, two shovels, a basket, some goathair matting, a scythe, other axes, maces and clubs, for the soldiers may have
need of these too. Also caltrops tied together with light cords attached to an iron
peg so they can be easily collected. 12 Other wagons carrying bow ballistai and
bolts for them, as well as ballistai or artillery pieces of the type called alakatia,
that revolve in all directions. 13 Also artillery crews, carpenters, metal workers, all
under their own commander. Other wagons bearing the armament for the
soldiers of each arithmos. Another ten or even twenty wagons to transport flour
and hardtack as well as extra bows and arrows. 14
24. Pack horses or asses, if it can be worked out, for each squad; if not, then
one for two squads. If the opportunity arises for the infantry to be separated
from the wagons to seize some position, these beasts may transport rations for
eight or ten days, accompanying the men until the wagons, moving more slowly,
should arrive.
25. I do not think it unprofitable to call to mind, even briefly, the ancient
armament of the infantry and the cavalry, as Aelian and the other authors on

160-168 Aelian., 2.1; Arrian., 4

141 oihw MW OUTW<; A VBE I Kal WAVBE om. M 143 EUOTUAl<; ~youv MW om. AVBE I
144 apywatV
MWA apywm VBE 145 Twv alla~wv MW lifla~a AVBE 1 XEtpofLUALv w XEtpofLuAtov M
XELPOfLUAov AVBE I npt6vtv Va npLWVLV MW np[ova AVBE I Mo MWA WVBE 146 Mo
MW A WVBE I KO<pLVOV AVBE KO<plv11v MW I <pah[Otv Va <pUAK[av MW <pah[Otov A
<pah[Oa VBE I ~apOOUKLU MW om. AVBE 147-148 avaOEOEfLEVU<; MWAVE
avaOEOEYfLEVU<; B 149 TO~O~OALOTpa<;
w TO~o~aAA[aTpa<; A TO~O~aA[aTpa<; VBE
150 ~a;\[aTpa<; ~TOL MW om. AVBE I aAaKcma MW ~AaKana AVBE
150-151 aTpE<pOfLEVa KUKA68Ev MW om. AVBE 151 TOUTOL<; MWAVE TouTou.:; B I
iipxoVTa MW AVE iipxovm.:; B 15 2 To itpfLUfLEVTov MWA To iipfla fLEV Tov VE Tw iipfLaTL
MWA WVBE I KovTou~tpvta MAVBE KouTou~tpvta W 158 oKTw ... ~fLEpwv MWA 11'
~fLEpwv ~ Kal OeKa B 11' ~fLEpwv ~ OEKU VE I em<pSacrwmv MWA em<pSacrouatv VBE scr. mg.
nEpl T~.:; apxala.:; e~on;\iaEw.:; Twv nE(wv w 16o ouK iixp11aTov MWA Euxr11crTov VBE 1
Kiiv ... fLLKpw MW npo.:; o;\[yov AVBE

12. Strat. 12.B.6.

13. Ballista is a term used primarily for torsion and tension weapons but often designated
any artillery piece. Toxobolistra was a torsion weapon that fired bolts or arrows. See Dennis,
"Byzantine Heavy Artillery," 99-101.
14. Hardtack: dry, twice-baked bread, O[nupo<; iipTo<; (Suda I1254). See A. Dalby, Flavours
of Byzantium (Totnes, Devon, 2003), 99-100.


Armament for Cavalry and Infantry

Constitution 6

ll1Tfjy6peuaaY. rrapa yap TOl~ apxaiOL~ T~Y flEY LJTJTLK~Y

T<l~LY d~ ouo 8ta<popa~ OTIALOWY eno[ouv oi aTpan]yol, fllUY flEY Kan't<ppaKTOY
A.eyoflYfjY Kal T~Y TpaY ou KaT<i<ppaKTOY.
16 5
26. 'DrrA.t(oY 8 TOY flEY KaT<i<ppaKTOY Ka~aA.A.apLOY naYTaX60eY auT6Y T
Kal TOY LTITIOY QUTOU. Kai TOY flEY aY8pa A.wpLKLOL~ Kai KAL~QYLOL~ ~ at8fjp0t~ ~ eK
Kep<iTWY mnmA.eyflYOL~ Kai napaflflPLOL~, Tou~ 8 'innou~ KaTe<ppanoY napanA.euptOiOL~ Kai rrpof1Twm8iOL~, ~youv Ta nA.eupa Kai Ta~ Ke<paA.a~, Kai Tou~
Tpax~A.ou~ TWY 'innwv 8ta KAL~ay[wy ~ A.wptKtwY ~ aAA.11~ u:\.11~ KaTaKTIOY.
27. TotJTWY 8 navTwY, TWY T KaTa<ppCtKTWY Ka~aAA.ap[wy Kai TWY fl~
Ka1'a<ppCtKTWY, oi flEV eLXOY KOYTCtpLa, oi 8 Ta AYOflYa YUV flYauA.a, anep oi
apxatOL A.oyxa~ I eKCtAOUY OLTLY~ Kai KaT<i<ppaKTOL OVT~ xeipa~ auy~aAAOY
TOt~ TtOAfllOL~, oi 8 f1UKp60Y ~aay CtKOYTL(OYT~, oi.\~ Kai EAYOY CtKpO~OAL
OTCt~. TWY 8 Ta KOVTCtpLa ~ Ta~ A.Oyxa~ exovTWY oi flY, w~ e'LpfjTUL, ~aay oi TOt~
175 JTOAfllOL~ OUflTtAKOflYOL Kal TIAfjOLOY 8ta TWY 8op<iTWY ~TOL TWY KOYTap[wv
flUXOflVOL. TOtlTWY Of TWY OUflTIAKOflYWY y Tft flCtXD oi flEY 0upeou~ eLXOY ~TOL
OKOUTCtpLa ITLfl~Kfj flYUAQ, OL 8 xwpi~ TtDY 0upWY flOYOL~ TOt~ KOVTap(oL~
flCtXOYTO. Kat oi flEY eKaAOUYTO 0upeo<p6pot, oi 8 i8iw~ 8opaTo<p6pOL 86pu
yap To KOYT<ipLY A.eyoY.
28. A.KpO~OALaTa~ 8 TWY Ka~aA.Aap(wy eKCtAOUY <TOU~ rr6ppw0Y CtKpO~OALOflOl~ 8wxpwf1You~> ~youY Tou~ flUKp60eY ~aAA.ovT<i~ 1' Kai flUXOflYou~.
TO"llTWY 8 oi flEV 8opaT(OL~ ~youY pLKTaplOL~ eKXPflV1'0, oi 8 TO~OL~ Kal oi flEY
QUTWY flUKp60eY ppL1tOY Ta ptKTCtpLa ~ en' eU0da~ epx6flYOL ~ KUKA(!) nepLTpxoY1'~, oi.\~ eKCtAOUY innaKOYTLOTCt~, oi 8 TOt~ TO~OL~ E~QAAOY oi.\~ eKCtAOUY
185 LTITIOTO~OTa~. TLYf~ 8 UUTWV A.a<ppot~ KOVTap(OL~ expwYTO Kal fllUY ~ 8UTp0Y


168-178 Aelian., 2.12.

178-189 Aelian., 2.13; Arrian., 2.7.

163 orrJ.iaewv




164 KaTa<ppaKTov MWA KaTa<ppLKTov VBE





l!lctics have described it. 15 Among the ancients, the commanders divided the


~.avalry force according to two different kinds of armament, the one called heavy
armed and the other not heavy armed.
26. They armed the heavy-armed cavalryman and his horse completely. The
men wore cuirasses and breastplates, either of iron or horn fitted together, as
well as thigh armor. They protected the horses with body and head armor, that
Ill, they covered the sides and heads and necks of the horses with lamellar armor
t:lf mail or some other material.
27. Of all these, then, the heavy-armed cavalry as well as the not
heavy-armed, the first carried lances, the others the weapons now called
menaula, which the ancients called spears.' 6 The ones with heavy armor engaged
In dose combat with the enemy; the others, whom they called akrobolistai,
hurled their weapons from a distance. Of the men who carried lances or spears,
l!ome, as mentioned, were fighting at close quarters, engaged directly against the
enemy with their spears and lances. Some of those engaged in close combat had
thyreoi or long, large shields. The soldiers without thyreoi fought with lances
tdone. The first were called thyreophoroi and the others specifically spearbearers, for they called the lance a spear.
28. The cavalrymen who employed missile weapons from a distance, that is,
the men shooting and fighting from far off, were called akrobolistai. Some of
them made use of small spears or javelins, others of arrows. Some hurled their
javelins from a great distance, either advancing in a straight line or else running
around in a circle. These they called hippakontistai; those who shot arrows they
called hippotoxotai. Some of them made use of light spears and, after first


167 mrrerrJ.eyt.tevot~ MWA mJ.eyoflltvot~

VBE 168 rrpoflETwmlliOL~ MW rrpOfleTWT!tOL~ AVBE 170 T MWVBE om. A

Kam<ppaKTwv MWA Kam<ppaKTwv Kal VBE 1 7 2 auve~anov MWA auvt~aJ.ov VBE
173 ~aav aKovTi(oVTe~ MW ~K6vTL<ov AVBE 174 Ta~ Myxa~ MW Ta flEvauJ.a AVBE
175 1!0AfllOL~ MWA T!OAEflOL~ VBE 176 OUfl1!AKOflEVWV MWAB OUfl1!AKOflUlWV VE I EV
AVBE om. MW 177-178 oi. .. llopaTo<p6pOL MW ol /li; llopaTo<p6pot A om. VBE
179 KovTaptv MW KovTapwv AVBE 180-181 Tou~ ... lltaxpwflltvou~ Va ex Arriano
181 T MW om. AVBE 182 llopaTtOL~ ~youv MW om. AVBE 182-183 pLKTaptOL~ ... Ta
MWA om. VBE 182 pLKTap[OL~ Va p!]KTaptoL~ MW ptmap[OL~ A 183 eppmov MW
eppmTov AVBE I ptKTapta Va p!]KTapta MW ptmapta AVBE 184 bmaKovTLaTa~ WAVBE
lrrrroKOVTtaTa~ M I KaAouv2 MW eJ.eyov AVBE
1 71

15. Aelian, 2; Arrian, 4

16. Menaulon was a heavy spear, a form of pike. See E. McGeer, "Menaulion-Menaulatoi;'
Diptycha 4 (1986-87): 53-57; M. Anastasiadis, "On Handling the Menavlion;' BMGS 18

(1994): 1-10.






Constitution 6

Armament for Cavalry and Infantry

npoe~aKOVTLaavn:<; TO AOLTIOV OUVTIAEKOVTO TOt<; noA.q.tiot<; ~ TOt<; oopaTLOt<; ol<;

eLXOV l>TIOAlTIOJ.lEVOl<; ~youv TOt<; EAaq>pol<; KOVTap(ot<; ~ TOt<; ana6iot<; auTWV
OtaxpWJ.lVOl Kal TODTOU<; EKUAOUV eA.acppou<;. TlVE<; o aUTWV KUL nAEKl<;
J.llKpou<; cpepov nav-raxoeev xov-ra<; aKwKa<; 6~la<; w<; 606v-ra<; ~KOVllJ.lEvou<;.
Kal T~V J.lEV KapaAA.aptK~V TCt~lV oihw<; wnA.t(ov, ocrov ev (
29. T~v o ne(tK~V napa T~V TWV apxaiwv TCt~lV OUTW<; eupOJ.lV. TPlXW<; J.lEV
yap auTfj<; 0lJ.lEpt(ov T~V onAtcrtV, W<; avwTepw 'ip11Tat ~J.llV. Kal T~V J.lEV EKUAouv 6nA.ha<;, T~V o neATama<;, T~V o '\'lAOlJ<;.
30. Kal T~V J.lEV TWV AYOJ.lEVWV 6nAtTWV papUTCtTllV napa nav-ra<; TOU<;
ne(ou<; noiouv KaTa Tov MaKeoovtKov Tponov ~youv Ka6' ov 1\A.e~avopo<;, 6
TWV MaKeOOvwv, exp~craTo. Kai yap <JKOUTCtpta enoiouv auTO!<; mpoyyuA.a,
!leyO.A.a, rrapaJ.l~Kll, a A.eyov 6upeou<; Kal J.laxaipa<; ~youv napaJ.l~pta, Kal
6wpaKa<; Kal Kpavll ~youv A.wpiKta Kal KAtPO.vta Kal Kaaaioa<; Kal J.laVtKAA.ta
Kal xaA.K6Toupa, anep ol naA.atolrreptKVllJ.lLOa<; EKUAOUV, Kal KOVTapta J.laKpoTepa. TOU<; !lEY ouv 6nA.ha<; AYOJ.lEVOU<; OUTW<; wrrA.t(ov.
31. Tou<; o '\'lAOU<; 1tUVTWV A.acppoTaTn wnA.t(ov Tft rrapacrKeuft. OUT yap
6wpaKa<; ~youv KAtiPO.vta ~ A.wpiKta ouT rreptKVllJ.lLOa<; ~youv nooo'\leAA.a ~
XaAKOToupa OUT 6upeou<; ~ aan(oa<; papla<; ~youv Ta J.lEYUAa <JKOUTapta,
ana Ota TWV !laKp66ev paAAOJ.lEVWV orrA.wv EJ.lUXOVTO, oiov ~ TO~UOVT<; ~
ptKTapta pimovT<; ~ A.i6ou<; po.novT<;, TOU<; J.lEV ota xetp6<;, TOU<; o Ota crcpevOOVll<;. <JTOAa<; o eixov a-repea<; Kai 1t11KTa<; CtVTi A.wptKLWV Kal KAtPav[wv Kal


Aelian., 2.7.


Aelian., 2.8.

186-187 oopUTlOl; ... elxov MW om. AVBE 187 lJ1lOALrrOf1EVOl; MWA UTIOAlflTIUVOflEVOl;
VBE I ~youv Tot<; MW om. AVBE I ona6iot<; MWAB na6iot<; VE 188 OtUXPWflEVOt MW
om. AVBE 189 exovm<; AVBE exouoa<; MW I CtKWKCt; Va UKOKU; MW om. AVBE scr. mg.
TO 6~uTmov Toii crtOrjpou W I 6~eia<; ... 606vm<; MW w<; 6c56vTa<; 6~e1<; AVBE 190 flEV
MWA om. VBE I ooov ooov MW w<; AVBE 192 Be MWA om. VBE I T~v MW om. AVBE
I TPlXiii<; MW el<; <pia A ei<; y' VBE 193 dpT]Tut ~fllV MW eip~KUflEV AVBE I T~v2 MWA T~
VBE 198-199 Ka\2 ... \wpiKta MW om. AVBE 200-201 f1UKp6Tepa MWA fllKp6Tepa
VBE 202 T~ napuaKEU~ MW OTIAl01 AVBE 203 ewpaKU; ~youv KAl~UVlU MW om.
AVBE I ~~ MWA ouT VBE I neptKVT]fllOa<; ~youv MW om. AVBE 204 XUAKOTou~a MW
xetp61f1AAU AVBE 204-206 aonioa<; ... ~UAAOVT; MW OKOUTapta ~apa aU' ~ eT6~euov
~ pmTapta eppmov ~ \i6ou<; e~a\Aov AVBE 206 ptKTUpta Va PTJKTUpta MW ptmapta
AVBE 2o 7 oTepea<; MW ioxupa<; AVBE


hurling one or two javelins, they engaged the enemy in close fighting. Others
made use of the spears they still had left or of their light spears or of their
llWords. They called these men light troops. Some of them also carried small
axes with points like sharpened teeth on all sides. To the extent that we can
tillmmarize it, that is how the ancients armed their cavalry forces.
29. We have found that the ancients ordered their infantry as follows. They
divided its armament into three parts, as we mentioned above: one force they
called hop lites, another peltastai, another light armed.
30. They made the men they called hop lites the most heavily armed of all the

foot soldiers, in the Macedonian manner, that which Alexander, who was <the
commander> of the Macedonians, employed. They made shields for them that
were large, rounded, oval in shape, that they called thyreoi. Also knives or
daggers, cuirasses and helmets, that is, body armor, breastplates, and helmets, as
well as gauntlets and greaves that the ancients called shin guards, and longer
spears. That is how they armed the troops they called hoplites.
31. They armed the light-armed troops with the lightest equipment of all.
For they did not have cuirasses or breastplates or body armor or leg coverings or
podopsella or greaves or thyreoi or heavy shields or large shields. But they
fought with weapons thrown from a great distance, loosing arrows, hurling
missiles, or throwing stones, some by hand, some with slings. In place of body
armor, breastplates, and the rest, they had clothing that was stiff and compacted.

1 oo

Constitution 6

Armament for Cavalry and Infantry

32. To 8 TWV lteATaaTWV A)'0f1EVWV dOo<;, on:ep ol VeWTepotTWV TUKllKWV


OUK EO~AW<JUV-OlflaL 0, W<; avw flOl e'lpllTaL, TOt<; 'l'lAOt<; a1no <JUflfll~UVT<;
Kai mho flEV eixev 6n:A.t<Jf10V A.a<pp6Tepov 8 Twv aAA.wv. dxe yap n:ATllv, 6 a-rt
<JKOUL<lptov fllKp6v, Kai Ta MpaTa QUTWV ~youv Ta KOVL<lpta JtOAU TWV AeyoflEVWV <Japt<JWV n:apa TOt<; n:aAatOt<; KOVTOTepa. a[ 0 aapt<Jat ~<JaY KOVTapta
flUKpa EW<; ltllXWV tO' Kai axpt 1tTJXWV u;'. mum 8 ~aav flUAt<Jm T~<; MaKeOOVl-


KfJ<; 6n:At<JW<;. EOOKel 0 ~ TWV JteATaaTWV OltAl<Jl<; flE<JllV exetv TU~lV TWV T
'!'tAwv Kai Twv lo[w<; A.eyof.lvwv 6n:AtTwv, papuTpa flEV oi'iaa Twv '!'tAwv, A.a<ppoTpa 8 Twv 6n:AtTwv.
33 HV 8 n:apa Tot<; 6n:::\.[mt<; Kai aan:i<; MaKeOOVlK~ xahfJ, ou A[av KOlAll,

~youv <JK01JTaptov mpoyyuA.ov, flEya, cmaA.wTpav exov T~V KOlAOTT]m, TO o


f.lETpov auTfJ<; ameaf.lWV Tptwv. ~v 0 Kai KOVTaptov ou fllKp6Tepov ltTJXWV ll', TO

8 flUKp6Tepov flEXPl TOU Mvaaem avopa KpaTOUVTQ Ktvdv auTO eUKOAW<;.

34 'H 8 MaK00VtK~ <paA.ay~ EKetVT] ~youv ~ n:apaTay~ 06Kel Tot<; n:oA.eflLot<; avun:6<JTaTO<; dvat Ota T~V EV Tal<; TU~e<Jl Kam<JKW~V. l<JTQTO yap 6 av~p
E~WltAl<JflEVO<; EV T<fl TOU aywvo<; TfJ<; <JUflPOAfJ<; Katp<fl Kamn:UKVOUflEVT]<; TfJ<;

n:apaTayfJ<; EV Tfi EKU<JTOU <JTU<Jel el<; n:~xet<; Mo, KaTEXWV T~V aaptaav ~youv TO
f.lUKpov KOVTaptOV, on:ep, W<; flEV nve<; e<paaav, 1tTJXWV E~Ka[OeKa, Kala 8 T~V
aA.~OetaV ltTJXWV 0Kale<J<Japwv. TOUTWV Oi:: TE<J<Jape<; flEV n:~xel<; a<patpet TO

f.leTa~u TWV xetpwv el<; TO 6n:[aw, ol o A.omoi OEKa n:~xel<; el<; TO Ef11tpoa0ev

eKTdvovTm n:po Twv awflaTwv.


Aelian., 12.1.


32. The class of those called peltasts has not been described by more recent
tactical writers, because, as I have already stated, it is my opinion that they
confused it with the light-armed troops. Its armament was indeed lighter than
the others. For it had a pelta, that is, a small shield. Its spears or lances were
much shorter than the so-called pikes used by the ancients. The pikes were long
~pears from fourteen to sixteen pecheis that were the specialties of the
Macedonian armamentY It seems that the armament of the peltasts held a
middle place between that of the light-armed troops and that of those specifically called hoplites, heavier than that of the light-armed but lighter than that
of the hoplites.
33. The hoplites also had a bronze, Macedonian shield, not too concave, or
else <they had> a round shield, large, with less curvature, and measuring three
spithamai. 18 The spear was not smaller than eight pecheis nor so large that a man
carrying it could not easily move it.t9
34. The Macedonian phalanx was a formation that appeared irresistible to
the enemy because of its system of lining up. 20 At the moment of close combat,
as the battle line became tighter, the heavily armored men took their stand, each
in his own place, two pecheis <apart>. They wielded the pike, or the large spear
that, according to some, measured sixteen pecheis, but was really fourteen. Four
of these pecheis covered the space from the man's hands to the space behind
him and the other ten pecheis stretched out in front of his body.

Aelian., 14.1.

olf.!at. .. e'lp!]TaL MW om. AV8E I mho MW mho we;!~avw AV8E

KovT6-repa AV8E Kov06Tepa MW 214 f.!UKpa MWA f.lLKpa V8E I til' MWAVE te' 8
214-215 TUUTa ... onA.[crewc; MWA om. V8E 216-217 ~apuTpa ... 6nA.nwv MWA om.
VBE 218 ad KOLA!] scr. mg. ~apna W 219 <JKOUTaptov MWA <JKOUTapwv TO VBE I
cmaA.wTpav Va anA.oTpav MW A arrA.wTpav VBE 220 Tptwv MA y' WV8E
221 f.!UKp6Tepov MW f.!UKp6mTov AVBE 222 llt f.!UKellovLK~ MA VBE trsp. W I <paA.ay~
WAVBE <paA.a~ M 223 ad avun6crmToc; scr. mg. avanavT!]TO<; W I 6 MWA om. VBE
22 4 Tou ... Kmpw Mw Kmpw T~c; Tou!ou cruf.!~oA.~c; AVBE 225 tKacrTou crTacret MW
<JTCt<JEl i:Ka<JTOU A <JTU<JEL EKU<JTOU avllpoc; VBE lllUo MW A VBE 226 onep we; MW A 0
npwTov 8 6 npwToc; VE I i!<pacrav MW A dnov V8E I i:~KailleKa MW t<;' AVBE
227 lleKmwcrapwv W til' MAVBE I Tecrcrapec; MW ll' A Tecrcrapac; VBE I f.!E:v MWA om.



17. 6.55 m to 7.84 m. Cf. Aelian, 14.

18. 73 em. Aelian, 12; Asclepiodotus, 5.1.
19.3-74 m.
20. The formation was sixteen deep. See Aelian, 14; AnonStrat, 16.



Armament for Cavalry and Infantry

Constitution 6


35 Toaau-ra flEV ouv Kal m::plT~~ Ka0' va avopa mpami>nJV 6n:\[aew~ fK

3 5. This much, then, about the armament of each individual soldier we have

1" TWV JIUAatWV KULTWV VWTpwv TUKLLKWV avaA~UflVOl 0LTa~Ufl0a 1" Kal

tcad in the ancient and more recent tacticians. We have organized it and defined

OtwptaUfl0a, Yva exwv mhwv T~V yvwatv EKAEYn TO XP~atflOV.

230 crtpawi>TTJV MW crtpanwtwv A om. VBE 230-231 onl\iaewc; ... vewttpwv MWA om.
VBE 2.31-232 avaAE~Ctf!EVot. .. &wptcralleea MW auvel\e~a11eea &wptaalleea te Kal
&em~alleea A auvel\e~alleea &wpicraf!EV te Kal &eta~alleea VBE 2.32. yvwmv MW

II so that, possessing this knowledge, you may choose what is beneficial.



flepl yuflvaa[ac; Ka~aA.AaptKf]c; Kal Tte(tKf]c;

About Training for the Cavalry and the Infantry

1. 'E~~c; o Kal m:pl T~c; atmiiv YUflVaa[ac; rrpo TWV JtOA!llKWV aywvwv O<plA0U(Jf]<; y[vw9at llnp[wc; aot Kal auv-r611wc; imayopeu<Jollev, <1 mpmf]y, 'lva
5 rrporrapa<JKeua(nc; al'nouc; 9[(w8at npoc; -roue; CtAT]9etc; Ktvouvouc; ota TWV tv
yullvaa[q KlVOUVWV. TO yap ayullvaaTOV JtaVTAW<; Ct!la9c; Kal TU<f>AOV rrpoc; -rae;
a9poac; Kat Ct!lAT~TOU<; tyxap~<Jetc; eupt<JKTal.
2."H yap tv Katp<f Xl!lWYOc; ~ tv ETEp<.p Katp<f, tv taTtY avox~ JtOAE!lOU ~
TlVWV tJtAU(JWV KaTa JtOA1lLac; y~c; avemc;, YU!lYa(etv (J XP~ Ta a-rpa-rorreoa
10 Kal Tt0lLV -roue; mpa-rtWTac; JtOA!llKOU<; Kat wanep <Juv-rpo<pouc; TWV TtOVWV Ota
TOU t8tG!lOU Kalil~ a<p[nc; au-roue; apye1v ll~T pa8u!lLV. Kal yap ~ apy[a !lUAUKa
KUL a<J9ev~ JtOlel -ra GW!laTU, ~ o pa9U!llU; Kat avavopouc; -rae; '!'UXac;
napa<JKeua(et. a[ yap ~ooval TO Ka9' ~11pav oe/..ea(ou<Jat Kal TOY UTOA!lOTaTOV Ota<p9lpoum. Kal o-r' iiv tnl llaKpov xpovov ave8v-rec; JtCtAlV trrl -roue;
15 novouc; !..8wmv, oih:e ~Otwc; t~[amv, oihe tmrro!..u Kap-rep~<JOU<JlV, at..A' eu9wc;
<peuyoumv, rrplv ~ Kal rre1pav AU~LV TWV TtOA!llKWV TtOVWV. et o Kal etc; rre1pav
trrl !llKpov A9W<JtV, Taxwc; CtJtOXWP~<JOVTUl, <ppetV TOU<; JtOVOU<; Kat KlVOUVOU<;
ou OUYCt!lYOl. Ol01tp Kal aya9ov tyw Kp[vw <JTpa-rf]y6v, o-r' iiv Ta XP~<Jllla TOT
<JKeua(n Kal ow-rann Kal pya Kal rrpay11ma o-re ou Kmerrdyoumv al -rwv
20 TtOA!llKWV TtOVWV avayKat.

1. Next, 0 commander, in a general, summary fashion, we propose for your

consideration the training of the men that ought to take place before they
engage the enemy. This will help you in preparing them to become accustomed
to actual danger by facing dangers in training. Untrained men turn out to be
totally ignorant and blind in the face of sudden and unexpected actions.
2. In winter or at other times when there is a respite from war or a halt in
expeditions into hostile territory, it is necessary for you to exercise the army and
to make the soldiers skilled in war by getting them used to it, as though they
were raised on hard labor. 1 Do not permit them to become idle or to relax.
Idleness makes the body soft and weak, while relaxation renders the soul
cowardly and unmanly. For daily pleasures entrap and corrupt even the most
courageous man. Whenever they have been at rest for a long time and then once
more return to their labors, they do not go willingly nor will they persevere very
long, but they will quickly take to flight before they have experienced the
hardships of war. Even if they do acquire a little experience, they swiftly retreat,
unable to bear the labor and the dangers. For this reason I judge that man to be
a good commander who prepares what will prove helpful and who organizes
work and activities during that period when the unavoidable labors of war are
not pressing.

M W A VB E Va PG 107'733

Onas. 9.2; 10.1.

TIOAeiJLKWV TiapaaKeuwv MW A. om. VBE I (' MWVBE i:~MiJ'l A 3-4 6c:petA.oua'l<; MW

6c:peLAOUO'l<; OOL AVBE 4 OOL MW om. AVBE 11 ac:p['l<; MW ac:p~<; AVBE I ad iJUAUKU
scr. mg. xauva W 13 to MWVE om. AB I 6eA.t:a(ouam MWA OeA.eit(oum VBE
14 15Lac:p8e[poum MAVBE 15Lac:p8e[pouatv w I aveeevte<; MW A aveeevta<; VBE scr. mg.
~youv EK tWV KOTIWV KUtTIOVWV apy'laavte<; w 15 i:~[amv Va E~OUOLV codd. 16 c:peuyouOLV MW c:peuyoum AVBE I ~ Kal MW om. AVBE I TIOVWV MWA VE TIOVWV avayKm B
17 newaLV MWA newm VBE I UTIOXWP~OOvtUL Va aTioxwp[(ovtm codd. 18 ta XP~Olf.IU
MW om. AVBE 19 OKeua('l MW 1tpOKUtaOKEUCt('l AVBE I OtE VBE ot' av MWA I
KatETit:[youmv MAB ou Katmdywmv W OUKETIEiyoumv VE 19-20 al. .. TIOAEflLKWV
MW AVE om. B 20 TI6vwv MW AVE KalOtaTI6vwv B


Cf. Onasander 9.2; 10.1.


3 fu!lva(e OE TOV aTpaTOV TOlOUTOl<; Tp6not<; Kal tmTT]OeU!laat npGnov !lEv

TOV Ka8va mpamiJTflV w<; tv !lAETn, TOU<; !lEV OTIALTU<; GKOUTCtTOU<; ne(fi ~youv
LOU<; <popouvTa<; T~v navon;\[av ei<; !lOVO!laxia<; !leTa aKoump[wv Kal ~epy[wv
aVTL<; CtAA~AWV, ei<; TO f'ii'\lat !l~Ko9ev ptKTUptv Kat !lapT(u~ap~oUAOV, 0 AEyTat

vuv aa;\[~a, Kal T(lKOUptv. TOU<; OE AYO!lEVOU<; '\llAOU<; oihw YU!lVUGL<; ei<;

TO~dav GUVTO!lOV KaTa KOVTap[ou U'\lflAOU ano OtaaT~!laTO<;, d<; TO ptmLV

!l~Ko9ev ptKTaptv Kal G<pVOO~OAOV, d<; Tif10~Gl<; Kal op6!lOU<; KaTU T O!laAWV
T6nwv Kal avw!laAwv.
4 Tou<; OE Ka~aUap[ou<; YU!lVUGL<; d<; TO TO~ULV GUVTO!lW<; ~ yap Taxu30

TT]<; Kal tKnvaaawem rrapaaKeua(n T~v aay[nav Kal iaxupw<; ~a;\;\w9m,

onep TWV I avayKa(wv tm[, Kal TOt<; trrl 'lnrrwv OXOU!lEVOl<; XP~at!lOV. Kal en d<;
TO TO~ULV ne(fi ano OtaaT~!laTO<; GUVTO!lW<;, dT KaTa Kovmp[ou dT KaTa
Tpou GT]!ldou. d<; TO To~eunv tnavw 'lrrrrou TpxovTo<; auvT6!lw<; !lnpoa9ev,
omaeev, Oe~LQ., aptmepQ. d<; TO rtT]MV t<p' 'lnnou<; d<; TO TO~ULV GUVTO!lW<;


navw '(rrnou TPEXOVTO<; !llaV ~ Kal 0UTpav aay[nav Kal anoTiewem TO TO~OV
TTa!lEVOV tv T'iJ 9T]Kap[q>, tav TIAUTU taTLV, ~ tv aAAq> ~!ll9T]Klq> trrl TOUTq>
ytvo11vq> euKa[pw<; Kat tm;\a!l~avwem Tou KovTap[ou tK Tou w11ou ~ama(o
!lvou. Kat ei<; TO xetv !lEV TO T6~ov TTa!lvov tv T'iJ 9f1Kap[q>, KpaTeiv 0 TO
KOVTaptv Kat GUVTO!lW<; Q1{0Ttewem aUTO tv T'iJ W!l4J, tmAa!l~avwecu OE TOU

40 TO~OU.

5 Ei<; TO tnpxwecu CtAA~AOl<; avopa<; Mo Kat unoxwpciv KatrtUAlV tneAaUVlV Kat t~e;\(aanv KaLa TOV TUrtOV TOU AYO!lEVOU napaKOVTUKlOU. nva<; OE
auTwv KaA6v tan Kat tv T'iJ Momopeiv Toil<; aTpanwm<; yu!lva(wem tv Tfi io[q.
xwpq. Kal tmTT]0UlV auTa tnavw TWV '(rrrrwv TIOletV. tK TOUTOU yap Kal ~ 000<;

Training for Cavalry and Infantry

Constitution 7


3 Train the army in the following ways and practices.' Begin by drilling the
individual soldier, the heavy-armed foot soldiers with their shields, that is, men
who are fully armed, in single combat with shields and staffs against one
~mother, in hurling from a long distance the short javelin and the lead-pointed
dart, now called the saliba, as well as the axe. You shall train the so-called
light-armed troops as follows. In rapid shooting with a bow, using a lance set up
a good distance away as a target. In throwing the small javelin a long distance
i.nd using the sling. In jumping and running on level as well as rough ground.
4 Train the cavalrymen to shoot rapidly. Speed is important in releasing the
arrow and discharging it with force. This is useful, even essential, for men
mounted on horses. They should, moreover, practice shooting rapidly on foot
from a distance, either against a spear or some other target. The trooper on
horseback should also shoot rapidly on the run, to the front, to the rear, to the
right, to the left. Leaping onto the horse. While racing on horseback he should
loose one or two arrows rapidly and put the strung bow away in its case, if it is
wide enough, or in another half-case specially designed for it. Then grab the
spear he has been carrying on his shoulder. While the strung bow is in its case,
he should grasp the spear and quickly replace it on his shoulder and grab hold
of the bow.
s. Two men should charge against one another and then withdraw; again,
ride forward and then wheel about, according to the model called parakontakiou.3 It is good for some of the soldiers to practice these drills, while marching along on horseback in their own country. For they can continue marching
without obstacle and the horses do not become worn out.

ave!lnoo[aTw<; tKTAetTat Kal oi 'lnrrot ou auvTp[~ovmt.

21-53 Strat.,


MWAVE yu[!vci~wem B I Tp6not~ AVBE n6vot~ MW 22 Tov Ka8eva MW

AVBE 23 f!OVOflUXia~ MW AB flOVaxia~ VE 24 avTl~ MW e~ evavTia~
AVBE scr. mg. arrvavn W I ptKTaptv Va p!]KTciptv W p!]KTciptov M pmTciptov AVBE I
flUPT~u~cip~ouA.ov A flUT~ucip~ouA.ov MW flUT~o~cip~ouA.ov VBE I o MW onEp AVBE
25 Kal MW ~ A ~ Kal VBE I T~tKouptv MW T~tKoupwv AVBE I oihw MW oihw~ AVBE
27 ptKTciptv M PlJKTCtptv w pmTaptOV AVBE 29 Ei~ TO MW om. AVBE 31 enl MW enl
TWV A ecp' VBE I i!n MWVBE i!crn A 32 KUTU 1 MWA om. VBE 34 i~l ... Ynnou~ MWA
om. VBE I GUVTOflW<; AVBE GUVTOVW~ MW 36 eav MW A i VBE I ecr-rtv wAVBE om. M
39 Kov-raptv MW Kov-rcipwv AVBE 41 aAA.~A.ot~ MW AVE aAA.~A.ou~ B I ouo MW A W
VBE 43 ecrTt MAVBE ecrTtV W 45 eKTAlmt MW TEAELTat AVBE

21 yu[!va~



Cf. Strat.


3 Parakontakiou may be a mistake for para kontariou (by the spear), as Lami suggested,

or a corruption of the Latin, per contrarium (by the opposite), as Vari thought.


Training for Cavalry and Infantry

Constitution 7
6. 'Eav 8 OU!l~ft Kal xpoviom TO o-rpaTEU!lU EV ~n8inp ~youv v8a ouvay-

6. If the expeditionary army should happen to be encamped for a long time

TaL KaTa TOV '(owv Katpov OAO<; 6 a-rpa-r6c;, !l~ apyou<; dvm TOV Ka8va, aAA.'

or the entire army should be assembled in one place at the same time, do not let
all the men take it easy but get them accustomed, as mentioned, to hard work.
At times, drill them hard in the way already mentioned, at other times, as
though lined up for battle against one another, at yet other times let them devote
themselves to working on their weapons. Leisure not only makes them sluggish
and cowardly, but prepares the way and misleads them into useless and seditious
thoughts. If they are exercised in tasks they are willing to do, they will easily
bear up under those they are unwilling to do, and they will become accusto;:ne._d
to obey the orders given to them.
7 Not only shall you drill them individually, but you will get them used to
recognizing in its entirety their own formations and to maintain them and to
become familiar with the faces and the names of one another. 4 Each soldier
<must know> which officer he is under and in what bandon and with how many
men he is stationed. He must know the exact commands given by the officers
about formations, such as open order, either according to the width of the battle
line or its depth. Also, in like manner, close order or the tightening up into close
order. Turning to the left and to the right. Re-forming the columns and the
distances in the positions of one man from another. Their partial closing up and
broadening. The passing and repassing of files through one another, both
advancing and retreating. Their divisions according to files or columns and their
distribution and arrangement.
8. Also, whenever, as mentioned, the phalanx or the entire battle formation
is drawn together in depth or when it is extended in length. And what is called
face-to-face battle or one on two fronts, when the men who are called the last of
the file or those behind the entire file turn toward those circling about and fight
facing forward as protostatai do, and behind them, in like fashion, half of the file

8i(w8m aumuc;, we; dpT]TaL, novEtV. Kalno-r !lEV YU!lVa(w8m novEtV Kala TOV
dpT]!lEVOV -rp6nov, no-r 0
50 epyaaiac; anaoxoA.do8m.

we; EV napa-ra~1 Kal EV aH~A.ot<;, nOT 8 de; onA.wv

~ yap apyia ou !lOVOV vw8pou<; Kal avav8pouc; nott,

UAAU Kal KEVU Ttva Kat a-raatw8T] !1EAETCtV au-roue; napaOKEua(Et Kalnape~ayet
YU!1Va(6!1EVOl oi;: npoc; -roue; EKOUOLOU<; n6vouc;, EUKOAW<; lipa Kat LOU<; UKOUOlouc; {>JtEVEYKWO'l Katnpoc; Ta napayyeAAO!lEVU au-rotc; {maKOUElV 8to8<ilatV.
7 Kat ou !lOVOV Ka8' eva YU!lVCtOW; au-roue;, aAA.' 8[ot<; Kal Ka86A.ou

-ra~1<; Kat !1EVlV EV au-rate;, Kat -rate; O'!'Wl Kat TOt<; OVO!laat
ouv~8t<; UAA~AOl<; yiveo8m. Kat -ric; o-rpanWTT]<; uno -r(va EOTtV iipxov-ra Kat EV
no(<p ~av8<p Kal !lETa noowv av8pwv TUHETat ytvWOKElV 8 -ra 6~a napayytA.!laTa !lELU TU~EW<; napa TWV apx6v-rwv ytVO!lEVU, olov -rae; EKTU01<; eh Ka-ra
nA.a-roc; d-r Ka-ra !l~Ko<; -r~c; napa-ra~Ew<;, 611oiwc; 8 Kat -rae;; ~youv
ocpiy~Et<; de; 1TUKVWOIV, Kal -rae; KAL01<; E1Tt TU apto-repa Kat ent -ra 8e~ta, Kat -rae;
TWV 6p8ivwv !l-ralnot~OEL<; KUt -ra OtU<Jl~!laTa nilv <JTUOEWV uno avopoc; Ei<;
livopa, Kat -rae; !lEPlKU<; aU-rwv nuKVW01<; ~ apmwotc;, Kat -rae; ot' UAA~AWV
anaVT~01<; Kal UVTlOta~a01<; ~ T EPXO!lEVWV ~ anEpXO!lEVWV, Kal -rae; KaTa -rae;
aKia<; ~youv -roue; 6p8ivouc; OtatpE01<; au-rwv Kal !1EPL0!10U<; Kat KaTUTCt~Elc;.
8. Kal T~V <ent> cpaA.ayya ~youv T~V OAT]V napa-ray~v, o-r' liv, we; dpT]Tal, enl
~a8oc; OU<JTEAAT]Tal KUL o-r' av enl !l~KO<; EKTEiVT]TaL, Kal T~V AY0!1EVT]V aVTl<JTO!lOV ~youv OlOTO!lOV !lCtXT]V, o-r' av o{ AYO!lV0l oupayot ~TOt o{ omo8V TWV

55 ytVWOKElV -rae; ioiac;




OAWV UKLWV mmp'!'UVT<; npoc; -roue; KUKAOUVTU<; Kala np6ownov !lUXWVTaL we;
npw-roo-ra-rm, Kat oma8V au-rwv O!lOLW<; au-rotc; avnmp'!'n TO ~!llOU T~<; UK[ac;
54-97 Onas. 10. 1-6.
46 Kal MW om. AVBE 1 ~rreoi-rw A tv ~m:o~-rw MW ~rreoiw VBE
-roue; a-rpanw-rac; AVBE

48 rroveTv 1 MW A om. VBE

47 -rov Ka8eva MW


50 ou fl6vov MWAVE ou flOVov ou

I avavopouc; MW avavopouc; -roue; a-rpmLW't:U<; AVBE 51 Kall ... 't:LVU MW om.

AVBE 52 fKOua[ouc; MW AB eKoucr[wc; VE I lip a MW om. AVBE 53 imeveyKWOL MAVE
aAA.~Aouc; AVBE 57 rroawv avopwv MW rr6aouc; livopac; A VBE 1-rane-rm MW -racrcre-rm
AVBE 58 ad EK't:UOEL<; scr. mg. ~youv o-rav 6cpeiAwaL rrapeK-raSijvaL w 59 OE MWA om.
VBE 6o de; MWA om. VBE 1 Kal2 AVBE om. MW 61 Kal AVBE -ra W om. M I de;
MW AVE om. B 62-63 apmwaEL<; ... arrav-rftcreL<; MW A om. VBE 63 avn&a~acrEL<; MW
&a~aanc; AVBE 1~ -rE MW d-re AVBE I fJ MW Ehe AVE om. B I am:pxoflevwv MW AVE om.
B 64 &mpecreL<; MWA oLmp~crEL<; VBE I Kal Ka-ra-ra~eL<; MW AVE om. B 65 rrll ci. De
om. codd. lrrapa-ray~v MW rrapa-ra~Lv AVBE 66 aua-reAA-11-raL AVBE aua-reAA.e-raL MW I
K-reiv11-rm A eK-reive-rm MW K-re[vov-rm VBE 67 oF MW AVE om. B


4 Cf. Onasander 10.1-6.


Training for Cavalry and Infantry

Constitution 7

Kal TI<XAlV Tac; EK nilv TOlOlJTWV flETa~oA.wv avaKA.~anc; Kal Ct1tOKaTUOTCtOl<;


should turn about. Again, <sound> the calls to bring such wheeling about to an
end and to bring the horses back into formation.
9 The soldiers who quickly become accustomed to all these are, so to say,
brought into formation spontaneously, whereas men without instruction and
unaccustomed to these exercises are totally confused and barely able to bring
themselves back to the pressing needs of the battle line.
10. Divide the army in two parts, then have them come together in a mock
battle, the lances and, likewise, the arrows without points or, as we said, with
staffs instead of swords. Or instead of lances distribute staves or reeds. If tile
ground on which they are drilling has clods of earth, order them to throw tllese
at each other in practicing for battle. At times let them make use of what are
called charzania or similar items in their battles. Point out to tile men steep hills
and order them to ascend them on the run and seize them. Of course, you will
have other soldiers in position on top of tllose hills.
11. After you drill one group of soldiers, tllen dismiss those troops and give
the weapons we spoke of to others. You will praise those who stood firm and
acted courageously in the drill, but those who turned out unfit and cowardly
you will admonish and exhort them to correct their failures.
12. As a result of practice and drilling of this sort, not only is the army
accustomed to hard labor, but it stays healthy, eating and drinking everything,
even plain fare, more heartily than gourmet meals. Their bodies become harder
and tlley will get used to future labors since they have done tlleir training
sweating and panting in the heat under the open sky and in the icy cold of
13. In like manner you shall drill the cavalry forces, making them compete
and vie with one another and engage in pursuits, close combat, and shooting of
missiles, either arrows or javelins, as well as in other ways that I will subsequently explain to you at greater length.

9 Oi yap npoc; Tai'JTa TrCtVTU 8t(Of1V0l aTpaTLWTal Ola Taxouc;, we; El1tLV, Kal
alJTOflaTOl cppovTat npoc; T~V TCt~lV, oi o TOlJTWV av8taTOl Kal ana[OEUTOl Ola
mpaxou TrOAAOU Kal f!OAl<; aTroKa8(aTaVTat ic; Tac; KaT1ttyouaac; T~c; TCt~EW<;


~laflEp(aac; 0 Ta mpaTEUflaTa npoc; CtAA~Aouc; amo~pq> flCtXn OUfl~a/..1..TWOaV ~TOl Ola KOVTap(wv iivw ~l<pWV ~ aaytTTWV OflOLWc; ~, we; El1t0flV, avTl
ana8iwv ~pyla ~ vap8f]Kac; ~ KaAUf!OUc; CtVTL KOVTap(wv avaotoouc;. eav o Kal
~wA.ouc; xn ~ y~ ev YUflVCt(wvTm, TOUTOU<; ~CtAAlV KEAEU KaT' CtAA~AWV ev Tfi
yuflvaa(g T~c; OUfl~OA~c;. TrOT o Kal Ta AYOflVa xap(avta ~ TOUTOlc; OflOlCt
TlVa xp~a8waav ev Tfi flUXn oi~ac; o a1JTo1c; Kal ~ouvouc; 6p8(ouc; KEAEU auv
op6flq> ava~a(vnv Kal KaTaAafl~CtVlV auTouc;, xovmc; Of]AOVOTl Toile; ~ouvouc;


eKivouc; Tpouc; aTpaTtWTac; E<pWTWTac; en' ai>Twv.

11. Kal oT' av Ttvac; TWV mpaTlWTWV YUf!VCtanc;, TrCtAlV EKivouc; EK~aAWV


fTEpotc; mowatc; Ta Eipf]flEVa onA.a. Kal TOU<; flEV flelVavmc; Kal avopaya8~
aavmc; ev Tft YUflVaa(g fT[QlVEOlc;, TOuc; o acpuwc; A.86vwc; Kal avavopwc;

napa8~~Lc; Kal napOTpuv1c; eic; TO Ta eA.aTTWflaTa auTwv avop8w8~vm.

12.'EK yap T~c; TotaUTTJc; f!EAETT]c; Kal yuf!vaaiac; ou f16vov 8i(Tm npoc; Toile;
n6vouc; TO mpaTEUf!a, aA.Aa Kal uytaivl Kal naaav Tpo<p~V ~oewc; a8(l Kal
1tLVl, KCtV AlT~ tanv, unp Tete; 1tOAUTA1c; Tpocpac;. yivTat 0 aUTWV TO OWfla Kal
aTt:pp6v, Kat auvt:8i(nm Tole; flA.A.oum n6vmc;, iopwTt Kal 8aA.nn Kat KaUflan
aaKtCtaTq> I Kat KPUfl01c; Kat XElflWaL auyyuflva(6flVOV.
13. 'Oflolwc; 0 YUflVCtaw:; Kat Toile; Ka~aAA.apiouc; p((lV auToic; TrOlWV Kat
CtfllAAiia8m Kat OlW~W; TrOleLV Kat OUf!TrAOKUc; Kat aKpO~OAlOflOUc; ~youv TO~E(ac;


~ aKOVTtalc;. Kat oaa t~f)c; aot TrAaTUTEpov Of]AWOW.

arroKa-rmrraoEL~ AVBE arroKa-rao-r~oEL~ MW 71 Yrrrrwv W om. MAVBE 72 -rau-ra
76-77 rrpo~ ... OUfl~aAA.-rwoav MW rrapaKEAEuou rrpo~

miv-ra MWVBE -ra rrap6vm A

aAA.~A.ou~ OU[l~CtAAElV



xwpl~ OlO~pou









XP~a8waav MWB
ext-rwaav AVE I KEAEUE MWVBE KEAEUOOV A 83 f.cpw-rw-ra~ MWA a-rw-ra~ VBE
86 eA.86v-ra~ ... avavopw~ MW Kal avavopw~ 8La-rc8v-ra~ A VBE 87 rrapa8~~n~ MW
otcycipct~ A VBE 1 rrapo-rpuvI~ MW rrapopf!~an~ A VBE I d~ ... avopewe~vm MW -ra au-rwv


avopewam eAaHWf.taTa A VBE

-rpocpa~ A VBE -rpucpa~ MW




eanv MW anv Kal



A Kal

91 a-rcpp6v MW iaxupov A VBE


94 Ct[llAAaa8m MW om. A VBE

MW om. A VBE

So Kal -ra MWAB Ka-ra VE


95 ~ MW KalA VBE



92 auyyuflva(6f1EVOV

93 au-roT~ MW au-rou~ A VBE

JtAOKU~ VBE I aKpO~OAlO[lOU~ ~youv


14. Taiim o TtolElV Kal ev emn:ootc:; TOT!Ol~ Kal n:epl atna~ Ta~ p[(a~ TWV
OCJOV OUVaTOV eanv auTOU~ Kal nov Tpaxtwv eyy[(etv TOT!WV.
15. Kal TOUTO flEV TOt~ n:aA.alOt~ oo~V EflOL o OOKEl fl~ flOVOV ei~ op6flOU~
ev TOt~ 6f.LUA0t~ TOT!Ol~ 8[(w8at TOU~ l11110U~ 6.vayKatov dvat, 6.A.Aa Kal ei~
lH!JflAOU~ Kal oaa1~ Kal -rpaxd~, WCJT CJUV eA.acr[<;t TOUTOU~ Ota~a[vetv, 6f.LOLW~ o
Kal i~ TOU~ KUTW<pepd~. eav yap Ei~ TOU~ TOlOUTOU~ 8[(wvTat, OUKETl ouo TOU~
avopa~ ouo TOU~ l11110U~ ~Vl(l T0110~ ~ Ct0LKl. 6.AA.a Kal ev n:p Katp(il TOU
8pou~ fl~ E11lTf10EUlV 11UKVW~ TOU~ l11110U~ 110Tt(nv. OLO oM XP~CJlflOV ean
11Af10lOV 110TaflWV Ct11AflKUlV. Kal n:apa-rcwaw8at o Ei~ TOU~ ouaxep1~ Kal
OUCJ~UTOU~ TOT!OU~ Kal emTpE11lV, w~ f(JTL<V v TU~L> TO ~6.voov, Ka8w~ <p86.CJl
6 T0110~ EKUCJnp (JUV eA.aa[<;t 6.vpxw8at 6f.LOLW~ o Kal Ka-rpxw9at. O(JOL TOLVUV
<pl00flVOl nov l1111WV aMwv n:ept<ppovoiim ~~ TOlUUTfl~ aUTWV YUflVUCJ[a~,

~ouvwv, e<p'




16.'En:l TOUTOl~ OEOV em[v, i Kal flETp[w~ OflW~ Kal ev 6/..[yOL~, imo&t~a[ CJOl,
n:poun:e9f.Le9a, n:A.a-ru-repov -ra~ -rwv apxafwv Ktv~an~ Kal -ra A.ey6f.Leva
n:apayyA.flaTa, Yva n:poyUf.LVO.(n~ Kal ev TOUTOl~ TO 0Tp6.TUflU Kal Oteyefpn~
auwu~ Kal ota A6ywv Kal Ot' pywv n:po~ -ra~ n:oA.ef.LtKa~ fl96oou~. fleTa yap -r~v
YUflVUCJ[av TOU Ka8va 0TpatlWTOU n:e(ou Kal Ka~aA.A.ap[ou o1 (J Kal EKUCJTOV
-rawa ~Tot ~6.voov yuflv6.(etv Ka9' eau-ro oihw~. Toii ~6.voou Twv Ka~at..Aap[wv
an:o -rwv A.eyoflvwv 6.Ktwv ~Tot 6pofvwv auvw-rw-ro~ Kal auv-re-rayflvw~
[CJTaflEVOU n:apayyA! 6 f.LUV06.Twp Ta 11p00TTUYflEVU, OLOV
17 <Z:ty~,> o-r' av ~ aufl~ot..~ yvfl<at. flflOei~ a<p~an. flflOei~ n:pot..a~n o
~6.voov>, ew~ ltv Otw~n~ TOY ex9p6v. eav EK~ft~ 6.n:o ~~ TOU flTW110U chvew~,
~Mn:e TO ~6.voov. OlWK fl~ w~ mpanWTT]~ 0tAO~, 6.AA.' w~ a-rpanWTfl~ 6.vopeto~,
Kat fl~ KaTa n:apUKAT]CJlV eaan~ fl~T aA!..q> Tp011q>. <pUAUTT, 0Tpanwm, T~V

110 Ka9w~

11 5


Training for Cavalry and Infantry

Constitution 7

98-108 Strat., 7.B.17.

14. Carry out these maneuvers in the plain and around the very roots of the
hills, as far as they are able to advance in broken country.
15. While the ancient tacticians regarded this merely as good, I consider it
essential to accustom the horses not only to rapid maneuvers in level terrain but
also over hilly, dense, and rough ground so they may learn to ride quickly
though such areas, as well as in steep terrain.' If they get used to such terrain,
then no place will surprise or trouble either the men or the horses. Even in the
heat of summer be careful not to water the horses too much; for this reason it is
helpful not to camp too close to rivers. Have them line up in rough and difficult
terrain and turn about. When the bandon is in formation, each man should
gallop over the ground as he finds it before him and return the same way. The
men who spare their horses and neglect drills of this sort are conspiring against
16. In addition to these, it is necessary to teach you in greater detail, albeit
moderately and briefly, the maneuvers of the ancients and the words of their
commands, as we previously proposed, so that you may use these to drill the
army beforehand and you may stir them up by words and by deeds for military
exercises. After the training of each individual soldier, horse and foot, you must
drill each tagma or bandon by itself in the following manner. When the cavalry
bandon forms up in what are called files or columns and is standing together in
proper order, the herald proclaims the prescribed orders as follows.
17. <"Silence:'> when the battle begins. "Nobody fall back. 6 Nobody go
ahead of the standard until you are pursuing the enemy. If you lose sight of the
front, look at the standard. Follow <it> not as a cowardly soldier but as a brave
soldier. Do not allow yourself to be distracted or <to act> in another manner.

117-248 Strat., 3.5.

96 bnrrtoot~ MW Of!UAOt~ AVBE scr. mg. tv rreoivm~ Kal Of!UAOt~ W I atni:t~ MW om.
A VBE I -ri:t~ pi~a~ MW -ri:t Ka-rw-repa f!Epfj AVBE 97 t<p' ... -r6rrwv MW ava~aivetv ot
au-rou~ Kal trrl TWV -rpaxewv -r6rrwv O<JOV ta-r\ ouva-r6v AVBE 100 U'\ff]AOU~ MW U'\ff]AOU~
-r6rrou~ AVBE 103 JtUKVW~ MW auxvw~ AVBE 104 CtltAfjKEUElV AVBE CtltOKEAEUElV M
CtltAlKEUElV w I ot MWA VE om. B 104-105 TOU~ ... TOltOU~ MW -r6rrou~ ouaxepet~ Kal
ota~a-rou~ AVBE 105 tv -ra~EL Strat. om. codd. I <p8aaet MW A.axrt AVBE 107 au-rwv'
MWA om. VBE I nept<ppovoiim MW Ka-ra<ppovoiim AVBE I au-rwv 2 MW om. AVBE
109 ta-r[v ... Kal' MW ea-rl AVBE I Of!W~ ... 6A.[yot~ MW om. AVBE 110 Ka8w~ ...
nA.a-ru-repov MW om. AVBE 113 -roii Ka8va MW eKaa-rou AVBE I Kal 1 MWVBE om. A
115 auvw-rw-ro~ MWA auvea-rw-ra~ B auvea-rw-rw~ VE 117 my~ Strat. om. codd.
117-118 -ro ~avoov Strat. om. codd. 120 iiAA.w -rp6rrw MW A iiAA.ov -rp6rrov VBE


5. Cf. Strat. 7 B.17.

6. Strat. 35


Constitution 7

TCt~lV aou, qruA.aTT Kal au, ~avoocp6pe, o-r' O.v KaTanoA.elf!ian~, 'iva CtKoA.ouElft~ 303


TOV ex8p6v. ei of: EK~ft~ T~V O'!'lV ~~ napa-ray~~, il~ Man~ iaxupw~ ev T0
KCtf!nlp LVa fl~ aKOpn(an~ T~V a~V 1"Ct~lV.
18. 'H of: KaEl' eau-r~v TOU TCtyf!a-ro~ YUf!Vaa(a TWV Ka~aA.A.apiwv aih'l, wa-re
KlVelV auv-re-rayf!EVW~ w~ ev napa-rayfi ~ f!ELa opOf!OU en( Ll a'lf!ELOV Kal oihw~
'(a-raaem. Kal o-r' O.v 8A.n KlV~aat mwaivnv oeov f!OV'l Tft cpwvfi ~ T0 ~OUKLVlp ~
VeUf!aLl q>Aaf!OUAOU, Kal KlVeLV o{\-rw~ o-r' O.v of: 8A.n OT~VUl, a'lf!aLVelV ~ -rft
cpwvfi am ~ -r4J ~X4> -rof> aKOUTap(ou ~ -rft TOlJ~q., ~V VUV A.youm ~OUKlVOV, ~ -rft

-raupeq.. Kal au-rTJ f!EV Ilia KLVTJOl~.

19. 'E-repa 0, wa-r '(aa nepma-re1V ev apatOTEpOl~ npw-rov OlUOT~f!aOl, Kat
napayyeAA.n ~ '(aou nepma-r1-re.
20. 'E-repa o, wa-r acpiyywElm Ka-ra nA.eupav !lCtAlOTa npen6v-rw~, Of!OLW~
of: acpiyywElm Kal KaT' oupav. TO of: acpiyywEla( eaTI 1"0 nuKvoucrElat, 'iva Kal
Ka-ra nA.eupa~ Kal Ka-ra Wf!OV CtAA~AOl~ eyyi~wm. napayyAA.el o Ka-ra nA.eupav
135 acpiyye, -rou-r' an, oeKapxm npo~ OeKapxa~, nev-rapxm npo~ nev-rapxa~, Te-rpapxm npo~ -re-rpapxa~. Kal acpiyyov-rm nav-re~, w~ dpTJTat, nA.eupav npo~
nA.eupav eyyi~OVT~. OUK enl tvo~ of: f!Epou~ acpiyyovTat, aH' enl TOV f!Eaov
-r6nov, -rou-r' a-rt, -rov ~avoocp6pov, wa-re v8ev KCtKe1Elev aU-rot> yivwElm.
aUVTOf!W~ yap Kat eUTCtKTW~ ~ -rotaUTTJ yiveTUl acpiy~t~. wanep of: oi OeKapxm
140 iaof>VTUl ev CtAA~AOl~ KaTa f!ETwnov, OUTW~ npenel Kat TOU~ -re-rpapxa~ ~youv
TOU~ oupayou<; iaouaem oniaw TOU 6poivou. auTWV yap acptyyof!EVWV KaTa
A.6yov, KQV ev Tal~ auf!~OA.a1<; oi Ef!npoaElev, KWAUOVTUl im'
au-rwv ei<; -ra oniaw -rpnw8m.
21. 'E-repa 0, o-r' O.v acpiyywvTUl KaT' oupav. ou yap f!OVOV TO nACtTO~ T~~
145 napa-ray~<; oeov acpiyyeaElat, ana Kal TO naxo~ auT~<;, noAACtKl<; CtAA~AOl<; KaTa
-rou~ w 11 ou~ eyyi~ov-re~.
121 ~avoocp6pe MWA ~av&cp6pe VBE 122 -rov x8p6v MW nii x8pw AVBE
126 aTlflUlVELV oeov MW trsp. AVBE 127 KLVELV oihw~ M trsp. WAVBE I ~ AVBE om.
MW 128 a-ra AVBE om. MW I ~xw MW K-r\mw AVBE I vuv \tyoum M vuv Atyoumv W
\tyoum vuv AVBE 128-129 ~ 3 . -raupta MW om. AVBE 130 &aa-r~f!aat MAVE
&aa-r~f!aatv W otaa-r~f!a-rt B 131 ~ MWAB om. VE 133 -ro 1 -ro 2 MW (a-rtv W) o
tan AVBE 134 KanJ.l ... WflOV MW 6ma8ev Kat fK JtAayiou AVBE I eyyi~wat MB eyyi<wmv
WA eyyi~ouat VE I oe MWAVE oi:oi: B 13 5 acpiyyE AVBE acpiyyea8at MW I ea-rt MA VBE
eanv W 136-137 n\eupav ... n\eupav AVBE n\eupa npo~ n\eupa M n\eupa npo~
n\eupav W 137 tnt evo~ AVBE em8evo~ M em.evo~ W (sic) 137-138 -rov ... -r6nov MW
-rwv flEOWV -r6nwv AVBE 138 -rov M -rwv WAVBE 140 tv MW om. AVBE 143 oniaw
M -rou~ oniaw wAVBE 144 Ka-r' M Kat Ka-r' WAVBE 145 Kat MWAB Kat Kat VE I
a\A~Aot~ MWVBE aH~\ouc; A 146 eyyi<ov-rec; MW A eyyi~ov-rac; VBE

Training for Cavalry and Infantry


Soldier: keep to your assigned position. Standard-bearer: keep to yours also.

When you are fighting and pursuing the enemy, if you leave the front of the
battle line, do not charge out impetuously and cause your ranks to be broken
18. An individual cavalry tagma should be drilled as follows. At a given
signal to move in proper order as in a battle line or on the run; then come to a
halt. When the commander wants them to move, he must give the signal for
"Move" by voice, by bugle, or by a movement of the flag.? And they move as
ordered. When he wants them to stop, he signals: "Stand:' <He does this by
voice>, by banging on the shield or by the tuba, which they now call the
trumpet, or else by the horn. And this is one maneuver.
19. Another one. To march in line, first, over a rather broad area, he
commands: "In line. March:'
20. Still another. Specifically to close ranks in proper order from the flanks
and, likewise, to close ranks from the rear. To close ranks is the same as to
tighten up, so that the men come close to one another by their sides and
shoulders. The command for this is: "By the flank. Close up:' This means that
the dekarchs come close to the dekarchs, the pentarchs to the pentarchs, the
tetrarchs to the tetrarchs. And they all close up, as said, getting closer side by
side. They close in not on one section but upon the center, that is, the
standard-bearer so as to be on this side and that side of him. This kind of
closing up is to be done quickly and in good order. As the dekarchs align
themselves with each other along the front, so should the tetrarchs or fileclosers
align themselves at the rear of the column. When they close ranks as prescribed,
they effectively keep the troops in front of them from deserting in combat and
heading to the rear.
21. Another one. When they close up from the rear. Not only must the width
of the battle line be closed up but also its thickness, as they come ever closer to
one another, shoulder to shoulder.

7 Greek flOVT] is a mistranscription of Latin move (move) and o-ra is the same as Latin sta
(stand). Cf. Strat. 3.5.11-12.


Training for Cavalry and Infantry

Constitution 7
22. 'ETpa o KLVf]Ol<;, wan: fleTCt T~V aKpt~~ 11lJKVWOlV T~c; KaTCt rrA.wpav

f!CtAt<JTa acp(y~ewc; TITIUKVWf!fVOU<; TIpt1taTelV, ()T' UV ~ TO~ela apxnm y(vea8at,

Kal napayy:\ nam~ov. Kal mKAtVOflvwv T&v OeKapxwv Kal rrevn1pxwv enl
150 TCt Ef.l1tpoa8ev Kal GKTIOVTWV Tac; eaUTWV; Kal f.lpoc; nov Tpax~A.wv nov

'(rrrrwv fleTCt n.ilv (JKOUTapiwv aunilv Kal TCt KOVTapta ava~ama~6VTWV errl TOU<;

fleTCt TWV GKOUTapiwv em:A.auvetv eUTCtKTW<;

Tpm6o<.p f.lOV<.p ~youv KtV~f.laTt <JUf.lflTp<.p, T<ji A.eyof.lV<.p KCtArra, Kal f.l~ ~taiwc;
TPfXLV, Yva f.l~ Tft O~UTf]Tl T~c; :\.aaiac; OtaA.u8ft ~ TCt~tc; rrpo f.ll~ewc; xetpwv, orrep



23.'ETpa o KLVf]Ol<; WGT emOtWKLV 6T f.lfV auv :\.aa[q. we; Koupawpac;, ouc;
oi vuv rrpoKAUGTac; A.tyoumv, 6T o GUVTTUYf!fVW<; we; Otcpvawpac;, ouc; ~flel<;
KaAOUflV EKOLKOU<;. Kal d f!fV we; KOUpawpac; XP~ KLVelV, op6f.l<.p
A.a. Kal we; voc; f.llALOU aTIOKLVOUOl <JUV :\.aaiq.. eav 0 we; Otcpvawpac;, rrapay160 f.lETCt T~c; Ta~ewc; aKoA.ou8et. Kal aKoA.ou8oum auvTTUYf1vwc;.

24. 'ETpa o KLVf]Ol<; WGT imoxwpciv 6:\.iyov Kal TICtALV avTtaTpcpw8m. Kal
OT f.lfV 8:\.et urroxwp~aat 6 Koupawp, KpCt~1 TUTIT. Kal unoxwpei auv :\.aaiq.
we; EV ~ OeUTepov aaytTTO~OAOV Til TOU<; Otcpvawpac;. TICtALV KpCt~1 GTpacpou,
:\a. Kat av8urromp<pOUOlV we; av i KaTCt TWV vaVTLWV. Kat TOUTO TIOtelV
165 TIOAACtKt<; fl~ f.lOVOV ETIL TCt rrp6aw, aHa Kal Oe~t9, Kal aptaTep9,, Kal TICtALV we; av

ei ETIL T~V 0UTpav ni~tv. Kal TIOT f!fV ev auT<ji T<ji OtaAelf.lf.laTt TaUTf]<;, TIOT o
v T<ji fleTa~u auT~<; ~e:\.(aaw8at Kal lif!a OpouyytaTl ~youv Of.lOU 6pf1UV KaTCt
TWV x8pwv. ev 8 Tate; YUf!Vaaimc; TCt KOVTCtpta ava~ama~OflVa EXLV 0t Kal
f.l~ de; rrA.Ctytov, Iva fl~ oi LTITIOL ev Tft

:\.aaiq. Ef!TIOOt~WVTat.

25. 'ETpa o KLVf]Ol<; WGT f.lTaTi8w8m GUVTTaYf.lfVW<; aptmep9, Kal 0~[(~,

orrep apf16~t rrA.aywcpuA.a~tV Kal UTIEpKepamalc; ~youv TOte; ETIL TO KUKAW(Jat T~V
TWV TIOAfllWV napaTa~tV TETUYf!fVOt<; errl TOU 0~LOU f.ltpouc;, warrep Kpac;. Kal
148 rt1lUKVWf!EVouc; MW m:pmateiv rrmuKVWf!EVW<; A m:pmateiv rrmuKVWf!EVO<; VBE
149 tmKAtVOf!EVwv WA VBE tmKAlf!Evwv M

150 ta AVBE om. MW 152 Wf!OU<;

tm:A.auvm W A VBE tm:A.auvet M I etmiKtwc; MW lmiKtw A aniKtw
VBE 153 tpm6ow ... ~youv MW om. AVBE I KlV~flUTl GUflf!ETpw MW trsp. AVBE I ~taiwc;
MW iaxupwc; AVBE 158 rrapayyeAA.L VBE rrapayyeAA.m MWA 159 otcpevawpac; AVE
O!cpevaopac; MW otcpevawpa B 159-160 MW rrapayyeAA.m AVBE
160 O.KOAOU8t MWA UKOAOU8lv VBE 163 MW OT o 8EAl ltCtAlV trrl TOU<;
tvavtiouc; urratpE\jlat A VBE I atpacpou MWAB atacpou VE 165 rrp6aw MW Ef!rtpoa8ev
AVBE 166 owA.Eif!f!UTt MW otaxwpiaflan AVBE 166-168 -rautf)c; ... txepwv MW -r~c;
aut~<; OEUtEpac; rrapata~W<; Opouyytatl ~youv (~ yap V) Of!OU E~Ataaw8at ltOTE o tv TW
flETa~u -rwv (t~<; B) ouo (W VBE) rrapata~ewv (rrapata~ew<; B) Otaat~f!UTL AVBE
171 rrA.aytocpUA.a~tv MW rrA.aytocpuA.a~t AVBE 172 n:-rawtvot<; MWAVE temwevouc; B

MW AVE rrrrouc; B


22. Another maneuver. With the troops marching in close formation, particularly after they have closed in tightly from the flanks, as they come within
range of the <enemy> archers, and the command is given: "Strike:' The dekarchs
.md pentarchs then lean forward, cover their heads and part of their horses'
necks with their shields, hold their lances at shoulder height and, protected by
their shields, they advance in good order, not too fast but at a canter, a measured
gait, the so-called kalpa, so that the impetus of their charge might not break up
their ranks before coming to blows with the enemy, a very risky action. All the
ntchers to the rear are then to open fire.
23. Another maneuver. In pursuing <the enemy> sometimes they race along
t\S assault troops, now called proklastai, or sometimes together in close order as
defenders, now called ekdikoi. If it is necessary to move as assault troops, the
commander gives the order: "Charge on the run:' And they ride along at this
rate for about a mile. If they move as defenders, he commands: "Follow in
formation:' And they follow in close ranks.
24. Another maneuver. To fall back a little and then wheel about. When the
commander wants the assault troops to fall back, he shouts: "Give waY:' And
they speedily withdraw a bowshot or two toward the defenders. Again he shouts:
"Turn. Charge:' They wheel about as though to face the enemy. Do this
frequently, not only forward but also to the right and to the left, and again as
though toward the second line. They should maneuver, sometimes in the
intervals of that line, sometimes in the space between the lines. All together, in
irregular formation, they then charge against the enemy. While drilling, the
lances should be held up and not down to their sides, so as not to impede the
free movement of the horses.
25. Another maneuver. To change front around to the left or to the right in
an orderly fashion and in coordination with the flank guards and the
outflankers, that is, the men lined up on the right side, like a horn, for the
purpose of encircling the battle line of the enemy. If the commander wants them




Training for Cavalry and Infantry

Constitution 7

napa.yyeHt, i flV apta-rep<;t flTUT[0w0m ~OUATat KUTU<pp npo<; Ta apt<Hp6.. i O 0~ti;t flTUT[0w0at KUTa<pp npo<; Ta Oe~ta. KUL oi.\Tw<; flTUT[0w0m.
av flV ev ~avoov a-r[, TO v, i 0 n\dova, OflOLW<; TOU vo<; flEpou<; flTUTt0flEVOU. KUL Ta ;\oma W<JUUTW<; KO.Ta ev ~6.voov notOU<JlV.
26. 'ETepa o KLVI]<Jl<; W<JT flTU~anwem nOT flV EV ol<; l<JTUVTUl T6not<;,
noT 0 Kal TO flETwnov T~<; napa.Ta~W<; aA.Aa<J<JOVT<;. av flV yap atcpvtOlU<JflO<; TL<; yeVI]TUl uno txepwv KUTa vlinou ~youv omaeev m<pp0f1EVWV, na.payyeAAl flTU<JXTJflUTl<JOV. KO.L, w<; L<JTUVTUl EV TOt<; TOTIOl<; UUTWV, nl oupav omaeev ~;\enouat TWV ~avoocp6pwv flOVWV flTa TWV apxovTWV d<; TO KUTa oupav
flETwnov I EPXOflEVWV. i o n\~0o<; txepwv mcpavfi omaeev, napayyeHL
flTaAAa~ov. Kal TOT flTml0evTm KaTa ~avoov.


27. Ou flOVOV o nl fl~KO<; 6pOtvUlV KUL YDflVU(lV avayKat6v EO"TlV, aHa

KUL opouyyt<JTL TU<J<JOVTU<; YDflVa(Lv Kal E~AUUVlV n' eu0la<;, KUL KUKAOU<;
Ota.cp6pou<;, npwTOV flV Ota Ta<; unoxwp~<Jl<; KUL aVTl<JTpocpa<;, eha Ota Ta<;
aicpvtO[ou<; KO.Ta TWV x8pwv cp6oou<;, AOlTIOV o Kal Ota TO (JUVTOflW<; TOt<;
owflevot<; m~o1]0tv. d yap oihw<; Wta0wm Ta Tawam, Tolf1w<; xoum Kal d<;
Koupawpa<; ~youv npoKAU<JTa<; ~ npof16.xou<; Kal d<; Otcpevawpa<; ~youv K0(-

19o KOU<; ~ ~0!]00u<;, KUL L<; EKU<JTI]V xpdav TU<J<J<J0at.

28. Kal T~<; TotaUTIJ<; ouv yuflvaa[a.<; Ka.Top0ouf1EVTJ<; et<; Ta n\dova, i Kal fl~
navm, oe1 ytvwaKetv Tou<; aTpaTtwm<;. ou yap &t <navm> nou~\tKi(wem ota
To fl~ Tot<; txepot<; ytvwaKwem. ota yap Twv dpTJflEvwv TouTwv tvvea Ktv~aewv
npo<; nCiaav xpdav TOlflU ylvovTat Ta UUTWV TUYflUTU, KUL d<; KOupawpa.<; KO.L
195 l<; Otcpevawpa<; KO.L l<; n\aytO<pUAUKU<; KO.L L<;<;, (h xpe[a yeVI]TUl,
acpopta0~va[ TlVU<; UUTWV, EV <JUV1]0l<;t n6.<JI]<; Ta~W<; YV0flVU.
29. AvayKatov oe EO"Tl AOlTIOV KUL T~V npo<; UAATJAU Ta ~avoa <JUfl<pWVLUV Kal
TU~lV 0l(w0at, w<; nlnapm6.~W<;, a;\;\' Yva, w<; dpi]TUl, fl~ cpavepa ylVI]TUl ~
nCiaa EKTU~l<; TOt<; txepot<;. ouoenoT yap <xp~> npo T~<; flUXTJ<; T~V nCiaav TU~lV

MWA om. VBE 174 Ka-ra<pepe ... f.!TaTi8ecrem

MWAVE om. B 175 ~avoov MWVBE ~aoov A I ecrTi MA ecrTlv W ~ VBE 179 n~ MW
Tk; VBE Tt A 1 KaTa ... ~youv MW om. AVBE I em<pepof.!ivwv MW btepxof.!ivwv AVBE
181 ~AETtOUO'l M ~AE1tOUO'lV WAVBE 184-185 avayKat6v ... yUf.!VU~lV MWAVE om. B
188 exoum MA VBE exoucrtv W 190 ei~ MW A om. VBE 191 Kall WA VBE om. M
192 crTpa-ruiJm~ MW om. AVBE lrraVTa2 ci. Va om. codd.lnou~AtKi~ecrem MW <pauA.i~ecrem
Kal Ol)f.!OOLeucr8at AVBE 193 yap AVBE om. MW 194 yivovTat MWVBE yiyvovTat A
197 ecrTt MA ecrTlv WVBE 198 yivl)TUt MWA yivl)Tal VBE 199 XP~ Strat. rrprret

173-174 f.lETaTi8ea8m ... apt(m:pa

A VBE om. MW 1-r~v MWA~~ VBE


to change to the left, he orders: "Turn around to the left:' If the change is to the
right: "Turn around to the right:' This is how they change front. If just one
bandon is involved, then that one <changes front>, if several, one unit changes
front in like manner, and the rest do so in conformity with the one bandon.
26. Another maneuver. To turn the formation around, sometimes changing
the position in which the men stand, at other times changing the front of the
battle line around. If there is a sudden movement of the enemy attacking from
the rear or from behind, the commander gives the order: "Change position:'
Remaining in place they face behind, toward the rear, with only the officers and
the standard-bearers actually moving to the <new> front, <which had been> the
rear. If a large enemy force appears behind them, he commands: "Change place:'
Then they move about by bandon.
27. Not only is it necessary to have them draw up in linear formation and be
drilled, but they should also be drilled in irregular formations, in charging out
straight ahead, and in various circular movements. At first, they fall back and
wheel about, they then make surprise attacks against the enemy and, finally, give
prompt support to units in trouble. If the tagmata become habituated to such
<maneuvers> they will be prepared <to operate> as assault troops, that is, as
proklastai or promachoi, or as defenders, that is, as ekdikoi or support troops,
and to adopt a formation for every contingency.
28. By the proper performance of such drills, the soldiers will necessarily
become familiar with almost all of them, even if not all. There is no need to
make them all public; if you do so, the enemy may learn about them. By means
of the above-mentioned nine maneuvers the tagmata are prepared to face any
situation, whether some are assigned to be assault troops or defenders, or flank
guards, or outflankers, as need may require, for they will have become accustomed to all the formations.
29. It is essential, moreover, that the banda become used to drawing up and
cooperating with one another, as in the battle line, but in such a way, as mentioned, that all our formations do not become apparent to the enemy. Before





Training for Cavalry and Infantry

Constitution 7

EV T<fl U!la, -rour' E<JTLV, eic; npWTTJV Kal 6eu-rpav napaTa~lV 6ta yu!lvao(av !10VTJV
-raooetv, ~ nA.aytoqn)A.aKa<; ~ -roue; imepKepamac; A.eyo11vouc; ~ -roue; 6pouyyto-rl
Kal A.av8av6vTwc; npoon(movTa<; ~ f.v6pac; ~youv EYKPD!l!laTa. -ra yap -rotafna
mpa-r11yiac; 11anov E.m-rTJ6eu11aTa elvm KaTa -rwv txepwv ~ Ta~ewc;, anep
nponou~AlKt~eo8at EV Tal<; YU!1VaO'lat<; ou OU!l<pepet, ana TOT npoc; TO napov
KaTa T~V anav-rwoav xpeiav 1t0lLV.
30. Tipenov ouv, e'iTe Ka8' auTo mu KO!lTJTO<; TO ~av6ov e'iTe 6pof>yyoc; e'iTe
-roup11a e'iTe Kal nponapa-ra~tc; noA.A.of> oTpa-rof> f.mtv, E.v -rptol 11epem Taooetv
-roue; yu11va~o!1vouc;. Kal ei !lEV ~av6ov f.oTl To Ka8' au-ro yu11va~611evov, -roue;
nA.eiouc; aU-rou EV TCt~l Koupowpwv 1t0lLV ano 0Ka Ka~aAA.ap(wv E1tL cmA.~c;
aK(ac; v8ev KUKe18ev, au-roue; L00!1TW1tOU<; TCtOOlV EV TCt~l &tcpevowpwv,
aAA.ouc; 6E 6A.iyouc; Ka~aAA.ap(ouc; axpt 0Ka TCtOOlV 6t' O\jiW<; f.vavT(ouc;, WOT
-r~v ou11~oA.~v npoc; au-roue; eiKa~wem. I
31. KtVOUVTWV 0 auTWV we; E1tl !lCtXTJV E~epxwem ouv E.A.aa(q. LOU<; KOUp-



owpac; Kal xwp(~eo8at TWV Otcpevowpwv, Kal -rpexov-rac; en' eu8eiac; we; EV ~
&eu-repov !llAlV imompe<petV ewe; TOU ~!l(aewc; EKelVOU 6taOT~!laTO<; Kal EKKAlVOVTCt<; 1tOT !lEV Oe~t{j., TIOTE 0 aptaTt:p{j., TpEXelV. OUTW<; 6E 1tOlelV Kat TplTOV Kat
TeTapTov, etTa KuKA.oet6wc; EA.auvetv Kal !leTa -raf>Ta npompexov-rac; tv T<fl
!lTa~U T01t4J TWV 6tcpevowpwv, 08ev Kal E~~A.eov, !leTa TWV we; EV TCt~et 6tcpevowpwv EAauvetv we; eic; U1tCtVTTj<JlV TWV KaTa6lWKOVTWV au-roue;.
32. Ou-rwc; 6E nmdv Kal 6pouyyou yu11va~o11vou Kal -ra !lEv -rwv ~av6wv
auTOU TCtOOlV Koupowpac;, Ta 6E &tcpevowpac;, KalnaAlV vaAACt00lV a\na, OTE
Touc; Koupowpac; &tcpevowpac; notdv, 6TE LOU<; 6tcpvowpac; Koupowpac;, wa-re
npoc; T~V 6oKofloav xpeiav ETOl!lOU<; aU-roue; elvat.

tv TW MWAVE om. B I oeu-repav MWAVE B I YUf!VUa(av MW AVE YUf!VUaia~ 8

J.eyof!ivou~ MWA VE J.eyof!ivou B 203 bml)OeUflaTa MW Kal bml)OWf!<hwv AVBE
204 np07toU~ALKt<w8m MW npocpau:>..i<w8m AVBE 205 cmav-rwaav Strat. cmav-rouaav
M cmm-rouaav WAVBE 207 a-rpa-rou MW A :>..aou VBE 208 ~avoov MW AVE om. B I
ta-r\ MAVBE ta-rlv w 209 7tAelOU~ MW 7tAelOVU~ AVBE I au-rou Strat. au-rwv codd. I OEKU
MWA t' VBE I Ka~aHapiwv WAVBE Ka~aHapiou~ M 210 aKia~ MW aKia~ KalAVBE I
au-roil~ MW au-rwv AVE au-rw B I 0L<pvawpwv AVE 8Lcpeva6pwv MW &cpevawpa~ B
211 eSt' ... tvav-riou~ MW KUTEVUVLL au-rwv w~ tvav-riou~ AB Ka-r' evavn au-rwv tvav-r[oL~ VE
213-214 -roil~ Kovpawpa~ Va -rou~ Koupaopa~ MA -rou Koupaopo~ W Koupaopa~ VBE
5 f!lALV MW f!lALOV AVBE 217 npoa-rpexov-ra~ MWA npo-rpexov-ra~ VBE
218-219 08ev ... OL<pvawpwv2 MWAVE om. B 218 f!ELU TWV MW f!EL' au-rwv AVBE
220 oe MWAVE om. B 221-222 Kal...&cpevawpa~t MWAVE om. B 221 6-re Va wa-re
codd. 223 xpeiav MWA om. VBE I hOlf!OU~ ... dvm MW eLOLf!OL WGLV A eTOLf!OL WGL VBE



lmttle, never draw up the entire line all at the same time, but form <the army>
lnto first and second battle lines only for drilling. The same goes for flank guards
nr those called outflankers or with those in irregular formation or hiding ready
!o fall upon <the enemy> from ambuscades or ambushes. These dispositions are
matters of strategy against the enemy rather than of tactics, and they ought not
In be made known ahead of time during drill but should be decided on the spot
!o meet a specific need.
30. Whether an individual bandon, under its count, or a droungos or a
ttmrma or even the whole front line of a large army is being drilled, it should be
tlt<twn up in three parts. If a single bandon is to be drilled by itself, form most of
men as assault troops. On the same front with them about ten horsemen
11hould be drawn up as defenders in a single file on each flank. Station a few
iJther horsemen, say ten, out in front and opposing them so that they can form
!lome idea of the course of the attack.
31. On moving out, as though advancing rapidly to battle, the assault troops
~l:lparate from the defenders. They ride steadily forward for a mile or two, then
turn back about half that distance. Then they turn and ride, first to the right and
then to the left. They do this three or four times and circle back again. After this
they ride to their original position in the space among the defenders. Then, in
formation as defenders, they ride out as if to encounter a force pursuing them.
32. The droungos should be drilled in the same way. Draw up some of its
banda as assault troops and some as defenders. Then have them exchange roles.
The assault troops become defenders and the defenders become assault troops.
As a result, they will be prepared for whatever need must be faced.


33 '0110lW~

Training for Cavalry and Infantry

Constitution 7

o rrotetV Kat TOUp11a~ YU11Va(o11EVf)~ Kat rrapani~eW~ rrpWTf)~

Kat rrapma~ew~ OeuTepa~. maK'\fat 8 d~ Ta~ KUKAoet8et~ /..aa(a~ Twv Koup

awpwv, orrou 8ta<popa ~av8a eupiaKOVTUL,


ei~ Mo apxa~ TafJTa 11Epi(w0at

Kat /..auvetV T~V vavT[av QAA~AWV, Kat urravTCtV Ta~ apxa~ T~V 11EV 11[av E~W,

T~v 8 8euTpav awTpw Tpexav, Iva 11~ rrpoaKpou11ma Twv Ka~at..Aapiwv


34 !:,.eov 8 Kat rrA.ayto<pUAaKa~ Kat urrepKepama~ ~youv TOU~ Ta~ KUKAW
(J1~ arro TOV 8e~LOV 11EPOU~ JTOLOUVTa~ i8[w~ 11d U\JTWV 8pouyytmt ~youv
rruKvou~ Kat 611ou 11mm6vm~ yu11va(etv, A.aveavovm~ 8 8t' ~v avwTepw

~::'irro11ev aiTiav, wme d~ 11ev Ta~ 11aKpOTepa~ rrapma~et~ Twv vaVTiwv iaoua0at
Kat 11~ E1111eptAal1~avwem urr' ainwv, KUTa

TWV KOVTOTepwv ei~ TO Ta~

KUKAWGet~ rroteia0at, avnTaaao11evwv auTot~ 6/..iywv Ka~aA.A.apiwv rrt arrA.~~

QK[a~ axpt i::vo~ ~ 8euTpou ~av8ou w~ vaVTLWV, '(va rrpo~ aUTOU~ Kavovi(wmv
oi urrepKepamal rrp6Tepov urrepKepav aUTOU~ ~TOt KUKAOUV de' oihw~ oi
(JUVOVT~ aUTOt~ 8pouyytml ~youv w~ 11a(a, 0110U, A.aveav6vTW~ aUTOL 110VOL

li<pvw urre~epx611VOL 11Ta /..aa[a~ 6~eia~ Ttp VWT(J.l ~youv KUTa TU omaeev TWV

vavTiwv mTi0evTat.
35 Aumt ouv ai )'U11Vaa[at eiat. Kat KOLVW~ 8 rrona TCt)'l1aTU Kat

i8(w~ JTUALV EV TUYIJ.a Tl apl1o8iw~ )IUI1Va(ouat, Kal TOt~ txepot~ liyvwaTO~ t)

TCt~l~ <pUAUTTTat. Kal 8ov (J,

wmpaTf))'E, TaUTa~ Ta~ YU11Vaaia~ yypa<pW~ I

8ouvat Kat TOt~ UJTO (J TOUPI1UPXat~ Kat TOt~ UAAOL~ TOt~ i8[<;t )IU11Va(011EVOL~

TCt)'l1aatv, 0i(etV 8 Ta~ TOtaUTU~ yul1vaa[a~ 11~ 110VOV tv 011aAOt~, ana Kat tv

8ua~aTOl~ TOJTOL~ Kat ei~ U'\ff)AOU~ Kat d~ KUTW<pepet~. Kal tv Katptp 8 Kavawvo~
KaAOV an YU11Va(etv Kal 0i(etv TOV mpaT6v ouoel~ yap ol8ev TrOT GU11~~(J
Tat 11CtXfJ Kat TL 0"UI1~~aTat.

224 Kal' WA VBE om. M

226-228 Otcu:popa ... OwTepav MWA VE Olq>Evcrwpa Km)pcrwpac;

Yva rrpoc; T~V OOKOU<Jav fTOlf.lOl W<Jl orrwc; T~V 0UTtpav E<JW B 227 apxac; MW apxac; Kal
AVBE 228 owTpw Va crwTtpav MW i::ow AVBE I rrpocrKpOUf.lUTa MWVE
rrpooKpOUOf!UTa AB 231 f.leT' mhwv AVE f.lETaUTWV B f.leTa auTWV MW 232 rruKvouc;
MWA VE 1lUKVWc; B I o MW A om. VBE 232-233 Ol' ... aiTiav MW OlU TO f.l~ q>auA.i~ecr8m
TOLe; rroA.ef!imc; AVBE 233 vaVTiwv MWA rroAef.liwv VBE I ioouo8m AVBE Yva ioouvm1
MW 234 Ef.l1leplAaf.l~O.vecr8m AVBE Ef!lleplAUf.l~O.vovml MW 23 5 auToLc; MWA au-rwv
VBE 236 KUVOVl~WOlV MWAVE KUVOVl~OUOlV B 237 ~TOl MWAVE ~youv B 238 we;
f!O.~a MW om. AVBE 239 Tw ... omcr8ev MW 6nicrw AVBE 241 dm WVBE 1mv MA
242 Tl W om. MA VBE I yuf.lvO.~oum Strat. yuf!VO.~wm MWVE YUf.lVO.~ecr8al AB I iiyvwmoc;
MWA euyvwcrToc; VBE 244 TOLc; 1 AVBE TODc; MW I TOUpf.lO.pxmc; AVBE TOUpf!apxac; MW
247 olOev MW oloe AVBE


33 Act in like fashion in drilling the tourma, as well as the first and second
h11ttle lines. <Practice> encircling charges by assault troops that involve different
hnnda divided into two commands and riding in the opposite direction to one
1H1other, with one division advancing on the inside and the second on the outin order to avoid collisions among the horsemen.
34 The flank guards and the outflankers, that is, those making circling
movements from the right side, must be drilled separately, along with those
Irregular troops who had been hiding, for reasons explained above, and who
ldtnck all at once in a mass, so that when the enemy lines extend beyond ours,
keep our line even and guard it against envelopment by the enemy, whereas
when their lines are shorter than ours, they can make use of encircling movements. A few horsemen, say one or two banda, should line up opposite them in
tt single line as though they were the enemy, so that the outflankers, conforming
In the length of their line, may first outflank or encircle them. Then the men
who had been hiding can suddenly and swiftly charge out by themselves, in
Irregular formation or like a lump, and fall upon the rear, that is, behind the
35. These exercises are simple and can easily be practiced by several tagmata
together or, again, by a single tagma, without disclosing our order of battle to
the enemy. It is your obligation, 0 general, to give these exercises in writing to
the tourmarchs and others under your command involved in drilling individual
tagmata. They should get used to these exercises not only on level ground but
also in difficult terrain, among hills and steep inclines. Even in hot weather it is
u good idea to drill and get the army used to it. For nobody knows when battle
will take place and what will happen.


36. Xp~ yap oihwc; T~V YD!lVa<JlUV TIOLla8at we; btl UUTOU TOU TIOAE!lOU, 8Lo

5o Kal ~11Lc; ota -ro xr~m11ov Kal -ra v Katpt'P noA.11ou v-rauea dp~Ka!lev. -ro yap
npoc; -roue; KLVOUVOUc; 8i(wem avopeto-rpouc; Touc; mpanwmc; TIOLl.
37. 'End OE T~V TWV Ka~aA.A.apiwv YD!lVUGLUV EK !lpouc; OtTU~Ct!lea, xpe6v
anv 6!-lo[wc; KUL T~V TWV TIE(LKWV TUY!l<lTWV YD!lVUGLUV GOL OLOpiaaaem, oaov
EK TWV apxaiwv TUKTLKWV KUL oaov EK TWV vwv napetA~<pU!lV. 6pt(OVTUL TOLVUV

55 ai aKiat npw-rov -rou ne(tKou -ray!la-roc;, Kaewc; avw nou mwava11ev, wa-re
-raaaweai nvac; !lEV UUTWV aptmepg, nvac; oe O~Lg TOU ~avoou ~TOL TOU
apxovToc;. KUL nponopEDO!lEVOU TOU apxov-roc; U!lU Ttp ~avoo<p6p(fl KUL Ttp
!lUVOCtTWpl KUL ~OUKLVCtTWpl ETIUKOAOU80UGLV we; wpia8TjGUV oi A.oxayol ~youv oi
npwTOGTCtTUL ~ OEKUPXOL, npwTOV oi TOU aptmepou !lpouc; KUL TOT TOU 0~LOU.



Training for Cavalry and Infantry

Constitution 7

38. fLVO!lEVWV OE UUTWV v Ttp T~c; YD!lVa<Jtac; TOTI(fl ~ T~c; napma~ewc;,

LGTUTUL 6 apxwv Kal !l1"' UUTOV 6 ~avoocp6poc; KUL e'( TLc; -repoc; KUTa auv~eetav.
KUL napa-raaaovTat au-rotc; v8ev Kal EK18ev ai CtKLUL, we; wpia8TjGUV, npw-rov v
apatOTEPlfl OLaaT~!lUTL, '(va !l~ auvTpt~WVTUL im' aAA~AWV, ano t<:;' TO ~aeoc;
~youv TO naxoc;, xouaat Kal -roue; \j!LAouc; omaeev, Ta OE ~l<pTj TWV Kovmpiwv
livw ~AETIOVTU 'lva !l~ E!lTIOOt(WVTUl im' UUTWV. E!1TIPOG8v o TOU !lT<.imou
nepmamumv 6 11avoa-rwp, 6 Ka!lmoouKTwp ~youv 6 60Tjyoc; -rwv -r6nwv, 6 11v
TOU<; TOTIOUc; avepeuvwv KUL OOTJYWV, 6 o Ta !lUVOCtTU yvw!ln TOU apxov-roc;
39 Kal d !lEV -rawa a-rl TO YD!1VU(O!lVOV, TOY TOU TCtY!lUTOc; apxov-ra

270 E!1TIPOG8V nepmaTlV !lETa !lavoa-rwpoc; KUL KU!lTILOOUKTWpoc;, l o TOUP!lU

yu11va(Tat, 1111<'>va i:!lnpoaeev nepma-re'iv l 11~ -roup!l<iPXTJV Ka~aA.Aaptov !lETa

!lUVOUTwpwv QUO, KU!lTILOOUKTWpwv ouo, a-rpa-rwpoc; a' KUL anaeapiou evoc; ~TOL


36. It is necessary to perform these drills as though you were actually at war.
We have, therefore, addressed ourselves herein to what is useful in time of war.
Being accustomed to its dangers makes the soldiers more courageous.
37 Since we have set down specific guidelines for drilling the cavalry, it is
necessary in like manner to give you instructions concerning the training of the
infantry tagmata, based on what we have derived from the ancient tacticians as
well as the modern ones. 8 First, the files of the infantry tagma must be organized, as we indicated above, so that some should be drawn up to the left, some
to the right of the standard or of the commanding officer. The commander then
moves forward together with the standard-bearer and the herald and the
trumpeter. The group leaders, that is, the protostatai or dekarchs, follow in their
i\Ssigned positions, first those on the left side, then those on the right.
38. On arriving at the site of the drill or of the battle line, the commanding
officer halts with the standard-bearer behind him and with his customary
entourage. The files draw up on both sides of them in their assigned positions, at
tirst a good distance apart to avoid bumping into one another, at a depth or
thickness of sixteen, with the light-armed troops to the rear. They hold the
points of their spears on high so they will not be impeded by them. The herald
and the field guide, that is, the guide of the places, march before the front line,
the one for reconnaissance and guide duty, the other to transmit orders from the
39 If a tagma is being drilled, the commanding officer should march in
front with the herald and the field guide. If a tourma is being drilled, nobody
should march in front except the tourmarch, mounted, with two heralds, two
field guides, one strator, and one spatharios, that is, the man bearing the

254-461 Strat., 12.B.11-16.

252 XPEOV MW xpeia AVBE

253 m:(LKWV MW ne(wv AVBE 253-254 O<JOV ... LUKTLKWV

MW AVE ax[m B I Ka8w<; MW A Ka86 VBE I iivw 1tOU MW avw-rpw AVBE I W<JTE MW w<;
AVBE 256 ainwv MW tv AVBE 1 Be MW Be tv AVBE 258 ~ouKLva-rwpL A ~ouKtva-ropL
MW ~ouKLVLa-rwpL VBE 259 BeKapxm MW A MKapxm VBE I ol MW om. AVBE
260 ytVOflEVWV W yevof!EVWV MAVBE 261 au-rov MWVBE au-rwv A scr. mg. ~youv
Beu-repo<; EKELVOU w 262 au-rot<; AVBE au-rol MW 263 u;' VBE K' MW BeKa~ A
266 nepma-roumv ... f!avBa-rwp scr. mg. <... > ouK anexouaa a-rpa-nw ... o<; ... anex .. . Lou W
267 flavM-ra MW napayyA.flaLU AVBE I YVWflT] MW npo-rpon~ AVBE 269 eat\
-roupf!UX!JV A -roupf!UX!J<; B 272 Mo 1 MWA P' VBE I Mo2 MAP' WVBE I a' MW f:vo<;

AVBE I crna8ap[ou AVBE anaea-rou MW

8. Strat. 12.B.11-16.

9 Kampidouktor, although translated as drillmaster (Strat. 12.B.7-4; Engl. trans. p. 140),

l'ddwebel (Germ. trans. p. 425), Exerziermeister (LBG), in the Taktika (7.38; 14.59) reflects its
Latin origin (campus, ductor), indicating a field guide, who may also have been in charge of
drilling the troops.


Training for Cavalry and Infantry

Constitution 7

TOU ta onAa TOU apxovto<; I <ppovto<;, w<; ou nAT]GlOV t~<; GUfl~OA~<; YEVT]tal ~

napa-ray~. t6T 8 tv tft napatayft ua<paAw<; dapxnm, tv 4> t6mp to ~av8ov

275 aUTOU tetaKTUL.
40. M~ <JUflnAEKG8at 8 aUTOV TOt<; tvavTLOl<; f.!Tj8 ~OUKLVOV AEYELV d<;

Kaatov f.!Epo<; nA~v Tou f.!Epapxou, hE fllav toiipflav Xt To f.!ltpo<; dt ouo dt

nAEiova<;, Kav Ei aufl~ft noUa dvat Ta ~ouKtva, i'va fl~ 8opu~ou YVOflvou
KwA\JwvTat ta flUVOCtTa t~aKouw8aL. Kal oi f.!EV 6nA1Tat nE(ol ~youv oi aKouTa280

tot taaaovtat oihw<;. oi 8 \lfLAol Kata 8ta<p6pou<; tp6nou<; taaaovTat ~youv oi

UKpO~OAtatal flEV nCtAat KaAOUflEVOl, vuv 8 to~6tat ~ aaymatwp<; not flEV

yap oma8v EKCt<JTT]<; UKLU<; npo<; TO f.!Etpov TWV OVTWV, tout' eanv EL<; TOU<; t<;'
GKOUTCtTOU<; 8' \lflAOL, tva Kat flEXPL 8' f.!Ept(Of.!EVT]<; T~<; TWV <JKOUTCttWV UKta<;
EupE8ft Ei<; to~6tT]<; oma8v aUt~<;, not 8 tv T4> ~a8Et Twv uKtwv d<; nap' Et<;
aKoutaTo<; Kal to~OTT]<;, not 8 Kal tv tal<; UKtat<; Kal tv tol<; Kpaatv ~youv
tal<; t~oxa1<; TWV napata~Ewv, tout' eaTtv tawtpw twv Ka~aAAapiwv, noUaKt<;

8 Kal t~wtpw UUTWV, uno fllKpou 8taat~flUTO<; flETCt Kal OAtywv GKOUTCttWV d<;
TO tK8tKcia8at TOU<; d<; TO t~wtEpov eatwta<; KU~aUap(ou<;, tav noUoi Eiatv oi
41. Oi 8 ta ptKTCtpta ~ t(lKOUpta ~ ~ap8ouKta exovt<; ~ oma8V TWV UKLWV
TWV GKOUTCtTWV ~ d<; ta aKpa t~<; napatCt~EW<; Kal OUK tv t<iJ flEGtp oi 8 G<pV-

8o~OAl<JTal navtw<; Ei<; ta aKpa t~<; napatCt~EW<;. vuv 8 TCt~OflEV TOU<; to~6Ta<;
KUL A0l110U<; UKOVTLGTU<; oma8v TWV UKLWV npo<; t~V YDflVaa(av ~ W<; unatTEl ~

42. Tou<; 8 KU~UAAUplOU<; el<; ta aKpa T~<; nE(lK~<; napatCt~EW<; tCt~El<;, oaa

8 UUTWV uv8pEL6tEpa TCtYflaTa flETU TWV upx6vtwv UUTWV t~wtpw. KUL Ei flEV
noUoi datv oi Ka~UAACtplOl, tout' E<Jtl, nAEOV TWV tW XLAt<i8wv, uno 8Ka TO
~a8o<; TOUTWV yivw8at, d 8 KUL 0Atywtpou<; TOU f.!Etpou TOUTOU, uno nvt.

dvat o EK nEptaaou TlVU<; oma8v tv uno~OT]8d<;t UUtWV t~wTpw tWV UflU~WV


tva, tav f.!Ev Ota tWV oma8v TlV<; TWV tx8pwv <p8CtVWGLV, unoao~~GWGLV
273 apxov-ro~ MWAB apxovm VE
278 Kiiv MWA Kal VBE

276 fl~ WA fl~


277 ouo MWA VE

280-281 ~youv ... crayrn:c!Twpe~ MW om. AVBE


283 0'

MWVBE -recrcrape~ A 1 o' 2 MWVBE -rwcrapwv A 288 eKOtK1cr9m MWA KOtKe1cr9m VBE I
-r62 wAVBE TOU~ M I dcrtv MW A wcrtv VBE 290 ptKTUpta Va pi]KTUpta MW pm-rapta
AVBE 1 ~apoouKta MW flaT<ouKta AVBE 291 flecrw MW flEcrw -raxe~crov-rm AVBE
291-292 m:pevOo~oA.tcr-ral MW cr<pevoov~Tat A crcpevoov[-rat VE cr<pevowv[-rm B 292 -rou~
AVBE om. MW 297 tW MWVBE owoeKa A 298 flETpou MWA f1pou~ VBE I nev-re
MWA VE e' B 299 omcr9ev MWAVE om9ev B 300 anocro~~crwcrtv Va anocrw~~crwmv
MW anav-rwcrtv AVBE


commander's weapons. <They remain there> until the battle line is close to
engaging. Then they safely enter back into the battle line, to the place where the
standard is located.
40. The commander should not personally fight against the enemy. No
trumpet should sound in each meros except that of the merarch, whether the
meros has one tourma or two or more, even if there should be many trumpets.
Otherwise the resulting noise may prevent the orders from being heard. This is
how the heavy infantry, the heavy-armed troops, should be organized. The
light-armed troops are formed in various manners. They were formerly called
akrobolistai, but now bowmen or archers. Sometimes to the rear of each file in
proportion to their numbers, four light-armed troops for sixteen heavy-armed
men, so that if the heavy-armed file is reduced to four deep there will be one
archer behind it. Sometimes <they are placed> in the depths of the files, one
heavy-armed soldier alternating with one archer; sometimes, both in the files
and in the horns, that is, the extremities of the battle line, on the inside of the
cavalry. Frequently, if there is a large number of light-armed troops, <they are
posted> a short distance to the outside of the cavalry, along with a few
heavy-armed men, to defend the cavalry stationed outside.
41. The troops carrying missile weapons, axes, or maces should be either
behind the heavy infantry files or on the extremities of the battle line and not in
the middle. The slingers are always at its extremities. At present we form the
archers and the others with missile weapons behind the files for drill or as need
42. Station the cavalry on the extremities of the infantry battle line, the
bravest units with their officers further out. If the cavalry force is large, that is,
over twelve thousand men, they should be about ten deep. If they number less
than that, about five deep. There should be extra troops in the rear, outside the
wagons, to support them, so they may scare off any of the enemy who shows up


Constitution 7

Training for Cavalry and Infantry

atJT01J<;, ft 0E 11~ ye, npo<JT8Wat TOt<; n/..ay[oL<; Kai au-ro(. Ta<J<JOVTQL Of Kai au-roi
EV apato-rp<.p np6-repov Otala-r~l1aTL tva, EUV YEVT]Tal Katpo<; d<; TO XPfl~eLV 30!1
11-ra~anwem, 11~ 11nooi~wv-rm.

43 IlapayydA.n<; 0 TOU<; Ka~aAAap[ou<; 11~ Kam-rpxnv TWV x8pwv 11110

305 a<p[a-raaem T~<; ne~LK~<; napa-r6.~W<; W<; nl TIOAU OL<i<JTT]I1a, KUV -raxa -rparrwow

ol x8po[, Yva 11~ yKPDI111a-r6<; -rtvo<; nap' au-rwv yevo11vou, dnep

ano otaa-r~-

11a-r6<; dmv ol rrt:~o[, yui1VODI1VOL -r~<; rrapa-ra~ew<; nTjpwa8wmv w<; 6A.tyw-rpOL ~ aa8VE<JTepOL. ana Kal av ~Laa8wmv, W<; ElKO<;, napa TWV vav-riwv,
oma8t:v -r~<; rrapa-ra~ew<; npoa<peuyt:tv Kai 11~ rrappxwem -ra<; a11a~a<;, -ra<;
310 6niaw T~<; napa-rO.~eW<; TWV ne~WV 6<peLAOU<Ja<; dvat npo<; <pUAaK~V au-rwv. [ Of

11T]Of OUTW<; av-rexoum, Ka-repxwOm au-rou<; EK TWV Ynnwv Kai OUTW<; ne~ft eauTOU<; EKOLKiv.
44 'Eav Of napa-ra~aa8at 11fV 8/..n 6 'a-rpa-r6<;, 11~ <JUI1~aALV 0 KaLa T~V
au-r~v ~11Epav, Kai OPI1~(JW<JlV oi exOpoi KaTa TWV Ka~aAA.ap[wv Kal 11~ ~aa-ra315 ~W<JLV au-rou<;, 11~ ava11EVW<JLV au-rou<; im6.11VOL ei<; -ra KEpa-ra T~<; napa-r6.~W<;,

O.AA.' oma8ev 11CtAAOV EA.Owmv <TWV m:~wv>, -roil-r' E<JTLV 11E<JOV T~<; napa-rO.~eW<;
Kai TWV Ctl1a~wv. el 0 Toil-ro YEVT]TaL, xpe[a l1fl~OVO<; -roil EV -r4J 11E<J<.p 0La<Jl~l1a
TO<;, tva 11fTa~aAA011EVWV, W<; iK6<;, TWV Ka~aAA.ap[wv 11~ <JTVOXWpTj0Wat 11T]Of
ai TWV exOpwv aayinat ~Aa\f!W<JLV aU-rou<;.

45 Tail-ra Oei 116.A.tma Kal tv Katp4J 11<iXT]<; yivwOm ota -rau-r11v yap Kal ~
yu11vaaia I1TaXLPt~Tat.

46. Tou-rwv ouv TWV OLa-r<i~eWV LPT]11EVWV nprrov ~!llv Kai -ra ax~l1aTa Kai
-ra napayyA.11a-ra -r~<; rre~LK~<; -ra~ew<;, want:p Kai -r~<; inmK~<;, 11<paviam aot Kai

47 '0-r' av yap napaa-rwm rrpo<; T~V YU11Vaa[av -ra 11EPT] T~<; rrapa-ray~<; TWV
-ray116.-rwv -roil a-rpa-roil, napayyAA.n 6 11av06.-rwp mil-ra "11Ta my~<; nav-re<; -ra
napayyA.11a-ra nA.T]pwaa-r. 11~ -rapax8~-r. -r~v -ra~tv u11wv <puA<i~a-r.



301 a\rrou~ MW a\rrou~ Kai anootwKwatv AVE au-rou~ Kai <'mootwKouatv B lnpoo-re6wot

MAVBE npoo-re6watv W 302 ei~XP~<EtV MW om. AVBE 303 flETa~aA.Aw6m MW

flETU~aA.toem au-rou~ AVBE 305 w~ MW om. A VBE 306 nap' ... YEVOflEVOU MW A trsp.
VBE 306-307 e'Lnep ... napa-ra~Ew~ MW flaKpav -rij<; napa-ra~Ew~ -rwv ne<wv euptO'KOflEVOt
AVBE 307 E1l!]peao6wmv MW AB E1l!]pea6wmv VE 309 naptpxw6at WAVBE
tmipxw6at M 311 av-rtxoum M av-rexouO'tV w Ct1lUVTWO'lV A Ct1lUVTWO'l VBE
313 O'Ufl~UAEiV AVBE O'Ufl~UAAElV MW 313-314 T~V au-r~v MW trsp. AVBE
314 Opfl~O'WO'lV MWAVE Opfl~O'OUatV B 316 aA.A' ... napa-ra~EW~ MWA om. VBE I TWV
ne<wv Strat. om. codd. I flEO'OV A om. MWVBE 318 O'TEvoxwp!]6wot MAVBE
O'TEVOXWP1]6WO'lV w 320 Oel PO oe codd. 323 L1l1llKij~ MWA 1le<tKij<; VBE
325 napao-rwm AVBE napao-rwmv M diff. lectu W 327 <pUAa~aTE MAVBE 1lA!]pWO'aTE W


in the rear. If there is no <such need> they join in support of the flanks. They
should first draw up in a very wide space so that, if the time comes for wheeling
about, they do not get in each other's way.
43 Order the cavalry not to race after the enemy or to get too far away from
the infantry line, even if the enemy quickly turns to flight. Otherwise, they
might run into an ambush and, with the infantry far off, without the support of
the battle line, weakened, and few in numbers they might be badly beaten. But
if, as may happen, they should be driven back by the enemy, let them seek
refuge to the rear of the battle line, but not go beyond the wagons, which ought
to be behind the infantry battle line to protect it. If they still cannot hold out,
they should dismount and defend themselves on foot.
44 If the army wants to draw up for battle, but not engage in fighting that
day, and the enemy charges against our cavalry, and they cannot hold them off,
they should not wait for them in their position on the horns of the battle line,
but rather ride in behind the infantry, that is, between the line and the wagons.
If this happens, there will be a need for more room in that middle area so that
the cavalry may not be forced into a narrow space, which is possible, and be
injured by the enemy's arrows.
45. These things occur especially in time of battle; it is with this in mind that
we devote time to drilling.

46. Now that we have covered these arrangements, it is fitting for us to explain and make clear to you the formations and the commands for the infantry
units, as <we did> for the cavalry.
47 When the various divisions are lined up and the units of the army get
into position for their drills, the herald gives the following commands. "In silence, everyone observe the commands. Do not be confused. Stay in your


Training for Cavalry and Infantry

Constitution 7

btaKOAou8~aa-r. !lflOeL<; acp~an TO ~avoov Kal LOU<; ex8pou<; oub~aTE." Kal

-rou-rwv elpfl!lvwv KLvoum npaw<; -rE Kai ~auxw<;, wa-re 1111o '!'L8upLa!lov yiv33o

wem napa nvo<;.

48. 'E81<ea8m o au-rou<; npo<; -rau-ra cpwvft ~ VEU!lan, OLU afl!lelOU TLVO<;, olov
KLvdv Kai '(a-raaem. A.emuvea8m ~youv !1EP1<w8m -ro ~a8o<; n'ilv aKLwv, nepma-rE"iv 'law<; Kai auVTETaY!lEVW<; ni aTO!-La ~youv en' eu8da<;. Kai KUTU noLKLAOU<;
-rp6nou<; Kai OLacp6pou<; nuKvoua8m ~-roL acpiyyw8m Ka-ra ~a8o<; Kal !l~Ko<;.


cpouAK4J nepma-rdv. au!l~UAAELV W<; tv -ra~EL !lCtXfl<; !lELCt ax~!laTO<;, no-r !lfV
!lETU ~epy(wv, no-r o !lElCt YD!lVWV ana81wv.
49 fu!lva<ea8m o Kai ou-rw<; I !1EPt<ea8m npo<; OLcpaA.ayy(av Kai naALV 306'
anoKa8(a-raa8m. OE~l(~ Kai apLaTEpq KA(vw8m Kai nepma-rdv ent KEpa<; ~youv

-ro OE~Lov 11po<;. npoayeLV e11npoa8ev KatnaA.Lv anoKa81a-raa8m. cpuA.anw8m


a!l<pLaT6f.LW<; Ka-rpw8ev Kat naALV anoKa8(a-raa8m. f.LETU-rl8ea8m OE~Lq Kat

apLaLEpq. apaLOua8m Kat nA.a-ruvw8m. <~aeuvea8m> ~TOL omA.ouaem TO

~a8o<; -rwv aKLwv. f.LETa~aA.A.eaem Ka-ra vw-rou KatnaA.Lv anoKa81a-raa8m.

so. flvov-rm 0 -ra ax~flaTa -rav-ra OLCt -ra<; 0Lacp6pou<; avaKumouaa<; ai-r(a<;
cpwvft -ro(vuv ~ VEUf.Lan, OLU aflf.LELOU nv6<;, KLVOUOL Kat [a-rav-rm. OTE o 8AEL

KLV~<JUL, Gflf.LaLVEL ~ ~OUKLV4J ~ -rft Taup<;t 6 Kaf.L1tLOOUKTWp ~ Tft cpwvft, Kat

KLVOUOLV. Ei 0 a-r~aaL 8AEL, ~ Tft TOU~<;t, 0 an !lLKpOV ~OUKLVOV, ~ Tft cpwvft ~
VEU!lan T~<; xnp6<;, Kat l<JTaVTUL. OLU o TOUTO cpwvft Kat <JTjf.La<Jt<;t 81<ecr8m
avayKa16v f<JTL OLU TOV TOU apf.LaTO<; 86pu~ov ~ KOVLOp-rov ~ Of.LLXAflV myLV0-


51. AE7tLUVOVTUL ~TOL f.LEpt<ov-rm ai CtKlaL o-r' av


L<;' avopwv TO ~a8o<;

au-rwv tan Kat 8AEL<; f.LUAAOV TO f.L~KO<; TWV napa-ra~EWV fKTElVUL OLU KOf.LnOV ~
OLU TO iawe~vm -rft TWV evav-r(wv napa-ra~EL Kat napayyeAAEL



e~EA8e." Kat ~pxov-rm et<; nap' eva f.LEPL<Of.LEVOL, Kat AE1tlUVETUL !lfv TO ~a8o<;
328 Kal 1 otw~m:e MW om. AVBE

329 Ktvoum A VBE Ktv~crovm MW 329-330 yivw8m MWVBE yevecr8at A 331 a\rrouc; MW au-roue; oeov AVBE 335 <pouA.Kw AVBE
<pouA.Kwv MW I crvf!~<iAA.m ... crx~flaTo<; MW ~youv -roue; 6nicrw crKenov-rac; -rae; -rwv
i:'f!npocr8ev KE<; -role; crKov-rapiot<; Kal olovel Kepaf!w8ev-rac; nepma-relv AVBE 337 KaV
MWA om. VBE 341 ~a8uvecr8at Strat. nA.a-ruvw8m W om. MA VBE I omA.oucr8at AVBE
otanA.oucrem MW 342 KaTCt VWTOV MW (micrw AVBE 343 ota<p6povc; MW A cSta<p6pwc;
VBE 344 Ktvoum MA VBE Ktvoucrtv W 345 -ravpea Va -ravpia MW craA.myyt AVBE
347 LOTUVTat MWA LOTaTat VBE I o TOUTO MW trsp. AVBE I OllflUOta MW OllflelW AVBE
348 tcr-rt MAVBE tcrnv W I -rov ... iipf!aTo<; MW TE -rov KTUTiov -rwv <'tpf!UTWV AVBE I~~ MW
Kal TOV AVBE 348-349 ~ 2 emytVOf!EVI]V MW ~ KUL T~V emytVOf!EVI]V OfllXAI]V AVBE
351 ton M tcr-rtv WA ~ VBE I ota KOf!TIOV MW ~ cSta <pav-racr(av AVBE 352 napa-ra~et

AVBE TU~El MW I ano OKTW Va om. codd.


position. Follow after the standard. Let nobody leave the standard and pursue
the enemY:' When this has been said, they move at a steady pace and in silence,
without anyone even whispering.
48. They should become accustomed to these movements so that at a spoken
command, a nod, or some other signal, they march or halt, reduce or divide the
depth of the files, march evenly and in good order out in front or in a straight
line, and in a great variety of ways thicken or tighten ranks according to depth
and width. March in a foulkon. In battle formation engage in a mock battle,
sometimes using staffs and sometimes unsharpened swords.
49 Drill them also in this way. Divide into a double phalanx and then
resume normal formation. Face to the right and to the left. March to the flank,
that is, to the section on the right. Advance in front and again back to their
original position. Defend on a double front from both sides and then return to
their original position. Change front to the right and to the left, open files and
extend the formation, deepen or double the depths of the files, change their
front to the rear and then back again.
50. These maneuvers are set in motion by various means as they present
themselves. At a spoken command, a gesture, or some other signal the troops
march or halt. When he wants them to march, the field guide signals by
trumpet, horn, or voice, and they march. If he wants them to halt, then by tuba,
which is a small trumpet, by voice, or by a hand gesture, and they halt. to It is
essential that the troops become accustomed to these commands by voice or
signal because of the confusion caused by the clash of arms, the dust, or the fog
settling in.
51. The files may be thinned or divided when they are sixteen men deep and
you want rather to extend the width of the battle line to make it look more
impressive or to make it equal to the enemy line. Give the command: "March
out <by eights>:' They divide up with every other man stepping out of line, and
10. In Classical as well as Byzantine Greek, the word for trumpet was In the

Taktika, however, the common term is boukinon (Latin, bucina), which came in several sizes
(supra, Const. 5 4), was spiral in shape, and was sounded to begin marching. The small

boukinon, also known as tuba, gave the signal to halt; this too came in various sizes and
shapes; The Oxford Latin Dictionary defines it as a trumpet with a straight tube. Another type
ofboukinon was the taurea (Lat. cornu). See also Vegetius, Epitoma rei militaris, 3-5 A "count
of the trumpets" (KOfll]<; -rwv ~ovKivwv) is listed in CampOrg, 1.120. Cf. N. Maliaras, "Die
Musikinstrumente des byzantinischen Heers vom 6. bis zum 12. Jahrhundert;' JOB 51 (2001):


Training for Cavalry and Infantry

Constitution 7

nilv QKLWV, rrpom[8nm 0 n) fl~KO<; T~<; rrapma~W<;, Kal yivnm TO ~a8o<; cmo

r( i o 8Al arro -rwaapwv, rraALV A.eyet e~A8. Kal i#pxovTUL OflOLW<; rravT<;
d<; EV flEpo<;, 0~L<';i ~ apta-rep<';i. TOUTO o xrLa rrapaq>UAUTTLV, Iva rravT<; i<; EV
f1po<; Kal iapxov-rat Kal ~pxov-rat.
52. TiepmaTciV '(aw<; Kal OUVTTUYflEVW<; o-r' UV TLV<; T~<; rrapaTa~W<; TrpOKU'JIWaL


Kal av(aw<; rrepmaTOUat, Kal rrapayyeAAL '(aov TO flETWTrOV, Kal iaoiiTm TO

53 TIUKVOUVTUL fjyouv a<ptyyovTUL, o-r' UV W<; UTrO

W~ y' aaytTTO~OAWV T~<;

TWV ex8pwv rrapa-ra~W<; yivnm ~flWV ~ rrapa-ra~t<; Kat flEAAn 0Ufl~UAALV.

rrapayyA.Aet "(eu~ov." Kal rruKVOUflVOL mpiyyov-rm rrpo<; -rov f1aov -r6rrov
KaTa ~a8o<; Kal fl~Ko<; -roaou-rov, Iva oi flEV Eflrrpoa8ev -rnawevot Kal EK rrA.ay[ou i<; Ta lipflaTU UAA~AOL<; yyi(watv, oi o omaeev KaTa VWTOU a.n~A.ot<;
warrep KKOAAfJVTUl. TOUTO 0 TO ax~fla yivwem MvaTUL Kal rrepmaTOUOfJ<; Kat
[OTUflEVfJ<; T~<; rrapa-ra~W<;. I XP~ o TOU<; oupayou<; rrapayyA.Aw8m Kal EK TWV
oma8ev rrpow81v Kat arrop8ouv aU-rou<; l<; T~V xrLav Iva fl~ vaTrOflEVWOl
TLV<;, W<; iK6<;, OelALWVT<;.
54 <l:>oUAKqJ 0 rrepmaT1V Aynm oT' av yyt(ouawv TWV rrapaTa~WV, T~<;
T ~flHEpa<; Kat Tf)<; TWV vavTLWV, flEAAn apxea8m ~ TO~ia y[vea8m Kat OU
<popoumv oi v


flHWrrq> -rnawevot (a~a<; fjmt A.wpiKta. Kal rrapayyA.Aet

"rruKvwaov." Kal -rwv l::flrrpoa8ev KaTa -ro flETwrrov -re-rayflvwv rruKvouv-rwv -ra
aKou-rapta au-rwv flEXPL -rou yyi(etv aA.A.~A.ot<;, KaTaaKerrov-re<; rrpoarrerrA.aa375 flEVW<; -ra<; yaa-rpa<; au-rwv flEXPL T~<; KV~flfJ<; fjyouv -rou A.eyof1vou aKA.ou<;, oi

rrapeaTWT<; aUTOL<; omaeev imepavexovT<; Ta OKOUTapta aUTWV Kal avarrauov-

355 r)' MWVBE OKTW A


358-359 npoKUI\'Wat MVBE npoKVI\'WOlV WA

w I

Teaa6.pwv MWA



359 nepmmoum M nepmmoumv W

nepmanl!mv A nepmaTwm VBE 361 ~youv MA VBE ~Tot W I WMWVBE .SUo A I y'
MWVBE Tptwv A I aaytTTo~6A.wv MW AVE om. B I T~<; W A VBE om. M 362 yivemt
MWB yevfJTal AVE I ~f1WV MWB trsp. AVE I OUf1~6.AA.m MW A VBE
363 AVBE A.eyet M om. W I <eu~ov MW a<piy~ov A VBE 366 KKOAAfJVTm
MW KoHwvmt A VBE I yivea6m ouvmm MW A trsp. VBE 367 Kat MW A om. VBE
368 vaT!Of1Evwa[ MW vaT!Of1elVWat A cmof1dvwat VBE 371 ~fleTEpa<; MWAB ~f1pa<;
VE I iipxea6m WA pxea6m M cmepxea6m VBE 372 cpopoumv MWA cpopwmv VBE
373 l:f1npoa6ev MAYBE Ef1Tlpoa6e W I TO MW om. AVBE 374 KaTaaKenovTe<; MW Kat
KmaaKen6vTwv AVBE 374-375 npoanenA.aaf1vw<; MWVE om. AB 375 Ta<; MW Ta<;


the depth of the files is reduced, while the width of the battle line is extended
and the depth becomes eight men. If he wants to make it four deep, he again
says: "March out:' In like manner they all march to one side, right or left. This
must be observed to make sure that all march in or out to one side.
52. They should march evenly and in good order. When some men step out
in front of the line and march in an uneven manner, the command is given:
"Straighten out the front:' And the front is made straight.
53 They tighten up or close ranks when our battle line gets to about two or
three bowshots from the enemy's line and is getting set to charge. The command
is: "Close ranks:' Joining together, they close in toward the center, keeping their
depth and width such that the weapons of the men lined up in front are almost
touching those of the men next to them, and the men behind them to the rear
are almost glued to one another. This maneuver may be carried out while the
battle line is on the march or when it is standing in place. The file closers must
be ordered to push forward the men in the rear and to straighten their line
when necessary, so they will not, as may be likely, hesitate or act in a cowardly
54. They are said to march in a foulkon when the two lines, ours and the enemy's, are getting close and the archers are about to open fire and the front-rank
men are not wearing coats of mail or body armor. The command is: "Close
ranks:' The men in the front ranks close in on one another until their shields are
almost touching, completely covering their midsections down to their shins,
also called the shank. The men standing behind them hold their shields above

Training for Cavalry and Infantry

their heads and resting them on those of the men in front, they cover their
breasts and faces and in this way engage in battle.
55 When ranks have been properly closed and the line is about one bowshot
from the enemy and fighting is definitely just about to begin, the command is
given: "Ready:' Right after this another officer shouts: "Help <us>:' Everyone
responds clearly and in unison: "0 God:' The light-armed troops start shooting
their arro~s overhead. As the enemy advance even closer, the heavy infantry,
drawn up m the front line, if they have lead darts, axes, or missile weapons, they
throw them all at once. Otherwise they wait until the enemy gets close, then
they ~~rl t~eir lances or javelins, grasp their swords, and fight in good order,
remammg m position and not pursuing the enemy if they happen to fall back
before them. The men stationed behind them cover their heads with their
shields and with their lances support those in front of them.
56. It is essential for the men drawn up in the first line to keep themselves
sa~e and protected until they come to grips with the enemy. Otherwise they
might be shot down by them, especially if they are not wearing body armor or
~7 They are divided into a double phalanx when the battle line is advancing
straight ahead and hostile forces appear both in front and to the rear. Assuming
that the files are composed of sixteen men, if the enemy force approaching from
the front has gotten close and is about to begin fighting up close, give the command: "By eight. Split up:' Eight men take their position in a double phalanx.
The other eight, facing and marching about, are divided into a double phalanx.
If they stand at eight deep or four deep, the command is: "Stand firm. Seconds

-r<.; ic; -roue; l:f1rcpoa8v axercoum -ra a-r~811 xal -rae; o1jiL<.; a\nwv xal oihwc;

55 'D-r' av 8 rcuxvw8laa xal ~ rcapa-ra~tc; xa-ra .A6yov arro voc; aaytno-



yv111"Ul 1"WV TIOAf.llWV Kal f1EAAl rcav-rwc;

~ <JUf.l~OA~

rcapayye.AAL "1"0lf10l." xal a.A.Aou 8ta8xof1EVOU xal xpa(ov-roc;


"~o~8L." xal

TI<lVTWV cmoKptVOf.lEVWV '(awe; xal <JUf.lq>WVW<.; "6 86<.;." oi f.lfV 1j!LAOL 1"0~UOU<JlV
U1ji11A01"Epwc;, oi 8 <JKOU1"(ll0l, oi ic; 1"0 f.lE1"WTIOV 1"LUYf1EVOl,
yVOf.lEVWV TWV TIOAf.llWV, d f.lfV exwm f.laT(OUKta
385 pimoumv aU-ra, d 8

~ -r(tKODpta ~



f>LK1"Ctpta, de; 1"0

!l~y, aVaf1EVOV1"<.; f.lEXpl<.; ou tyyuc; e.A8wm, TOLE

tm.Aaf1~UVOV1"at 1"WV <Jrca8iwv

axov-ri(ov-r<.; -ra KOV1"Ctpta fl-rot ptKTCtpta au-rwv,

au-rwv xal f1UXOV1"at UL<lK1"W<.; tv -rft 1"Ct~l au-rwv f1EVOV1"<.; Kal ou xa-ra-rpexovT<.;

we; dx6c;, urroxwpouv-rwv au-role; tx8pwv, oi 8 om<J8V au-rwv E<JLWT<.; -rae;


au-rwv Kq>a.Aac; <JKETIOVT<.; f.lla 1"WV <JKOUTapiwv au-rwv m~o1180V<Jl -role;


ef1Tipo<J8v f.lLa TWV xov-rap(wv.

s6. Xpda 8 E<JTLV a<J<pa.Awc; -roue; de; <TO> f1E1"WTIOV -ra<J<JOf.lEVOU<.; rcpocpu-

!l~ KULa1"0~U
WV1"at UTIO TWV TIOAf.llWV, tav f.lUAl<JLU !l~ exwm (a~a<.; ~ xaA.K6-rou~a.

AUL1"LV au-roue; f.lEXPL<.; ou de; xLpac; EK TOV TIA11<JLOV e.A8w<JLV Iva

57 Mpi(ov-rat rcpo<.; 8tcpaA.ayyiav o-r' av ere' U8iac; TIpma-roD<J11<.; -rf]c;



KUL f1Tipo<J8EV KUL OTCL<J8EV q>UVW<JlV TIOAef.llOl. KUL i UTIO t<;'

av8pwv exoumv ai UKlat, xal flyytaav oi 8t' 01j!EW<.; tpx6f1VOl tx8pol Kal f.lEAAOU<JlV tx -rov rct..11aiov apxw8m -rf]c; f1CtX11c;, rcapayyeHL "arro 11' f1Epia811-re," xal oi

I oi

8 11' a-rpecp6f1EVOt xal xtvof>v-rec; rcpoc;

8tcpaA.ayyiav f1Epi(ovmt. d 8 ~ arco 11' l<JLUV1"at 1"0 ~a8oc; ~ arco 8', rcapayy/..At "8palot a-rf]-r oi 8e\npot xal oi -rf]c; 8tcpaA.ayyiac; ~A.8n." 8'6-rEpot 8

!lev 11' ic; 8tcpa.Aayyiav lamv-rat,


13 5

Constitution 7



TOU~ ltf17tpocr8ev MW TCt TOU ef11tpocr8ev OKOUTUpla A au-ra TCt TWV ltf11tpocr8ev OKOUTUpLa

B -ra -rwv ltf!rrpocr8ev crKouTapw VE 379-380 craymo~6A.ou MWA crayL-ro~6A.ov VBE

380 rravTw~ MWA nanwv VBE 383 en WAVBE eTL oe M 384 exwm MW exoum
AVBE I plKTCtpla Va pfjKTCtpla MW pmcapla AVBE 384-385 ei~ ... Uf!U De d~ TO xaf!al
MW om. A VBE 385 eyyu~ itA.8wcrL M eyyu~ EA.8wmv W EA.8wmv eyyu~ Kal AVBE

386 pLKTapLa Va PflKTapLa MW pmTapLa AVBE 387-388 Kma-rptxone~ -rwv MW

KQTQOLWKOVT~ TOU~ A VBE 388 {moxwpounwv MW imoxwpouv-ra~ AVBE I ex8pwv
MWVBE ex8pou~ A 389 tau-rwv KE(jlUACt~ MWA KE<paACt~ ainwv VBE 391 aac:paA.w~
MW om. AVBE I -ro ci. De om. codd. I -racrcrof!Evou~ MW -racrcrof!vou~ aac:paA.w~ AVBE
391-392 npoc:puA.aneLv au1:ou~ MW trsp. AVBE 394 nepma-rouOT)~ AVBE nepma-rwm
MW 395 c:pavwmv M c:pavwm WAVBE 396 exoumv A exwmv MWVBE I al MWA Kal
VBE 397 T)' MWVBE OKTW A 397-398 Kal...OLc:paA.ayy[av Kal ol f!EV (om. W) T)' (oKTW
A) de; &c:paA.ayy[av MW A om. VBE

o' MWVBE -reaaapwv A

398 T)'2 MWVBE 6KTW A


400 OLt:paA.ayy[a~ A VBE t:paA.ayy[a~ MW

Training for Cavalry and Infantry

Constitution 7


eimv ol A.ey6flevot naA.m aeKouvoot ~ ma-ra-rat. Kat a-rpecp6flevot ol aeKouvoot,

TOUT' EGTlV, o[ uno TOV OKUPXTJV TETaYflEVOl ~pxovTat OlUGTTjflU Tl axpt
TptaKoa(wv ~TjflUTWV ~TOl GKALGflUTWV,


fl~ ouvaaOat -rae; ~aAAOflEVac;

napa nov f:vav-rlwv aaylnac; EKaTpwOev ~A.ametv muc; VWTouc; TWV CtVTL~A405

n6VTWV, aA.A.' f:v T(i> UKatp4J TOnqJ nlmetv au-rae;. elm napayyUet "unoa-rp\jiaTe." Kat naALV unoatp\jiav-rec;, ei xpela yVTjTat, anoKaOiamvTat KaTa TO
np6Tepov GX~fla.
s8. Ei o, we; eiK6c;, ~ flEl~WV ouvaf1Lc; TWV exOpwv Ota TOU VWTOU ~youv
6ma0ev T~c; napaTa~ewc; epxnm Kat Ufla~at OUK CtKOAouOouatv, o[ aeKOUVOOl

4 1o

~youv ol f:matamt lamv-rm Kat oi nptflOL ~youv oi npw-roataTat, oi Kat A.oxayol,


59 Ta

oe T~c;

OtcpaA.ayylac; ylvetat o-r' av ai Ufla~at OUK CtKOAouOouatv ~

CtKOAouOouaat f:~taaOTjaav uno TWV noAEfllWV. Taumc;

oe XP~ nav-rwc; f:nt nav-

Toc; ~TOlflaGflEVOU ne~LKOU atpatou CtKOAOU0etv, ei fl~ apa Ka~aUaptKoc; a-rpa415

-roc; ~taaOft ne~euam Kat f:v Katp(i> -rotoUT4J ~ Ctfla~wv ~ aAA.Tjc; UATJc; KaTa -rou
VWTOU anopet.
6o. L'le~t(t

oe Kat aptatep(t KAlVOVTat o-r' av f:K nA.aylou eic; v flEpoc; OA.n T~V

napaTa~lV aupat, ~ Ota TO,

we; eiK6c;, EKTLVat T~V napata~LV Kat unepKepaaat

~youv KUKAWGat -roue; exOpouc; ~ fl~ unepKepaaO~vat ~youv KUKAWO~vat nap'


au-rwv ~ 8ta -r6nou f:ntTTJOet6TTJTa ~ ota napaywy~v a-revou -r6nou. Kat ei flEV
oe~t(t napayayetv auT~V, napayyUet "f:nt KOVTaptv KALVOV." Kat atp-

<pOVTat nav-rec; oi 6nALTat f:KetOev. <"KtVTjGOV," Kat KLVOUatV ewe; ou xpda.> eha "un6a-rpe\jiov." Kat anoKaO[ataVTat. ei

oe apta-rep(t KALVat, "f:nt GKOUTaptv KAtvac; KlVTJGOV." Kal Ta aUa OflOLWc; <pUAUTTOVTat.

MW vuv o AVBE 402 uno MWA ano VBE I OEKapmv MW OEKapxov AVBE I
MW Tnawvot maT<iTm AVBE I OL<iOT!Jf.L<i n Strat. &aaT~f.laTa MW Otaanwa
AVBE 403 ~aAAOf.IEVa~ MW pmTOf.IEVa~ AVBE 404 Toil~ vwTou~ MW Ta~ 'Vila~ AVBE
406 KaTa AVBE d~ MW 408 Ota ... ~youv MW om. AVBE 409-410 Tii~~youv'
MWAVE om. B 409 epxnm AVBE epmmt MW 409-410 oi ... ~youv' MWB om. AVE
410 oP MWVBE om. A ltaTUVTUl WAVBE lOTUVTUl o M I o[2 ... ~youv WVBE om. MA I
oP MWAB om. VE I npwTOOTUTUl MW A npWTOOTUTOl VBE I oi Kal A oi o MW Kal VBE
412 Ot<paA.ayy[a~ AVBE <paA.ayyia~ MW I oT' av MWA OT VBE I UKOAouSouatv MWVBE
aKoAouSwmv A 413 aKoA.ouSouam VBE aKoA.ouS~aaam MWA I navTw~ MWA navm~
VBE 415-416 KUTa ... vwTou MW EK Twv 6niaw AVBE 418 ~ ... EKTeivm MWVBE ~ f.l~
A I T~v napam~tv MW auT~v AVBE 420 napaywy~v MW A napaywyii~ VBE
421 KOVTCtplv
MW KOVTCtplOV AVBE 422 KLV!]OOV ... xpeia Strat. om. codd.
423-424 un6aTpe'!'OV ... MWA VE om. B 424 aKOUTaptv Va KOVT<iptv MW

401 ~



men in the double phalanx, march out:' The seconds were formerly called
or epistatai. The sekoundoi, that is, those drawn up under the
d~karch, face about and march out a distance up to three hundred paces or feet,
that the arrows fired by the enemy from both sides will not cause harm to the
ftl<lf of those confronting them, but will fall in the clear space <between them>.
111!11 give the command: "Turn around:' Again, turning around, if the need
they return to their previous formation.
)8. If, as is likely, a larger hostile force approaches the rear of our line and
wagons are not following along, the sekoundoi, that is, the epistatai, halt and
primoi, that is, the protostatai, also called group leaders, march out.
59 Adopt the double-phalanx formation when the wagons are not following
or if they were following and came under attack by the enemy. It is always
necessary for them to follow after every well-prepared infantry army unless
perhaps a cavalry army should be forced to go on foot at a time when they are
deprived of wagons or other supplies to their rear.
6o. They face to the right or to the left when the commander wishes to move
the battle line from the flank to one side, either, as would be likely, to extend the
line and outflank or encircle the enemy or to avoid being outflanked or
encircled by them, or for a more favorable location or for passing through a
narrow space. If he wants to lead it to the right, he orders: "To the lance. Face:'
The heavy-armed troops all turn away from that direction. <"Move:' And they
move to the designated place.> He then commands: "Turn back:' And they
return to their original position. If he wants them to face to the left, he
commands: "To the shield. Face. Move:' And the rest is observed as above.


Training for Cavalry and Infantry

Constitution 7


61. Afl<pLO"lOf.lO<; Oi; KLVfjaL<; ()-r' av TWV exepwv, W<; iK6<;, ii<pvw yupw6vTWV

61. The two-faced maneuver <is called for> in case the enemy suddenly

Ef11tpoaeev Kal omaeev !l~ <p0cwn npo<; Ot<paA.ayy(av f.leptae~vm ~ napa-ra~L<;.

drcles around both front and rear before our battle line has time to divide into
the double phalanx. The command is given: "Keep to the formation of the files:'
Half of the troops stand fast to meet the enemy attacking from the front. The
(lther half turns about to the rear. The middle ranks remain in place covering
their heads evenly with their shields.
62. They change front to the right or to the left when you want to transfer
the battle line to the right or to the left in order to meet some necessity that may
arise. The command is: "Transfer to the right:' Or again: "Transfer to the left:'
By one tagma at a time changing front, the whole line is quickly transferred to
that place.
63. The line can be made more open or extended. When the men are in close
order and, as is likely, you want to divide or thin out the files and extend the
width of the battle line or to give it more slack, give the command: "Extend both
sides:' And they extend <the line>. This formation may be practiced while the
line, whether it be a single meros or the whole line, is marching or has come to a
halt, with both flanks heading to the outside.
64. The depth of the files may be increased or doubled. Assume that the
troops are standing four deep and you want to double that to correspond to the
depth of the enemy's line and to make your own stronger for the charge. The
command is: "Enter:' And they become eight deep. If you want to make them
sixteen deep, give the same command: "Enter:' One by one they return to their
own positions and the files are doubled, resuming their original depth of one
unit of sixteen men. If for some reason you want to make the files thirty-two
deep-not a very useful idea-give the command: "File after file:' They are

Kal napayyAA.t:t "-rwv aKtwv -r~v -ra~tv <puAa.~a-rt:." Kal ol ~f.lL<JL<; Ka-ra -rwv
Ef.l1tpoa0v EpXOf.lfVWV L0"1"Ctf.lVOL apf16(oVTal, oi o ~f.ll<Jfl<; enl TOV VWTOV
CtVTtaTpe<pOf.lVOL, I o[ o v Ttp f.lf<J(!l EO"LWT<; TU<; Ke<paACt<; ainwv '(aw<; <JKfTIOUat 3<1~
430 Ota -rwv aKou-rap(wv.

62. Mna-r(0VTUL Oe~Lq. Kal apt<JTep<t 6-r' av ~ Oe~Lq. ~ aptaTepq. eeA.n<; f.lT-

VeyKciV T~V napa-ra~LV, xpLa<;, W<; dK6<;, oihw KaAOU<Jfj<;. Kal napayyAA.L
"f1LU<pepe d<; TCt Oe~La," ~ TIUALV "f.leT<l<pepe d<; TCt aptaTepa." Kal vo<; <vo<;>
-rawa-ro<; 11t:-ranet: 11evou f.lTa<ppTm ~ napa-ra~t<; naaa npo<; -ro f1po<; Kcivo
435 <JUVTOf.lW<;.
63. ApatOUVTUL ~TOL TIAaTUVOVTal 6-r' av 1te1tUKVWf.lVOL elm Kal eA.n<;
f.lepiaat ~TOL A1tTUVUL, W<; eiK6<;, TCt<; aK(a<; Kal EKTLVUL T~V napaTU~LV d<; f.l~KO<;

~ OLCt TO avnw-repou<; au-rou<; yeveaem. Kal napayyeAAL "nAaTUVOV npo<; TCt

Uf.l<pOTepa !lfPTJ" Kal nAaTUVOVTUl. TOlJLO o TO <JX~!la Kal nepmaTOU<JTj<; Kal
440 L<JLaf.lfVTj<;

T~<; napa-ra~W<; ouvaTm yivwem TWV ouo Kepa-rwv nl TCt ~w

veu6v-rwv, t:'iT f.lpo<; v anv d-rc: ~ napa-ra~t<;.

64. BaeuvovTat o ~TOL OlTIAOUVTUl a[ UKLUL 6-r' av f.lEV ano -rwaapwv
Ya-rav-rat Kal eeA.n<; au-ra<; OLJtAW<JaL Kal npo<; <JUf.l~OA~V iaxuponot~<Jm, Ctpf.l0(6vTW<; -r(il ~aea -r~<; napani~ew<; -rwv vav-riwv. KalnapayyAA.a "dat:A.0t:." Kal
445 y(vov-rm OKTW. ei o 0AL<; t<;' not~<Jat, naALV napayyAA.a "dat:A.0e." Kal

L<JPXOf.lVOl ei<; TOU<; io(ou<; -r6nou<; el<; nap' eva OLJtAOUVTUL Kal yivovTUL t<;'
mivTe<; d<; v f1po<; W<; ~~A.eov. d 0 0AL<;, W<; iK6<;, ano

A.W TO ~aeo<; TWV

UKLWV not~<Jm, 6nep OUK an XPLW0e<;, napayyAA.L "6 <JTLXO<; uno TOV mixov,"

425 yupeu6vtwv MW 1!EptKUKAouvtwv AVBE 426 Kal MWA ~ VBE 427 aKt<iiv MW
aKt<iiv ~tot t<iiv A6xwv A VBE 428 <'tpf16~ovtat MW anavt<iiatv AVBE 428-429 oi ...
avncrtpecp6f1EVOt MW om. AVBE 429 raw~ MWA om. VBE I crKenoum MA <JKenoumv
WB <JKemoumv VE 432 outw KUAOU<Jl]~ MW anattOU<Jl]~ A VBE 432-433 nap-

ayyeHEt ... apwtepa MWAVE om. B 433 evo~2 Va om. codd. 435 auvt6f1W~ MWA
auvt6f1W~ of: VBE 436 elm MA dalv W wm VBE 438 avEtwtepou<; Strat. avwtepou<;
codd. 439 Ctf1cp6tepa AVBE Ctfltpl<JtOflU MW 442 ot' av MW A OtE VBE I tE<Jcrapwv
MWA o' VBE 443-444 apflO~OVtW~ MWA apf!O(Of!EV!]~ VBE 444 Kail MW om. A VBE
445 t<;' MWVE OEKae~ A om. B 445-446 not~<Jat ... ioiou~ MWA VE om. B 446 eva
Strat. d<; codd. 447 w~ 1 MWAVE om. B I AW MWVBE tptaKovta ouo A 448 ecrtt
MAVBE ecrttv W


Training for Cavalry and Infantry

Constitution 7

Kat om\ouvmt 611oiw~ Kat paeuvnat !lEV ~ napa-ra~t~, aua-rD.. \nat OE -ro !l~Ko~

6s. Me-rapaHovTat o-r' av en' eu8da~ nepmaTOUO'f]~ T~~ napa-ra~W~ !lfJKETl

65. When the line is marching on straight ahead and the enemy are not yet

Ot' OljiW~ \8watv oi ex8po[, aHa ano oma8ev aUT~~ Kat eav !lEV TO !lETWTIOV

approaching from the front but from the rear, the line may be turned around. If

~TOt rou~ \oxayou~, TOU~ Kat npw-roma-ra~, oma8ev 8\n~ !lTVYKelV ano tc;'
avopwv OVTO~ TOU paeou~, napayyHL "!lnaHa~ov -rov -r6n:ov." Kat OlU TOU
pa8ou~ nov aKtwv n:apepxo!levm oi \oxayot 'La-rav-rat d~ n:apa-ra~tv auvaKo\ou8ouv-rwv aU-rot~ Kat -rwv AOLTIWV Kat !lHaPaAAOVTal, -ro !lETWTIOV ent TOU~
TIOA!ll0U~ TIOLOUV"t~. -roUTO 0 n:po ~~ TIUKVWO'W~ em-rf]OelW~ y[ve-rat. el oe

you want to transfer the front, that is, the group leaders, also called protostatai,

TITIUKVWTat Kat ou O'U!l<p8a(t apatwaat, napayy\\et "llnaaxfJ!lU-rlO'OV." Kat

I KaTU -rou VWTOU ~youv TO 6n[aw

!lEPO~, OUKE-rt TOU \oxayou E!lTipoa8ev euptaKO!lEVOU, aHa TOU E~KatOeKU"tOU

a-rpe<pO!lVot, w~ 'La-rav-rat, av-rtP\n:ouat


66. Ai !lfV oiiv YU!lvaa[at aD-rat ouvav-rat ev Katpqi TIOAE!lOU TOV a-rpa-rtW"tf]V
-rot!lOV napaaKUa(LV Kat npo Katpou TIOAE!lOU aveu atO~pou OlU on:\wv

doubled in the above manner and the line is deepened while its width is

450 aU-r~~



to the rear, the files still being sixteen men deep, the command is: "Change
place:' The group leaders pass through the depth of the files to the rear and take
their stand in a line, while the rest of the men follow behind them and form a
new front facing the enemy. It is best to do this before they close ranks; but if
they are already closed and there is no time to open them up, the command is
given: ''About face:' Remaining in position they turn around to the rear and,
instead of the group leader, the sixteenth man, the file closer, is now stationed in
66. These exercises, therefore, can be performed in time of war to prepare
the soldier to be ready and before the war begins, without regular iron weapons

-rpwv TWV n:po~ YU!lvaa[av em-rf]OeLWV e81(lV npo~ nav-ra TU ax~llaTa -rwv

but with others suitable for drilling, to accustom <the men> to all the forms of

KlV~O'WV Kat -ra n:apayy\!laTa U<pUW~ Kat aveu -rapax~~ Kat 8poia!lOD Otay[v-

maneuvers and to recognize the commands in an orderly manner and without

w8at, o-r' av !lUAlaTU npo~ aHf]Aa -ra -rawa-ra, Otatp0U!lVa ei~ ouo av-rtnapa-

too much noise or confusion. This is especially the case when the tagmata are

TU~t~, e'i-re Ka8' v -ray11a ehe KaTa n:\e[ova, notehat -r~v yu!lvaa[av.

divided into two battle lines opposed to one another, whether or not the exercise

67. OuK ayvow

oe OTt nep -rot~ apxaiot~ Kat -repa -rtva napaooo-rat n:apay-

involves one tagma by itself or several.

y\!laTa KUt KlV~!la-ra yu!lvaaia~, liHw~ T Kat Apptavqi Kat Ai\tavqi, wan:ep e~

67. I am not unaware that certain other commands and movements for drill

470 vo~ O'TO!lUTO~ nept aU-rwv O!lO<j>WVOUatV. a\A' 'iva !lTJ en:l TIAUTO~ TOO'OUTOV

have been handed down by the ancients, especially by Arrian and Aelian, who

n:apeKTivw -rov \6yov, tv Ke<pa\a(q> 116vov !lV~!lfJV n:apa8~aw EKivwv Kat -roi.\

are in agreement on these matters as though speaking with one voice.t 1 But in

\omoi.\ atWTI~O'O!lat TO n:\f]So~, -ro !lfV Ota T~V ev aU-rot~ aaa<plUV T Kat axpf]-

order not to stretch out the discourse to too great an extent, I shall set forth,
albeit only in summary fashion, what we remember of those authorities, and I

468-494 Aelian., 25-31; 36; 42. Arrian., 3.2.

will pass over most of the rest in silence. One reason is that some of it is not

Kail ... napam~u; MWA VE Kat ~a8ia~

rrepmarou<J!]~ r~~ rrapa-ra~ew~ B I auarA.Ae-raL MW aucr<piyye-rm A cr<piyye-rm VBE
452 aA.Aa Ct1!0 MW aA.A' EK TWV AVBE I f!EV MW f!EVTOL AVBE 453 TOU~ MWA om.
VBE 456 rwv MWA rwv -rwv VBE 45 7 npo ... yivemL MW A euK6Aw~ yivnm npo -rou
JTUKVWO~vm T~V rrapam~LV VBE 458 0Uf!<p8U~El MW Mvavml A OUVUTUL VBE I apaLW<JUl
Strat. Upf!OGUL MW E~EAL~Ul A VBE 459 avn~Atrroum MVBE avn~AE1!0U<JLV WA I KUTU ...
fjyouv MW ei~ A npo~ VBE 460 t~KatOEKa-rou MW om. AVBE 462 au-rat MWA au-rwv
VBE I rov WA VBE om. M 464 8i~e1v MWA pe8[~nv VBE 465 Kal OpoLGf!OU M om.
AVBE diff. lectu W 466 ra MA om. VBE diff. lectu W I Mo MWAB WVE 467 eh
MWA et TL VBE 468 rrep MW om. AVBE 469 aAA.w~ Va aA.AOL~ codd. 470 Of!O<pwvoumv MWAVE Of!O<pavoumv B 471 -rov MW -rov rrapov-ra AVBE 471-474 -rou ...
elp!]f!EVU MW yap TU JTAelOVU Kal XP'l<JlflO.>TEpa av8oAOYfl<JCtflEVOl (av80f!OAOY!]GUflEVOl

449 om\ouvrat MWA \mruvovrm VBE

VBE) vmU8a eip~KUf!EV AVBE


Cf. Aelian, 25-31; 36; 42; Arrian, 32.






Training for Cavalry and Infantry

Constitution 7

ar[av, TO o Kat OLU TO EK10V 6.vaAT]<p0~vm wanp 6.v0oA.oyT]0v-ra TU nap'

~f.LWV vTaii0a dpT]f.LEVa f.LET<l T~-; Twv vwTpwv otO. nipa-; vpaw-;, Kat \'va f.L~
6.nnp6KaAOL 06~wf.LV dvm Kat OUTpoA.oyiv O.aa<pw-; v-raii0a Ta ~OT] aa<pT]vta0vTa.
68. TiapO. yap AiALaV{il A.yovTm OVOf.laTa Kat KlV~OL-; au-raL ~ f!Ev KAtat-;
KaAOUf.LEVT], T~V o KALOLV d-; Mo Olatp1 Kat T~V f.LEV nl[oa Kat auTo-; KALOLV
AEYL ~youv nt OKOUTCtplV, T~V OE nt oopu ~youv nl KOVTCtplV. fOTl 0 n-;
KLVT]at-; Kat nap' auT(il Kat f.LETa~OA~ Kat ma-rpo<p~ Kat avaaTpo<p~ Kat npl07ta0f.LO-; Kal Knptanaaf.Lo-; Kal <uyeiv Kal aTOLX1v Kat d-; 6p0ov O.noooiivm Kal
~Aiaanv Kal omAama<nv. A.ynm 0 Kal naywy~ Kat &~ta napaywy~ Kal
euwvuf.Lo-; rcapaywy~ Kal rcA.ayia <paA.ay~ Kal 6p0ia <paA.ay~ Kal A.o~~ <paA.ay~ Kal
rcapef.L~OA~ Kat np6a-ra~L-; Kat fVTa~L-; Kat tm6Ta~L-; Kat n[Ta~L-; Kat npoavta~L-;
Kal rcapv-ra~t-;.
69. Ai f.LEV ouv OVOf.Laaim TWV KlV~OWV ToaaiiTm, TU o rcapayyAf.LaTa
oihw-; "iiy ei-; Ta orcA.a. rcapaa-rT]T napa TO. orcA.a. <6> 6rcA.o<p6po-; f.L~ O.niTw
T~-; <paA.ayyo-;. 6 aKwo<p6po-; O.rcoxwpdTw T~-; <paA.ayyo-;. aiya Kal rcp6aX T(il
rcapayyeAA.of.Lv<.p. iivw Ta 06pa-ra. Ka0-; Ta 06pa-ra. 6 oupayo-; Tov Mxov
6.rceu0uvTw. T~pL TO. otaaT~f.LaTa. I ret 06pu KA1vov. rcl O.arcioa KA1vov. rcp6ay.
ex' oi\-rw-;. ei<:; 6p0ov 6.rc6oo-;. TO ~a0o-; OLTIAaaia<, UTCOKaTaOTT]OOV. TOV
AaKWVa ~ALOO, <anoKaTUOTT]OOV>. rcl TO o6pu EKTCepiarca, O.noKaTCtaTT]OOV." TaUTa OlCt T TO O.aa<p-; Kal T~V axpTJaTlaV Tw-; rcapdOOf.LEV, TOU
auvT6f.LOU Kal aa<poii-; f.LUALaTa <ppovTi<ovT-;.


dear or is not useful; another is that what we have taken up from those sources
been gathered into what we have said here, along with what we have derived
ft'om the experience of more recent authorities, and that we might not seem
ll>olish repeating here in an unclear way what has already been made clear.
68. Aelian speaks of the following terms and movements. There is the one
~!illed turning toward, which he divides into two turnings: he speaks of the
turning toward the shield, that is, the large shield. The other is toward the spear,
that is, the lance. He also gives names to certain movements. Wheeling about,
turning about, turning back, wheeling around, turning out, join, line up, turn
back to the front, march out, double up. He also speaks of march in sequence,
to the right, pass to the left, broad phalanx, straight phalanx, slanted
phalanx, parembole, prostaxis, entaxis, hypotaxis, epitaxis, prosentaxis, parentaxis.
69. All the above are the names for the movements. The commands are the
ftlllowing. "Go to the weapons. Stand by the weapons. Let the weapon bearer not
depart from the phalanx. Let the skeuophoros remove himself from the phalanx.
Be silent and pay attention to the orders. Raise your spears. Lower your spears.
Let the file closer straighten out the file. Observe the intervals. Turn toward the
!!pear. Turn toward the shield. Advance. Stay as you are. Go back to the front.
Double your depth. Go back to your original position. March out in the Laconian manner. 12 Execute this maneuver toward the spear. Go back to your original
position:' But we are passing over these because they are not clear or useful
today, particularly when our aim is to be brief and clear.

WVBE I Kal2 ... KA.imv 2


474-476 KaL.aa<pf]Vtcreev-ra MW om. AVBE

478 Mo MWA

MW trsp. AVBE 479 btl'

MW KovTapwv AVBE I eaTL MAVBE anv W 480 Kal' MW om. AVBE 481 ei~ opeov
AVBE btop8ov MW 483 EUWVUflO~ AB e~WVUflO~ VE om. MW I <paA.ay~' MWA <paA.a~ VE
<puA.a~ B I op8ia <paA.ay~ MW ope~ <paA.ay~ A ope~ <paA.a~ VBE I <paA.ay~' MW A <paA.a~ VBE
484 Kal rrp6am~L~ WB rrp6Ta~L~ M om. VE I rrpoaevm~t~ Va rrp6am~t~ codd.
485 rrapevm~l~ Va rrapam~l~ codd. 487 orrA.a I MWA orrA.a rrapaTaaae TU orrA.a VBE I 6
Va om. codd. 488 6 ... <paA.ayyo~2 AVBE om. MW I Kal MW om. AVBE
489 rrapayyeA.A.of!EVW MWA rrapayyeA.f!EVw VBE I Kaee~ MWVE KUTW AB I 6 AVBE om.
MW I A.Oxov MWA A.Oyov VBE 491 ex' Va ex Aelian. exe codd. I CtltOKUTCt<JTTj<JOV MW A
CtltOKCt<JTTj<JOV VBE 491-492 TOV ... Ct1tOKUTCt<JTTj<JOV 2 MWAVE om. B 492 e~eA.taae VBE
E~EAl<J<J TOV xopeiov e~eA.taae TOV f!UKel56va i#A.taae A om. MW I Ct1tOKUTCt<JTTj<JOV Va om.
codd. I TO MW om. AVBE I arroKaTa<JTf]<JOV2 MWAB arroKa<JTf]<JOV VE 493 T~v

12. The Laconian countermarch is made by file when the rear guard of one of the end files
marches out along the rear and is followed by the man who had been in front of him. Cf.
Asclepiodotus, 10.14; AnonStrat, 24.


Training for Cavalry and Infantry

Constitution 7
70. Ta f.!EV ouv nEpl yuf.!vaa[a~ ~f.llv npoEtpT]flva nE(tK~~ TE Kal inmK~~ T~~



O'Tpami>TT]V Kal T~~ KUTQ Kal napaTa~El~ w~

apK01JVTW~ EXEL. <lpf.!OOLW~



o T(il nap6VTl CJ'UVTUYf.laTL Kal TQ TOL~ UflapTavoum

mpanwTat~ tmTLflla tvTa~m, 'Iva ytVWCJ'KWCJ'lV aina Kal fl~, ayvoouvTE~, tf.!TIL-

mwm Tal~ tv UlJTOL~ KElf.lfVat~ Tlf.!Wplat~.

I T~<; AVBE T<iiv MW

MWA om. VBE 498-499 Ef1TCimwm MAVBE

495 TCepl... TCpoELpf)flEVa MW elpf)flEVa ~fltV m:pl yuflvaaiac:; AVBE

496 T~<; Va T<iiv MW om. AVBE

I f.v

499 UlJTOt<; MW UUTUt<; AVBE


70. Now therefore, these comments of ours concerning the drilling of the

lnfnntry and the cavalry, the individual soldier, the individual tagma, and the
whole battle line, must suffice for a summary presentation. It is appropriate to
filllow the present constitution with a list of punishments for errant soldiers, so
may know them and not, because of ignorance, be subject to the punishtnents prescribed for them.




llepl a-rpanWTLKWV mrq1tWV

About Military Punishments

tl1 OUV ou !lOVOY f.y Katp<'iJ T<iiY CtAfl8WY ayWYWY, aAJ..a Kat f.y T(iJ Katp<'iJ

T~<.; YD!lYaa[a<.; OUYflY!lfvWY amlYTWY TWY n: apxoYTWY Kal TWY a-rpaTlWTlKWY

npoaKaA.La8m miYTU<.; Kal imayaytYWOKtY ai>Toi<.; Ta LPfl!lYa
YO!ll!la OTpaTlWTLKa emTL!lla, exoYTU oihw<.;.
2. 'EaY a-rpaTtWTfl<.; T(iJ io[q> nYn1pxn ~ TETpapxn yaynw8ft, awcppoYt(a8w.
d Of. Tnpapxfl<.; ~ nYTUPXfl<.; T(iJ io[q> OeKapxq>, 6!lo[w<.; awcppoYt(a8w. i Of.
oKapxo<.; T(iJ KYTUPX'P> O!lOLW<.;. d 0 Tl<.; TWY mu TUY!laTO<.; TOA!l~Ol Toi)To
10 not~aat ei<.; TOY eat>TOU KO!lflTU, KE<paAtKft Tl!lWPL~ imoKdaew.
3 Ei !lYTOL UOLKfl8ft napa TLYO<.;, T(iJ apxoYTl TOU TUY!laTO<.; npoaA.8n d o
napa TOU apxoYTO<.; auTOU UOLKfl8fi, T(iJ !lEl(OYl apxoYTl npoaA.8n.
4 'EaY Tl<.; TOA!l~an ~ayeuaat imep TOY XPOYOY TOU K0!1UTOU ~youv T~<.;
anoMaew<.; TWY a-rpanwTWY ei<.; Tou<.; io[ou<.; o'lKou<.;, ei<.; OLflYEK~ m~aT[wya


5 Ei o TlY<.; TOA!l~OWat OUYW!lOO[ay ~ <ppaTp[ay KaTa TOU apxoYTO<.; TOU
io[ou not~aat imep oiaao~noT aiT[a<.;, KE<paAtKfi Tl!lWPL~ uno~Afl8Wat, KaTe~a[
pnoY Ol npWTOl T~<.; OUYW!lOOLU<.; ~ T~<.; OTUOW<.; yeYO!lYOl.
6. E'( Tt<.; napacpuA.aK~Y n6A.ew<.; ~ KaaTpou maTeu8d<.;, Tof>To npoowaet ~
napa yYW!lflY TOU apxoYTO<.; UUTOU EKt8Y UYUXWP~Oel, eaxaTn Tl!lWPL~ uno~Afl8~aTat.

1. Not only in time of actual combat but also in time of training, when all
the officers and their military units have been assembled, it is necessary to
address all of them and, in a loud voice, read to them in detail the military
punishments decreed by law, as follows.'
2. If a soldier disobeys his own pentarch or tetrarch, let him be punished. If
a tetrarch or pentarch disobeys his dekarch, let him likewise be punished. In like
manner a dekarch who disobeys his kentarch. If anyone of the men in the tagma
shall dare to do this to his count, he shall undergo capital punishment.
3 If <a soldier> is unjustly treated by anyone, he should appeal to the
commanding officer of the tagma, but if unjustly treated by that officer himself,
he should appeal to a superior officer.
4 If anyone should presume to stay beyond the time of his furlough, that is,
the dismissal of the soldiers to their own homes, he shall be condemned to
continuous garrison duty.
5. If any soldiers dare, for any reason whatsoever, to enter into a conspiracy
or mutiny against their commanding officer, they shall undergo capital punishment; this applies particularly to the ringleaders of any such conspiracy or
6. If anyone who has been entrusted with the defense of a city or fortress
shall betray the same or shall desert his post against the will of his commanding
officer, he shall undergo the extreme penalty.

M W (mut.) A VB E Va PG 107:764

Strat., 1.6-8.

no\ef.!LKWV napaaKeuwv M nepl noAEf.!LKwv napaaKeuwv A om. WVBE I &am~L~ 11'

MAVBE om. W 3 ev 1 MW ev -rw AVBE 6 VOf.!Lf.!U MW om. AVBE 7 nev-rapm ...
-re-rpapm MW A nev-rapxw ~ -re-rpapxw VBE 9 oeKapxo~ MWVBE KeKapxo<; A
14 m~a-riwva A m~a-rewva MW m~Lwva VBE 16 oe MW om. AVBE I TOAf.!JlOWOL M
-roAf.!J1awatv W -ro\f.!J1aoumv AVBE I~ cppa-rpiav MW om. AVBE 16-17 iipxov-ro~ ... ioiou
MW trsp. AVBE 17 uno~\118wm MVBE uno~\118wmv WA 19 npoowaet Va napaowaeL

46 (1926): 80-109; E. Korzenszky, Leges poenales militares e codice Laurentiano LXXV


(Budapest, 1931).


Cf. Strat.


6-8; W. Ashburner, "The Byzantine Mutiny Act;' Journal of Hellenic Studies


Constitution 8

7 E'l nc; A.cyxen 8A.~aac; txepoic; au-rov napaoouvm, -rfl eax<'nn TLflwpi<;t
U110~A'18fl, ou flOVOV au-roc;, aAA.a Kat 6 TOUTO (JUVlOWc;, E11l0~ TOUTO yvouc; Tj)
apxovTl OUK Efl~VU<JV.
8. E'( nc; UK01J<Jac; Ta flaVOCtTU TOU OKapxou fl~ <puA<i~n. <JW<ppovt~<J8w i oi;
ayvowv TCt flaVOCtTU ma[<Jl, 6 0KUPX'lc; <JW<ppovt~<J8w, E11l0~ ou npo1TIV
9 E'( Tlc; aA.oyov (j)ov ~ aAA.o olovo~TIOT dooc; fllKpov ~ flEya cupwv fl~
TOUTO <pavpwan Kat Tj'J apxovTL Tj'J io[q> napaOW<Jl, <JW<ppovt~a8w, OU flOVOV
30 au-roc;, aAA.a Kat 6 <JUVl0Wc; auTj), we; KAETtTUl Ufl<jlOTpot.
10. E'( nc; ~f}fllW<Jl <JUVTA<JT~V Kat fl~ TOUTOV npoatpE<Jl ano8cpa11U<Jat,
Ka-ra -ro omA.amov -r~v ~'lfliav au-r4J anoKamm~at.
11. E'( Ttc; Aafl~UVWV aTtOAU<JlV v UKatp[ac; ~flEpatc; TWV eaUTOU OTIAWV
11pt<ppov~<Jl Kat fl~ TOUTOV 6 OKUPX'lc; avayKaan KT~<Ja<J8at <TUUTa> ~ Kat Tj)
35 io[q> apxovTL TOUTO fl~ <pavcpwan, Kat 6 <JTpanWT'lc; au-roc; Kat 6 OKUpX'lc;
12. E'( nc; fl~ UTtaKOU<Jn Tj) io[q> apxovTL, <Jw<ppovt~<J8w KUTCt -roue; VOflOU<:;.
13. E'( Ttc; ~'lfllW<Jl <JTpanWT'lV, v omA.ft T[O<JOT'lTl auTj) aTtOKaTa<JT~<J[
6f1o[wc; Kat <JUVTA<JT~v.
14. Ei 0 v napaxlflaO[q> E<JTtV 6 <JTpa-roc; ~ KaTa napooov 6 apxwv ~ 6
<JTpaTLWT'l<:; ~'lfllW<Jl <JUVTA<JT~V Kat fl~ TOUTOV 00VTW<:; ano8pa11U<Jl, EV
OlTtAfl 710<JOT'1Tl TOUTO auTj) U710KaTa<JT~<Jl.
15. E'( m; v Katpj'J TtOAEflOU o[xa K0flUTOU ~youv UTIOAU<JWc; TOU <JTpaT'lyou a-rpanw-r'lv anoA.uam TOAfl~<Jt, -rptaKovm VOflL<JflaTwv notv~v ot06-rw v
45 Katpj'J o napaXLflaO[ou OUO ~ Tplc; fl~Vac; TtotdTW EV Katpj} o ip~v'lc; KaTa TO
ota<JTf}fla -r~c; brapxiac; 6 -r~c; anoA.uawc; Kmpoc; -r4J mpanw-rn otooaew.
22 txflpoT~ au-rov MW trsp. AVBE

24 Efl~VUcrev MW A eo~A.waev VBE 25 flUVOCtTa

MW napayyAflaTU A VBE 26 flUVOCtm MW napayyAflaTU AVBE I OeKUPX'l~ MW A
OEKapxo~ VBE 28 aUo MWA VE iiUov B 30 GUVeLOwc; MW cruyyLVWGKWV AVBE
31 npompcreL MW io[a npompcreL AVBE I cmoflepaneiicrm M cmoflepaneucret AVBE
arroSepaTieUGfj w 32 UUTW MW om. AVBE I artOKUTUGT~Gel MW arroOWGel AVBE
33 AUfl~UVWV arr6\umv MW artOAUOf.LeVO~ AVBE I TWV ... OTIAWV MW TU f:aUTOU OTAa
AVBE 34 Taiim Va om. codd. 35 Toii-ro MW om. AVBE I OeK<iPXlJ~ MW OKapxo~
au-rou AVBE 40 ~ M Ka\ WA VBE 41 ad lle6vTw~ scr. mg. rrpmovTw~ W I anoSeparteUGeL MW A anoSeparteUGeleV VBE 43-44 a-rpaTI]YOU Strat. cr-rpaTOU codd.
44 cmoAiicrm TOAf.L~GeL MWA trsp. VBE I TptaKovTa MWA \' VBE I notv~v MW om. AVBE I
0!06-rw MW arram[crflw AVBE 45 ouo ... -rpd~ MWA W ~ y' VBE 45-46 Katb....

MW A om. VBE

Military Punishments


7 If anyone be found guilty of wanting to desert to the enemy, he shall undergo the extreme penalty, not only he but also anyone who knew of it, because
knew but did not report it to the commanding officer.
8. If anyone after hearing the orders of his dekarch should not carry them
tlUt, he shall be punished. But if he does not do so out of ignorance of the orders,
dekarch shall be punished for not having informed him beforehand.
9. If anyone finds a stray animal or any other object, small or large, and does
f\Ot report it and turn it over to his commanding officer, he shall be punished,
l'l(Jt only he but anyone who knows about it, as thieves both of them.
10. If anyone causes injury to a taxpayer and refuses to make compensation,
shall make restitution for double the amount of the damage.
11. If anyone is granted a leave during some days ofleisure but pays no heed
to his own weapons and if his dekarch should not force him to hold onto them
or should not report this to his own commanding officer, both the soldier
himself and the dekarch should be punished.
12. If anyone disobeys his own commanding officer, let him be punished
according to the laws.
13. If anyone injures a soldier he shall give restitution for twice the amount,
as in the case of injury to a taxpayer.
14. If the army is in winter quarters or on the march and either an officer or
a soldier shall cause injury to a taxpayer without making proper restitution, he
shall pay him back twice the amount.
15. In time of war, if anyone should presume to release a soldier apart from a
furlough, that is, with the permission of the commanding officer, he shall pay a
fine of thirty nomismata. While in winter quarters he may take <a furlough for>
two or three months. In peacetime the soldier may be granted leave within the
borders of the eparchy.


Military Punishments

Constitution 8

16. E'( n<; n6A.1v ~ KaaTpov man:ueel~ Ei~ napaqmA.aK~v Tofno npoowae1 ~
xwpl~ avayKT]~ [~ ~w~v GUVT1VOUGT]~ avaxwp~a1, 0UVCtflVO~ TOUTO EKOIK~aat,


Ke<paAIKfl TLf.Lwp[q imopantaew.

17 Taum f.LEV Kal ev Kmp(j) YUflVaa[a~ Of.LOU GUVTJYflEVWV nilv aTpaTIWTWV
imavaylvwaKeaew T<l ETCLTlflla Kal ev TepqJ oiqJO~TCOT Kmp(j'J npo<; dOf]atV -rwv
a-rpa1'1W1'WV Kat1'WV apxov1'WV aU1'WV.
18. Ll'[ oe auvmy~vm au-rot~ Kal TU AOL1tU ETCL1'lflla,
LOU TCOAEf.LOU avayKa[w~ <pUAanwem.


oaa OEOV ev -r(j'J Kmp(il

19. MLa oi'iv TO -ray~vm TU -rayflaLCt avayiVWGKLCtl Kal-rau-ra oihw<;.


16. If anyone who is entrusted with the defense of a city or a fortress should

it or evacuate it while still able to defend it, unless compelled by

to life, he shall undergo capital punishment.
17, During the period of training, then, with the soldiers assembled together,
these punishments be read aloud and also at any other time so the soldiers
their officers may come to know them.
t8. 1he other punishments as well must be prescribed for them, all those
they are obligated to observe in time of war.
19. After the tagmata have been drawn up, the following should be read to

20. 'Eav a-rpanW1'f]~ ev Kmp(j) napa-ra~W~ Kal 1tOAEf.LOU -r~v -ra~IV ~ TO

pavoov auLOU

eaan Kal ~ cpuyn ~ TOU -r6nou ev tp -ray'l7tp01tf]O~an ~ GKUAeuan

VKpov ~ i<; emo[w~IV exepwv Ka-raopafln ~ TOUAOqJ ~ cpoaaa-rqJ exepwv eneA.en.

KAU0flV Kal-rlf.LWpdaem al>Tov K<paAIKW~ Kalnav-ra -ra, w~ iK6<;, nap' auTOU

nmp6f.LVa U<pmpdaem Kal -r(j'J KOIVqJ o[ooaem -rou -rawa-ro~, w~ -r~v TCt~IV
napaA.uaav-ra KaLLOL<; Ta[p01<; auLOU empouA.euaav-ra.
21. 'Eav ev Kmp(j) OfJflOa[a<; napaTa~ew<; ~ auflPoA.~~ -rpon~, onep andf],
YEVf]1'Ctl liveu nvo~ UA6you Kal <pavepa~ ah[a<;, KAU0flV TOU~ a-rpanw-ra~
TOU 1tpWTOV <peuyov-ro~ -rayf.La-ro~ Kal avaxwpouv-ro~ T~<; napa-ra~W~ ~1'01 TOU


io[ou f.LEpou~ Tou<; Ei<; T~v flCtXTJV -rayev-ra~ anooeKa-rouaem Kal uno Twv A.omwv
-rayf.L<lTwv Ka-ra-ro~euwem, w<; -r~v Ta~1v napaMaav-ra<; Kal ah[ou~ ~~ -rou
navTo~ f.LEpou~ -rpon~<; yevof.Levou<;.

22. Et

oe au!lPfl

nva<; ev auTot<;, w<; iK6~, 1tAT]ya-rou<; ev auTfl-rfl O"

yeveaem, EKLVOU~ Aw8epou<; -rou 1'0LOULOU eyKA~f.LCtlO~ lVCtl.


23. 'Eav pavoou a<pa[peat~ uno exepwv yltvf]-rm, onep cmdf], liveu nvo~
euA.6you Kal cpavepa~ npo<paaew<;, KAUOflV -roil~ T~v <puAaK~v -rou pavcSou
maTeu8ev-ra~ aw<ppov[~wem Kalnav-rAW~ eaxaLOu~ y[vw8m -rwv apXOflEVWV

un' au-rwv Kal UTlf.LOU~. i oe O"UflPfl nva~ au-rwv flaXOf.LEVOU~ yeveaem 1tAT]yet
LOu<;, -rou~ LOtouTou~ A.w8epou<; -rou emnf.L[ou -roU-rou cpuA.anwem.
63 ad aid- des. W (4 foll. desiderantur)
47 rrpoowcret MWA rrapaowcret VBE 48 tmJ-ro MWVBE om. A 50 Kal MWA om. VBE I
Of!Oii MW A Of!Otw<; VBE 51 imavaytvwcrKecrew MWVBE urravaytyvwcrKecrew A
57 t6.crl] MW KUTUALTIT] AVBE 58 tOUAOW MA VBE tOAOW w I tneA8T] MWAVE cmeAe'l B
61 ttaipot<; Va etepot<; codd. 62-63 onep ... ytv11tm MW yevfjtat o f!~ yevotto AVBE
64 npwtov MA npwtou VBE 65 touo:; ... tayevtao:; M tv wet6.yl]crav AVBE 68 tv autoi~
M om. AVBE 68-69 TCAT]y6.touo:; ... yevecrem M tfj <JUf!~OAij TCA'lYfivm AVBE 70 6.rcelfl
Va arcil] M f!~ yevm-ro AVBE 72 rcavteA<ii<; M om. AVBE I tcrxa-rou<; MA<; VBE
73-7 4 yevecr8at TCA'1Y6.tou<; M TCAllYfivm AVBE 74 toutou MVBE om. A

If, during the time when the battle line is being formed and in time of
~vuu;u, a soldier shall abandon his post or his standard and either flee or charge
tmt in front of his assigned place or plunder the dead or race off in pursuit of the
or attack the baggage train or camp of the enemy, we order that he be
!,llecuted and that all the loot he is likely to have taken be confiscated and given
hJ the common fund of his tagma, for he has broken ranks and betrayed his
21. If, during a general action or pitched battle, <some troops>, who had
lined up for battle, should turn back-may this not happen-without a
~ood and manifest cause, we order that the soldiers of the tagma which first
took to flight and withdrew from the line of battle or from their own meros be
down and decimated by the other tagmata, inasmuch as they broke ranks
mKl are to blame for the rout of the entire meros.
22. But if it should happen that some of them were wounded in the battle,
they shall be exempt from such a sentence.
23. If a standard should be captured by the enemy-may this not
happen-without a good and manifest excuse, we order that those charged with
guarding the banner be punished, disgraced, and reduced to the lowest rank
mnong the enlisted men. Any soldier who may happen to have been wounded in
the fighting shall be exempt from such punishment.

1 52

Military Punishments

Constitution 8
24. 'Eav <poaacnou OVTO<:; tporr~, om:p am:[f], flEpouc; ~ rrapata~W<:; YEVT]TU!


l4 If, when the army is encamped, a meros or a whole battle line should be

Kai flf]OE rrpoc; OL<pvawpac; rrpoaopUflWaL, flf]OE v aut4J t4J <poaaatq> Kata
<puywat <oi> tp110flVOL, a\.Aa 11pt<ppOVOUVT<:; EV tpq> T0114J rrpoaopUflWOl,
KAU0flV TOU<:; TOUTO rrpattLV TOAflWVta<:; TlflWpdaElat,

we; niiv Eta[pwv 11pt~



25. 'Eav atpatLWTTJ<:; ta orrAa autou pf'!'n v rroAtflq>, KAUOflV autov


we; YUflVWGUVTU EUUTOV Kal TOU<:; xElpouc; 6rrA[aavta.

26. 'Eav TL<:; TWV apx6vtWV rrapfl1100tan atpatLWTT]V ~ E~KOUGUan ~ ~Lil

GUVAEllv v Ttp Katp4J TOU cpoaaaTOU, ~ GUVAEl6vta i<:; OLKiav Kataaxn OOU
A[av, wat T~v ta~tv autou Kata<ppov~aat Kal CtflA~aat TWV orrAwv, rrapKto<:;

85 TWV TTUYflEVWV Ct110 TOU ~flTpou GKptvfou, aw<ppovt(aElw Kai (T]fllOUGElW,

atpatfjyO<:; flEV xpua[ou Attpav a', TOUpflUPXTJ<:; 8 VOfllGflUTU Ac;', opouyyapto<.;

8 VOflLGflUTa Ko', KOflTJ<:; 8 Kal d TL<:; etpoc; VOflLGflata tW.

27. Toaauta Kai 11pl TWV atpaTLWTLKWV ETrLTLfllWV otoptaUflVOL, ~~<:; GO!

orrwc; Kal 6oomoplv oov TOV T KaEl6AOU atpatov KUL flEpoc;


ev T tfi ~flTp,1

xwpq. Kal v tfi TWV 110AfllWV Kal flTQ rro[ac; KataataaW<:; ~Of] OLata~OflEla.


tpon~ MA VE tp6nov B

I <'meil] Va emil] M f.!~ yvotto AVBE 77 oi ci. De om. cod d.

I E~Koucreucr'l Va E~KoucrEUEL M EK<JKoucreucr'l A

82 napEf.!TIOOl<JI] AVBE naponA.icrl] M

EK<JKoucrcreucrJ] VBE 83 cruveA.8Eiv AVBE EioeA.8Eiv M 84 t~v T<i~Lv M ~~ T<i~Ew~ AVBL

85 tETUYf.!EVwv ... crKptviou M (:motEtaYf.!EVWV Kal cHpopLOf.!EVWV auto1~ AVBE 86 a' M
f.!tav AVBE 87 Sf! MA om. VBE 88 mnf.!iwv MA VE mnf.!ia B I owptcraf.!EVOL MA
owpLOCtf.!EVOL VBE I <JOL MA <JOL Kal VBE 89 post OTIW~ iterantur omnia inde a tocrauw
usque ad finem B


this not happen-and if the men should not pull back toward the
or in their rout should not seek refuge within the camp itself but
~li!'eli~Ssily run off in some other direction, we order that those who dare to do
be punished for thinking so little of their comrades.
15. If a soldier throws away his weapons in battle, we order that he be
pt.utished for disarming himself and arming the enemy.
:16. If, when the army is being mustered, one of the officers should put
~D!Ita<:les in the way of a soldier or excuse him from joining in or, having let him
in, retains him for his own service, with the result that he regards his rank
contempt and neglects his weapons, he should be punished. In addition to
has been decreed by our secretariat, he should be fined as follows: for a
&;tmeral one pound of gold, for a tourmarch thirty-six nomismata, for a droun;arios twenty-four nomismata, for a count and anyone else twelve nomismata.
27. So much then about military punishments. Next we will provide you
with regulations about what is required for the entire army or one meros to
march both through our own country and through that of the enemy and in
what conditions; this we will now present in an orderly way.




ITepl 60omop(ac;

About Marches

Mov ae TOLVUV,

wcrTpanw, ()T' &.v ooomopft<; flETa TOU mpaTOU, ei flEV tv

Tft io[q. ~flWV yft T~V noplav 1tOLL<;, '(va Ttapayy\An<; TOt<; OTpaTLWTaL<; ClTIEX
5 ecr6m T~<; xwpa<; Kat fl~Te 1tpat0ULV fl~T cp6e[peLV. TIA~6o<; yap OTpaTEUflaTO<;,
(h' &.v M~n TOU ouvaaem T~V ~oucr[av, acpeLOW<; mn[meL npo<; anavTa.


(naL yap ei<; TtAWV~[av, ()T' CtV op(t KaT' 0\j!LV 1tpOKLflEVT]V T~V XPelaV, Kat
noA.AaKL<; Tou<; io[ou<; ota T~v TOLaUTT]V aiTiav no\ef.![ou<; nmeT.


MT]OE XPOVL(e Ka9e(OflVO<; fleTa TOU crTpaTEUflaTO<; v Tft io[q. xwpq., ch'

UV ~OT] 6p[crn<; eicr~aAetV EV Tft XWpq. TWV TtOAEfllWV. Kat yap Kat TOU<; LOLOU<;
ava\wcreL<; Kapnou<;, Kal (T]f.1LWGL<; flUAAOV TOU<; cpi\ou<; ~ LOU<; TtOAEfllOU<;.
mxew<; 8i:: fleTCtq>epe Ta<; OUVCtfleL<;, flCtALGTa av ei<; \mapav KatTtOAUTpocpov TWV
TIOAEfllWV y~v flEAAeL<; etcr~a\e'iv.
3 Et<; va 8i:: TOTIOV crTpaTOV TIOAUV fl~ cruvaye, TtOAEfllWV fl~ EVOXAOUVTWV,

15 tVa fl~ UKatpOUVT<; OL OTpanWTUL EL<; aTCtGEL<; Kat CtKa(pou<; tvvo(a<; UGXOAOUV"

4 Et 8 TIOT xpeta KaAEGeL TOUTO yevcr9m xaptv CtOVOUfllOU ~ UAAT]<; avay'
Ka(a<; ah(a<; ~ mxtw<; TOV crTpaTOV OLaflEpL(e ~ YDflVa(e Kal et<; pya TWV OTIAWV
acrxo\e'lcr9m napacrKeua(e, W<; tv Ttp nepl YUflVMta<; ~fllV dpT]TaL Kecpa\ai<.p.


yap apy[a KaLVWTEpa<; fl!':AETa<; 'law<; Kal m~\a~et<; anoyevv(t.

5 'Eav oi:: TtOA!':flOV npocrooK(t<;, fleTU TCt~ew<; TOV crTpaTOV nepmaTetV TIOLT]'
crov, KUV T KaLa opouyyou<; TU<; ooomopia<; TIOLOUVTUL, KUV T Kala<.;
KUV T KaTa o\a<; napaTa~eL<;. TO yap tv TCt~eL TUUTU<; y(vwem ou f.!OVOV nl T~<;

1. When you are on the march with your army, 0 general, and proceeding

in our own land, you must order your troops to keep their hands off the
and not to pillage or ravage it. When a large army gets the
llPt>ortunity to exercise power, it falls upon everything without mercy. Greed
over whenever it sees something serviceable lying before its eyes. The
f~i!ttlt is that it frequently turns its own people into enemies.'
2. After you have already decided to advance into the enemy's territory, do
nut settle down for a long time with your army in your own country. 2 You will
.:onsume your own crops and do more damage to your friends than to your
tmemies. Transfer your forces quickly, especially if the hostile territory you
Intend to invade is fruitful and wealthy.
3 Do not assemble a large army in one place when there is no hostile
<\Ctivity lest, with time on their hands, the soldiers should give themselves to
!!edition and inappropriate thoughts. 3
4 If you are compelled to bring all your troops together for the purpose of
muster or because of some other pressing reason, then you must quickly divide
up the army or drill them or prepare them to devote themselves to working with
their weapons, as we have written in the chapter on drills. For idleness easily
begets useless and harmful ways of thinking.
5 If you are expecting combat, have your army march in formation, whether you are proceeding by droungoi or by tourmai or by entire battle lines.

M W (mut.) A V (mut.) BE Va PG 107:768

3-8 Onas. 6.10.

9-13 Onas. 6.13.

14-96 Strat., 1.9.

MA om. VBE 2 Momopia<; MAB Momop~~ VE

M rcapayydA.!]~ AVBE 4-5 cmtxw6m VBE cmepxw6m MA 6 tmrcimet
MAVE btimet B 9 Ka6e(6f!EVO~ AVBE Ka6e~6f!EVO~ M 10 KaF MA om. VBE
12 rcoM<pocpov AVBE rcoA.u<porcov M 13 da~aA.dv M da~aAA.etv AVBE 14 fl~ AVBE
om. M 15-16 cwxoA.of>VTat M aoxoA.wVTat AVBE 20 KatVWTEpa~ De KEVWTEpa~ M
VEWTEpac; AVBE I arcoyevva M yevva AVBE 22 TCOlOUVTat M TCOlWVTat AVBE



4 rcapayytAA.I]~

Onasander 6.10.
Onasander 6.13.
3 Sections 3-21 derive from Strat. 1.9.



TIOAf.lla<; aAA.a Kal n:l T~<; ioia<; a<J<paAWTEpou<; Kal n:poyeyuf.!Va<Jf.!EVOU<; I TIOlEl

Toil<; aTpanwTa<;.
6. "EKaaTov oe opouyyov HH~wem n:oif]aov waT T~v ioiav an:oaKeu~v
omaeev UKOAOU61V f.!ETU TWV iO[wv <Jf]f.!dWv Kal f.l~ ETilf.llyvuaeat hp<;t. avayKaLOV yap E<JTLV, oT' liv o[ TIOAEf.!lOl OUT n:apt<JLV OUT EATIL~OVTat v Tft ~f.lTEp<;t
yft, ~ KaTa Opouyyou<; ~ KaTa TOUpf.!a<; TIplTiaTLV Kal f.l~ auvayLV v tvl T6mp


TOY an:avTa mpaTOV Ota T TO f.l~ AOlf.!WHlV ainov UXPW<; f.lf]& U<JUVOTITOV
TO TIA~6o<; OAOV TOL<; KaTa<JKOTIOl<; TWV exepwv, W<; iK6<;, yivweat f.lf]Oe i<;
~O<JKU<; <JTVOU<J6at.

7 'Eyyt~OVTWV Oe TWV x6pwv W<; n:po e~ ~ ma ~f.!Epwv ~ Kal OKa, auvamweat Kal v T4> UTIAf]KUlV. Kal av, W<; iK6<;, v ayvw<JTOL<; TOTIOL<; ~ OOOl35 n:opla ylveTat Kal ou n:apLai nve<; vT6mm oouKaTwpe<;, an:omeiA.n<; Tou<;

f.!LvaopaTwpa<;, tva!~avwmv, av x6pou <p6~o<; ouK an, n:po f.!Li'i<;

~f.!pa<;, otnv<; 6<peiA.oum T~v n:epif.!npov Tou n:avTo<; Otaypa<petv aTpaTon:6ou

v 4> f.!EAAl<; mpaTOTI0UW6at, Kal TO m~aAA.ov f.!ETpov avaA6yw<; EKCt<JT<.p



Constitution 9

f.!EPl Otaf.!Epiaat.
8. Ta auTa <) TIOLLV Kal TOU<; UVTLKEV<Jwpa<;. OUTOL 6 L<JlV o[ 6<piAOVT<;
Twv uMTwv Kal T~<; VOf.!~<; T~v xp~mv KaTaf.!aveavetv.
9. 'Eav 6 Ota Tpaxwv n:avu T6n:wv ~ Momopia f.!AA.n yivwem ~ KPT'Jf.!VWowv ~ oua~aTwv ~ oaawv, n:poeuTpm~ n:A.~6o<; mpamu Kal an:6aTetA.ov btl
TOUTO W<JT Otopewaaaeat Kal n:apa<JKUCt<Jat eu6eiav yeva6at T~V 6Mv KaTa

45 TO OuvaTOV, tva f.l~ <JUVTpl~f]Tat ~ tn:n:o<;. TOU<; Oe a<popt~Of.!EVOU<; en:l TOUTtp f.l~

un:oK1a6at ~lyA.<;t ~ hp<;t OouA.d<;t.

10. IIepmaToiivm<; 6 Tou aTpaTou ~ydaew ~ a~ voo~6Tf]<;, w<; Toii n:avTo<;
aTpamu aTpaTf]y6<;, n:pon:opw6f.!VO<; auTou TLf.!~<; vKV Kal Ota Tov <p6~ov
Twv mTtf.!lwv, f.!ETU T~<; a~<; cmaaf]<; n:poeA.euaew<; Kal Twv f.lTCt aou ~avowv Kal
50 omaeev TICtVTWV ~ n:ep[ (J UTIO<JKU~.

IIpo<; To ax~fla 0 TofJTo Kal KaaTo<; Toupf.!CtPXT'J<; ~ opouyyapto<; n:ept-

n:aTiTw T~V auT~V TCt~LV <pUACtHWV, h ~VWf.!EVW<; TIpmaTOU<JlV h [O[w<;.

oe opouyyw M 30 Aoq.ui>TTELV UUTOV M AOLj.!LKal~

vooOLc; 1tEplTil1tTELV AVBE 31 Toic; KUTUOKOTOLc; MA Touc; KUTUOK07tOUc; VBE I TWV ... EiKO~
M trsp. AVBE 33 Kal MA om. VBE 33-34 ouvcimwem M om. AVBE 35 y(veTat M
ylvl]TUL AVE yevfJTUL B I ncipetol TLvec; MA napwm Ttvec; VBE 36 oi.\K eaTL MA fl~ ~ VBE
37 OTpaToneoou Va OTpUTOU codd. 38 em~ciUov M emAayxcivov AVBE 41 VOf!~c; M
~ooK~c; AVBE 43-44 btl TOUTO M om. AVBE 45 ouVTpt~l]TUL. .. lnnoc; M ouvTpt~wvnu
oi lmtoL AVBE 48 TLfl~c; MA TLfl~V VBE



i'>1M>:hing in formation, not only in hostile territory but also in your own land,
!lh\kcs it safer for the soldiers and keeps them in practice.
(J, Make each droungos accustom its own baggage train to follow behind
its own standards and not to get mixed up with another one. It is essential
whenever the enemy are not present or are not expected in our country,
should march by droungoi or by tourmai and not bring the whole army
;nl4""'"'' in one place, lest they fall an easy prey to pestilence or, as is likely, the
size of the army may be easily estimated by enemy spies, or fodder may be
to find. 4
As the enemy approach more closely, six or seven days away, even ten,
the troops closer together and, at the same time, set up camp. If the march
h~t~lpens to be in unknown places and no local guides are present, then send out
I!Urveyors to go ahead a day in advance, if there is no fear of the enemy. Their
is to survey the perimeter of the entire camping site in which you intend to
lit~t up camp and to apportion sections equitably for each meros.
8. The quartering parties should do the same thing; they are charged with
rt~ron noitering the availability of water and forage.
9 If the route of the march is about to pass through very rough, steep,
tllU'Ven, or heavily wooded terrain, select a large number of men ahead of time
send them off to level the road, as best they can, and to take steps to make it
~~!ISsable, and so prevent the horses from being worn out. The men detailed for
should not be part of a scouting troop or other service unit.
10. When the army is on the march, Your Excellency should be at its head,
~ln>:e you are the general of the entire army. You should march ahead of it as a
of honor and to instill fear of the penalties. You should be accompanied by
your entire retinue and the banda with you. Behind all of them is your baggage

In similar fashion let each tourmarch or droungarios march along, while

preserving his own formation, whether marching together with other units or
t t.

26 EKUOTOV ... opouyyov AVBE EKUOTW

4 Cf. Kekaumenos,


15 8

Constitution 9


'Ev of: Tal<; niJv JWTaf.lWV Otapam:cnv ~ l:iAAWV ayvwo-rwv xwp[wv TOU<;

O.vnKvowpa<;, wo-r rrp6n:pov -roil<; -r6rrou<; Kai ou-rw<;


O.rrayyeAAlV OOl TCt TOU -r6rrou, [va OlCt TWV eTtlTTJOelWV apxov-rwv arroo-rAA.n<;
Kai rrpocpuA.aHn<; -r~v Otapacnv.
13. Ei of: mivu mocpaAl<; eiatv oi TOTtOl Kai OUOKOAOl, XP~ 0 au-r6v, TOV TOU
rrav-ro<; o-rpmTJy6v,

I cmepxwem Kai y[veoem KUTCt TOV -r6nov Kai rrapao-r~vat

Of: axpt<; &.v miv-rt:<; arra6w<; otA.6watv.


14. Tou-ro yap Kai -rov ~f.lETepov adf.!VTJOTov rra-rpa Kai pacnAa Bao[A.t:tov

T(TtOlTJKEVat ytvWOKOf.lV, OT KUTCt fepf.!UVlKeta<; T~<;

ev L:upt<;tT~V eKo-rpa-re[av

errot~oa-ro, rrpoKamA.ap6vm f.!i':V TOV I1apa0LOOV AYOf.lVOV T(0Taf10V, rrapa-

o-rav-ra of: f.!HCt AUf11tCt0WV KaLCt TO f.!EOOV, Kai -rft au-rou rrapouo[<;t Kai<;t
rravm TOV im' au-rov a-rpmov arra6w<; Kai UKOAW<; OtaPtPaoavm, W<; Kai xdpa

Oouvm TtOAAUKl<; Kai Ot' au-rou -rtva<; TWV o-rpanw-rwv KlVOUVUOVTa<; avaowoaoem.
15. Tou-ro of: T(OlelV OOl KAU0f.lV,
TOl<; TOT(Ol<; eKelVOl<;.

wo-rpmTJy, eav 11~ yy1(wmv oi TtOAEf.llOl

eav of: eyy[(wmv, TOT 0 f.!i':V ev Tft iOt<;t TU~l f.!EVlV, i:Ka-

OLOV Of: apxovm LOU io[ou flEpou<; T~V XPLUV avaTtATJpWoat ew<; &.v T(QVT<; oi
70 im' au-rov o-rpaTlWTat

apA.apw<; OteA.ewmv, '(va

f.l~ orrouOU(OVT<; T(QVT<; liAA.o<;

-rov l:iAA.ov rrpoA.apdv amK-rouot Kai ouv-rpipwvmt. 'low<; -ron: Kai p>..apm nvf:<;
16. '0-r' &.v Of:

ev Tft

xwp<;t TWV UTtTJKOWV ~f.!WV T~V Otapacnv TOU o-rpa-rou

rtotft<;, cpeiowem Kai arrocpeuyetV TOU<; yewpyTJeevm<; TOTtOU<; TOl<; o-rpanw-rm<;

75 rrapayyeAA, eh xwpacpta eimv eh Uf.l1tAWV<; ~ K~1t0l, Kai fl~ &apaivwat

f.!Eoov aU-rwv, Yva cpuA.ann<; -roil<;<; ~f.lWV Kai yewpyou<; a(TJf.!LOU<; Kma
-rov nap' ~f.!WV oot napKT6v-ra VOf.lOV.
17. Ka[, i':V ouva-r6v, Ota TWV ayewpy~-rwv TOTtWV f.!UKpav 0 Otepxeoem.
i of: CtVUYKTJ 0 KaLTtelYl Ota TWV TOlOUTWV yewpyTj6v-rwv -r6rrwv OteA6tV,



12. At river crossings or in other unknown regions send quartering parties

ahead so they can first investigate the places and thus inform you what the
country is like, so you may send out competent officers and safeguard the
13. If the places are unusually precarious and difficult, then you, as supreme
commander, should step aside and remain in position at that place until everyone has safely passed through.
14. We recall that our ever-memorable father and emperor Basil did this
when he was on campaign against Germanikeia in Syria. He arrived at the river
called Paradeisos and stationed himself in the middle of it with lamps, and in his
presence and in safety the entire army under his command made the crossing
easily and securely. 5 He frequently gave a hand and, by himself, saved several
soldiers from great danger.
15. We order that you do this, 0 general, if enemy forces are not in the
vicinity of those places. If they are getting close, then you should remain in your
own formation. But the commanding officer should perform that duty for his
own meros until all of the soldiers under his command have crossed over
without harm. Otherwise, everyone will rush to get ahead of everyone else,
resulting in confusion, with some being trampled, and the likelihood that a
number of troops will be injured.
16. Whenever you have your army pass through territory belonging to our
subjects, order the soldiers to spare and steer clear of land under cultivation,
whether it be a small farm, vineyard, or gardens. They should not pass through
them, and so you will preserve the farmers subject to us unharmed, according to
the law we laid down to you.
17. If possible, you should make your longer marches through land not
under cultivation. But if it is absolutely necessary for you to march through land

67 ad -T!]y de novo inc. W

57 XP~ Va Kal codd.

Ti)V AVBE om. M 58 Kal yivwem M om. AVBE 58-59 napa59 15t0..8watv MA &tA.8wat VBE
61 T~v MA om. VBE 67 notdv crot M trsp. AVBE I yyi(watv AVBE yyi(wat MW
69 TOU ... flEpou<; MW TO lOlOV flEpo<; AVBE I T~V ... ava7lA!]pGlcrm MW OlU~l~acrm AVBE I
&.v MW om. AVBE 70 ainov MWA mhou<; VBE 71 aTaKTOuat MW CtTUKTWGl AVBE I
'iaw<; MW lGW<; oe AVBE 74 7l0l~<; MW 7l0l~<; napayyeAA.e TOt<; GTpaTlWtal<; AVBE
74-75 TOt<; ... napayyeA.AeMWom.AVBE 76 ~flWVKalMW~fl1vAVBE 76-77 KaT<L.
v61-1ov MW om. AVBE 78 15tpxecr8at MWA cruvpxea8m VBE

<n~vm ... iixpt<; M napicrtacr8m EKet flEXpt<; AVBE

5 Skylitzes, Basil.Mak., 23 (pp. 141-143); Kappadokien, F. Hild and M. Restle, Tabula

imperii Byzantini 2 (Vienna, 1981), 82-83.



Constitution 9

rtapayye[A.n<; TOU<; EKU(JTOU TUYflaTO<; apxovm<;, flEXPl<; av oi 1m' au-rou<; TnayflEVOl a-rpanWTat rtapA.0wmv, ta-raa0at Kat <pUAUHlV Kat T4J em' au-rou tpxoflEV(!> rtapaot86vat TOU<; TOlOUTOU<; TOTtOU<; a.pA.apel<; Kal oihw<; avaxwpelv.
18. Tov OflOlOV o -rp6rtov TtOltV Kal TOV art' tKe[vou, Kal EKaaTO<; apxwv TO
aU-ro notd-rw. oihw<; yap Kal ~ a~ eu-ra~[a Kal ~ -rwv apxov-rwv Kal ~ -rou mpas5 -rou Kal -ro a.pA.ap<; -rou yewpyou ota<puA.axe~anm.
19. '0-r' av o tyy[~n Kal rtpoaooKiiTat KUflaTO<; TtOAeflOU ~ ouaxep~<; Kal
trt[KOTtO<; otapam<;, tav ~4Ja aypta ~ ~flpa KaTa T~V 60ov OtavaaTW(JtV ~ imavT~(JW(Jt KaLa rtp6awrtov, KwMn<; 'Lva fl~ OlWKW(JtV au-ra, on ot' au-rwv 06pupo<; Kat Kpauy~ y[vTat Kat Ol lTtTtOl xwpt<; CtVUYKTJ<; auvl-rp[povTat.
20. '0-r' av o Katp6<; tanv eip~VTJ<; Kal OU0flla avayKT) tA.rtL~T)Tat, TOT



dm -ra Kuv~yta -rot<; a-rpa-rtw-rat<;.

'Eav o 6A.[yov a-rpa-r6v, W<; iK6<;, tm<pepn Kal flEAAn<; tmTT)OUlV KaTa
TWV TtOAflLWV, fl~ OtaPtPa<n<; au-rou<; Ota TOTtWV oiKOUflEVWV, flfJOE tv Tft ~flTE
N yft flfJOE tv Tft TtOAflL<;t, Iva fl~ <pavepw0ft<; Ota TWV KaTMKOTtWV TOt<; tx0pot<;, ot' -repwv TOTtWV a<pavwv crrtouoa~ rtpoepxw0at. Kal TaUTa flEV, o-r' av tv
Tft io[<;t xwp<;t TOV mpa-rov OtaPtPa~n<;, XP~ (J otartpanw0at.
22. '0-r' av 0 tv Tft TtOAflL<;t T~V 60omop[av tnayn<; LOU a-rpa-rou, XP~ (J
-raUTTJV <p0dpetv Kal Ka[etv Kal KaTaTEflVtv. ~TJflLa yap XPTJflUTwv Kal Kapnwv
evoaa tA.anova<; TtOlel TOU<; TtOAfllOU<; Kal TOV TtOAflOV aa0evmepov, wartep ~
TOUTWV rtptoua[a flUAAOV -rp<pt TOUTOV Kal au~UV1.



under cultivation, you should order the officers of each tagma to remain in place
and supervise until the column of soldiers under their command has passed
through. They should then hand over those fields in good condition to the next
unit approaching and so leave the area.
18. The officer coming after him is to act in like manner and each subsequent commander is to do the same. In this way your good order and that of the
officers and of the army will be assured and the farmers will suffer no harm.
19. When the toil of battle is near or is expected or the passage is difficult
and laborious, or if wild or domestic animals are startled or encountered on the
road ahead of you, forbid <the men> to chase them. This only causes noise and
confusion and wears out the horses to no purpose.
20. In time of peace and when no emergency is expected, hunting is a useful
exercise for the soldiers.
21. If the army you are leading happens to be small and you intend to engage
the enemy in battle, do not march through inhabited areas, either in our
country or in that of the enemy, to avoid being observed by enemy spies, but
make an effort to proceed through other less obvious places. You must also take
such action when you have the army march in its own country.
22. In contrast, when you lead your army marching through hostile territory,
you must ruin and burn and thoroughly ravage it. 6 The loss of money and the
shortage of crops decrease the strength of the enemy and render them less able
to fight, just as the abundance of such things rather nourishes and strengthens
their <fighting ability>.

97-111 Onas. 6.11-13.

So i:Kacrtou MWA EK tOU VBE

81 Kal2 MW KUL i!Kacrto<; AVBE I em' autou MW an' autov

A f!et' autov VBE 81-82 EPXOf!EVW MW EPXOf!EVW iipxovtt AVBE 83-84 TOV ... 7lOlELTW
MW om. AVBE 86-87 eyyi~l] ... &ui~am<; MW 7tOAEf!O<; npocrOoKCitat ~ Ota~am<; oucrxep~<;
Kal eniKono<; (eniaKono<; B) AVBE 87 ~ ~f!epa MW om. AVBE 88 .St' autwv MWA
ouvatwv VBE 89 Kail ... yivnm MW yivETat Kal Kpauy~ AVBE 90 0 MW A om. VBE I
ecrTLY MW ~ AVBE I]Tat MA VBE W 91 eim MW ecrtl AVBE 92 we;
eiKo<; MW om. AVBE I emcptp!] MW EXIJ<; AVBE I emt!]Oeum MW emtiSeaSm AVBE
93 &ta AVBE Kata MW 1 f!IJ&e MW fl~TE AvE f!~n B 94 f!IJ&e MW f!~Te AVBE
95 npotpxeaSm Va naptpxeaSat codd. 97 T~v ... crtpatou MW O.Somop~<; AVBE 98 Kal
Kaietv MW AVE om. B I KataTEf!VEtv MW KaTaK67lTetv AVBE 98-99 ~l]f!ta ... v&eta MW ~
yap tWV XPIJf!CtTWV ~T]f!lU KUL ~ twv Kapnwv oA.iywm<; AVBE 99 7l0lel ... acrSevtcrtepov MW
Kal toil<; noA.ef!iouc; A.anova<; note1 Kal tov n6Aef!OV 6A.tywtepov AVBE 100 tpc:pet toumv
MW A trsp. VBE


6. Sections 22-24 derive from Onasander 6.11-13.



Constitution 9
23. 'Eav OE noA.uv xpovov tv Tft nOAfll<;l yft f.l.EAAD<; KaTaaLpa-rom::OeUelV,

mcrafna Kal Totau-ra <p8dpov T~<; xwpa<;, OLWV Kal O<JWV a\m)<; oux E~et<; xpdav,
Ta OE avayKa1a <pUA.ane TOL<; fleTCt <JOU mpaTeUfla<JlV ei<; oanaVTjV au-rwv.
24. '0-r' av OE Ta<; cmacra<; OUVCtflel<; exn<; Of.l.OU, fl~Te nl T~<; ~fleTEpa<; xwpa<;

fl~Te err' liAATj<; UnT]KOOU Ka8e(OfleVO<; tyxpovt(e. Kal yap TOU<; io[ou<; avaAW<Jel<;
Kapnou<; Kal (Tjf.l.LW<Jet<; nAov -rou<; <p[A.ou<; fl&.A.Aov ~ -rou<; noA.efl[ou<;. fleTayaye
OE aU-ra<; -raxu, av CtK[vouva crn Ta T~<; OLKeta<; xwpa<;, Kal nayaye nl T~V
noA.efl[av. Kal yap, av cr-rtv ~ noA.efl[a Oa\l!lA~<; Kal euKapno<; Kal nA.oucr[a,
-rpo<p~V E~el<; Kal eunop[av a<p8ovov, tav OE OUK E<JTL TotaUTTj, T~V f.l.EV io[av <JOU


Kal <jllAT]V xwpav OUK EpTjflW<Jel<;, nona of: Of.l.W<; Kal uno T~<; noAef.l.La<;, ei Kal fl~
A.mapa E<JTLV, eup~cret<; ei<; xpdav LOU uno <Je mpa-rou Kal avayKa1a.
25. 'Ev of: -rft noA.eflL<;t yft fl~ a<p[n<; -rou<; mpanw-ra<; a-raK-rw<; <ppecr8at npo<;
-ra<; w<peA.e[a<;. noA.AaKt<; yap m~ouA.eu6f1evot napa -rwv txepwv fleyaA.a<;
~A.a~a<; unof1voumv.

26. <DpovT[<Jet<; OE tv -rft iO[<;t yft ooomopwv <JUV



cr-rpa-reUflaTL T~<;

ayopa<; Kal EflnOpe[a<; KaTa Te y~v, ei TUXOL, Kal Ka-ra eaA.acrcrav, [va CtKLVOUVOU


napoucr[a<; au-ro1<; OU<JT]<; CtOKVW<; Kal Ct<jlO~W<; KOfll(W<JL TOV ei<; TCt f:mT~Oeta

27. '0-r' &.v of: Ota <JTeVWV -r6nwv f.l.EAAD<; note1cr8at


napooov ~ Ota 31

6petv~<; Kal OU<J~CtTOU xwpa<; noAef.l.La<; napayetV TOV cr-rpa-r6v, avayKaLOV

npoeKnf1netv cre flpo<; n -rou mpa-reUflaTO<; Kal -ra<;

unep~a<Jel<; Kal Ta<; TWV <JTeVWV nap6oou<; ~youv Ta<; AeYOflEVa<; KAet<Joupa<;,
'(va fl~ <pOacravTe<; ol noAEfllOl Kal crm8vTe<; nl TWV aKpwv ~ TWV aTeVWV

115-118 Onas. 6.14.

23. If you intend to encamp for a long time in the enemy's country, you
should destroy that amount and that sort of thing in the country that you will
not need for yourself. Preserve whatever is needed to supply your own troops.
24. When you have all your forces together, you must not settle down and
spend a long time either in our own country or in another one subject to us. For
you will consume your own crops and do more damage to your friends than to
your enemies. If matters in your home country are not at risk, then lead out
your forces quickly and proceed into the country of the enemy. Indeed, if the
enemy's country is rich and abounds in a variety of produce, you will have a
bounteous source of provisions ready at hand. Even if this is not the case, you
will not be laying waste your own land or a friendly one, and you will still find
things essential for the use of your army from the enemy country even if it is not

25. In hostile territory do not allow the soldiers to search for plunder in an
undisciplined manner. When they turn to this they often suffer great harm from
the enemy.
26. On the march with your troops in your own country, consider the markets and trade centers on land routes and perhaps also along the coast, so that
the <merchants> may be present there without danger and may transport their
cargoes for your provisioning without hesitation and without fear. 7
27. When you intend to make your march through a narrow pass or to lead
your army over mountainous and difficult terrain in hostile territory, you must
send ahead a detachment of your army to occupy the mountain passes beforehand as well as those through narrow places, the so-called kleisourai.B Otherwise the enemy might get there first, take their stand on the summits or in the

119-129 Onas. 7.1-2.

y~ MWA om. VBE I f1EAAI]<; MWVBE ~oUAI] A 102 <p6eipov MW <p6eipe AVBE I
MW ota Kal oaa AVBE I oux ... xpe[av MW ou XP!](El<; AVBE 104 cmaaa<;
MW naaa<; AVBE 105 eyxp6vt(e AVBE xpovt(e MW 106 TIAeOV MW A om. VBE I
f1iiAA.ov MW om. AVBE I noA.ef1[ou<; MW tx6pou<; AVBE 107 a-rt MW A ~ VBE I olKeia<;
MW l6ia<; AVBE 108 tam MW A ~ VBE I 6a\j1LA~<; Kal MW om. AVBE 109 an MW A
~ VBE I aou MW aot AVBE 111 \mapa MW nA.oua[a AVBE 112 a<p[!]<; MW a<p~al]<;
AVBE 113 w<peA.eia<; MW apnaya<; AVBE scr. mg. npo<; Koupa<; npo<; auvaywy~v -rwv
xpetwv W 114 unof1vouatv MWA unof1vouat VBE 116 Ka-ra MWA om. VBE
117 au-rot<; oila!]<; MW oila!]<; TOL<; npaYflaTeuTaL<; AVBE I KOfll(Wat MWVBE KOfll(WatV A
117-118 TOV ... <p6p-rov MW -ra<; xpeia<; tv TW a-rpa-rw AVBE 120 6ua~a-rou MW
6ua~a-rou TOTIOU AVBE I xwpa<; TIOAEflla<; MW trsp. AVBE 121 npoeKTIEflTIELV AVBE
napeKTIEflTIELV MW 123 <p66.aav-re<; MW npoA.a~6v-re<; AVBE



OlWV ... oawv

7. Onasander 6.14.
8. Sections 27-28 derive from Onasander 7.1-2.


KwA.uawa(v a T~v ota~amv nm~aaaem ~ Klvouvov ota T~~ crTevonop(a~ naya125 ye1v T<jl mpaTeUf.laTL.

28. To of: aUTO q>pOVTL~e Kal oT' av auTO~ 11e<j>O~f]GaL TIOAef.llWV da~OA~V d~

T~V io(av xwpav, Iva npoKaTaM~n~ Ta aTeVa T~~ ooou Kal KWAucrn~ TWV TIOAef.llWV T~V e'iaooov OLU TLVO~ cmoaTeAAOf.lEVOU aTpaTOU ~ KaKW~ 6La0~creL~ aUTOU~
v Tft Twv mevwv ot6o<.p.
29. 'Eav 0 ota f.laKpa~ ooou f.lAA.n~ nopeuwem KalnoAA.wv ~f.lepwv otavu130
nv rrope(av Kal v Tft io(<;t XWP<:t Kal v Tfi 1t0Aef.ll<;t, OLa f.lV T~~ io(a~ xwpa~ Iva

Wl~n~ Ta aTpaTeuf.lam f.lEvnv v ni~n Kal cruf.lcpuA.aunv Toil~ iolou~ A.oxou~

~youv TOU~ 6po(vou~ T~~ TU~eW~ Kal CtKOAOU0e1V TOL~ apxoumv Iva Kal v Tfi
1t0Aef.ll<;l npo~ TU~, w~ eLKO~, YLVOf.lEVa~ ~a(q>VT]~ m~ouA.a~ f.l~ v a0p6<.p Katp(\l
135 Kal

6~w~ myLVOf.lEV<.p 0opu~OUVTUL Kal mTpxoum Kal UAAOL rrpo~ aAA.ou~

cptpwvTaL Kal OLa TOUTO f.lf]Of:v f.lV ~Ofj0etv ouvavTaL, rroAA.a of: KaKa Ot' auTOU

~ Kal OLa TWV 1t0Aef1LWV na0wmv, aAA.' Iva OLa TOU 0LGf.lOU T~~ eUTa~(a~ Kal ei~
rropelav dalv mo~LOL Kal ei~ f.lUXTJV euTpemGf.lEVOL, xovTe~ Kal Gf]f.le'l6v n Kal
aH~A.ou~ v Ta~et ~A.tnoVTe~.

30. T~v 0 nopelav Tou aTpaTeUf.laTO~ 6A.IyT]v noteicr0a( a Oei, Kal ota
TOLOUTWV xwp(wv OLa~(~a(e Ta~ TU~et~, OL' <bv ou auv0AL~~GOVTUL, OUK xouam
nA.aTo~, wme K nA.eupa~ rrl f.l~Ko~ eKTa0~vm. euem~ouA.euTOL yap ylvovmL

npo~ Ta~ aicpvtolou~ Twv rroA.ef.lLWV mcpavela~ ai TmauTm Kal f.l&.A.A.ov ouK



Constitution 9

exouam TO opaaT~pLOV.
31. 'Eav yap aUTOi~ Ct110 Ef11tpocr0ev arravT~awmv ol TIOAEf.lLOL rrA.aTUTepOL
TeTaYf.lEVOL, eUKOAW~ aUTOU~ TprrovTaL, Ka0anep ol nl T~~ f.lUXTJ~ auT~~ eUKa(pw~ KUKAOUVTe~ TOU~ vavT(ou~.

130-182 Onas. 6.1-8.

MW KWAu<JW<Jl AVBE 124-125 Ota ... cr-rpm:Euflm:t MW TW cr-rpaTUflUTl

enayaywat OlCt T~V TOU T0110U <JTVOTI]TU AVBE 126 11<pO~l]<Jat MW om. AVBE
127 xwpav
MW xwpav npoaOoKii~ AVBE 129 Otoow MW nap60w AVBE
130-131 Otavuetv nopeiav MW Mov nepma-rlv AVBE 132 flEVtV ... -ra~et MW tv -ra~et
nepma-re1v AVBE 1 <JUfl<puA<inetv MWA <puA<inav VBE 135 tmytVOflEVW MWAVE
tmyeVOflEVW B I eopu~OUVTat MW eopu~WVTat AVBE I tm-rptxou<Jl M tm-rptxouatv w
tm-rptxw<Jl AVBE 136 ouvavTat MWA OUVWVLal VBE I auLOii MW au-rwv AVBE
138 Eialv MWA W<JlV VBE I UTp11l<JflEVOl MW ELOlflOl AVBE 141 xwp[wv MW T011WV
AVBE 143-144 fliiAA.ov ... opaa-r~ptov MW avevtpy!]TOt AVBE scr. mg. ~youv &a -ra
<JTVWflal:U ouxtxou<JL TO KaLU TWV ~:xepwv eVepyav w 146 TpE110Vlat MW KUKAW<JUVT~
tpE110U<JlV AVBE 146-147 au-r~<; ... tvav-r[ou<; MW TO TWV tvav-riwv Kpa<; KUKAOUVT<;

124 KwA.uawa[v



defiles, and prevent you from passing through or seriously endanger your army
if it does pass through the defile.
28. Be mindful of the same thing when you fear an attack of the enemy
against your own country. Before they arrive, have your troops occupy the
narrow places on your route. By dispatching some of your troops for this
purpose you will prevent enemy incursions or you will inflict serious injury on
them in their passage of the defiles.
29. If you plan on a long journey and a march of many days both in your
t1wn country and in that of the enemy, first, in passing through your own
country, accustom your troops to remain in formation and to keep to their own
groups or columns of the formation and to follow their officers; so that, in
hostile territory in case of sudden attacks from ambush, perhaps coming very
t}uickly at a critical moment, your men may not be thrown into confusion, run
Hbout, and stumble over one another. 9 In such a situation, they will be of no help
to themselves, rather they will suffer many evils, some of them self-inflicted and
others by the enemy. But by being accustomed to good order they can handle
themselves well on the march and be prepared for battle. They should have some
kind of watchword among themselves and keep their eyes on each other in
30. You must reduce the size of the marching formation of your army. Have
it pass through the kind of terrain in which the troops will not be pressed tightly
together because their formations are not wide enough for them to extend their
flanks broadly. Such lines are more readily subject to sudden assaults of the
enemy and are really not effective at all.
31. For, if the enemy, drawn up in a more extended front, should encounter
the head <of your column> they will easily turn it to flight, just as, in the battle
itself, they may readily encircle their opponents.

9 Sections 29-40 derive from Onasander 6.1-8.



Constitution 9
32. 'Eav o KaTa f.lE<Jf]V T~V OUVUf.llV tK TIAUpa<; tm~aA.wat, mxu Olianl>ow

32. If they attack the center of your force from the flank, they will quickly

atJLWV T~V nopdav KQL OlUKOTILOU<JlV. tav yap tmaTpE\I'W<Jl npo<; <paA.ayya ol

pierce the column and cut through it. If the marching column wheels about into
phalanx, so as to line up against the foe, their fighting will be without thick
ranks and weak.
33 In like manner, if they appear in the rear, it will obviously result in the
destruction of the men lined up at the head of the column.
34 It also happens that, even if some assistance can be given, it would be
difficult and ineffective. When the men in the rear want to come to the aid of
those up front or, in turn, those up front to those in the rear, their arrival is
delayed and cannot come in time.
35 A marching formation that is compact and rectangular, shaped <so that
its length is> not much longer than its width, but proportionate, is helpful in
every contingency and is safe and easy to manage.
36. If the army should march through very narrow defiles with its column
extended and very thin, its fate frequently sinks into uncertainty when the first
units descend into level terrain from the mountainous area <above>. For they
observe the men still descending behind them and mistake them for a hostile
attacking force, so that they get set to charge into them as though they were
enemies, and they barely avoid coming to blows with one another.
37 Place and draw up your entire baggage train, the service units, the pack
animals, and all the equipment in the middle of your force. If you suspect some

150 ooomopouvn:<;


wan: avnnapaTa~aa6at, aaeev~<; ~ f.HiXfJ y[vLat Kal OUK exou-

aa naxo<;.
33 'Eav o ano oma6ev tmcpavwm, npo<pav~<; y[vnat 6A.t:6po<; Of!OLW<; TOt<;

tv TtP I Ef!Tipoa6ev T~<; nope[a<; Tnawtvot<;.


34 LUfl~ULVl o KUL, tav Tl<; napa~o~6ta yvfjTUl, OU<JXP~ Kal O.npaKTOV



auT~V yeva6at. TWV yap ano oma6v TOt<; Ef11tpoa6v ~OUAOf!EVWV ~Of]6civ ~
KUL TIUAlV TWV Ef11tpoa6v TOt<; d<; TO oma6v, ~paoda ~ EAU<Jl<; KUL ou KaTa
Katpov Mvmm y1vw6m.
35 'H o <JUVWLaAf!EVf] nopla Kat Tnpaywvo<;, ~ rrapafl~Kf]<; f!EV, fl~ TIUVU
o TOUTO exouaa TO ax~ flU

aHa <JUflf!ELpov, d<; TIUVTU Katpov W<pfAlflO<; tan Kal

160 UflLUXtpl<JTO<; KUL a<J<pUA~<;.

36. 'Eav yap d<; rravu <JTVOU<; TOTIOU<; ota~a[vn TO mpaTUflU trrl TIOAU
A.emuvof!EVfJ<; Kal tneKTtVOf!EVfJ<; T~<; rrapaTa~ew<;, rroAA.aKt<; yap ei<; afl<pt-

~o:\[av tf.lTtlTILOU<JlV, OLaV ol rrpWLOl KULa~avT<; arro 6pLVWV TOTIWV d<; trr[TIOa
xwp[a 8t:a<JUflVOl yap TOU<; OTIL<JW tm<KaLa>~a[vovLa<; EOO~av LVat 1tOAfllWV
165 trrAU<JlV, W<JT <JT[U<Jat 1tpO<J~UAAlV

W<; tx8po1<;, nva<; o KUL d<; X1pa<; tA.8civ

KaT' aAA~AWV napa f!lKp6v.

37 Aaf.l~UV o Kal L<l1'L TO LOUAOOV OAOV, T~V T oouA.dav Kal Ta aawapta
KUL T~V arro<JKU~V arraaav tv flE<Jn Tfl OUVafll. tav o Kat arro omaeev U<p-

148 bn~aAwm M tm~aAwmv W t<pop[!~Owow A <pop[!f]owm VBE

otaK6moumv AVBE

150 avTmapaTa~aoem


~a8o<; ll~ exnv AVBE

152 av ... yivnm MW AVE om. B




I tm<pavwm MVBE tm<pavwmv

ouoxepfi KUL MW om. AVBE

15 5 auT~V yevo8m MW UUTOV dvm Kal avevtpyl]TOV AVBE

156 Kal 1 AVBE om. MW

156-157 ou ... yivwem MW OUK

tmrroAU E7teKTa8fivat T~V rrapata~LV wom:p dp!]tat AVBE

tv TW




ap[!6~ovn Katpw 15La TO

159 W<pEAL[!O<; VBE XP~OL[!O<; A

160 eu[!etaxdptoto<; MW eUf!ETUKiV!]tO<; AVBE


ouoTwmv MW



154 rrapa~o~8eLU MWA rrapa ~o~8eLUV VBE

om. MW

150-151 Kal... rraxo<; MW OLa TO A7tT~V elvm T~V rrapam~LV Kal



149 Kal otaK6moumv MW om. AVBE

161-162 av ... rrapata~ew<;

162 rroA.AaKL<; yap M rroA.AaKL<; yap Kal W rroA.AaKL<; Kal AVBE

162-163 Uf!<pL~oAiav AVBE U[!<pL~OAia<; MW

163-164 rrirrel5a xwpia MW O[!UAOU<;

I orriaw MW orriaw UUTWV

AVBE I mKata~aivovta<; De tm~aivovta<; MW Katepxof!vou<; AVBE I eoo~av MW eoo~av
yap AVBE I TfOAE[!lWV WA VBE TlOAef!lUV M 165 07tUOUL MW orrouoaam AVBE

t6rrou<; AVBE

164 eeaoit[!eVOL yap MW 8eaOWVTat AVBE

167 Tane MW Taooe A KaTa ae VBE




Constitution 9


opcwm <po86v nvwv, no[T]aov Kal -rou<; vwTo<puA.aKa<; iaxupou<; 6f1o[w<; niiv

Mort of attack from the rear, make sure your rear guard is as strong as the forces

Efl1tpoaElev TETaYflEVWV ev Ttp fleTW1t<J.l T~<; nope[a<;, WGTe flT]8v 8ta<ppetv TOU<;


(m[aw T<iiv Efl1tpoaElev npo<; Ta EiKo<; GUfl~a[vovm.

38. AnomLA.n<; 8 Ka[ nva<; Ka~aAA.ap[ou<;, Tou<; flEAAOVTa<; 8tepeuv~am n\<;

68ou<;, Kat flCtALGTa, c>T' UV UAW8L<; Kat neptKeKAeLGflEVa<; ~OUVOi<; ~ opem

8w&un<; EPTJflLa<;. 1tOAACtKL<; yap eyKpUflflaTa 1tOAeflLWV U1tOKaEl(ovTal Kal

oA.a npawam GUVTPL~OUGL nov evavT[wv.

39 T~v flEV yap ne8ta8a y~v olnavTwv 6<pElaA.flolnept~A.en6flevot euK6A.w<;

175 A.aEl6vTa Taxa Ta

8tepeUVWGL. Kat yap ev ~flEp<;t KOVLOpTo<; ava<pepOfleVO<; 1tOAACtKL<; flT]VUeL T~V

E1tEAUGLV niiv 1tOAeflLWV Kalnupa KaLOfleVa VUKTO<;'(!e Kal un8Et~e TOU<;
40. Kal eav flEV ou flEAATI<; EKTQ(J(JLV ei<; flCtXTJV Ta<; 8uVCtfleL<;, aye auTa<; ev
~flEp<;l flOVOV. eav 8 enLywm Kal anouM(n<; <pElaveLV GUVTOflWTepov, aye

auTa<; Kal ev VUKTL, eav apa aa<paA<; elvat TOUTO VOfll(n<;.

41. Kalnpo flEV TOU Katpou T~<; flCtXTJ<; fleTa avaew<; Kat GXOA~<; 1tpoepxou.
em\v 8 TOi<; 1tOAeflLOL<; Efl<pavtaElft, eUElu<; em~aAOU, KaAW<; npoeKTa~a<; T~V
18 5 MvaflLV. noAA.aKt<; yap npo Tou aufl~a"-ALv Tov n6A.eflov 6 nepl -rouTov K6no<;

d<; &tA.[av ayet Kal TOU<; av8pe[ou<; Kal 8anav~ Tft flep[flVTI T~V MvaflLV TWV
42. Tou<; 8 mevou<; Kal8ua~cnou<; T6nou<; enlnoA.u 8taGTTJfla eKTeTaflvou<;
ev XWP<t exElpwv KaTe~a[peTOV ol ne(ol 8ta~a[veLV ou 8uaxepw<; txoum. nepl

in the front of your column, since there is no difference between the

frtmt and the rear with a view to what may happen.
38. Send out some cavalry units to reconnoiter the roads, especially when
you are proceeding through deserted areas that are wooded and closed in by
hills or mountains. Ambuscades are often set up by the enemy and, when not
detected, swiftly bring utter destruction upon their adversaries.
39. On a level plain everyone can look about and easily reconnoiter. By day a
.::loud of dust often gives warning of the approach of the enemy. By night the
llght from burning fires points to their location.
40. If you do not intend to draw up your forces for battle, lead them only by
day. But if you are in a hurry and anxious to arrive first <at a certain place>, lead
your forces at night as well, provided you think it safe to do so.
41. Before the time of battle march along in a relaxed and leisurely manner.
tlut when you come in sight of the enemy, draw up your force in good order and
nttack immediately. The hard work involved before the actual fighting gets
under way frequently causes even courageous men to lose heart, and anxiety
llttps their bodily strength.
42. Foot soldiers in particular do not find it difficult to traverse long stretches of narrow and difficult places in hostile territory. 10 We will shortly speak
11bout these matters.

8i:: fld 6A.[yov epOiifleV.

188-254 Strat., 94

I 6Jloiw<; MA VE 6Jloiou<; WB 171 npo<; ... cruJlpaivovta

MW Km:a OUVUJllV AVBE 172 nva<; KapaHapiou<; MW trsp. AVBE 173 u:X.weet<; Kat
MW llaada<; oto0eu!]<; tp!]JlLU<; AVBE I neptKKAlO"JlEVa<; MW A neptKKAtO"JlEVOt<; VBE I
opeat MW opemv AVBE 174 otooeu!]<; tp!]Jlia<; MW om. AVBE I unoKa6(ov-rat Onas.
bttKa6(ovmt codd. 175 auv-rpipoum MWVBE auv-rpipoumv A I TWV evavTiwv MW om.
AVBE 176 T~V ... y~v MW TOU<; JlEV 6JlUAOU<; Kal oevopa Jl~ exov-ra<; T01IOU<; A VBE I
neptp:X.en6Jlevot MW neptp:>..erwumv A neptp:X.enoum VBE 177 otepeuvwm M 0tepeuvwmv
180 JlEAAT]<; MW pouAT] AVE B I EKTaacretv MW napaTaacretv A VBE 183 crxo:X.~<;
MW apyia<; AVBE 184 tnav MW tnetoav AVBE 185 npo Toii MW tav EJlppaOUV!]<;
AVBE I cruJlpaHetv MW cruJlpa:X.eTv AVBE I 6 ... K6no<; MW om. AVBE I K6no<; Va aKono<;
MW om. AVBE 186 ayet. .. OUVUJllV MW epxov-rm oi avopciot Kal 6 aywv Kal ~ JlEPlJlVU

169 1wwv MW no:X.eJliwv AVBE

MVBE exoumv WA

10. Sections 42-51 derive from Strat. 94


Constitution 9

43 Touc; 8 KU~aAA.apiouc; tv Tft xwp<;t TWV noA.qtiwv EV Katptp 8pouc; flUAlOTU am:plOKETITW<:; Kal we; ETUX 8ta~a(vLV OUK mTpE1t0flV xwplc; avciyKTj<:;. av
8 onv TOTIO<:; n' 6A.iyov axpl i::voc; fllALOU EKTTUflEVO<:; Kal ouvavTm Kalne(ol
8La~atVlV EKl, 8uvaT6v on Kal Ka~aAA.apiouc; 1t(ULV tv aUTOtc; ampaA.wc;.
44. :Luvouc; 8 Kal 8uoK6A.ouc; Kivouc; A.eyw T6nouc; Toile; fllav Kal flOVTJV
ncipo8ov xovTac;. ei yap Kal liAA.m eiol n6.po8m Kal mvoTj8~vm MvavTm,
aVfl1t08ioTwc; ~ n6.po8oc; ouvaTm yivwem. av oDv YEVT]Tat Kmpoc; OTVWV
8La~6.oewv Kal 8ta Twv auTwv T6nwv flEAAD imooTpecpnv 6 oTpaT6c;, d
flEV 8aolc; dOL KUL n' 6A.iyov 8t6.0TTjflU, we; dpf]TUl, KpaTOUOl, TOUTOU<:; KUTU TOV
200 Kmpov T~c; 68ou KKOTIT Kal nA.6.Tuve Kal KaTa Tov v&x6flevov
Tp6nov. d 8 OTVOL Kal KPTJflVW8nc;, WOT fl~ 7tAUTUVW8m ouvavTm, we; UVWTEpw ~fltV dpTjTUl, npoKUTUACtfl~UV auTouc; 8t6. nvoc; 1t(lK~c; 8uVCtflW<:; Kal tv
TOte; lJ\f!T]AOTEpOLc; UUTWV T01t0l<:; T~V apKouoav KUTUALflTIUV aocpaA.wc; ~o~enav
~ Tuxov Kal 8ta Ka~aAA.apiwv flEXPL T~c; unooTpo<p~c; ~ Kal TouTo KaKtvo nmdv
205 tv TOte; avayKatOTEpOLc; TOTIOlc;, TOUT' EOTLV EKK01TTlV ~youv Ka8api(nv KUL
~o~enav KUTUALflTI6.vnv KaTa TO v8ex6flVov.

45 . Toile; 8 T~v n6.po8ov 8ta Twv oTevwv notouf1vouc; ~ flHa TouA.8ou ~

flTU npai8ac; de; Mo cp6.A.ayyac; ~TOL napaT6.~etc; yivwem Kal nl Kepac; v 6p8i<;t
napaywyft nepmaTlv ne(ft. 6p8ia 8 oTL napaywy~ ~ KaTa flETWnov flEV OTV~,
210 KaTa 8 To ~6.8oc; eic; fl~Koc; KTLVOflEVTJ. TouTo 8 notetv npai8ac; flCtALOTU tv
xepolv OVOf]<:;, dT 1t(oi dmv ole; flCtAAOV n'>xep~c; ~ TWV 8aowv Kal 8uo~6.TWV
T6nwv 8t6.~amc;, e'LT Ka~aA.A.6.ptoL i::K Twv '(nnwv KaTa~aivovT<:; Kal fli::oov TOV
46. 'Ev 8 Tote; TmouTmc; Kmpotc; Kal T6nmc; flHU T~v 8tcpaA.ayyiav, ~nc; xn
215 8uvaTOV TOV A.aov Efl1tpoo8v KUL 6mo8v, W01tp OTOflWflUTU flUxaipac;, ~v oeov
0 acpopi(nv de; <pUAUK~V TOU TouA.8ou Kal T~c; npai8ac; T~c;, we; iK6c;, EVOUOT]<:;
193 tcr-nY MW ter-n A ~ YBE 1 br' MW btl AYBE I iixpt. .. Ktnaf!iYo~ MW KtnaweYo~
194 1l~UlY ... aa<pa\w~ MW 1l~UOYta~ &tpxw8m AYBE 195-197 C1tYOU~ ... y[yw8m
MW om. AYBE 199 Elm MAYBE dcrtY W I Kpatoiim MYBE KpatoiimY WA I toutou~

MW om. AYBE 201 7!AatuYw8m MWAB 1lAatuYacr6m YE 204 ~ 1 AYBE i MW I

KaKdYo MW KdYo A Kal KlYo YBE 205 t61!ot~ MW om. AYBE 207 crtYWY MW
crtYWY t61!WY AYBE 1 ~ 1 MWAYE ~ Kal B I tou\oou MAYBE t6\oou WI ~ MWAYE ~ Kal
B 208 ~tot MW ~youy AYBE 209 er-n MWA cr-nY YBE 211 DXP~~ MW UXP~~
Kal l>KoAo~ AYBE 212 toY A to MWYBE 215 toY MW om. AYBE I crtOf!Wflata MW
crt6f!ata AYBE 216 touASou MAYBE t6A8ou W I tij~ 2 MWA om. YBE I youcr!]~ MW




43. Apart from an emergency, we do not recommend that cavalry, while in

hostile territory, especially in summertime, imprudently and without necessity
should do that. But if the pass is not very long, extending only a mile or so, and
infantry can make their way through it, then the cavalry can pass through on
44. I define narrow and difficult passes as those places that have only one
passable road. When other routes exist or can be improvised, the passage can be
made without hindrance. Therefore, if the time comes for the army <to pass
through> narrow passages with the intention of returning again through the
same places, and if it is heavily wooded and, as mentioned, not very long, then,
when we first go through it, chop down the trees and level the ground as best fits
the situation. If the way is narrow and precipitous, so that it cannot be leveled,
as we have said above, have an infantry force go ahead to seize the place and
have an auxiliary detachment of sufficient strength take up position on the
commanding points, or perhaps also a force of cavalry, until we return. Or take
the same steps in more critical locations, that is, cut down <the trees> or clear
the ground and leave behind a suitable guard.
45 The troops making their way through the defiles, either accompanied by
the baggage train or by plunder, should form into two phalanxes or battle lines
marching on foot in columns by the flank. In column means a marching formation narrow in the front but in depth stretched out to a greater extent. Observe
this especially when they have plunder in hand. Infantry can traverse wooded
and difficult terrain easily enough. But have cavalry dismount and place the
baggage train and the equipment in the center.
46. At such times and in such places, in addition to the double phalanx,
which has a strong force in front and to the rear, like the hard edges of a sword,
it is necessary for you to detail <men> to guard the baggage train and the

Constitution 9


au-roTc;, miv-rwc; Kal aUouc; ~nA~KTOUc; ~youv nl TOUTq> flOVq> ov-rac;, -roue; I
Kaft.A.[w Kal nA.douc;, nott:Tv eK nt:ptaaou Ka-ra -rwv -reaaapwv flepwv -r~c; OtcpaA.ayy[ac;, we; 6 -r6noc; napaOXTat, napaKoAou8ouv-rac; Kal anoao~ouv-rac;
220 -roue; ~OUAOflvouc;, we; etK6c;, EK TWV x8pwv npxea8at Kal Ota-rapaaat:LV
auT~V, 'lva aotaanaa-roc; Kal aauyxu-roc; ~ npoc; napaq>UAaK~V TOU TOUAOOU Kal
T~c; npa[oac; TCt~Lc; q>UAaTTeTal Kal flllOE 1teplG1tWVTaL ol v auTfl OLa muc; nepxoflvouc;. ou yap ouva-rov -roue; t:ic; T~V OtcpaA.ayy[av -raaGOflVouc; Kal T~V npa[oav flt:Ta TCt~eWc; q>UAUHeLV, Kat TOte;, we; eLKOc;, E1tepXOflVOLc; TWV x6pwv etpf16225 ~ea6at. OLa TOUTO EK 1teptaaou Oel i:~weev T~c; OtcpaA.ayy[ac; exetv KaTa TWV
TeGGCtpWV flepWV Kat KaTe~a[peTOV oma8t:V TOUc; KpelTTOVac; aq>op[~ea6at.
oihwc; yap av nc; OUV~GeTaL v nav-rl Katp<i> -roue; OUGKOAOUc; Kal -rpaxeTc; -r6nouc;

47 Touc; o '(nnouc; TWV ano~atVOVTWV Kal 1te~UOVTWV a-rpaTLWTWV, av
1te~ol ou auvetat a-rpatlWTal, fl~ 1tA11GlOV TWV 1te~eUOVTWV EX, aHa v f1Gq>
-romp aU-roue; aacpaA.wc; aye, Wale fl~, we; eiK6c;, napaA6you OeLA[ac; yeVOflVllc;,
-rapaaGOfleVOl ol 1te~eUOVTec;, av 1tA11GlOV aumuc; eupwat, npoxelpwc; emAafl~aVOfleVOl -rwv Ynnwv KataALf11tCtvoum -r~v -ra~tv Kal v-rt:u6t:v ~Aa~ll fleYLGTll


48. El o GUfl~fl alxflaAwa[av au-roue; ~ npaToav mcppea6at Kal f1AAOUatV

ol exepol E1tlTll0UelV -rau-ra, oeov ~ KaTa TOU voc; f1pouc; ~ KaTa TWV ouo, vea
~ napoooc; y[vnm, -roue; aixflaA.w-rouc; ot:Oeflvouc; ~w-rpw -r~c; -ra~t:wc; napaynv Kal un' aU-rwv waavel GKOUTeUW6at, Yva aU-rwv q>eLOOfleVOl ol exepol fl~

e~rcA~KtoU~ ... TCAeLOU~ MW exeLV oei e\acppou~ Kal fli]OfV ~apo~ emcpepof!EVOU~
Kal rc\dova~ AVBE 217 e~TCA~KTOU~ Va e~aTCA~KTOU~ codd.
MW om. AVBE 219 rcapaKo\oueouvm~ MWAB rcapaKaAou21
eouvm~ VE I arcocro~ouvm~ MW altaVTWVTa~ AVBE 221 am)yxu-ro~ MW a-rapaxo~
AVBE 1 ~ AVBE ~ W om. M I -rou\oou AVBE -r6\oou MW 222 cpu\annm MW
cpu\anJ]-rm AVBE 22 3 -r~vt MWA om. VBE 224 -roi~ ... ercepxoflvot~ MW -rou<; ... ercepxoflvou<; AVBE 224-225 apf16~ecr9aL MW arcav-riiv AVBE 225 TOUTO MW TOUTO XP~
AVBE I Oel MW om. AVBE 230 <JUVEL<Jl MW cruvurcapxwm A cruvurcapxou<JL VBE I ana
MWA aU' VBE 231 au-rou<; acrcpa\w<; MWA trsp. VBE 232-233 mpacrcr6f1VOL. ..
lTCTCWV MW TCAT]<JlOV exov-re<; TOU<; 'ircrcou<; au-rwv oi TCe~EUOVT<; em~a(vovTe<; au-rwv AVBE
233 KaTaALflTCavoum MW KUTaALflTCavw<JL AVBE 234 yivnaL MW AB yivJ]mL VE
235-236 f!EAAOU<JLV ... mum MW <JUfl~~ TOU<; exepou<; em-rtewem KaT' au-rwv AVBE
236 -rau-ra OEOV Va oov mu-ra MW oov TOU<; aixflaAWTOU<; AVBE 237 rcapooo<; MW




ecpoOo<; AVBE 1-rou<; aixfla\w-rou<; MW om. AVBE



plunder it is likely to be carrying. Over and above this, be sure to assign other
light-armed troops, better and more numerous, specifically for this purpose on
the four sides of the double phalanx as the terrain permits. They are to march
alongside and ward off any hostile parties who might be attempting to harass
the column. This provides protection for the formation assigned to guard the
baggage train and the plunder without being split up and disordered or the
troops drawn off to fight attackers. For it is not possible for the troops stationed
in the double phalanx to guard the plunder in an orderly manner and also deal
with likely hostile raiding parties. For this reason, it is necessary to have troops
that can be spared outside the double phalanx and to post the stronger ones on
the four sides and especially to the rear. In this way one will be able at all times
to pass through difficult and rugged places easily.
47 If there are no foot soldiers accompanying them, the horses of the soldiers who have dismounted and who are proceeding on foot should not remain
close to them but should be led along safely in the center. This is to avoid the
likelihood that the men going on foot might break ranks out of reckless fear
and, if they find the horses close by, readily take hold of them and abandon their
formation. That would lead to the greatest harm.
48. If it should happen that they are transporting prisoners or plunder, and
the enemy are about to go after them, you must, either on one side or on both
sides of the line of march, lead the prisoners, still bound, to the outside of the
column, using them as a sort of shield. Either the enemy will hold their fire out

17 4

ErHTT]OUWatV UKOVTt(etv ei oi:: Kat UKOVTiawow, alJTOU<; !lCtAAOV acpavi(ouat Kat


!l~ Tov mpaTLWTT]V.

49 Ei oi:: apa tv avayKn, w<; eiK6<;, Katneptaniaet UOOK~T(tl 6 mpaTo<; yevfjTaL Kat tv aTVW!laat KaTaAfj<p0ft Kat OUK eaTLV UKLVOUVW<; T~V avaxwpfj<HV
Ke10ev 1IOL~aaa0m, TOT KpetHOV eaTLV fK aU!l<jlWVOU ~ !lEPO<; T~<; npaiow.:; ~
rraaav rrapaxwpe'lv TOL<; x0pot<; Kat Ct~Aa~w<; ~pxea0at, UAAa !l~ OL' auT~V

so. Ei oi:: !l~ OUTW au!l~L~aae~vaL ~OUAOVTaL, OLaxp~aem TOUTOU<; err' 0\jfWL
TWV tx0pwv Kat ~ f1Il!lEVlV Tft xwp<;t auTWV Kat AU!laivwem aM~v a<petOW<; ~,

w<; ouvaT6V eaTLV, i::aUTOU<; !leTa T<l~ew<; rreptacp(etv Kat T~<; t~eA.euaew<; <ppovT((etv.


51. Kat rravTo'l6<; aot, ib aTpaTT]y, aKono<; mw tv TOt<; TOLOUTOL<; aTevw!laat

I Kat !lUALaTa TOL<; tnt T(OAU otcianwa KpaTOUat !l~ f1ILTT]OUlV ~La(eaem aTpaTOU rrapooov, t~mpeTW<; tv Katp<j) 0pou<;, OLU T~V T~<; UAT]<; oaaUTT]Ta ITOA!llWV
!lciA.tam tvoxA.ouvTwv, rrptv iiv ~ auwt arroao~T]0wat cpmv611evot ~ D\jfTJA6Tepot
TOT(OL T~<; rrap6oou uno TOU mpaTOU npoKaTaATl<jl0WatV.


52. Kat TaUTa !li::V tnt T~<; Ka~aAAapLK~<; tKaTpaTe(a<;. tnt Oi:: T~<; 1I(LK~<;
Momopia<; ei<; !li::V tmrreoou<; TOITOU<; oeov ae Kat oma0ev aUTWV Kat E!l1IpOa0ev

Ka~aAA.apiou<; Ka0tmiiv ei<; ~iyA.av Kat t~wTepw T~<; ~iyA.a<; !lTJOeva Twv rre(wv
cpaivw0m. Ta oi:: UITALKTa fK TOU ITAT]aiov yivea0at '(va !l~ KOITOUVTat oi rre(ol


Constitution 9

rrepmaTOUVT<:; ITOAU OtaaTT]!la.

53 Ta<:; oi:: !leTa Twv rre(wv a!la~a<:; KaTa Ta !lEPTJ T~<; napaTa~ew<; rrepmaTetv
oeov, ehe tv 6poivc.p e'LT tv rrapaTa~et, npo<:; TOV TOITOV rrpwTOV TOU oe~LOU

of consideration for them or, if they do shoot, they will kill the prisoners and
not our soldiers.
49 If the army, as can easily happen, finds itself in an unexpected critical
situation, trapped in narrow passes, and unable to extricate itself without real
danger, then it is better to come to an agreement with the enemy, relinquishing
part or all of the plunder. The army can thus withdraw without harm and
without endangering itself for the sake of the plunder.
50. But if they do not wish to make such an agreement, put the prisoners to
death before the eyes of the enemy. Then, either remain in their country and
ravage it without mercy or, as best you can, try to save yourselves in an orderly
way and concentrate on escape.
51. Above all, 0 general, when you find yourself in such defiles, especially
ones extending a long distance, you must be careful not to have your army try to
force its way through, particularly in summer, when the dense foliage enables
the enemy to cause a great deal of trouble, before those who appear can be
driven off or your own army shall have seized the commanding heights of the
52. So much then about cavalry expeditions.u When it comes to infantry
marching along in level terrain, you must send out cavalry patrols to the front
and to the rear. No infantry man should appear outside the line of patrols. The
camp sites should be fairly close, so that the foot soldiers do not become
exhausted from marching long distances.
53 The wagons accompanying the infantry should be driven along in accord
with the divisions of the battle line, either in column or in a broad formation. In

255-371 Strat., 12.B.19-20.

239 EltlTT}OEuwmv MWVBE om. A I aKOVTt<ELV MW aKovTi<wmv ~ TO~Euwmv AVBE I
UKOVTLO'WatV MW UKOVTt<oumv AVBE I a<pav[<oum M a<pav[<oumv A a<pav[<wm WVBE
241 crTpmo~ MW A O'TpUTflYO~ VBE 243 EKElOEv MW om. AVBE 246 oihw M oihw~
WA VBE 1 &axpficr8m ... 6'\fEO'l MW <poveuELV mhou~ ~:\m6vTwv AVBE 247 :X.uJ.taivwOm
VBE 250 Kal ... <HpUTflYE MW om. A VBE I aKono~ MW aKono~ oe crot AVBE I ToT~ MWA
253 anocro~f18wm <pmv6J.tEVot MW oi <pmv6J.!Evot noAEJ.lLOL anootwxOwmv AVBE
254 npoKaTUAf)<pOiiimv MW npoKaTaKpUTf18iiimv AVBE 256 mne8ou~ MW OJ.IUAOU~
AVBE 257 ~[y:\av M ~iy:\a~ WAVBE 258 Konouvmt AVBE crKonouvmt MW 260 Ta


11. Sections 52-75 derive from Strat. 12.B.19-20.



Constitution 9

Kepa-ro<;, 1-ra LOU aptcr-rpou, fl1"' EKflVa<; cS TOU f.LEO'OU apta-rpou Kal TOT TOU
f.LEO'OU o~tou Kal fl~ n<pUpf.LEVat Kal avaflflLYf.LEVat n~::pmaToumv.
54 'Eav o oi txepol nAT]O'LOV dcr[v, oeov TOU<; 6n/..[-ra<; eKaa-rov TU onA.a
auTou ~acrnx<ovTa n~::pma-rciv Kal fl~ ~::l<; Ta<; Ufla~a<; -rau-ra KaTaAtf.Lnavav, \'va
WaLV eTOlflOLnpo<; T~V f.LUXT]V. v 0 TOt<; avayKa[ot<; Katpot<;, Ka8w<; EV Tft napaTa~L TUTTOVTUL Ta Tayf.LaTa, oihw<; au-ra 0tnpma-rdv Kal fl~ cruyKXUf.LEVW<; ~

otacrnacrf.LEVW<; \'va, av YEVT]TaL xpda TOU napaTa~aaem, ETOlf.LW<; d<; TOUTO

55.'Eav 0 noA!..o[ dmv oi TWV x8pwv Ka~aA.A<'tptot, eyyt<ovTWV aUTWV -rq>
crTpaTq> fl~ E1tlTT]01JlV O'UVXW<; TU anALKTa aHacrcrav ~ TU<; 60omop[a<; not1aem npo T~<; TOU 1tOAEf.LOU eK~aaW<;, ana npo ouo ~ -rptWV ~flpwv npoKa-raAafl~UVLV TOY -r6nov, v8a ~ O'Uj.l~OA~ j.LEAAl yiv~::aem, KUKfLO' aa<paAW<; anAL-


56. 'Eav o f.LEAAn<; E<pOOOV nolLV KUTU xwpa<; txepwv flTU n<LKOU cr-rpaLOU
OLU oacrWV Kal oucr~a-rwv Kal O'TVWV T01tWV ~ Kal tv aUTOL<; tyxap~crL<; KaT'
aU-rwv 1t0lLcr8at, ou od a nonou<; Ka~aHapiou<; EXLV, j.l~T Ctf.LU~a<; xav ~
TOUAOOV noA.uv ~ onA.a nona. <Kal ~apea>, oiov A.wpiKLa Kal Kaaaioa<; ~ KAL-

~avta ~


TWV TOLOUTWV, ana. O'KOUTapta f.LOVOV exav TOU<; O'KOUTUTOU<; f.Ld<ova,

280 Kov-rapta o KOVTU Kal TU crna8[a Kal T<lKOUpta, LOU<; o AYOj.LEVOU<; \j!LAOU<;
aKouTapta j.ltKpa Kal A.a<pp6T~::pa, -ro~o<pap~::-rpa, ptK-rapta, aK6vna f.LLKpa,

T<lKOUpta Kal d


TOLOUTOV A.a<ppov Kall XP~alf.LOV. a~[va<; 0 naVTW<; n~::ptcrcra<;

XP~ EXLV Kal tv TOL<; crayj.Lapiot<; m<ppw8at OLU TU<; xp~::ia<;.

57 T~v o n<LK~V TWV O'KOUTUTWV -ra~LV j.LT]OE en' ~::uSda<; ~TOl KaTUj.LETwnov
TUO'O'flV XP~, W<; tv TOL<; OflaAOL<; Kal YUf.LVOL<; T01t0l<;, aH' l<; QUO~ o' f.LEPT] nl

~ o' TO ~a8o<; TWV UKLWV npo<; TO nocrov TOU crTpaTOU ~ W<; ~ xpfia anaml. TU o
j.LEpT] '(aw<; KlVLV Kaln~::pmaTdV U<pWTWTa an' UAA~AWV, W<; uno A.i8ou ~OA~<;.
263 ad 8e~10ii des. W (fol. desideratur) 285 ad JlEPI] de novo inc. W
263 rre<pupf!EVat MA m:pt<pupf!EVat VBE I m:pmatoiimv
M rrepmatwcrtv AVBE 264 eicr[v MA wow VBE 266 etOlf!Ol MA l!tOtf!U VBE
269 KUtaOTWOLV AVBE Ka0t<JTW<JlV M 270 dcrtv MA WOLV VBE I at'nwv MVBE autw A
272 EK~acrewc; AVBE eKtacrEwc; M I Mo ... tptwv MA W~ y' VBE 277 fl~TE M outE AVBE
1 exetv2 M om. AVBE 278 Kal ~apta Va om. codd.
279 twv M om. AVBE I J16vov M
f16va AVBE 281 ptKtapta Va pi]Ktapta M ptmapta AVBE 283 XP~ MA om. VBE
284 Jli]OE M ouoe AVBE 285 Mo MAB W VE I o' M tcrcrapa A tcrcrapac; VBE
285-286 f!Epl] ... o' MWA om. VBE 285
MW Mo AVBE 286 o' MW tcrcrapac; A I TO
rrocrov MW T~V J!OOOTI]TU AVBE I UJ!attel WAVBE arravta M 287 U<pEOTWta MW A

262 eKEtvw; MW eKdvouc; AVBE

ecpecrtwta VBE


first place should be the wagons of the right flank, then those of the left, following them the wagons of the left center and then those of the right center. They
11hould not be in disarray or mixed up with one another as they proceed along.
54 If the enemy are nearby, the heavy-armed troops should march along,
~ach one carrying his weapons, not leaving them in the wagons, but prepared to
tight. When they are under pressure, the tagmata line up in the way they form
for battle and in that order they march along without any mixing or dispersion
of troops in order that, if it becomes necessary to form the battle line, they are in
t>osition to do so.
55. If there is a large number of enemy cavalry and they are getting close to
our army, we should not immediately get ready to change our campsite or to
undertake a march before the battle has ended. Instead, two or three days
beforehand, occupy the place where the battle is likely to occur and there set up
camp in safety.
56. If you intend to lead an army of infantry on an expedition against hostile
territory that is dense, very rugged, and with narrow passes, or to launch
llSsaults on them in such places, you must not have many cavalry or wagons or a
large baggage train or much heavy armament, such as body armor, helmets,
cuirasses or anything of that sort. The heavy-armed troops should carry only
large shields, short spears, swords, and axes. The so-called light-armed troops
should have smaller and lighter shields, bows with quivers, throwing spears,
short javelins, axes, and anything else light and serviceable like these. They
definitely must have extra axes that can be carried by the pack animals until
57 The force of heavy infantry must not be drawn up in a straight line on

the front as in flat and open country, but, depending on the size of the army or
as the circumstances require, in two or four divisions, two or four ranks deep. Its
divisions should move evenly and march along separated from each other by
about a stone's throw.






Constitution 9

58. 'Eav ot auvLm Ka~aAA.aptoL ~ Toi:iA.oo<;, 6ma9v aU-rwv Tov Toi:iA.oov

rrot1v Kal f.LET' auTov TOU<; Ka~aA.A.ap[ou<; Kal f.LET' auTou<; 6:\[you<; O'KOUTCtTOU<;
<Kal> 'f!LAOU<; VWTO<pUAaKa<; OLa TCt<; arro 6ma9v, W<; ELKO<;, emyLVOf.LEVa<; CtOOK~
TOU<; e<pOOOU<;.
59 Tou<; 8 'f!tA.ou<; Tou<; f.LEv eKrropn!wem T~<; rrapa-ra~Ew<; f.LEXPL vo<;
O'T]f.LELOU f.LETCt 6:\[ywv Ka~aAA.ap[wv, TOU<; OE eK rrA.ayiwv ev9v KCtK19v avayKT]
rrpmaT1v, tva Kal O'KOUAKEUWO'l Kal ytvwaKwat, f.L~rroT eyKpUf.Lf.LaTa Eimv
exepwv ~ 8v8pa LO'TCtf.LEVa, Ta 6ma9V aUTWV rrmpLO'f.LEVa, exov-ra Kal O'XTJf.LaTLKW<; LO'TCtf.LEVa, anva arro XELPWV w90Uf.LVa Kal rr[mov-ra KaTa TWV rrap68wv
ef.L<ppa~El<; rrOLOVO'LV v T01<; OTEVWf.LaO'l Kal aywva T01<; ai<pVLOLa(Of.LEVOL<; rrapxoumv.
6o. Kal TaVTa npoEpwvav o1 OLCt T 'f!LAWV a-rpaTLWTWV Kal 6:\[ywv Ka~aAA.apiwv, Uf.La OE Kal anoao~1V TOU<; KEKpUf.Lf.LEVOU<; exepou<;, Ele' OUTW<; rrappxwem T~V napaTa~LV.
61. Kal OTIOU f.LEV apm6Tpo[ Elm T6rroL, TOU<; Ka~aAA.ap[ou<;
Kal Ta<; ~[yA.a<; rroL1V, orrou OE oaa1<; Kal ouaxEp1<; TOTIOL, TOU<; 'f!LAOU<;.
62. Tou<; OE 'f!LAOU<; f.l~ TCtTT err' u9la<; Ka9w<; TOU<; O'KOUTCtTOU<;, ana KaTCt
<Opouyyou<;, TOUT' ean,> Mo ~ Tp1<; ~ TEaaapa<; 'f!LAOU<; aKovna-ra<; TCt~EL<;,
em<pEpOf.LEVOU<; Kal Ta OKOUTCtpla aUTWV tva, eav xpda YEVfJTUL, Kal OKOUTEUO'WO'l Kal aKOVTtO'WO'LV oi auTo[ Kal eva OE TO~OTTJV EXLV oan<; Kal im' aUTWV


63. Tou<; OE TOLOUTOU<; opouyyou<; f.l~ enl f.LLU<; napaTCt~EW<; ~err' u9da<; T~V
ooomop[av rrotLa9aL, aU' e<p~~<; earrapf.LEVW<;, tva Kal TOU<; VWTOU<; aAA.~A.wv
<puA<inwmv Kai, eav auf.L~ft Tou<; Ef.Lrrpoa9v auTwv avTiaTamv imo exepwv
288 eav MWA El VBE I cruvw:n MA VBE cruvetmv W I -rouA.Oo~ AVBE -r6:\&o~ MW I
AVBE 290 Kal Strat. om. codd. I emytVOf!EVa~ MW ytVOf!EVa~ AVBE 290-291 Ct&oK~
TOU~ ecp6&ou~ MW A ecp6&ou~ aOOK~TW~ VBE 294 O'KOUAKEUWO'l w O'KOUAEUWO'l MVBE
O'KOUAKeutlwmv A scr. mg. O'K01!UWO'l ~ty:X.euwm W I ytVWO'KWO'l MVBE ytvwcrKwmv WA I
ELO'LV MWA WO'LV VBE 295 TCt ... au-rwv MW ii-rtva AVBE I 1!E1lplO'f!EVU AVBE
1!Epl1lplO'f!EVU MW 295-296 exov-ra ... iinva MW f!Ev eicrl (Elcrlv A) &t' OAOU TOU~ KOpf!OU~
6:\iyov DE (& Tl VBE) f!OVOV Kpa-roiiO'l (KpaTOUO'lV A) Kal AVBE 296 XEtpwv MW xetpwv
11apa -rwv extlpwv AVBE 1 weouf!eva MWA wxouf!eva VBE 297 Ef!cppa~et~ 11otoiimv MW
Ef!<ppacrcroum A Ef!cppanoum VBE I -rot~ cr-revwf!aO'l M -rot~ cr-revwf!aO'lv W -ra cr-revwf!a-ra
AVBE 304 -ra-r-re MW -r6.TTTJ~ A VBE 305 &pouyyou~ ... ecr-rt Strat. om. codd. I &Do ...
-rpet~ MWA W~ y' VBE 306-307 crKou-reucrwcrt MA VBE crKou-reucrwcrtv W 308 cpu:X.axe~crwtlm AVBE cpu:X.axtl~O'ETat MW I Mva-rat A &uv~crnat VBE om. MW 310 TOU~
vw-rou~ MW -ra~ IJ!ua~ A VBE 311 -roil~ AVBE -rot~ MW



58. If cavalry or a baggage train accompanies them, place the baggage train
to their rear, followed by the cavalry, and behind them a few heavy and light
infantry as a rear guard because of surprise attacks likely to be launched from
the rear.
59 The light infantry, along with a few cavalrymen, should march out about
one mile ahead of the main body of troops. Others must march here and there
around the flanks to patrol and to discover any enemy ambushes or trees that
seem to be standing upright but which have been sawed through in the back so
they can be quickly pushed over, fall down, and block the passage in those
narrow places, causing serious trouble for those who have been ambushed.
6o. The light-armed soldiers, together with a few horsemen, should be
looking for such things and, at the same time, should clear out enemy troops in
hiding. The main body of troops may then pass through.
61. Where the country is fairly open, the cavalry should ride out in advance
and act as scouts, but where it is wooded and difficult the light-armed troops
should do that.
62. Do not line up the light-armed infantry in a straight line, as <you do>
with the heavy-armed men, but in irregular groups, that is, formations of two,
three, or four light-armed soldiers with javelins, carrying their shields, so that, if
necessary, they can both protect themselves and hurl the javelins. They should
also have one archer who can be protected by them.
63. Irregular groups of this sort must not advance along the route in one
solid formation or in a straight line but they should be separated, one following
the other, so they may protect each other's rear. If it should happen that the


Constitution 9


UTIOflELVat Kal ~apia8at uno 8uaxpda~ TOTIOU, oma8V ayvwaTW~ U'\fT]AOTp0l

YV0flVOL KaTa TOU VWTOU T<DV exepwv epxovTaL, W<J1tp avayKai6v E(JTLV ad
(JT[U0Lv TOU~ '\flAOU~ i'va TOU~ U'\fT]AOTEpou~ TOTIOU~ KaTa TWV exepwv 1tpOKaTa315 Aafl~UVWaLV.

64. Tiapayyd:\n~ 8 Kal TOU~ '\flAOU~ i'va


TOU ouvaaem auTOU~ 31~'

UKOULV ~OUKLVOU fl~ xwp[(wvTaL T~~ 1tapaTa~W~ Iva fl~ YUflVOUflVOl ~OT]8da~,
W~ iK6~, ~apOUVTal.

65. Twv

oe TW<Japwv

flpwv EJtL TO Ef11tpoa8v KEpa~ 1tOpUOflEVWV, eav

(JTVO~ Up8ft <6> TOJtO~, W(JT fl~ ouvaaem TU Teaaapa flEPTJ Ka8' i::aUTCt
oe f1Tj8 Mo xwpoumv, KaTU EV

1tappxwem, Mo flEPTJ Jt0lLV d~ 8L<pa:\ayyiav. i

flEpO~ JtapayLV eJtl KEpa~ w~ flLaV Jtapam~LV, Kal TOU~ AOLJtOU~ E<p~~~, TWV
'\flAWV, w~ dpT]TaL, a1 1tpOAafl~av6vTWV. flTU 8 TO napA81v TOY (JTVOV
TOJtOV JtUALV i~ Taaapa~ apxa~ ~youv flEpT], w~ ETUyT]aav, eJtl KEpa~ ~youv
325 7tpo~

Ta Ef11tpoa8v <ppnv auTou~.

66. Ei 8 n:\~eo~ exepwv emcpav1 ~ Ef11tpoa8v ~ EK JtAay[wv, <Ka8'> OLOU

av auvi8n~ flEpou~ OTL 1tpE1tl, KaT' eKdvou T[QL~(Jl~ EJtL flETWJtOV ~youv EJtL TU
Ef11tpoa8V T~V JtapaTa~LV TOUT' eanv, i flEV apl<JTp(i T~~ 1tapaTU~W~ cpavwmv, auTOU TOU aKpou flEpou~ T~~ JtapaTU~W~ EV T<X~l [<JTaflEVOU epxovTm TU


Tp[a flEPTJ Kal JtapaTU(J(JOVTaL aunp EV TOL~ i8(0L~ TOJtOL~ i 8 8~L(i

cpavwm, Tov OflOLOV Tp6Jtov flTa~an6f1VOL nowum Ta~ O'\fL~ KaT' eKivou i
8 Ef11tpoa8v cpavwm Twv flawv flpwv ~ Toil vo~ ~ Twv p-, Jtpo~ Tov T6Jtov


8~l~ eyKALVOflEVWV Kal i~ flETWJtOV Ct1tOKa8LaTaflEVWV TU

ouo flEPTJ
epx6flVa OflOLW~ JtapaTU(J(JOVTaL Kal y(vTal ~ TU~l~ JtAay(a EJtL flETWJtOV.
317 ad t~~ des. V

I wcrm:p MW cmep AVBE 314 (JT(UOetV ... \!flAOU~

MW crrrouoa~etv AVBE I tva MW 'iva ol \!flAOL A tva tva ol \!flAOL VBE 314-315 rrpoKataAafl~UVWGlV MWA TCpoKataAaf1~6.vwat VBE 316-318 rrAtov ... eiK6~ MW tocroutov
XWPl~WVtat UJtO t~<; rrapatU~W<; OGOV OUvavtat CtKOUlV ~OUKlVOU <pWV~<; tVa fl~ flaKpav t~<;
rrapata~ew<; ytv6flevot Kal ~o!]8eia<; crtep01JflVOt AVBE 318 ~apouvtat MW ~apouvtat
urro txepwv A ~apwvtat BE 320 6 Va om. codd. I tecrcrapa MWBE ttaaa A
321 TCapepxwem AE rraptpxnm B rropeuecreat MW I xwpouatv WABE xwpoucrt M I ev
MWA to ltv E to eva B scr. mg. t<pe~~<; W 326 Kae' Va om. codd. 326-327 otou ...
J.!Epou<; Va olov ... flepo<; codd. 327 rrptTCet MW <'tpf16~et ABE I Kat' Va f!et' codd.l trrF MW
ei<; ABE 327-328 ~youv ... crttv MW om. ABE 328 J.!Ev MW f!EV ouv ei<; ta ABE
3 28-329 <pavwcrtv MW <pavwmv ol txepol ABE 329 lcrtaflvou MWA lcrtaflevou~ BE
331 <pavwcrt MBE <pavwatv WA I Kat' Va Kal MWBE om. A I tKdvou Va i:Keivot codd.
332 Eflrrpoaeev MABE Eflrrpoaee W I WMW ouo ABE I TCpo<; ... t6rrov Va Kal twv t6rrwv



group up front is met by resistance from the enemy or is bogged down in rough
terrain, the groups behind may move to higher ground without being observed
and come down on the rear of the enemy. So it is always necessary for the
light-armed troops to hasten in order to seize the higher places beforehand
against the enemy.
64. Order the light-armed troops not to distance themselves from the main
body beyond where they can still hear the trumpet, so they may not end up
bereft of support and, in all likelihood, be overwhelmed.
65. If the four divisions are marching along on the front flank and they run
into a place so narrow that the four divisions cannot pass through by themselves, make two divisions into a double phalanx. But if two will not fit, then
lead one at a time through as one battle line by the flank, and have the rest
follow, always, as was said, keeping the light-armed troops in front. After
passing through the narrow spot they resume their formation of four commands or divisions advancing forward by the flank.
66. If a strong enemy force appears in front of them or off to the side, form
the battle line on whatever side you consider appropriate, with its front or its
forward units facing that side. That is, if the enemy appears to the left of the
battle line, the division on that flank of the line halts in position and the other
three divisions come and form up with it in their own positions. If they appear
to the right, our men make the corresponding maneuver and make the front in
that direction. If they appear in front of either one or both of the center
divisions, the other two divisions come and head toward the right and set
themselves up as a front, in like manner forming their battle line with their
flank as their front.



Constitution 9


67. Kal ei flEV 6 -r6n:oc; i!xeL, auv-re-rawevwc; n:pxeaem -roue; 'f!LAouc; -ro1c;

67. If the terrain permits, the light-armed troops are to advance in close

x0po1c; 'tva fleT' au-rwv Kai Ka~aHapLOl KaTUKUKAOU<Jl TOU<; vavt(ou<;. ei o ou

order against the enemy so that both they and the cavalry can encircle the
enemy. But if it is not practicable for a formation in compact and close order to
pass through, then line up the heavy-armed files (hoplites) in depth and in
extended order, so they can easily make their way through wooded areas and, if
need be, resume close order.
68. If even this is not feasible, it is necessary to halt the main body and send
the light-armed troops against the enemy, closely supported by a few heavyarmed men and cavalry.
69. Most certainly you should give the following order. In the event that,
while your men are marching along, the alarm is sounded that the enemy are
approaching, everyone must not get excited and rush toward that sector. Rather,
the heavy-armed troops should maintain their formation, while the light-armed
troops from each division dash toward the man who gave the alarm. The troops
in front should not hastily move toward the flanks nor those on the flank to the
section in front without the approval of the commanding officer. But each
division should support its own troops when the alarm is given, as the situation
demands so that, in the event that the men are hard pressed, they hasten back to
the main body of heavy infantry to avoid being overwhelmed by the enemy.
70. Infantry, therefore, are capable of undertaking marches safely and in
good order, as we have said, in thickly wooded and difficult country if they
arrange their formation by the flank, that is, the width being narrow, either in
four divisions or in two, depending on the terrain, and in more open country
forming the front on the flank more broadly, with the files fairly open according
to width but deeper according to thickness.
71. Bear in mind that in thickly wooded country javelin throwers, using
short spears or menaula, are needed more than archers or slingers. For this


xwpci <JUVTeTaYflEVrtV aut~V Kai TieTIUKVWflEVT]V Otepxeaem, <Oci> -rae; o TWV

OTIALTWV ~youv TWV (JKOUTUTWV aK(ac; ~aeelac; Kal apmac; -raaaeaem tva Kai -rae;
OLa~a<Jel<; eUKOAW<; OLa TWV ovopwv TIOLOUVTUL Kat, av xpe(a yvrtTUL, TIUKVOUV340 Tal.

68. 'Eav 0 ou<OE oihwc;> xwpof>VTUL, 01 ta-raaem T~V n:apam~LV, TOU<; o

'f!LAOU<; a<ptelV eic; -roue; exOpouc; Kal EK TWV TIArt<JLOV m~OTj01V auto[<; Ota Te
6:\[ywv <JKOUTatwv Kal Ota Ka~aHap[wv.
69. TiapayyetAD<; OE n:avtwc; tva, ot' av,
345 60omope1V

we; elKO<;, Kpauy~ yevrttUL v t4J

we; TIOAefllWV ETIL<j>UlVOflEVWV, fl~ n:avtac; <pupeaem Kal Kat' EKelVOU

TPEXLV TOU flEpouc;,

ana -roue; flEV <JKOUTUTOU<;


TU~eW<; aUTWV exeaem, TOU<;

o 'f!LAOU<; EKU<JTOU flEpouc; n:i TOY Kpa(ovta <JUVTPEXLV Kal fl~ -roue; i!pn:poaOev

I t:ic; -ra n:A<iyta n:poxdpwc; i!pxeaem ~ -roue; -rwv n::\ay[wv n:i to l!fin:poaOev flEpoc;
aveu T~<; TOU apxovto<; mtpon:~<;,
350 Kmpq> Kpauy~<;,

we; ~

a;\;\' EKa<JTOV flEpoc; TOL<; [O[OL<; m~ort0civ v

xpe[a KaAE<Jel, Kai tva, av ~apouvtm,

we; elKO<;, ei<; T~V

TWV <JKOUTUTWV n:apata~LV tpexou<JL Kal fl~ ~La(wvtm un:o TWV exOpwv.
70. 1\a<pa:\wc; oi>v al 60omop[m -rwv n:t:(wv Kai apfloO[wc; y[veaem Mvavtm

we; e'lTIOfleV, v flEV TOL<; oaautepOL<; TOTIOL<; Kai OU<J~UTOL<; n:l KEpac; ~youv
<JTeVOeTilfl~Kll TU<J<JWV'tUL TU~LV, e'ite ei<; -reaaapa flEPll e'he eic; ouo, we; ol TOTIOL


355 oexovtm, v o TOL<; apmotepOL<; n:i flETWTIOV v n:Aay(q. TU~1 eic; TIAUTO<;, v

apaw-repmc; flEv Kata -ro n:A<i-roc; aK[mc;, ~aeu-repmc; 0 Kata to n:axoc;.

71. nvw<JK o OTL v ta1c; oaadmc; UAUL<; ol EK Xelpoc; aKOVtt(ovte<; OLa
plKtap[wv ~ fleVaUAWV avayKULOTepo( el<Jl Kai TWV TO~OTWV Kal TWV <J<j>eVOOVL-

336 KUTUKUKAOUat W KU1UKUKAoumv A KUTUKUKAWat MBE 337 01 Va om. codd.

339 &ta~aaEt~ MWAB om. E I t:uK6Aw~ ... otv8pwv MW 8u1-rwv 8tv8pwv t:uKoAw~ ABE I
7tolOUVTUl MW 7tolWV1Ul ABE I eav MW A d E ~ B 339-340 ITUKVOUVTUl MW TIUKVWV1Ul
ABE 341 oVIle oihw~ Va ou codd. I xwpouvmt MWA xwpwv-rat BE I 1a-raa6at MW
342 cu:p[EtV ... txepou~ MW t~tpxeaem KU1U -rwv txepwv ABE I Kal
MWA om. BE I -rwv MW -rou ABE I TIAI]GLOV MWAB TIAI]GLOU E 344 rrav-rw~ MW A
rravm~ BE 345 rravm~ ABE rrav-rw~ MW 349 tm-rporrfj~ MW rrpo-rporrfj~ ABE
350 w~ 1 MW om. ABE I ~ ... KUAEGel MW om. ABE I tav MWA d BE I ~apouv-rat MABE

1ama6at f!EV ABE

~apuvwv-rm W 351 -rptxoum M -rptxoumv W -rptxwm ABE 353 1va MWA '(v' BE
354 -ra~tv MW -ra~t:t ABE 1-rtaaapa MWAE 8' B I8Uo MWA W BE 355 rr;\ay[a MWAB
rr;\ay[w E 356 apato-repat~ MWA apato-repot~ BE I rraxo~ MWE ~a6o<; AB 357 EK
XELPO~ MW euxepw~ ABE 358 ptK-rap[wv Va p!]K1ap[wv MW ptmap[wv ABE




Constitution 9

a-nov. OLU TOiJTO n:pbtov ea-rl TOU<; n:oA.Aou<; TWV 'I'LAWV Ei<; ptKTapta Kal UKOVTLa
360 EK xetpo<; GVfl~ai\.i\.6f.LVa YVflVU~wem.

72. Ol o TO~OTUL avayKa1o( dat Tfi n:apaTa~l !liii\.i\.ov imo-racrcr6!1VOL, Kal

ei<; Tpax1<; Kal ei<; KPll!lvwoet<; Kal d<; a-revou<; Kal yv11vou<; T6n:ov<;.

73 Ol !lVTOL UKOVTtaTal Kal ~w8ev T~<; n:apaTa~ew<; ei<; TU<; ui\.a<; TU<; oacre1<;
f.LUALGTa avayKa1o( dcrtv. TocrauTa f.LEv ouv Kal v Tal<; ooomop(at<; n:apa<pvi\.aT365 TLV G avayKatOV, W GTpaTT)y.

74 IIplv ~ o n:avTa<; an:i\.tKUGUL, T~V n:apaTa~LV !lT)OTIOT Otai\.ve, !l~T n:l

n:e~~<; crTpaTda<; fl~T n:l Ka~ai\.i\.aptK~<;, w<; av Kal TO <pOGGUTOV oxvpw8fi Kal
al ~(yi\.m ~i\.8wmv.
75 Eiovm 0 n:av-ra<; n:pocrTa~et<; Iva Tfi <pwvfi Tou KaTO. ovv~Setav ~ovK(37o vov, yvwp(~ovTe<; auTo, lcr-ravTat Kal n:ai\.tv Tfi crvv~Set <pwvfi Tou eTpov ~ovK(

vov ~youv TOU KLV~flaTO<; KLVWGLV.

76. Oihw<; ouv ~!llV OlaTTVTIWflVWV TWV n:epl ooomop(a<; crTpaTOU, E<p~~<;

am Kal Tov n:epl Tou i\.eyof.Lvov Toui\.oov otaTa~611e8a Tun:ov.

reason, most of the light infantry should be trained in hurling short spears and
Javelins by hand.
72. Archers, rather, are needed for supporting operations with the main
battle line and in rugged, precipitous, narrow, and open country.
73 Javelin throwers, for their part, are needed outside of the main battle
line, especially in thickly wooded areas. It is, therefore, necessary for you, 0
general, to observe all these things when on the march.
74 Never dismiss the main body, whether it is the infantry on campaign or
the cavalry, until everyone has settled into camp and it has been fortified and
patrols have gone out.
75 Everyone must know the following ordinances. They must come to a halt
when they recognize the customary blast of the trumpet and, in turn, at the
customary blast of the other trumpet, the one for movement, they move.12
76. So then, we have set down the regulations about an army on the march.
Next we will set forth ordinances regarding the baggage train, as it is called.

359 tcrrl MBE ecrnv WA I fllK'tCtpta Va p!]K'tCtpta MW pmtapta ABE 360 <JUf1~UAAOf1EVU
M ~aAAOflEVa WABE 361 elm MABE elcrtv W titulum const. decimae summa pag. scr.
rcoAEfllKWV rcapaaKeuwv <'itata~t<; t' W 362 Kal yuf1VOU<; MW A om. BE 363 oacret<; MW
oa<JEta<; ABE 364 elmv MWA elm BE 367 TIE~~<; MW TCE~lK~<; ABE I crtpateta<; MW
crtpanii<; ABE 368 t~tA.ewatv MWA t~tA.Swm BE 369-3 70 elotvat. .. auto MW
rcpocrta~Et<; 0 rcavta<; aKpt~w<; yvwp[~Etv t~v <pwv~v toil ~ouK[vou 'lva t~<; cruvf!Sou<; <pwv~<;
t~<; crtacrew<; aKm!ovtE<; ABE

3 73 touA.Oou ABE t6A.Oou MW


u. Cf. supra 7.128-133, 352-354.



ITepl -rouMou

About the Baggage Train

!11 ouv KUL -rou -rouA.Oou avuyKu[wc; m: cppov-r[~etV KUL fl~,


KUtaAlflTIUVlV uu-r6, aAA.a aacpuA[~w9m, OTIOU iiv KUTUAT]q:>9fl. flf]8 rraAtV
5 aTipovo~-rwc; mcppwem uu-ro tv -rfl flaxn <JUflPCltVl yap Ketti TIUAALKaptu dvm
tv uu-r4J, XPT]<JlflOU<; -roTc; a-rpu-rtw-rmc;, Kal-reKVU ~ auyyeveTc; au-rwv KCll, et fli'J tv
aacpaAl((l -ruyxavet, -r4J rrept<JT(Cl<Jfl4> UULOU oi a-rpa-rtw-rm <JUVXOflVOl aflq:>lpoA.ot Kal flpt~6f1Vot -rae; yvwf1uc; tv -raTe; flaxmc; y[vovmt.
2. Kul yap EKCt<JTqJ auve-r4> av8pl arrou8~ tan xwplc; l8[uc; pA.apT]c; -ra -rou
10 txepou Kt:p8~am av 8 OLKeLUV ucpopa-rm pA.apT]v ~ arrexe-rm ~ OKVT]p6-repoc;



3 Kul rrpw-ro-rtmwc; flEV auverruyof1vou -roil -rouA.8ou Ketl <JUflpoA.~c; 8T]flO<J[ac; rrpoa8oKWflVT]C: rrA.~eoc; -rwv AYOflVWV TIUAAlKUp[wv ~youv -rwv 8ouA.eu6v-rwv -roTc; 1" apxou<Jl Kul-ro1c; a-rpanw-rmc; mcppwem ou <JUflPOUADOf1V, oihe
tv -rfl l8[(l yfl i'JflWV -r~c; flUXT]C: A.m~of1VT]C: oihe tv -rfl aAA.o-rp[((l rrepxof1VWV,
aAA.a <JUflfl-rpouc; e1vm Ketl-rouc; v 8UVCtfll ov-ruc;.
4 Toaou-rouc; 8 ~youv -roue; rrupKoilvmc; KULa -ra Kov-roupepvta av-rexeaem KUL 8tOlKelV -ra liA.oya uU-rwv rrpoc; -ri'jv 8tacpopav KUL -ri'jv T(QlOTT]TCl Kal
8tayvwmv -rwv LaYflUTWV ~TOl TO TIA~9oc; -rwv aA.6ywv, 8ta TO fli'J rroAA.i'jv cpupatv
KUL 8arraVT]V liKmpov KUL rrept<JTIU<JflOV etc; au-roue; y[veaem.

M W (mut.) A BE


You must realize that the baggage train is essential and you must never, as
has happened, leave it behind. 1 It must be securely guarded, wherever it has
been left. On the other hand, it should not be brought carelessly onto the field of
battle. For the train happens to include the grooms needed by the soldiers, as
well as children and other relatives of theirs. If their safety is not assured, the
soldiers become distracted, hesitant, and do not focus their attention on the
2. Every intelligent man indeed makes an effort to profit at the enemy's
expense without any harm to himself, but if he suspects harm to himself he stays
away or becomes very hesitant.
3 First of all, when you are accompanied by the baggage train and a pitched
battle is expected, we advise you not to bring along a large number of the socalled grooms, that is, those in the service of the officers and the soldiers, when
we are advancing in expectation of battle, whether in our own country or in a
foreign one, but only a moderate number and vigorous men at that.
4 There should be enough of them attached to each squad to take care of its
horses and to manage them, making due allowance for their differences, their
quality, and the distinction of the units, as well as the number of horses. This
will avoid a great deal of confusion, inopportune expense, and distraction
among them.


PG 107:788

1-70 Strat., 5

1lOAef!lKWV 7tapaaKeuwv MWA om. BE

2 -rouf.oou A -r6A&ou MW -rou -rouA&ou BE

KUTUATJ<p8~ MW <p8aa8~ ABE 5 7taAAtKapta MW

av8pc.imou<; ABE 7 au-rou MWA au-rw BE 9 tan MWAE eanv B 10 eav MWAE ei B
12 auvt:7tayof!EVou MWAE auveXOf!EVOU B I -rouf.oou ABE -r6f.oou MW 13 -rwv ~youv

3 -rouf.oou ABE -r6f.oou<; MW

MW om. ABE


y~ ~f!WV MW trsp. ABE

16 ev ... ov-ra<; MW ouva-rw-repou<; ABE

KOVTOU~epvta ABE KOUTOU~epvta MW 17-18 av-rexwem MW om. ABE 18 Ka\

OlOlKelV MWA om. BE 18-19 -r~v 1 ~TOl MW om. ABE 19 aA6ywv MW aA6ywv au-rwv
ABE I f!~ MW f!TJOE ABE 20 ei<; au-rou<; ABE om. MW I yivea8m MW A yevea8at BE


1. Sections 1-15 derive from Strat. 5. See A. Dain, "'Touldos' et 'touldon' dans les traites
militaires;' Melanges Henri Gregoire (Brussels, 1950), 2:161-169.



The Baggage Train


5 ToU.ou<; of: tv T<!J Katp<!J T~<; !lUXfJ<;, ei !lf:V auvwn 11e(lKO<; a-rpa-r6<;,
Of]AOVOTL auv au-r<!J !leTa T<OV tnl TOUT<.p a<popt(O!lEVWV KaTaAl!111UVelV apx6vTWV, e'L-re tv Tft iOL<t dTe tv Tft aAA.o-rp[<t 6 110Ae!10<; Kp[vnm. aa<paAW<; Of: aUTOU<;
elvm tv -r<!J <poaaa-r<.p, Ka8w<; tv -r<!J nepl anA.[K-rwv Of]Awao11v aOL -run<.p.

6. Kal au-ra of: Ta aawapta Kal T~V AOL11~V anoaKeuijv, anep KaAeLTal aoa-rpa-ra, !leT' auTOU TOU TOUAOOU KaTaAL!111UVLV.
7. Kal tv llf:V TOL<; Koupaot<; ~ Tal<; aAAat<; t<p600L<; EXelV auT TOU<; a-rpanw-

Ta<; Taxa Kal !1EXPL Kal auT~<; T~<; ~11pa<; T~<; O"U!l~OA~<; 11e<ppawva Kal tv

8. 'Ev mhft of: Tft OU!l~oA.ft tyyu<; EXelV T~<; napa-ra~eW<; aoa-rpa-rov OUK
avayKaLOV KptVO!leV, aU' tv T<!J <pOOOUT<.p KaTaAl!111UVW8at. Kal yap O"U!l~a[Vel
110AAUKL<; Kal capax~<; ytVO!lEVf]<; eUKOAW<; napan[moum Ota TO uno !llKpwv
naA.A.tKap[wv KpaTeta8m.
9 Ei Of: auvwn ne(tKo<; a-rpa-r6<;, ei 11tv tv -rft io[<t xwp<t ~ tv au-rot<; -rot<;

35 !le8op[ot<; Ct!l<pOTpwv TWV xwpwv,

T~<; Te ~!lTpa<; Kal T~<; 110Ae!lla<;, npoaOOKU-

Tal ~ !lUXfJ eu8w<; y[vwem Kal OUK EXel I unp8wtv, TOTe tv oxup<!J T011<.p, v8a 31/
Kal ~OO"Kal Kat UOaTa apKOUVTa eUplOKOVTat, W<; U110 TplUKOVTa ~ Kat11eVTTJKOVTa !llALWV KaTaAl!111UVlV TOV 11Ae[ova Kal axpfJOTOV TOUAOOV Kal Ta 11eptaaa
aA.oya Kal tpyaA.da Kal ETepa dOT], WV xpda OUK an KaTa T~V ~11pav TOU
40 noA.11ou.
10. l\<p6pt(e of: Ka[ nva<; tv -r<!J !1EO"<.p OlaaTfJ!laTL LOU Te TOUAOOU Kal T~<;

!lUXfJ<;, tyvWO!lEVOU<; mlm KaLil~ 110Vf]pOU<; Kal <pauAOU<; av8pwnou<;, Kal KaTaOTT]O"OV ai>Tou<; ei<; OlQO"TaTa Kal U1100el~OV TOUTOU<; -r<!J apxovTL TOU TOUAOOUOel yap ai>T<!J 11UVTW<; apxovm '(otov EXeLV-WO"Te npo<; T~V TOU 110AE!10U EK~amv
45 6<peLAelV auTOU<; !lfJVUO"at TOL<; tv T<!J TOUAO<.p

22 0!]A.ov6n MW om. ABE

UAAOTpia xwpa ABE
aupTa ABE


~ !lelVaL tv T<!J au-r<!J T011<.p tv

22-23 apxovTwv Va a\nou<; codd.

MW yivETat ABE

26 f1ET' MW KaT' ABE


23 aft.AoTpia MW

25-26 iim:p ... aotaTpaTa MW Kal TU

TouA.Oou ABE T6A.oou MW

I m:cppaYf1EVU

MW om. ABE

27 tcp6oot<; MW

tmopOf1Ui<; ABE

28 Kail MW om. ABE

MW aupTa ABE

31-33 Kal. .. KpaTeia8m MW ota To urco f1LKpwv rcaiowv Kpmeia8m a\na

rcpo<; iiAA!]AU OtUflCJ.Xlo:aem Kal Tapax~v ou flLKpav EflTCOLeiv ABE

30 aoeaTpmov

34 auvwn MWA auvean

I UflCf>OTepwv ... xwpwv MW om. ABE I ~fleTepa<;

MW ~fleTepa<; xwpa<; ABE I TCOAef1LU<; MW TWV rcoAeflLWV ABE 37 TPLUKOVTU MW A.' ABE I

Kal BE

35 f1e8opiot<; MW auv6pm<; ABE

39 eaTL MABE tanv w 41 TOU

W ABE TOAOou M 42 tyvwaf1EVOU<; MW yvwptf10U<; AB

~ Kal ABE~ M Kal

yvwpLKOU<; E


I TouA.Oou

45 6cpdA.etv al>Tou<; MW om. ABE


5 At the time of battle those servants should be left behind, whether the
battle is fought in our own or in foreign territory, and they should be joined by
atn infantry force, if one is present, with officers assigned to this task. They
11hould find safety in the camp, as we shall make clear in the ordinances about
6. Also leave behind with the baggage train itself the reserve horses, also
referred to as spare horses, and the rest of the equipment.
7 For raiding and other offensive actions the soldiers must quickly take
~'lossession of the horses <and keep them> well armored and vigorous up to the
very day of battle.
8. But once the battle begins, it is our considered judgment that there is no
need to keep the spare horses near the battle line, but they should be left behind
in the camp. For, as often happens, they may easily fall into confusion when
handled by young servants.
9 If an infantry force is present, either in our own country or right on the
frontier between both countries, ours and the enemy's, and battle appears
Imminent with no delay in sight, then, in a strong place, where sufficient fodder
and water may be found, about thirty or even fifty miles away, leave most of the
nonessential part of the baggage train, the extra horses, tools, and the rest of the
equipment that is not needed on the day of battle.
10. In the space between the baggage train and the battle line, detail certain
men, not at all ignoble or cowardly, whom everyone recognizes, and station
them at intervals. Make them known to the officer in charge of the baggage
train-it is absolutely necessary for it to have its own commander-so that,
depending on the outcome of the battle, they should advise the troops in the




Ka-raA.q.mavovrat ~ f.v -repq> am:A.8e1v T<jl 6oKOUVTl TOITqJ ~ Kal vyKat UUTOU<;


rrpo<; Tov mpaT6v.

11. 'EK 6 TOU TOUA6ou KlVOUVTU<; f.rrl T~V fiCtXTJV rrapaA.a~t:lV TCt aMaTpa-ra
~youv aawapta Kal ~ Tev-ra<; fitKpa<; ~ aay[a 6mA.ii ei<; To fiEV ev aKrrea8at,
e'lrrep xpda KUAEG1, TO 6 ETt:pov ei<; TEVTUV ~TOt TO A.ey6fiVOV KUfiCtp6tv exetv.
12. AHa Kal6am1vT]V ~ rra~afiaT[ou ~ rr[mou ~ liAA.ou nvo<; e'l6ou<; f.A.acppou
e'(Koat ~ Kal TptaKOVTa AtTpa<; Kal TOT Ct1tALKUGat f.v T<jl <poaaaTq>, f.v 4> av M~n
y[vea8at TOITqJ, C>T rrpo<; T~V TWV ex8pwv fiCtXTJV CtiTOKlV~GOUatV. TOUTO 6 TO
<pOGGCtTOV ft <arro opUYflCtTWV ~> CtiTO OLK060fi~<; At8WV ~ 1tAtV8WV oxupwaat,

Kiiv rrpo<; fi[av ~fipav aufi~ft fiEVetv f.Kdae.

13."EKamov 6 ~av6ov arroT[8ea8at xopTOV ~ axupov filii<; ~fiEpa<; LVU, f.av,
W<; elKO<;, EVUVTLW<; TU TOU ITOAEfiOU ~A.8n, f.v T<jl urroaTpE<pt:tV TOV aTpaTOV
fit:TU arrou6~<; f.v UUT<jl ~ fiElVat f.v UUT<jl T<jl <poaaaTq> EXOVTU T~V TWV aA6ywv
arroTpo<p~v fiLii<; ~fitpa<; Kal fl~ avayKa(ea8m f.v TotouTq> 8opu~q> ~ ~6aKetv ~
6o xopToA.6ytv rrott:lV Kal ~A.amea8at ETOlflW<; urro TWV exepwv ~ yupeuetv f.v
xwp[ot<; Ota oarrava<; TWV ex8pwv f.rrtKlflEVWV ~ KUL rrapeA.St:lv f.v Tft TOtauTn

v6e[q. aunl>v T Kal TWV aMywv Kal EKAU8~vat.

14. Ei 6 lipa Kal rraptpxovTat Kal OUK exoua[ TLVO<; xpdav, a<pop[aet<; TlVCt<;,
waTe KUlt:lV TOV xopTOV KUL oi.hw<; f.rrl TU Efl1tpoo8ev rreptrraTelV Ota TOU<; f.A.m(o65 fiEVOU<; orr[aw rrpxea8at ITOAEfilOU<;.

15. 'Ev 6 Tal<; Momop[at<; 1tOAfllWV yyt(6vTWV avayKat6v EGTLV ael fiEGOV
exetv TOV TouA.6ov, [va fi~ a<pUAUKTO<; wv EITT]pt:Ct(T]Tat. TU<; 6 Momop[a<;, W<;
~6T] Kallivw rrou el1t0fiV, fi~ rroteta8at fiEfllYflEVU<; flETU TOUA6ou, aUa OtUK64 ad Ef17lpoa8ev des. W ( 2 foll. desiderantur)
48 rouA.oov wABE TOAOOV M I rrapaA.a~dv MW oei napaAUfl~UVElV aVTOV~ ABE
48-49 ,a._. ~yovv MW om. ABE 49 WMW om. ABE ITevm~ MW Tevoa~ ABE I f!lKpa~
Strat. omA.a<; MW om. ABE I ei~ ... v MWA 1'0 f!EV v ei~ 1'0 ABE 50 KaAeaEl MW KUAEOOl
A KaA.tam BE I ETepov MW ETepov exm ABE ITevmv MW TEVOav ABE I ~TOl ... EXElV MW
om. ABE 52 ~ ABE om. MW I Kat 1 WABE om. M ITptaKovm MWA A.' BE 53 n'ilv
MW AE om. B I CtJlOKlVijaovmv MWA cmOKtvi)aovat BE 54 ano 1 ... ~ 2 Va om. codd. I
nA.ivSwv MW nA.ivSov ABE I oxvpwam MW A wxvpwam XP~ BE 56 xopTOV MW A xopmv
BE 57 e~tA.S!] MW OVfl~ii ABE 58 EXOVTU Va EXElV codd. 59 UJlOTpocp~v MWAB
arcompocp~v E 6o notdv MW om. ABE 6o-6t ev xwpiot~ A evxwpiot~ MWE eyxwpiot<;
B 61 Tfj MW om. ABE 62 evoeia MW A.ehjtel ABE I Ulhwv MW TWV avayKaiwv ABE I
te ... BKAV8fjvat MW Kat BKAv8fjvat autou~ te Kat ta iiA.oya autwv ABE 65 entpxeaem
MAE napepxeaem B 66 eattV BE eatl MA 67 TOV ABE 1'0 M I acpuAaKTO~ wv ABE
acpuA.aKTov ov M 68 nov M om. ABE I !leTa M f!Eta tou ABE 68-69 OtaKeKptf!tva~ Kal
Mom. ABE

The Baggage Train


baggage train either to remain in the same place in which they were left, to go
off to another suitable place, or to join up with the <main> army.
11. Troops moving from the baggage train up to combat should take with
them their spare or reserve horses and small tents or a couple of heavy cloaks,
the one for covering if needed and the other as a tent or what is called a canopy.
12. In addition, twenty or thirty pounds of provisions, hardtack, flour, or
some other light stuff. They should then set up camp in a place that seems
suitable, when they move out to engage the enemy in battle. This camp should
be fortified by ditches or by constructions of stone or of brick, even though <the
army> might stay there only for one day.
13. Each bandon should store there a day's supply of forage or hay, just in
case the battle has an adverse result, and they have to beat a hasty retreat to that
place. It may remain in the camp itself with a day's provisions for the horses and
not be forced to gather fodder and forage in such great confusion and be easily
harmed by the enemy, or to wander around villages <seeking> provisions with
the enemy hard upon them, or to march on with so few provisions for themselves and their horses that they come unstrung.
14. But if they should march on and have no need of the supplies, you will
detail some men to burn the fodder and then proceed up to the front because
the enemy may be expected to attack from the rear.
15. On the march, when the enemy are nearby, it is essential that the baggage
train always be in the middle so that it may not be subject to harassment for
lack of protection. As we have already said above, troops on the march must not



The Baggage Train

10; KUL Kexwpt<Jf.lEVU<;, wa-re io[w<; TOV -rouA.Oov omaeev TOU io[ou f.lEpou<;
70 68omopeiv KUL io[w<; -rou<; cr-rpanw-ra<; e~TIA~KTOU<;.I

16. ~el o TOV TOUAOOV, w<; etpT]Lal ~f.llV avw-rtpw, KUL ~yef.LOVU exetv '(OLOV, 3\7'
wa-re au-rov KUL Ota-ra~et KUL Oteu9uvet, Kal ayetv aU-rov oihw<; ~ rrpo ~<; rrapa-

-ra~ew<;, eav EK TtOAef.lLU<; y~<; imoa-rptcpn<;, on[aw of: ~<; napa-ra~ew<;, eav ei<;
TtOAef.lLUV y~v Ef.l~ann<;, evetvoe ~ eKet9ev, eav -ra nA<lyta ~<; napa-ra~ew<;
75 Cj>O~OUf.leVO<; rropeun, EvTO<; Of: T~<; cpaAayyo<;, eav TU nav-raxo9ev i.\noma xn<;.
17. Toaau-ra f.lEV ouv Kalrrepl -rou -rouAOou Ota ~paxtwv aot Ote~~A90f.Lev,

cr-rpUTT]yE, ehe ev Uf.lCt~at<; f.leTU ne(tKOU a-rpa-rou ehe f:v crawap[ot<; f.leTU KU~UA
Aapiwv et-re UAATJ<; UTtO<JKEU~<; TOLUUTTJ<; f.leTU <JUf.lf.llKTOU, W<; &.v f:v f.lT]Oev[, ocrov
f:a-rl TO OUVUTOV ~f.llV, EAAtTtn <JOl Keq>UAUL(!J ~ ~f.leTEpa napaKEAEUat<;. rr6f.leVOV
So of: TOUTOl<; KUL TOV rrepl niJv AeyOf.lEVWV UTtALKTWV Otacracp~<JOf.leV -rfj

aft f:voo~6-



69-70 omcr9ev ... crtpanwtac; MABE sed iteravit

B 70 f~7lA~KtOU~ Va Eli7lAlKtOU~ M avevoxA.~tOU~ Kal fAeu9epou~ ABE 71 tOY ABE to
M I we; dp'ltal MAE om. B I ~fllY avwtepw M om. ABE 72 &eueuvd MA Oteu9uvei autov

BE I autov 2 A auto M om. BE 72-73 ~ ... rtapata~EW~ M om. ABE 73 eav' M eav f!EY
ABE I imocrtpE<p'lc; M unocrtpE<p'l~ Ef17!pocr9ev tii~ rtapata~ewc; ABE I {m[crw ... rtapata~EW~
MA omcr9ev E om. B 74 ef!~<iU'l~ MA Efl~aA.f}c; BE I ev9voe MA ev9ev BE 75 evto~ M
ecrw9Ev ABE scr. mg. ta navmx69ev A (alia m.) 7S anocrKeuft~ M KatacrKeuft~ ABE

7S-79 ocrov ... ~f!IY M om. ABE 79 eA.Airt'l ... KE<paA.aiw M Ke<paA.aiw A.Airt'l crot ABE
ert6f1evov M aKoA.ou9w~ (cum quo inc. const. xi) ABE So toutotc; ABE toutwv M
&acra<p~<JOf1EV M eK9~<JOf1EV ABE



get mixed up with the baggage train, but they must be kept apart and separate.
'lbe train should proceed by itself behind its own division and the soldiers,
unburdened, should travel by themselves.
16. As we have previously remarked, the baggage train must have its own
commander, who will draw it up in formation and manage it. He should lead it
as follows: ahead of the main body of troops, if you are returning from enemy
territory; behind the main body, if you are entering into enemy territory.
Proceed on either side if you are worried about the flanks of the main body, but
inside the marching column if all sides look suspicious to you.
17. We have, therefore, in summary fashion, gone through all those matters
concerning the baggage train, 0 general, whether it <consists of> wagons with
an infantry army or of pack animals with cavalry or any other such <way of
carrying> supplies with a mixed force. Thus, to the best of our ability, we have
not omitted a single topic in these ordinances we have given you. Following
them, now, we shall explain to Your Excellency the rules regarding the so-called




Ilepl cm:\.LK-rwv

About Camps

~d ouv Ta liTIAlKTU ~TOl -ra cpoaaa-ra-Kup[wc; yap <poaaa-rov TO an:AlKTOV

TOU OAOU a-rpa-rou KUAlTat--raii-ra ouv Cta<paA.wc; m: 1tOllV Ka[, d flEV evoexe5

Tat, de; apmo-repouc; -r6n:ouc; KUTUGK'lVOUV Ta a-rpaTLWTlKCt, d OE OUK an:av-r<;t, !l~

aflEAWc; aHa a<ptyK-rwc; Kal oxupwc; aTIAlKVlV Kal cmocpevyLv -roue; -r6n:ouc;
EKE[vouc;, OGOl xoumv EK TOU TIA'la[ov D\jl'lAOTEpouc; au-rwv, '(va !l~ eKdvouc; oi
exepol aep6wc; ~ ev VUKTln:poKUTUAU~OVT<; KUKCt TlVU Otae~aoum -r<;> <poaaanp.
2. '0-r' uv -ro[vuv ev Tft TWV ex8pwv


~aedav, KUV etc; f1LUV flOV'lV,

xwpq. a-rpa-ron:eoeunc;, n:ept~aA.oii -ra<ppov

we; e'(p'lTal, ~f1Epav flEAAnc; an:AlKUlV. aflETUVO'lTOc;

yap ~ TOlUUT'l a-rpa-ron:eoda Kal aacpaA.~c; Ola -rae; at<pvto[ouc; Kal an:poopa-rouc;
em~ouA.Ctc;. KUTaaT~aetc; OE Kal <pUAUKac;, KUV flUKpav dvm VOfll~nc; -roue; TIOAEfll-

ouc;, we; eyyuc; OVTWV.

3 'Dn:ou OE f1EAAl<; 7totda8m XPOVlOV TO aTIAlKTOV, !l~ exepwv E<pOOOV
0'1AOVOTl U<pOpWflEVO<; Kal <p8dpetv xwpav evav-riav ~OUAOflEVOc;, eKAtyou
xwpia XP~aLflU, !l~ UAWO'l ~youv; KUL1t'1Aa Kal ~aA.-rac; xov-ra Kal uoa-ra
GW'lflflEVU. Ta yap TOLUUTU Ola -rfjc; ava8Uf1lCtGWc; Kal -rae; cmo TWV TOTIWV
ouawoiac; VOG'lPCt dm Kal AOlflOU<; Kal v6aouc; cpeapnKac; Efll~itAAEL de; -ra

a-rpa-reu11a-ra. Kal n:oAA.ouc; flEV n:oAA.<iKtc; eKaKwae -rft v6mp, n:oAA.ouc; 0 Kal

WaT !l~

f10VOV 6A.iyov EK TOUTOU yeveaem, ana Kal aaeevc; TO

You must assure the security of our camps and entrenchments-entrenchment is the specific term used for the camp of the entire army.' If possible, the
military units should pitch their tents in open country, but if this cannot be
tlone, we should not be careless. Our camps should be strong and tightly guardAvoid those places that have higher ground close by, so that the enemy will
not occupy them ahead of us and, all of a sudden or at night, cause damage to
the entrenchment.
2. When you set up camp in enemy territory, surround it with a deep ditch,
even if you intend to camp there only for one day, as has been said. 2 You will not
!'egret setting up a camp of this sort that will be safe from sudden and unexpected attacks. Even if you believe that the enemy are far off, be sure to place guards
ns though they were in the immediate vicinity.
3 When you intend to camp there for a long time, say, because you do not
suspect an enemy attack and you wish to ravage their country, choose beneficial
places, not woody areas covered with trees, mud, or swampy ground, all
water-soaked. The rising vapors and foul smell of such places are unhealthy and
bring pestilence and deadly diseases to the army. 3 The health of many men has
often been impaired and many have been taken by death. As a result, not only is
the army reduced in numbers but it is also greatly weakened.

M W (mut.) ABE Va PG 107:792
3-9 Strat., 12.20.

10-27 Onas. 8-9.

rcoAeJ.!tKwv rcapacrKeuwv MA om. BE 5 et<; ... ouK MAB om. E I cmaVTa M votxnm AB
om. E 6 aqnyK<W<; MAE crcptKTW<; B 7 exoucrtv MAE exwcrtv B 8 a6p6w<; ABE a6p6wv
M 1 KaKa -rtva M KaK6v n ABE 8-9 cpoaaa-rw M cpocrcra-rov ~J.!WV EJ.!TCOt~croucrtv ABE
10 a-rpa-rorrEOeUIJ<; MA a-rpa-rorrEOeUIJ BE I nJ.cppov M aoucSav ABE 11 Kilv MAE Kal B I
Ei<; ... J.!EAAIJ<; M Ei<; Jliav J.!OVIJV ~J.!Epav dp!jmt 6cpEiAIJ<; A w<; dp!j<at d<; Jliav J.!OVIJV ~J.!Epav
oq>ELAIJ<; B om. E I UTCAlKEUelV M U1tAIJKEUelV AB om. E 12 arrpoopa-rou<; ABE aopa-rou<; M
13 Kilv MA Kal BE 15 rcotdcrSat xpovwv MA trsp. BE 17 ~youv uAa<; M J.!IJOE OCtOIJ ABE
18 OeOIJJ.!J.!EVa M cStecpSapJ.!EVa ABE 19 vocr!jp<i Va vocrepa codd. I Eim MBE eicrlv A


Strat. 12.20. See CampOrg, 1;

J. Kulakovskij, "Vizantijskij lager' kontsa X veka;'

Vizantijskij Vremennik 10 (1903): 63-91.

2. Sections 2-4 derive from Onasander 8-9.
3 Cf. infra, 27-28; also Kekaumenos, 11.18-21.



Constitution 11
4 Xp~aq.toV 0 Kat (JWT~plOV T<il a-rpm<iJ yivwem,

tav !l~ btl TOU auTOU

l.lvn aTIALKTOU ItOAUV xp6vov, ei l.l~ Xll.lCt~l Kal 8ta TOV Katpov warrt:p

7t7t0Al<JI.lEVa exel Ta aTIAlKTa TO Kal yap Kala[ (JWH]ptw8w; tKKpt-

aw; trrl nilv auTWV ytVOI.lVat TOTIWV CtTI.lOU<; 8te<p8apl.lvouc; ava7tEI.l7tOU<Jl Kal
(JU!<JlV eic; v6aov Kal T~V TOU IteplEXOVTO<; apoc; Ue~(av.
5 'Ev 8 Talc; rrapaxell.laa[at<; ItCtVTW<;, we; O.vw ItOU e'ipT]Tat, YDI.lVa~ Ta a-rpaT07tt:8a Kal 7tOA!1lKa 7t0ll, Kal Iva auvt:8[~WVTat TOll:; ItOVOl<; Iva l.l~T apywm

l.l~T pa8UI.lW<JlV.

6. Ou l.lOVOV 8 uytLVWV (J 81 <ppOVTl~lV UTIALKTWV, o-r' av O.Ot:taV exnc; arro

TWV 7tOA!1LWV, ana Kal ItOAAU<; Kat 8ta<p6pouc; exelV au-ra -rae; xopfjy[ac; Kal

tv -r<iJ t~rrt:8iTqJ ~youv tv -rfi KaTa Katpov -rou oA.ou mpmou auvaywyfi,

v8a !lCtAl<JTa Kat XPOVL~elV 8ov.

7. <I>pov-r[~nv 81:: Kat -rwv tl.lrr6pwv Iva 11~ A.urrouv-rm Kal ou
<ppoum -rae; XOpfjy[ac; TWV tmTTj8eiwv.
8. Ei 8 Tl<; KUL tA.rrlc; tvav-r[a tvoxA.1, aacpaA.[~wem ~ opuwamv ~ ItCtAOl<; ~

OAOKA~P<f' -rpa<pqJ, 0 A.youm cp6aaa, ~ Tpl~OAOl<; ~ oiKo8ol.lalc; ~ arro ~UAWV ~

Ct7t0 Ai8WV ~ aAAW<;, Wl:; OUVa<Jat tmvo~aat. EXl<; 8 Kat ~[y/..a<; E~W8t:V, CtAAa Kat
40 U!lCt~ac; t:ic; xapaKW<Jt:l<;, tav eimv, A.[av 8uvm6v, ~ xapaKa 7t~~Lc;, 0 A.ynat
aTa~apwaat, ehe apmwc; ehe 7tUKVOTepov, we; ij OUVa!llC: exn, ~T 8ta ~UAWV
TeAelWV ~ Ov8pwv KOTIEVTWV. 8t:1 yap ItCtVTW<; Ct<J<pCtAlUV


exnv TO aitAlKTOV, ei

l.l~ tv Tfi<;t ta-rlv xwp<;t ~ YUI.lvaa(ac; xaptv y[vnat ~ O.AA.ou nvoc;
xpetw8ouc; -rp6rrou ij TOU mpa-rou KlVTj<Jl<;.
9 MaA.ta-ra 8 <ppov-r(at:tc; Kal -rwv TIAT]<Jloxwpwv imo-rt:A.wv -r~c; ~amA.eiac;
iJ!lwv, Iva 11~ a8tKof>vmt rrapa -rwv mpanw-rwv, Kal KaTt:~aipt:-rov -rwv yt:wpywv.
ouo yap TaUTCt l.lOl 8oKOU<JlV tmTfj8t:ul.laTa A.iav avayKata rrpoc; 8vouc; (JU<JTa34 ad 6ov de novo inc. W
39-66 Strat., 7.B.13.
23 yivecr8at M yivnat ABE I fl~ M fl~ TIOAUV xpovov ABE 24 TIOAUV xpovov M om. ABE I
wcrnep M wcrnep KUTfJcrcpaA.t<JflEVa Kal ABE 25 -ro cr-rpaTeufla Mom. ABE 28 iivw nou M
l:tvw-repw ABE 28-29 cr-rpm6neoa MA cr-rpa-reuflam BE 29 Kal 2 Mom. ABE 1va M Kal
ABE 31 cre ... l:tnA.tKTWV M cmA.iK-rwv cppov-ri(etv oei ae ABE 35 Efl7t6pwv MW
npawa-reu-rwv ABE 1 A.unoiivmt MWBE A.unwvmt A 36 cpepoucrt MABE cpepwat W
38 -rpacpw MW Tacppw ABE I 0 ... cp6crcra M 0 A.Eyouatv cp6crcra w om. ABE 39 exw:; MW
exetv ABE 40 ei~ ... OUVUTOV MW eav elatv (w<JlV BE) yup68ev LOU C!TIA~KTOU n8evat ABE I
elmv W dcrt M I ~ MW ~ Kal ABE I n~~et~ MW n~crcretv ABE 42 l:tcrcpaA.etav MW l:tcrcpaAt~
AE O.crcpaA.w~ B 43 ecr-rlv MW ea-rl ABE 44 cr-rpa-roii De cr-rpaTfJYOii codd.


4. It is advantageous and healthy for the army not to remain in the same
l:mnp for a lengthy period, unless it is winter, for at that time of year the soldiers
may be billeted in some sort of building. The bodily excretions deposited in the
#arne place will give off harmful vapors and will transform the fresh air surftlttnding the place into disease-bearing air.
s. As mentioned above, in winter quarters, by all means, continue to drill the
army and practice warlike actions to get the men used to hard work, so that they
may not become idle or too relaxed. 4
6. Not only are you to be concerned about healthy encampments when you
are free from the enemy, but you should also make sure that the men have
plenty of provisions of various kinds, especially on the march and at a time
when the whole army is gathered together in a place where you must spend
!lome time.
7. Be concerned too about the merchants. See that they are not unfairly
tt'eated and so come to bear a grievance that may lead them to discontinue
furnishing the supplies we need.
8. If you are worried about some unexpected opposition, secure your camp
by means of ditches, palisades, or by a trench, called fossa, around the whole
camp, or by caltrops or some type of construction, whether of wood or stone, or
in some other manner that you will be able to devise. Post sentries outside.s
Wagons, if you have them, make very effective defenses. Or make a wall of
pointed stakes, called stabarosai, either spread out or placed more closely
together, depending on their strength, either of finished lumber or of trees felled
<on the spot>. By all means, the camp must be kept secure, unless perhaps the
army may be moving about in our own country, on training exercises or
<engaged in> some other useful activity.
9. Take thought especially for the subjects of Our Majesty in neighboring
locations so they may not be mistreated by our soldiers. In particular, be
concerned about the farmers. It seems to me that these two institutions are truly

4 For example, see Leo the Deacon, 1.9; 2.1 (Talbot and Sullivan trans. pp. 68-70).
s. Here through 11 derives from Strat. 7.B.13. Cf. Skirmishing, 15.




Constitution 11

<HV KUL 01Uf10V~V, y~::wpytK~ fleV Tp<pouaa KUL au~ouaa Toile; aTpaLIWTac;, aTpaTIWTIK~ oe EKOIKOUO"a KUL 1tEpt<puA.anouaa Toile; yewpyouc;. ai oe EJtiTT]OEUO"Eil:; OEUTEpat TOUTWV Ef10L KULU<j>ULVOVLUI. OUl LOUTO Kal avayKaiov ad I
TOULWV tmf1EAETa8at Kal Ta imep mhwv <ppovT[<EIV EKCtaLOTE, we; av Kal oi
aTpanwml OIKa[wc; TpE<pOf1EVOI avopayaewmv KUL oi y~::wpyol fl~ CtOIKOUflEVOI

EUXall:; auToilc; Tall:; Ctpflo<ouaatc; 1tp01tEf11tOU<HV.

10. I1oAEf1LWV oe yyt<6vTWV KUL 1tpoaOOKWflEVOU JtOAEflOU, av 1tpoA.a~wv
55 v <poaacmp Otaync;,
mpaLT]y, Kal Toile; exepoilc; UVUf1EVnc; EKELO"E, OEL EUTpE1tl<EIV Kai U1t01"18vat xopTOV ~ lixupov ~ KptG~v fliCtl:; ~ OEUTpac; ~flpac; TWV
aA.6ywv, we; ~OT] 0"01 Kal tv T(\l 1tEpi Momop[ac; KE<pUAUL(!J 1tpOOIEGEf1EGa. Kal av EKEiG~::v ~ouA.T]Gftc; de; ih~::pov lirrA.tKTov UJtEAGEiv Kai EKEiGEv JtapaTa~aaem, avayKaiov xopmv Kaiaxupov KUV f11Ctl:; ~flpac; ~ama<nv Kat o\hwc; EV
6o T(\l ytvOf1EV4J <poaaaTc.p aJtoT[G~::aGat ml>Tov. '(awe; yap ou auyxwpoiivmt imo Twv
exepwv oi de; OOUAELUV a<pwp10f1EVOI JtULOE<:; auTft Tft ~flEP~ E~EA.Gdv Kai xopToA.oy~aat, OUTE oe Ta liA.oya de; ~OO"K~V tK~UAELV.
11. Ei oe Kai JtOAV yy[<oumv oi txepo[, OUK UTOJtOV v T(\l 1tEp11tUTELV, we;
dpT]TUI, EKUO"TOV auvaynv TOV xopmv, TOV 6<pELAOVLU U1tOLE8~vat. ouoe yap
65 flETa TO U1tAIKEUO"UI JtOAACtKil:; auyxwpouvml oi JtatOEc; E~EAGEiv Kai xopToA.oy~
O"UI, JtAEIOVWV flCtAiaLU Ka~aA.Aap[wv TWV exepwv EUplOKOflEVWV.
12. Kai rrwc; yap ou OLKUIOV Kai TU de; OEUTpav TUXTJV a<popav JtOAACtKI<:; Kai
Tac; Ke1G~::v vavnwanc; aKoJtdv Kai 1tpoaa<paA.L<wem Ta flA.A.ovm, fl~ flELUflEAAW8at uaTEpov Kai f1CtAtma Tac; aJtoTpo<pac; ~f1Epwv 6A.[ywv Twv TE aTpaTtw7o TWV Kai nov aA.6ywv, Kai <poaaaTa oxupa 1tOIELV tv E1tiTT]OELOI<:; T01t01l:; evea
OUVUTOV EhE uowp JtOLaflOU E'LTE T6rroc; ouax~::p~c; E'LTE liA.Ao n oxupWflU OIEKOtKELV TO <pOO"O"CtTOV EV Katp(\l UVCtYKTJ<:;;
13. 'Ev oe Tote; avayKa[otc; TOU JtE<IKOU U1tALKLOU KUL Tac; CtflCt~ac;, we; dpTJTUI,
1tEptKUKA4J KaG[ma Toii aJtALKTOU, E'LTE v JtE<tK(\l mpaT(\l ~ Ka[, av datv, Kai v
75 KU~aA.AaptK(\l ~ O"Uflf1LKT4J, KUL OlKOOOf1ELV, Wl:; f101 dpTJTUI, av 0 T01t0l:; EXD> K<lL

67-72 Strat., 7.A.7.

73-115 Strat.,


t?ssential for the constitution and permanence of the nation; farming nourishes
und strengthens the soldiers, and the military avenges and protects the farmers.
'lhe other institutions impress me as second to these. For this reason it is
necessary always to take care and to be concerned for their welfare in both
tespects, so that the soldiers, properly nourished, will do valiant deeds and the
furmers, being fairly treated, will cheer them on their way with appropriate
10. As the enemy approaches and the time for battle is near and, in anticipation of it, you are spending time in the entrenchments, 0 commander, and you
await the enemy there, you must prepare and set aside one or two days' supply
of grass or hay or barley for the animals, as we have already prescribed for you
In the chapter on marches. Again, if you should wish to go off from there to
another campsite and there line up for battle, it is necessary to transport enough
grass and hay for one day and to store it in the new entrenchments. It is unlikely
that, on that day, the enemy will permit the servants assigned to this work to go
out and gather fodder or to graze the horses.
11. But if the enemy get very close, it would be a good idea, as mentioned,
for each man to gather forage on the march and stow away what he needs. Most
of the time, after they have set up camp, the servants will not be allowed to go
out and gather forage, especially if the enemy cavalry outnumbers ours.
12. Is there anything wrong about frequently considering the possibility of
secondary fortune, checking out its adverse effects, and taking measures to
guard against future contingencies, so that you will not regret it later, especially
when it comes to provisions for a few days for the soldiers and the horses, as
well as setting up strong fortified camps in suitable locations where there is the
water of a river or difficult terrain or some other obstacle able to provide protection for the camp in emergencies?6
13. When the infantry camp comes under heavy pressure, park the wagons,
as we said, all around the camp site, whether it be for the infantry army or also,
if they are present, for the cavalry or a mixed army/ Also construct, as I have


48 OLUflOV~V MWBE OtaVOfl~V A 52 avllpaya8wmv MW avllpaya8wot ABE

53 npo7!Ef17toumv MW 1!po7!Ef17lW<JLV A npo7!Ef17!Wat BE 54 npooOOKWflEVou MWA
npocrOoKoflevou B TipocrooKOUflEVou E 55-56 llEI ein:pen[(etv MWA lltwTpen[(etv BE
58 Kat MWA om. BE 64 EKa<JTOV MWAE eoxaTOV B 67 TCt MW om. ABE
68 evavmi>ow; MW AE UVTlWO'El~ B I TCt MW TOV ABE 68-69 f1ETaflEAAE<Y8at MW
f1eTUf1EAEio8m ABE 7 4 TIE(LKw MW A m:(w BE I eimv W A dol M wmv BE I Kal MWB om.


6. Strat. 7.A. 7.
7 Sections 13-20 derive from Strat.






~w8v Tpa<pov T[0LtV T[ACtTOUc; flEV TtOOWV ' ~ KCtL ~, ~aeouc; o ma ~ OKTW,

written previously, if the ground permits, a trench on the outside. Make it five or

111x feet wide and seven or eight deep, with the earth thrown up on the inner

Ketl TO XWflCt tv Tft tawTtpq O\lfL T8~VCtl, ~w8V o TCtUTT]I:; -rpt~6/..ouc; Ketl
AUKKOUI:; flLKpouc;, exovT1:; T[UAOUI:; tvToc; T[J1T]YflEVOUc;, ouc; o1 tv yvwaL T[OlelV
TOte; TOU mpmou OLU TO fl~, ayvoouvTac;, tm' CtlJTWV ~t..amwem.
14. "EXLv o Ketl T~v Ttptf.1Tpov Tou <poaaaTou Teaaapac; flEV Tt6pmc; I
flYCtAWTEpetc; Ketl OT]flOO'tetc;, 1tetpet1t6pTLet o flLKpa TtAdova, KCtL Ket8' EKUO'TT]V
TtOpTetV ~youv ~ooov XLV apxovTet, TOV TtAT]O'LOV CtJ1ALKUOVTCt Ttpoc; Ttetpet<pUACtK~V au-r~c;. eaw o Ttap' CtUTUc; Tac; CtflU~etc; <Tac;> TWV \lfLAWV TEVTetc; cmA<ic;
1tetpetKLflEVetc;, ~youv TWV T CtKOVTLO'TWV Ketl TWV TO~OTWV, Ketl aTt' tKdvwv
85 fi)Kmpov OLUO'TT]flCt we; T[OOWV TpletKOO'lWV ~ u', Ketl TOT Tac; /..omac; Tety~vm
TEVTetc;, WGT tv Tettc; TWV tx8pwv TO~dmc; fl~ TtA~TT<J8etL Tac; tv TtP flEO'qJ, aU'
tv TtP UKaipq> T6TI<p Tt(mnv Tac; aayinac;.
15. 'Ev TtP flEO'qJ o TOU <poaaaTOU aTaupono~ T[ACtTtCtV dvm mpaTCtV TO
TtAaToc; fl' ~ v' Ttoowv, Ketl v8v KaK18v TtapaKda8m auTft Tac; Tevmc; puf.1o9o LOWe; KaT' op8Lvov, txouaac; auTac; 6/..(yov aTt' CtAA~AWV OLUO'TT]flCt.
16. Kal EKamov TOUpflO.pXTJV flEO'OV Twv im' auTov Cl.TtALKULV, a 0, -rov
aTpCtTTjy6v, de; v f.!Epoc; Ketl fl~ tv TtP flEO'qJ T~c; TtAaTdetc;, '(va fl~ Ketl Tft flEGD
tflTIOOt(nc; Ttpoc; Ttapooov KCttl)T[O TWV TIUPPXOflEVWV OXAta8m, Toile; o KCt~CtA
t..ap(ouc;, tav ytvT]TCtL Kmpoc; da!..8tv, tv TtP flEaq> Tou <poaaaTou aTIALKULv

On the outside of the trench put caltrops and small pits with sharp stakes
!lft in them. You must make sure that the troops know their location since, if

they do not, they may be injured.

14. Along the perimeter of the camp there should be four really large, public
ptes and a larger number of small postern gates. The officer who is camped
closest to each gate or exit is responsible for guarding it. Inside the line of
wagons the simple tents of the light-armed troops, the javelin throwers and the
trchers, should be pitched. There should be a clear space for a distance of three
hundred or four hundred feet from them and then the rest of the tents should be
lift up. When the enemy start shooting, their arrows will fall in the clear space
md not hit the tents in the middle.
15. <Two> broad streets, forty or fifty feet wide, should run through the
tniddle of the camp in the shape of a cross. On both sides of the street the tents
should be lined up in rows with a little space between each one.
16. Each tourmarch should camp in the middle of his troops. But you, the
commander, should be off to one side, not at the central crossroads, to avoid
obstructing the flow of traffic in the middle and to avoid being bothered by
troops passing by. If the cavalry have the opportunity to enter the camp, they
should pitch their tents in the middle of the camp and not near the edges.
17. The more competent counts, with the units under their command,
should be assigned to the gates of the camp, so that from the evening dismissal
until the signal is given <in the morning>, nobody shall dare to pass in or out of

fl~ tv -roic; axpOLc;.

17. Touc; o XPTJO'LflWTEpouc; TWV KOfl~TWV flTU TWV im' CtUTOUc; TCtYf.!CtTWV de;
TU<.; Tt6p-rac; TOU <poaaa-rou a<popi(w8m, waT flTQ TU<.; aTtpLvac; fllO'Getc; flT]OEva 8apptv flEXPL Tou OOOflEVou GT]fliou Ttapa yvcbf.!T]V Tou aTpetTT]you au-rwv


76 scr. mg. m:pl -raq>pou W I rrA.a-rou<; MW rrlta-ro<; ABE I Kal ~ MBE ~A Kal

MW ~6.6o<; ABE I 6wiJ MWA r]' E Kal r]' B




79 Ola


MW '(ya

77 T6~Yat MW n6Yal ABE




<W I ~6.8ou<;

78 EYTO<; MW



-rtaaapa<; ... rr6p-ra<; ABE -rtaaapa<; flEY napa -ra<; M rr6p-ra<; (scr. supra lin.) -rtaaapa<;

rrapa-ra<; W

82 ~youY ~oOoY MW om. ABE

82-83 TOY ... mh~<; MW rrpo<; rrapaq>uAaKi]Y

mh~<; TOY rrltJ]crioY arrAtKtuoYm ABE 83 rrap' MW rrapa ABE I -ra<; 2 Va om. codd. I -rtYm<;
MW -reYOa<; ABE

84 ~youY MW om. ABE

-rptaKocriwY ~ -rnpaKocriwY A -r' ~ u' WBE

-rae; MW -roue; ABE

I -rwY2 MW om. ABE

85 -rptaKocriwY ... u' M

86 TfYTa<; MW TEYOa<; ABE I EY MWA om. BE


87 -rw MW -rw apyw Kal y -rw ABE

88 scr. mg. rrw<; 6q>ElAl ytYW6at

w I cr-raupoet.S~ MW AE cr-raupoelO~ KUL B I cr-rpa-raY MW OOOY exoucraY ABE

89 fl' ... rroOwY MW -rwcrapaKoYm rr6.Sac; ~ Kal T!EYT~KOYTU A tt' rr6.Sa<; ~ Kal y' E fl' ~ Kal y'

B 1 -rtnac; MW TEYOa<; ABE

a\rrwY E au-ra y' B
-rou<; BE

91 ad TWY scr. mg. flWOY -rou tOiou ltaou W

I ot MW AE om.

97 ttiaaac; MW ttiYaa<; ABE

93 oxlte1cr6at Du oxltficrm codd.


ainoY MWA


96 -rwY MW A





dapxw8at ~ t~pxw8at tv T{iJ <j>O<J<JCtTql. Ta<; Oi:: VUKTeplvac; ~tyAa<; TWV Ka~aA100

Aapiwv awev OVTWV aa<paA.wc; yivwem.

18. "EKa<JTO<; oi:: TOUp!J<iPXfJ<; tva 'iOLOV flaVMTwpa a<popian,


dvm de;

T~v K6pTfJV Tou mpmfjyou npoaEOpeuovm. 6!Joiwc; oi:: Kal LOU<; opouyyapiouc;

Kal KO!lfJTU<; de; T~v Tevmv Tou Toupflapxou, '(va OLa TouTwv auvT6!JW<; ylV(iJaKoum miVT<; Ta tvTAAOf1Va.
19."EXELV 8 <J,

10 5


W <JTpaTfjy, nepl eaUTOV

~OUKLVchwpw:; Kat !JlKpWV ~OUKl-

Kal !JEYUAWV. Kal TOU i8L<Jf1EVOU ~OUKLVOU aaAnt~OVTO<; nepl i::anpav

nauea8m nov n6vwv Kal 0l1VOUVTU<; 'I!UAAlV TOV TpLaaywv U!JVOV.

20. A<popi~wem

8i:: KUl TLVac; LOLKOU<; aou avepwnouc; Trl<JTOU<; tva KaTa!JaV-

eavw<JL Tac; ~(y:\ac; Kalmi<JL napayytnwm mwn~v EXLV, W<JT t~ OVO!JUTO<; !l~

eappdv !lETa Kpauyf)c; KaAdv TOV i::m1pov aULOU. nona yap Ta tK Tf)c; mwnf)c;
ayaea Kal OTl noAACtKl<; KaTU<JKOnOL noAE!JlWV tK TOUTOU TOU Tp6nou tv T(iJ
mpmoneOq:> AaveavovT<; t<pwlpaefjaav Kal tKpaT~efjaav, wanep Kal tK Tf)c;
Kpauyf)c; nona Ta <JUfl~a(vovTa ~Aa~epa. KWAULV 8i:: Kal Tac; opx~aLc; Kal
!-LUAl<JTa Tac; i::anepLvac; Kat ano d Tl na(yvwv,



!l~ !JOVOV CtKO<J!lOU<; Kal

eopu~WOel<; nOLOUVTa CtTa~iac;, ana Kal K6nouc; CtVW<pA1c; napexoVTa.

21. 'Eav oi:: !JEnne; f18LaTi:iV de; ELepov T6nov ano anAtKTOU TO aTpUTEU!Ja
Kal ~OUAl A.aedv LOU<; noAE!JlOU<;, ~ T6nouc; oxupouc; npoKaTUAa~taem npompf)am ~ Toile; ll~ ovmc; TmouLOuc; <peuync; OLa nvac; tK nov noAE!Jiwv ~A<i~ac;.
<d> Kal ou ~OUAl tA81V de; avayKfjV TOU !JUXWem, nupa nona Kavaac;

avaxwpel. ~AtnoVT<; yap oi noAE!JlOl Ta <pwTa, OO~OU<JlV ETl tv T(iJ anAtKTql (J

f1EVlV, Kal tKTAE<Jl<; aou TO ~OUAf]!Ja. TOUTO oi:: Kal NLKfj<p6pov 'i<Jf1V, TOV
~!JETepov aTpaTfjy6v, nnOlf]KEVUL, i:h KaTa Z:up(ac; anWTUAf] nap' ~!JWV !JETa

ouv<i!JEW<; iKavf)c;, noU~v T nOLf]GU!JEVoc; Af]Aaaiav Kal ouTw flTUT8lc; tv



the camp without the commander's permission. When the cavalry are safely
Inside, night patrols are <sent out>.
18. Each tourmarch should assign his own herald to stay in attendance at the
ptvilion of the general and, in like manner, the droungarioi and the counts
~Jhould have someone at the tent of the tourmarch. These will expedite the transmission of orders for everyone.
19. Trumpeters, playing both large and small trumpets, should be on duty
with you, 0 general. 8 The customary trumpet should sound in the evening;
work should cease and, after supper, the men should chant the Trisagion hymn. 9
20. Detail some of your own trusted men to inspect the sentries and to
proclaim that all should observe silence. Nobody should dare even to shout out
the name of his comrade. There are many advantages to keeping silence. Our
tlbservance of this has frequently led to the detection and capture of enemy spies
lurking in the camp. Likewise, shouting can lead to a great deal of damage.
llorbid dancing, especially in the evening, or any other frivolity. 10 Not only are
they disorderly, annoying, and destructive of discipline, but they are a waste of
energy for the soldiers.
21. If you intend to transfer the army from the camp to another location and
you wish to do so without the enemy finding out about it or if you choose to
occupy strong points beforehand or if you wish to abandon such places because
of damage inflicted by the enemy and if you do not want to be forced into
offering battle, light many fires and then withdraw. When tlle enemy see the
lights, they will believe that you are still inside the camp, and you will be able to
carry out your plan. We recall that our general, Nikephoros, did just this when
he was sent by us to Syria with a fairly large force. 11 His troops severely ravaged
<the country> and then moved into the middle of the enemy's land. While his

cant. iiyLO~ 6 8c6~, iiyw~ 'lcrxupo~, iiyw~ a9avaTO~ eAElj<JOV ~f!ii~.

Tevmv MW TevcSav ABE 103-104 ytvwaKoucrt MBE ytvwcrKwat WA 105 tauTov

MW <JWUTOV ABE 106 d9t<Jf!fVOU MWA e9t<Jf!fVOU BE 109 rrapayye.\Awm ABE
rrapayye.\Aoum MW 1 xm MWA iiym BE 110 Ta MWA om. BE 115 9opu~wcSct~
BE I rrapexovm MABE rrapexovTa~ w 116 f!E9tcrTiiV ... <JTPUTWf!U MW am) arrA~KTOV ci~
en:pov TOJtOV TO <JTPUTWf!U f!c9t<JTiiv ABE 117 rrpoKaTaAa~ecr9at MW rrpoKaTaAU~clV
ABE 117-118 rrpoatp~crm MW crrrouM~!]<; ABE 118 f!~ ABE om. MW I oVTa~
TotouTou<; MW trsp. ABE 119 d Va om. codd. I t/..9c1v MW om. ABE I d<; ... Tou MW t~
avayKaiou ABE 1 rrupa rro.\Aa MW rrupKata~ rro.\Aa<; ABE I Kaucra<; MWE ii'iJa<; AB
121 'l<Jf!EV MW o'lcSaf!EV ABE 123 Tc MWA oe BE I Ac!]AU<J[av MW rrpatcSav Kal


acpavt<Jf!OV ABE I f!ETaTe9d<; MW AB f!HUTt9d<; E


Cf. Const. 7, n.


9. "Holy God, Holy Strong One, Holy Immortal One, have mercy on us:'
10. Cf. Strat. 12.B.22.41-43. While the dancing referred to here was undoubtedly wild,
frivolous and, quite possibly, lewd, a more disciplined form of dancing was allowed and even
encouraged: see Leo the Deacon, 79 (Talbot and Sullivan trans. p. 39). Cf. E. Wheeler, "Hoplomachia and Greek Dances in Arms;' GRBS 23 (1982): 223-233.
11. The campaign took place about the year 900. This Nikephoros Phokas was the
grandfather of the later emperor of the same name. See Skirmishing, 20.





flE<Jn Tfi TIOAfllq., TWV exepwv aMou TIOU <JUVf]YflEVWV, OU<; ATIOUA<pEp, 6 eu125 vouxo<;, 6 TWV 2:apaKf]VWV <JTpatf]y6<;, ne<ppeto

~youv TWV ~ap~aptKWV

ouv<'tflWV T~v T alxflaA.wa[av T~v ~ap~aptK~v Kat m1aav T~v liUfJV npalOav
~v dxev a~A.a~w<; OLWW<JaTO Af]AaT~<Ja<; T~V TIOAfl[av.

22. KaTa 0 T~V BouA.yapwv EK<JTpaTetav Kat Tepov auT<fl nevo~ef] npo<;

<pUAaK~V UTIALKTOU XP~<JlflOV, onep XP~ fl~ ~..~en napa1tfl<pe~vm, 6flOU T yap
130 :\a<ppov L<; ~aatay~v Kat avayKalOV ei<; <pUAaK~V yvwp[aef]. ~V 0 TOLOUTOV

Kav6vta Mo <JUflfleTpa A.a~wv ~VALVa ava Tptwv TIOU ameaf.LWV ~ 6:\[yq.J TIAEOV

A.a~oapa[av <JUVEfll~V, ihepov 0 Kav6vtov OflOLW<;, exov ameafl<'t<; TIEVT ~ Kat

~, TU~lV flVaUAOU tv Tfi <JUflfll~et TOU 0L<JKALOU meet<; Tpl<JKEALOV ETIOLf]<JV,

imaflevov taxupw<; Ota T~<; im' aU~A.wv Twv aKeA.wv auyKpoT~aew<;. nept 0 To
135 liKpov TOU oiov flVaUAOU ~L<pUpLOV flEya Kal CtOpov v~a:\ev npoKUTITOV TOU

Tpt<JKALOU, W<; e'ipf]TaL, ameaf.LU<; Mo ~ fllKp<fJ TCAEOV, Kat oihw TOU<; ~uA.lvou<;
EKetvou<; Tpt~6A.ou<; oTe ~ouA.eto aumUwv, oTe ~ouA.eto auvlam, Kal
ei<; oxupwfla dxev, 6flOU Kat OTIAa v Tal<; avayKa[m<; xpdat<;



KaTa TWV ouvaf.LEVWV npxwem Ka~aUaplwv Tfi TWV 0UVUflWV ~flWV TU~l,
140 TLTPW<JKOflEVWV v Tal<;

npoa~oAal<; UTIO TOU oiov xapaKO<;, UKOAW<; Kal natp6-

flVOV Kal ~aaTa~OflVOV Kat 1tfJYVUflVOV, Kat <he rcoU6.Kt<; opuyflaTa OUK
yveto ETOLfla, dxov TaUTa ei<; aa<paA.etav.
23. 'DT' av o flEAAn<; fleTCt aoela<; KLVelV UTIO TOU UTIALKTOU, oeov O[Ooaeat
flaVOUTa ano anpa<; Kat TIUALV ei<; TO auyo<; KaTa auT~V T~V ~flEpav TOU

45 KLV~flaTo<; Ta ~oUKtva Tptaa6.Kt<; <Jf]flalvetv Kat TOT Ktvelv Kat KaTa TU~tv
143-230 Strat., 12.B.22.
125-126 ~youv ... ouvaf!ewv MW om. ABE

MW acpaviaa~ ABE

126 -re MWA -re yap BE

128 ~Ot>Ayapwv MWA ~ou>.yapiwv BE



commanded by Apoulfer, 12 the eunuch general of the Saracens, that

of the barbarian forces, were gathering together, he held on securely to the
b~trbarian prisoners and all the other booty that he had taken after plundering
ftU:my territory.
22. At the time of the Bulgarian expedition he invented another helpful
d~vice for defending the camp that should not lapse into forgetfulness. It is at
once light to transport and clearly providing necessary protection. It was like
He took two lengths of wood of equal size, about three spithamai or a
little more,' 4 and joined them together to form a lambda. In like manner he then
took another length of wood, of five or even six spithamai, and like a menaulon
placed it on the joint of the two-legged device and made it into a threelegged one, which got its strength from the legs being tightly bound to one
iUlOther. On the tip of the menaulon-like pole he fixed a large and broad sword
blade that extended out beyond the three-legged stand, as was reported, two
lipithamai or a little more. And so he set up those wooden caltrops when he
wished and again took them down when he wished, using them for defense. At
the same time, they could be used as weapons when the camp came under
intense pressure from the <enemy> cavalry. As they advanced to attack the line
of our forces, they would be wounded in charging against such a palisade. It
could be easily taken up, transported, and set up again. When trenches could
not often be gotten ready, these provided security.
23. Whenever you intend to move from the camp in safety, you must give
the orders the evening before. 15 Then at dawn on the day designated for moving,
the bugles should sound three times to begin the march. The officers march out

127 AeTJAa-r~aa~

131 KUVOVLU Mo MW trsp.

ABE I GUf.lf!Hpa Aa~wv MWA Aa~wv GUf.lf!Hpov BE I ava ABE om. MW I Tplii>V ... am8Uf!WV
MW -rptii>v exovTa am8Uf!WV A -rpe1~ exov-ra am8Uf!U~ BE I 6Aiyw MW Kal ABE
132 Aa~oapaiav MWA Aa~oapeav B Aaf!oapeav E lnev-re MWA e' BE

133 e~ MWA ~
134-135 TO aKpov MW TOU aKpou ixeivou ABE 135 f!EVUUAOU MW f.IEVUUAOU OVTO~ ABE
I aopov Va aopov MW naxu ABE 136 ouo MWA BE I ~ ... 1lAEOV MW om. ABE I oihw
~ ... TU~El MW om. ABE 140 xapaKO<; MW xapaKO<; TOUTO oi: ABE 141 Kal MW om.
ABE 142 yve-ro MW eyive-ro ABE I dxov -rau-ra MW TaUTa e1xev ABE 144 f!UVOUTa
MW n':t napayyEAf.lUTa ABE I naALV MW om. ABE I au-r~v -r~v MW trsp. ABE



145 -rptaaaKL<; GT]f.laivetv MW npii>-rov AaAe1v ABE

12. See below, Const. 17.65.

13. This expedition took place ca. 894. See Skylitzes, Leon.Phil., 12. On the three-legged

device see E. McGeer, "Tradition and Reality in the Taktika of Nikephoros Ouranos;' DOP 45
(1991): 129-140.
14. Ca. 70 em.
15. Sections 23-40 derive from Strat. 12.B.22.





~pxw8cu TOU~ apxov-ra<; KUL rrp6Lepov !J.EV TOU<; OTtALTU~, eha -ra<; Ct!J.U~a<;, eav
eim, KUL e'( ll -repov m<pep6jlVOV d<; umtpea[av TOU a-rpawu.
24. 'H o nilv -rpt~OAWV XP~Gl~ avayKa[a E<JLLV ev TOL<; C111AlKTOl~. eav yap ~
11LpW0'1<; 6 TOTIO~ eupe8ft ~ !J.~ 0UV'l8WatV 6pu~cu ~ ~paoda ~ wpa yv'1Tctl, T~V

au-r~v Ttp <Hpa-r(il napexoum xpdav EV -rft a-rpa-roTI0eL<;t al-rp[~OAOl npTtOVTW<;

U110ll8EjlVctl ~v KULTO opuwa napxel.
25. O'iOUjlV of: Oll Ota<p6pou<; 8at<; KUL ax~!J.Ula <poaaa-rwv o[ apxaTOL
rrapa00WKU<JlV ev -rft mpaTOTt0eL<;t ETtaLV1"~ o ~ rrapa!J.~K'l<; -rnpaywvo<; w~

dhaKTO<; KUL avayKa[a.

26. Ei<; o ETtl0l~lV mpmou KQL <pav-raa[av !J.UAAOV -ra rrA.ayta Kal btl U'\'0~
aTIAlKLa rrA.dova TOV ev au-rol<; mpa-rov napa TOU~ 'iaou~ ~ yKljlEVOU~ TOTtOU~
rrapaOelKVUGLV. eav ouv npo<; en[Oel~lV xpda yV'llal, TOU~ nA.ay[ou<; oel mAyw8m TOTtOU<;, eav !J.UAL(Jla Kal-ra m-r~Ota EXWGL l~~ avayKmOTpa~ xpda~.
27. Av6aou<; o,

w<; dp'llal, mAywem -r6rrou<; [~ aTIAlKLa KQL

!l~ xp6vov

160 TtOAUV vota-rp[~LV ev evl xwp[q>, d !l~ apa Ota TOU<; TOU<; Ka8apou<; Kal-ra
em-r~oeta xpetwo<; eanv Kal ou KaTmdyet n<; avayK'l
28. AHa KQL -ra<; <pUatKa<; avayKa[a<; xpda<; TWV av8pwrrwv, w~ dp'lTal, !l~

y[vwem i:aw8ev TOU <pO<JGCtTOU, 6.A.A' E~w8ev, Ota T~V ouawo[av, KUL !J.UAlGTa eav
ETil!J.EVn Ota llVQ xp6vov TO <poaaa-rov EV tvl-r6rrq>.
29. 'Ev of: -role; avayKa[ot<; Kmpol<; ~paxuv !J.EV ~TOl !J.lKpov OVTa TOV TtOLU!J.OV
ev !J.EGq> 01 neptAU!J.~CtVlV TOU xapaKO~ TOU <poaaaTOU Yva a-rlv d\~a-ro~ LOL~
TOU a-rpa-rou. av o -rpaxu~ EGLl KQL !J.Eya~, EK rrA.ay[ou au-rov TIOleLV (J XP~ Ota
TO d~ oxuJpW!J.U yeva8cu-rou a-rpa-rou. TIOLU!J.OU 0 napa-rpxov-ro<; GU!J.!J.ETpou
ou Mov TOU<; L11110U<; ~ayetv d~ TIOTOV KaLa TO avweev !J.Epo<;, Yva !l~ Tft KlV~(Jl
150 ad m:paTw des. W
146 ~pxwElm MW A epxwElm BE

I av MW A e'lm:p BE 149 rtETpWOI]~ ... eupeElij MW 6

TOTlO~ eupeEli'j rtnpwO!]~ ABE 150 xpdav ... Ti'j M om. ABE I cnpmorteoda M
crTpmorteodav ABE 151 artoTtElEj.!Vat ABE artoTtElEj.!EVOt M 152 Ota<p6pou~ M Ota<popa
ABE 1 6crw~ Kal M om. ABE 153 ~ MA om. BE 156 crTpm6v M m:pmov
rtapa0lKVUOUatV ABE 157 rtapaOdKVUatV Mom. ABE I o1 MAB of. E 159 8 M of. XP~
AE XP~ B I w~ e'lprrrat M om. ABE I TOT!OU~ M TOT!OU~ w~ e'lp!]TUl ABE I Kal MA om. BE
160 EV0taTpi~lV ... xwpiw M tv vl xwpiw OtaTpi~etv (aOtaTpi~etV B) ABE I iipa M TlOAAUKl~
ABE I TU MAB om. E 161 crnv M ecrTl ABE 162 <pU<JlKU~ MB <pU<JlKU~ Kal AE I w~
etp!]TUl M om. ABE 163 crw6ev ... <pOCYaUTOU ME eaw TOU <pO<J<JUTOU A TOU <pocrcraTOU eaw
B 164 xp6vov De xpeiav codd. 165 EV ... Katpot~ MAB om. E 165-167 ~paxuv ...
crTpaTOU M eav (et BE) j.llKp6~ crnv 6 TlOTUj.lO~ tv wj.!EAAl UTlA!]KUlV XP~ j.!E<JOV al!Tov TOU
(urA.~KTOU rteptA.aj.!~<'tvetv ABE 167 Kal MA ~ BE I cre XP~ M om. ABE 169 Tou~ ...
t~ayetv M trsp. ABE I iivw6ev MA ecrwElev BE


in order, the heavy-armed infantry first, followed by the wagons if they are
present and whatever else might be carried for the service of the army.
24. The employment of caltrops is essential in camping. For if the ground is
rocky and impossible to dig or if it is late <in the day>, caltrops properly
scattered about provide the same protection to the army on campaign as do
25. We realize that ancient authorities have described various shapes for
setting up an expeditionary camp, but we prefer the four-sided, oblong form as
basic and making for good order.
26. Camps situated on a broad front and on high ground give the army
encamped there a more impressive appearance than those on level or sloping
ground. If, therefore, you feel the need to make an impression, you must select
sites with a broad front, especially if they have the basic supplies we really need.
27. As mentioned, choose healthy places for camp and do not stay too long
in one spot, unless the salubrious air and the availability of supplies are more
advantageous and there is no critical pressure.
28. As mentioned, the necessary physical needs of the men should not be
taken care of inside the camp but outside, because of the disagreeable odor,
especially if the army needs to remain in one place for some time.
29. In critical situations you must choose a site with a small or slow-flowing
river in the middle of the army's entrenchment, where it is easily crossed by the
soldiers. But if it is large and swift you must keep it on the flank, the better to
protect the army. If a good-sized river is flowing <there> the horses must not be
watered above the camp. Their trampling around will disturb the water and




Constitution 11

nov no8wv mpacrcrovn:c; TO Mwp eoA.pov aUTO Kal axpTJaTOV not~crwmv, aA.AC:t
KUTW8v flUAAOV. av 8 6:\[yoc; mlv 6 1t0Taf.10<;, 8ta ayylwv au-roue; OEOV
no-ri(tv Kal fl~ naqHvm LOU<; 'innouc; lc; TO mpacrcrLv a1n6v.
30. ITAf]O"lOV oe A6cpou, L<; ov ouvavTat oi txepot avapf)vat, TO U1tAlKTOV fl~
nowu, fl~nwc; Kt8v LOU<; tv -r<P a-rpa-ron8<.p KaTaTo~ucrwmv UK6A.wc;.
31. 'Eav 8 OUK dcrtv yyuc; oi 1tOAEfllOl aHa flaKpav ano iKavwv ~flpwv
ooou, fl~ mT~OEU 1tAf]Gtov Ma-roc; Ta anAtKTU nmlv, Kat flUAt<JTa -rwv KapaA.A.apiwv, 'iva fl~ Kat Ta aA.oya Kat oi av8p<; tv O"UVT]8l<;t Tf)c; noA.unoa[ac; YVOflVOl tv Katp<P Ai'!'W<;, we; LKO<;, Ma-roc;, OT 8L KapTplv, fl~ <ppovT<; 6A.tyw-

32. Ouo TOU<; 1t(ouc; flTa TWV KapaAA.apiwv 8L aJtAlKUlV, nplv ~ TOU<;
x8pouc; yyfcrat, v T<fJ <pOG<JUT<.p, aU' ~w8v flEV JtAf]O"lOV 0 TOU cpocrcrUTOU,
\'va flf]8E <JTvoxwpouvmt flf]8E Uapt8flf]TOl cpa[vwvTat TOt<; KaTacrKOJtot<;.
8oKtfla( 8 npo 6A.iywv ~flpwv de; n6crov 8tUaTT]fla xwpoiivTat Kat nwc;
flA.A.oumv anA.tKuLv, av yvf]Tat au-ro1c; Kmpoc; dcrA.8Lv flTa -rwv
18 5 Kapanapiwv. av 8 oi txepot yyi(wmv, 'iva auvamwv-rm oi Kapanaptot -ro1c;
n(o1c; Kat tv -r<P Ufla anAtKuoumv tv Tote; T-rayflEVot<; -r6notc;.
33 'Ev 8 T<fJ TOU JtOAEflOU Katp<P 8ov a de; oxupouc; T6nouc; Ta U1tAlKTU
mvolv Kat <ppovTt(Lv TWV f1tlTT]8lwv, fl~ flOVOV, W<; dpf]Tat, TTJ<; TWV av8pw1tWV ano-rpocpf)c; 6A.iywv ~flpwv, aU' d 8uva-r6v, Kat TWV aA6ywv 8ta TO li8T]AOV
190 TOU 1tOAEflOU Kat f1tlflAlcr8at Kat 8tacrKOJttV 'iva 8ta 1tUVTWV ouvacrat TO uowp
KOtKlv. tv Katp<P yap Kat -roue; noAfliou<; ~tc; 8oflvouc;. Kat av flEV an
KUfl1tO<; tv 4> ~ O"UflPOA~ TOU 1tOAEflOU flEAAl yivwem, anouoa(lV fli::V EXLV
1tCtVTW<; de; Ta 6nicrw ~ JtOTaflOV ~ AlflVf]V ~ lpov TOlOUTOV oxupwfla.


17 4 ad i:KeTeev de novo inc. W

170 eoA.epov M eoA.Ov ABE

M ~ouvoii ABE

171 i:av M i ABE

172 a1rr6v BE m'rro MA

174 i:Keleev MW i:Keleev euK6A.w~ ABE

175 i:av MWA Ei BE

lKUVWV ~f.lEpwv MW trsp. ABE

177 iivope~ MW iivepwnot ABE

173 A.6<pou

euK6A.w~ MW om. ABE

176 oooii MW om. ABE

178 w~ dK6~ MW om. ABE

180-181 npiv ... i:yyiom

MW npo rou JtAl]OLUOUL tOU~ exepou~ ABE 182 OtEvoxwpoiivtaL MW otevoxwpwvtm

cmA.l]Keuoumv BE


I ouvaoaL

ewf.lEVOU~ BE

189 c:motpo<p~~ MWAE anootpo<p~~ B


I i:av


193 etepov MW AE tep6v n B

190 ota navtwv MW om.

191 yap MW yap JtOAAUKL~ ABE



192 (JJtOUOU(ELV f.lEV MW OJtouoa( f.lUAAOV ABE


make it muddy and useless. Water them downstream instead. If it is a small rivl:lr, you must water them from buckets. Do not allow the horses into the stream
!Iince they will stir it up.
30. Do not set up camp near a hill that is accessible to the enemy, since they
can easily shoot arrows into the camp from there.
31. If the enemy forces are not nearby but still several days' march distant,
do not try to set up camp near water, especially because of our cavalry. The
lnimals and the men will get into the habit of drinking a lot of water and, when
there is not much of it or it becomes completely unavailable, just when persever~nce is needed, they will not endure it when water is in short supply.
32. Before the enemy gets close, the infantry should not camp together with
the cavalry within the entrenchments, but outside although close by. In this way
they will not feel cramped for space and may not appear to spies as few in
number. A few days beforehand, determine how much room they will require
and how they plan to set up camp, if the situation calls for them to enter in with
the cavalry. When the enemy approach, the cavalry should join together with
the infantry and should camp with them in assigned locations.
33. In time of combat you must plan to situate the camp in a strong location
and give thought to supplies for a few days, not only, as said, for provisions for
the men but, if possible, also for the animals, for the outcome of battle is uncertain. Above all, give special consideration to the water supply and devise ways of
defending it. When the situation arises you will find that the enemy too are in
need of it. If the crush of battle is about to take place in an open area, always
take care to have a river or lake or some other defense of that sort behind you.





34 Make a strong camp and leave a good-sized army behind in it, so that the
tnemy commander will not plan an attack against the entrenchments and
dellttoy those within. Have the wagons follow in order.
35 If the place is difficult and uneven, leave the trains or the wagons and
things like that and the rest of the baggage train in the camp, with a few wagon
drivers to guard them, and draw up the battle line in a suitable place near the

34 Kal TO !lfV cpoaaaTOV n:OLLV oxupov Kal a-rpa-rov EV au-r(\J KaTUAL!11taVlV


TOV apKOUVTa, '(va ll~ 6 nov 1tOA!1LWV a-rpa-rrwo<; fn:t~ouA.euan TOV xapaKa Kal
8tacp6efpn TOU<; eaweev, Ta<; 8 alla~a<; en:aKOAOU6etv EV Ta~el.
35 El 8 Ma~a-r6<; eanv 6 -r6n:o<; Kal avw11aA.o<;, -rov 11tv Kapayov ~Tot -ra<;

a11a~a<; 1 Kal -ra o11ota Kal -rov A.omov -rouA.8ov tv -r(\J cpoaaaT4J Ka-raA.tlln:avetv
!leTa 6A.fywv TWV Ct!la~eAaTWV el<; n:apa<pUAaK~V, T~V 8 n:apa-ra~LV TIAT]GLOV TOU
200 cpoaaa-rou -raaaetv tv en:tTT]8efqJ -r6n:q1.

36. El yap elmv oi -r6n:ot Ma~a-rot Kal11aA.w-ra -rwv txepwv ov-rwv Ka~aA.
A.apfwv, apKet Tfi n:apa-ra~el el<; OXVPW!la ~ TOU -r6n:ou 8uaxepeta. EaV yap ai

Ulla~at UKOAou6GJatv EV TOL<; TOLOUTOL<; -r6n:OL<;, en:w<peAel<; !lfV TOL<; TU(JGO!lEYOL<;

OUK ela[v, ana Kat 8ualle-ra6eTOl eupiaKOVTUL.
37 'Emvo~aet<; 8 el<; TOU<; ~6a<; TWV Ct!la~wv tva, o-r' uv aKoAou6GJat Tfi
n:apa-ra~el, eav xpe[a yevT]TUl apa Kal ava!letVaL -ra<; Ct!la~a<;, wa-re ll~ 8ta-rapaa-

aeaem un:o TOU 6opu~ou TWV ex6pwv, un:o TWV, W<; elK6<;, ~aAAO!lEVWV aaytTTWV
Kat UTUKTelV Kat fVOXAelV Tfi n:apa-ra~el, aAA.a ~ n:e8tKAOUV -raU-ra<; ~ 8W!lelV tva,
W<; e'lpT]TUL, el Kat TLV<; f~ auTWV un:o aaytTTWV TlTpwaKWVTUL, ll~ 8ta-rapaaawat

XP~ n:oA.u eyyu<; -raaaeaem au-ra<;.

38. Ei 0, W<; elK6<;, yevT]TUl xpe[a EVOXAOU!lEVqJ ~OTJ6fiaat T01t4J un:o txepwv

210 TOU<; n:e(ou<;. 8to oM

~ n:poKa-raA.a~e1v -raxu-repov Kal ou cp6a(oumv ai a11a~at, 'lva 11~ ~paouvwmv al

XPelUL, TO !lfV aAA.o TOUAOOV Kal TO cpoaaa-rov KaTaAL!11taVlV EV oxup(\J TOTtqJ,


n:apaAall~aVLV 8 TOU<; n:e(ou<; Kal T~V 8an:aVT]V aU-rwv, ei TOLaVTT] yevT]TaL

xpe[a, Kat n:apaaKeua(etv ~aa-ra(ea6at ~ 8ta aayllapfwv ~ en:l TOUT4J acpwpta!1EVWV tn:n:wv KUL Ta<; -rpt~6A.ou<;, Kat oihw<; an:epxeaeat !leTa TOU a-rpa-rou.

195 Tov' MWA om. BE I TWV noA.eftiwv MW aTpaT'lyo<; TWV noA.eftiwv A.a6paiw<; cmomeiA.a<;



xapaKa MW om. ABE

196 TOU<; aw6ev MW auTO ABE

197 Ma~aT6<; A

I TOY Va TO MW om. ABE I f!Ev ... ~TOL MW om. ABE I TCt<; MW TCt<; f!EV
Kal' ... Of!OLa MW om. ABE I TOY WABE TO M 199 <'tf!a~EAUTWV MWA

lluvaT6<; MWBE



<'tf!a~'lAaTwv BE 201-202 ovTwv Ka~aAA.apiwv MW trsp. ABE 202 lluaxtpELa MW

TpaxuT~<; ABE 203 f!Ev MW om. ABE I <aaOOf!EVOL<; MW napamaaof!EVOL<; AE
nept<aOOOf!EVOl<; B 205-209 emvo~OEl<; ... e'ip'lTUl MW {n' b.v lle UKOAou6wat T~ napaTa~El
ai Ufla~Ul eav xpeia ytv'lTUl 6.Vaf!ElVUl TCt<; Uf!U~a<; npoa~Kel ~ nellLKAOUV ~ lleOf!ElV TCt<; ( TOU<;
BE) ~6a<; WOTE fl~ lltaTap6:aaea6m uno TOU 6opu~ou TWV ex6pwv ~ uno TWV pL1tTOf!EVWV
aaytTWV tva ABE 205 TOU<; MWBE TCt<; A 211 ~0'16~am MW om. ABE I ex6pwv MW
ex6pwv ~o'16~am ABE 212 cp66:~ouatv MWAE cp6ey~ouatv B 212-213 tva ... XPciat MW
om. ABE


214 napaAaf!~6:vm MWA npoAaf!~6:vetv BE

214-215 d ... xpeia MW om.

215-216 Kal... "Lnnwv MW ~ &a aawapiwv ~aaTa~Of!EV'lV ~ llta tnnwv enl T01JTW

6.cpwptOf!EVWV!~6:vea6atlli: ABE


36. If the ground is difficult, especially when the enemy are mounted, the
difficult ground itself is a good protection for our battle formation. If the
wagons follow along in such places, not only will they be of no use to the troops
in line, but they will be very much in the way.
37 Take care with the oxen pulling the wagons so that, when they follow the
battle formation and it becomes necessary for the wagons to come to a halt, they
may not be disturbed by the noise made by the enemy and, as is likely, by the
arrows flying about, and panic and throw the line into confusion. They should
be hobbled or tied so that, as mentioned, even if some of them are wounded by
the arrows they may not cause confusion among the infantry. For this reason
they should not be lined up close to them.
38. When the need arises, as is likely, to relieve a position under enemy
attack or to seize a place quickly before the wagons should arrive, then, in order
not to slow things down, leave the rest of the baggage train and the army behind
in a strong place. If such a need does arise, take the foot soldiers and their
provisions, as well as the caltrops, and arrange for them to be carried either by
pack animals or by horses requisitioned for this purpose, and in this way let
them march out with the army.





39. T6n: yap, tav Kal yvfJTal Kmpo~ cmA.iK-rou, -rou 6puwa-ro~ Ka-ra -ro 8ov
YlVO!lfVOU Kal TWV tpl~OAWV arron8!lfVWV ~ OLKODO!l~~ ytVO!lEVfj~ aw8t:v ~

xapaKO~ cmo ~UAWV TifJYVU!lEVOU, TOlUUtfjV cwcpaA.nav exn TO


cpoaaa-rov, ~v

be A.eyo!lt:v -ra~ 6.11a~a~ Kal -rov 8t'

40. 'Eav be -ruxn wa-r -rou~ Ka~at..Aapiou~ rrA.dova~ dvm, 6A.iyou~ be -rou~
rrt:(ou~, Kal oihw~ M~n, wa-r lldvm -ro -rouMov tv -r(i> cpoaacmp, ll~ mivm~
TOU~ rrt:(ou~ 'la-raaem aw8t:v TOU cpoaaa-rou, aA.A.a nva~ !lEV tv au-r(i> -r(i> cpoa-

wcpnA.t:v ext:tv !lt:Ta -rou Kapayou. Kapayov

au-rwv rrt:plTLXl<Y!lOV TOU


aa-rq> rrapacpuACtHlV, nva~ 81:: ~w8t:v TWV rr6p-rwv Kal TWV 6puy!lciTWV TOU

cpoaaa-rou tv -ra~n 'lama8m 'lva,

tav aull~fi -rwv Ka~at..Aapiwv -rporr~v yt:va8m

Kal ll~ <YUVl<YlV au-roi~ rrt:(oi, auLOl DXO!lVOl au-rou~


Kal li8t:tav

au-roi~ 8t86amv ~ av-rta-rpacp~vm Kata TWV txepwv ~ UTUKTW~ trrepxwem [~



Kal ll~ a-rt:voxwpda8m d~ -ra<; rr6pm~


-rfi t:ia68q> Kal

41. Tou~ 81:: apxovm~ TWV im6 0' TaY!lCtTWV 8ov <YOl rrapayyA.A.nv 'lva
8tayvwatv rrotwatv
OfjAOTIOtdv, rr6awv

tv -r(i>

Kmp(i> LOu rrapaxnlla8iou Kal 8ta -rwv -roup11apxwv

Kal rroiwv OTIAWV Mov-rm oi


au-roi~ TTUY!lEVOl

a-rpaTlWTat, LVU avayKa[w~ rrapaaKUa(n~ tv t{il Dovn Katp{il TaUTa Utp1Tl235

(w8m Kal tmA.all~avwem au-ra TOU~ a-rpanw-ra~. KUL!lCtAlO'Ta T~~ TO~t:ia~ tm-



i 8uva-r6v, KUL TOU~ aa-rpatt:ULOU~ tv LOL~ o'(KOl~ tmcppw8m

-r6~a. ~ yap TOULOU LOU Kt:cpaAaiou Ct!lEAlU TIOAA~V ~Aa~fjV KUL arropiav T(i>

Ka86A.ou 'Pw!la'LK{il atpatt:Uilan tvTIOlfj<YV, w~ !lOl Kal avw rrou dpfjtUl. ToaauTa

!li::v ouv Kal rrt:pl arrA.iK-rwv ~lliv t:ip~aew. aK6A.ou8ov


Kal MW om. ABE

I Mov

MW rrperrov ABE


8 ta-rt Kal rrt:pl -r~~


ytVOf!fVOU MA yevoflvou WBE

xapaKoc; ... 7!T]YVUflfVOU MW <iTa~apwv 7!T]YVUflfVWV ABE

220 W<plAV ABE 6<pdAL

M 6<pdALv W I exLv MW EXL ABE I Toii Kapayoii MW T Twv UflU~wv Kal Toii Aomoii
TouA&ou ABE 220-221 &t' auTwv Du &' aim)v codd. 222 TUXT] MW A TUXT]<; BE I wme
MW om. ABE 223-224 Kal ... rre~ouc; MWAE om. B 223 ouTwc; MW om. ABE I TO MW
T6v AE om. B 225 ~w8ev ABE i:'f!rrpoa8ev MW 227 auvLatv MW dal A
auTo1c; rre~o[ MW rre~ol fld auTwv ABE 228 &t06aatv MW rraptxwmv ABE I avnaTpa<p~vm ABE avaaTpa<p~vm MW I errtpxmSm MW daeASdv ABE 231 aot MW a ABE
232 Otayvwatv rrotwatv MW om. ABE 232-233 Kal. .. OT]AOrrOletv MW e~Ta~watv ABE
233 UUTOL<; MW auTouc; AE auTOii B 234 <iTpan<i>Tat MW <iTpUTlWTUl Kal Ota TWV
TOUpflaxwv aot mum OT]AOrroeTv ( o~A.a rrOLdv A) ABE I rrapaaKeuU~T]<; ... Taiim MW A om.
BE 234-235 euTperri(wSm MW ETOtf!<'t(wSm ABE 236 o'lKotc; MABE o'laKot<; W
237 TOUTOU TOU MW TOU TOlOUTOU ABE I arrop[av Va Uf!fAelUV MW arrwAetav ABE
238 Ka86Aou MW om. ABE I f!Ol. .. rrou MW avwTepw f!Ol ABE



39 Then, if the time comes to set up camp, the entrenchments are dug as

the caltrops are scattered about, and on the inside a wooden wall or
palisade is constructed and fixed firmly. This will provide the camp with as
11\tch security as it would have had with the line of wagons. Karagos is the term
Wt use for the wagons and the defensive wall they form around the camp.
40. If it should happen that there is a very large number of cavalry and only
i few infantry and the decision is made to keep the baggage train in the camp,
not have all the infantry stay there. Keep some on guard duty in the camp
and station others in formation outside the gates and trenches of the camp.
Then, if the cavalry should be driven back, without the foot soldiers, these
b1fantry can cover them and give them the ability and freedom to turn around
against the enemy or to withdraw in good order into the camp and not risk
being crowded together at the entrance around the gates.
41. You must announce to the officers of the units under your command
that they must make their enquiries during winter quarters. Have the tourmarchs make clear how many horses and what sort of weapons the soldiers
under their command need. In good time, then, you may make the necessary
preparations to get them ready and to allow the soldiers to take charge of them.
Show particular concern about archery; have those not registered for military
service store bows in their houses, if possible. Neglect of this provision has
caused the entire Roman army great harm and rendered it ineffective, as I have
indicated somewhere above. Therefore, let us conclude all that we have to say






1. '0-r'

UV !lEV OUV Katpo<; JtOAe!lOU A.Jt[(T}1'Ul GOL, d) GTpmf}y, Kal 1'0V ~Of}

rrpoyu!lvaaetvm a-rpaTOV emauva~n<;, KaAOV eanv, tva 11~ arravm 0!10U d<;
5 ~-tiav

fKTann<; napam~LV Kal~-t<iA.ta-ra JtOAUV ov-ra Kal iKav6v, Kal OLa 1'0U aKa[-

pou nA.~Sou<; auyxeaet<; T~V eu-ra~[av T~<; rrapa-ra~ew<;, W<; 11~ ouvaaem OLa TO
~-tye8o<; Kal rrA.~So<; KaAW<; rrei8w8m auT~V rrpo<; Ta KAUO!lVa. ana TOV

neptaaov aTpaTov ota~-teptaov Kalrroif}aov Kal owTepav napaTa~tv.

2. '0-r'

av yap OfJ!lOG[a ~-ttAA.n Ka~aAA.apiwv !lCtXTJ yivw8at Kal el<; ~-tiav !lOVT}V

napmay~v -rt<; -rov oA.ov a-rpaTov KaT' O'!'LV Twv rroA.e~-tiwv napmaaan Kal 11~

arro~A.trrn rrpo<; evavTiav -ruxTJv, !lfJO ~-tt:A.n~ Kal aAA.w<; em-rf}Oeuetv KaTa Twv

exepwv ~youv I Kal ot' hepa<; rrapa-ra~ew<;, OUTO<;, W<; ~-tol OOK1, av~p anetp6<;
eanv Kalrrpo<pavw<; el<; KLVOUVOV eau-rov emppimet.

3 Kal yap ouxl TO rrA.~So<; TWV aw~-t<i-rwv oM~ U1'UKTO<; 8paaUTT}<; oM~
15 cmA.~ rrpoa~OA~

1'0V 1tOA!10V Kpivoumv ~ KaTop8oumv, W<; 1'LV<; TWV arreipwv

VO~-ti(ouatv, aAA.a !leTa eeov OLa TeXVTJ<; Kal <ppOVT}!lCtTWV aTpaTTJYLKWV !l1'a T~<;

npo8u11ia<; mu a-rpa-rou KaTop8oiimt 6 n6A.e~-to<;.

4 lua 11t:v <ppOVT}f.LCtTwv Kal Tporraiwv, oiov d<; Katpou<; ~youv ~11epa<; ~
VUK1'0<; ~ XLf.1WVO<; ~ euoia<; ~ JtCtALV L<; 1'01tOU<; ~youv 6t' fYKPU!1!1Ct1'WV ~ a-revw20

f.LCtTWV Kal ot' ai<pVLOLU0!10U ~ OLa 1tOAAWV UAAWV Kal OLa<p6pwv Tp6rrwv '(va
arra-r~<; 1'0U<; ex8pou<;, wa-re xwpl<; OTJ!100LOU 1t0Ae!10U KaTop8waat T~V VLKT}V



About Advance Preparation for Battle

1. When you await the hour of battle, 0 general, and you gather your army
together, already well drilled, it is wise not to draw them all up, at the same time,
hlto one battle line, particularly if it is a large and combat-ready army. Such an
inconvenient multitude utterly destroys the good order of the battle line. Its size
tmd numbers render it unable to obey the commands properly. Divide an
excessively large army and make it into two lines.
2. A man who forms the whole army in just one line facing the enemy when
tl general cavalry engagement is about to take place, and who does not consider
the chance of a reverse or does not consider other ways of dealing with the
enemy, say, by a second battle line, strikes me as inexperienced and dearly
throwing himself into danger.
3 For it is not, as some inexperienced men imagine, the multitude of bodies
or undisciplined boldness or simple assault that determine the outcome of battle
or bring it to a successful conclusion but, after God, skill and strategic planning. 1
These, together with the enthusiasm of the troops, lead to victory in battle.
4 It is by means of intelligent planning and changes <in strategy>, with
regard to time, that is, day or night, stormy or clear weather, and also place, such
as narrow passes, and by ambushes, by surprise attacks, and by a great variety of
ways to trick the enemy, that you will achieve victory over them without actual

PG 107:805

18-430 Strat., 2.
1 noA.q.ttKwv ... tW MWA om. BE 5 eKraTTTJ~ W -rciTTTJ~ M napa-rci~TJ~ AB om. E
s-6 aKaipou MWA EUKa[pou BE 6 cruyxecret~ Va OUYXEEl~ w cruyxETJ~ MABE 7 f!Eye6o~
Kal MW om. ABE 9 f!EAAIJ ... f!clXTJ MW flclXTJ KapaAA.apiwv f!EAATJ ABE I yivm6at ABE
om. MW 10 Tt~ MW om. ABE I Ka-r' ... napmacrcrTJ MW napa-racrcrTJ Kma np6crwnov -rwv
noAEf!tWV ABE 11 f!EAna MW f!EAnav ABE 13 tcr-rtv MWA tml BE 15-16 nve~ ...
VOf![~OUOlV MW VOf!t<oum nve~ TWV andpwv ABE 16 f!ET0. 1 MW Kal ABE
18-19 ~youv ... T01tOU~ MWAE om. B 20 ot' MWBE om. A I -rp6nwv ABE T01tWV MW


Sections 3-5 8 derive from Strat.




Advance Preparation for Battle


fighting. This is absolutely essential for survival. It is by your intelligence, planning, courage, and skill that you will defeat the enemy.
s. So much for intelligent planning and stratagems. It is through practical
knowledge that you will be successful against the enemy, that is, provided that,
in various ways, you divide up or unite your army securely and in proper order.
After you line it up in good military formation, then launch attacks against the
enemy. Not only will you protect yourself against the wiles and machinations or
plans of the enemy but, rather, you will turn their machinations and stratagems
against them.

KaT' at>TWV. TOtrto yap fOTl Kat OWT~plOV Kat JtaVU avayKaLOV, 'iva OLU T~~ 0~~
(JUVEOW~ Kal <ppov~OW~ Kal avopia~ Kal TEXVTJ~ VLK~~ TOU~ x8p01J~.

25 moT~I1T]~ KaTopewoL~

TOV Jt0A110V, av 11Ta Ta~W~ T~~ rrp7tOUOT]~ 0Lai1Pl-

on~ ~ ouva\j!n~ TOV OTpaT6v, JtOlKlAW~ Kal ao<pat..w~, Kaln:apaTa~n~ 11Ta UTU~l
a~ n:ot..11LK~~ Kal oihw~ Ta~ Twv rrot..11wv yxap~oL~ rrot~oa~. Kal 11~ 116vov
<pUAa~n~ (JUUTOV arro TWV 06/..wv Kal TWV fJtlTTj0U11aTWV ~youv <ppOVTJI1aTWv

TWV vavTiwv OOU, at..A' 'iva 11UAAOV Kal (JU KaT' aUTWV fltlTT]OcDO~ Kal CtVTlOTpa30

6. '08v Kal oln:aA.atol OTpaTT]yol TOUTO rrapn~pfjoav w~ XP~Ol110V ~youv

6. With this in mind, commanders in the past carefully observed the follow-

T~v UTa~iav. Kal Ota TouTo d~ Toup11a~ Kal Opouyyou~ Kal K011TJTa~ Kal KvTap-

ing as beneficial, namely, good order. This is why they organized the entire army
into tourmai and droungoi with counts and kentarchs and into other divisions
as conditions required, and so drew it up in this fashion. It is a mistake to draw
up the army in only one battle line, staking the management, as well as the fate,
of tens of thousands of cavalrymen on only one throw. But behind the main
battle line form a second, often a third, and draw up your formation in this way,
especially when, as was said, you have a large army. When, in your judgment,
the situation requires, you can launch a great variety of attacks.
7 To draw up the whole army in one battle line, especially if it includes
lancers, is, in our opinion, to invite a host of evils. For it happens that, if it is a
large army, it will have to stretch over a great distance, with part of it located on
unfavorable terrain. The length of the line will make it uneven and hard to
manage. There will be no coordination between its divisions. It will end up in
disarray and, even before contact, will be easily broken up and thrown into

xou~ Kal d~ aHa 11EPTJ n:po~ T~V xpdav T~V rrapouaav TOV OAOV OTpaTOV
8tal1piaavT~ oihw~ n:apnaaaovTo. ou yap rrpn:ov mlv d~


11iav 116VT]V n:apa-

Ta~tv KTaaotv Tov aTpmov Kal v 11L~ 116vn pon:fi Kpimv Kal OtoiKT]atV Tooou-

Twv XLAtaOwv Ka~at..Aapiwv JtlOTULV, ana Kal OcUTpav, TIOAAaKL~ Kal TptTT]V,
rrapaTa~LV KaT6ma8v Otatp1v Kal oihw~ Ta~ Ta~l~ Jt0lLV, 11aALOTa, oT' av aoi

f(JTLV, Kaew~ c'lpf]TUl, rrt..~eo~ OTpaTla~. Kal yap oihw~ TIOlWV, w~ av (JOL M~n Kal
CtJtUlT~(Jn ~ xpda, TIOlKlAW~ Kal Ota<p6pw~ Ta~ yxLp~Ol~ 1t0l~Ol~.

7 nona yap Ta vaVT(a A.oyt~011ea yivwem, OT' av d~ 11iav rrapam~LV


Tov oA.ov mpm6v TL~ auvayayn Kal KUT~a(pnov Tou~ KOvTapta xovm~.
OU11~a(vL yap, rrt..~eou~ OVTO~ mpaTOU Kal l~ TIOAU OtaOTT]I1a ~ avayKT]~

KTtvo11vou, ha Kal avw11at..wv T6n:wv 1momJtT6vTwv, avtaov upioKw8m Kal

an:L8~ T~V rrapaTU~lV W~ 11aKpav ouoav Kat 11~ OU11<jlWVlV UAA~AOl~ Ta 11EPTJ
45 aUT~~, Kat Ota TOUTO Kal rrpo T~~ OU11~0A~~ Ota T~V UTa~(av U0taAUTOV aUT~V

Kal Jt<pup11vT]v yivwem.

8. Elm, av rroT ou11~fi Tot~ rroA11LOL~ ~ un:pKm8~vm KaTa To rrt..aywv
~youv rrl Kpa~ n:~A.81v rrpo~ KDKAwmv ai<pvtOiw~, A.omov ~ n:apaTa~t~ Ota

22 cr~~ MWA om. BE

24 Twv 2 MWBE om. A

27 rroAEflWV Strat. rroAeflLWV codd.



MW rrote1cr6m ABE 31 Kal MW om. ABE 32-33 KevTapxou~ MWA KevTapxa~

34 OtUflepicravTe~ W ABE .Staflepicravm~ M I rrapnacrcrovTo MWA rrapaTacrcrovmt BE

35 eKTacrcretv ... crTpaTov MW Tov crTpaTov rrapmacrcretv ABE

38 ecrTtV MW ecrTl ABE

42 T!A~6ou~ MW T!A~6o~ ABE

41 TOU~ MW


45 Ota2 ... cna~[av MWA Kal OlaTa~[av B Kal Ota am~[av E

rroAefliou~ ABE

36 xtA.ta.Swv MW om. ABE


47 TOt~ TlOAefllOl~ MW TOU~


8. If the enemy should happen to extend their own lines by the flank and
launch a sudden encircling movement there, then, without support from the




Advance Preparation for Battle

Constitution 12

n: -rwv 6rricrw Kal -rwv rrA.ayiwv aV-r~c; O.rropouaa ~o118dac; Kal flflOevoc; \mapxov-roc; TOU (JUVflyopouv-roc; au-r~v ~ O.vayKfl<:; rrpoc; n:/..e[av <puy~v 6pfl~<Jl.
9 AAA.a Kal v au-rft -rft TOU 1t0Aef.10U <JUfl~OAft OLU TO fl~ TO fl~Koc; -r~c;
rrapa-ra~ewc; m~AE1tLV nva EK TWV omcr8ev, 1tOAACtKLc; Ttvf:c; TWV TaYflCtTWV flt:TU
Kal TWV ~avowv a<pavwc; Al1tOTaKTOU<Jl. Kal yivnm Kalrra.m -rotc; A.omotc; avaxwp~aewc; rrp6<pamc; KairrpiiYfla EAWVOV, TpE1tOf.1EVWV <ob aUTWV OUOE CtVaK01tll
-r~c; <puy~c; ouo urrompo<p~ OUOf.1La yive-rm. ouoelc; yap<pa[vnm 6 flEAAWV
6.vaKaAet<J8at ~ mauvayt:LV aU-roue; de; -rporr~v, we; e'ipflTaL, Kai <puy~v Opfl~<JaV-rac;.
10. 'Eav Of: -raxa Kal vof.iiaoumv flETCt m-ruxiac; -rov rr6A.eflov rrotetv oi etc;
flLaV rrapa-ra~LV Ta<J<JOflVOL Kal rrpow8lv v -rft flUXn -roue; 1tOAflLOUc;, o-r' iiv
otaf..u8ft rrav-rwc; ~ rrapa-ra~tc; v -rft <JUfl~OAft TOU 1tOAEflOU Kai 1tOLOU<Jl T~V
oiw~tv a-raK-rwc; oi otwKov-rec;, av crufl~ft rro!..AaKtc; -roue; <peuyov-rac; av-rtcr-rpa<p~
vm KaTa TWV OLWKOVTWV au-roue; ~ OUVaflLV UAAflV ai<pvto[wc; O.rro yKpUflflaToc;<pav~vm, O.vayKfl rriicra, oi otwKov-rec; de; <puy~v 6pfl~croum fllloeva xov-rec;,
we; e'ipflTaL, TOV OUVCtflVOV O.rrav-r~crm ~ Ct1t0(JO~~(Jat -roue; OLU -r~c; urrocr-rpo<p~c;

65 O.rrpocrooK~Twc;


11. "Ev Of: f.10VOV VOfll(W rrpo-rpflfla EXLV TO rrav-rac; de; flLaV -raacrw8at
rrapa-ra~tv, -rou-r' mt -ro <paivwem -rotc; x8potc; fl~Ko8ev -reA.dav Kal ~wyKw
flEVflV T~V TCt~LV. O.AA.a Kal aUTO flEXPL eewpiac; Kal flOVfl<:; EXL TO Kpooc;. EXL of:
-raxa Kal -repov rrpo-rpflfla, TO ouvacrem OLU -r~c; f.1Liic; rrapa-ra~ewc; Kal flEYCtAfl<:;
1tOltV KUKAW<JLV ano voc; I flEpouc; Kal Ct1tOKAellV -roue; 1tOAfllOUc;, av apa Kal
-rou-rq> flETU -rou rrpnov-roc; A6you Kal -rexv11c; nc; XP~crnm.
12. To
omAiic; 1tOlelV -rae; rrapa-ra~Lc; W<JT elvm de; urro~o~8etav -r~c;
npw-r11c; rrapa-ra~ewc; -r~v Ot:u-repav, Ka-ra -rov O.v8pwmvov A.oyt<JflOV rro!..Aa -ra
~aipna Kal O.vayKata vof.1i(of.1V cruv-rpexnv. Kalrrpw-rov flEV, o-rt oi -r~c; rrpw-r11c;


49 mh~<; MW om. ABE

om. BE

50 auv11yopouvTO<; MW auw:pyouvTO<; ABE I a\rr~v MW auT~ A

50- 5 1 t~ ... tv MWA om. BE

om. MW

53 Kall MW om. ABE

51 fl~ TO MABE om. W

52 nva ... omcr8ev ABE


54 oe Va om.

56 Kal MWAE om. B 58 VOflL<Jouow MW VOfll<JOU<JL ABE 6o notou<JL MW

not<il<JL ABE 63 niiaa MW mina<; A mivTw<; BE I ol OtwKovTE<; W avOtwKoVTE<; M TOU<;


I 6pfl~<JOU<Jl M opfl~<JOU<JLV w 6pfl~<Jat ABE I exovTE<; MW exovTa<; ABE

6 4 anoao~~aat MW anootw~at ABE 65 enepxoflevou.; MWA enepxoflevou.; noAefliou.;
ABE 67 TOUT' ean De tof>Tean M touTeanv WA TouTean BE I Kal ABE om. MW


68 aUTO MWA aUTO TO BE I Kal2 MW om. ABE I flOVll<; MWAB flOVll<; flOVll<; E I EXL MWA


71 Kal MW Kal

T~<; ABE

xp~anat W XP~<JllTat M 6tanpa~11mL ABE

73-7 4 JtoAAa ... <JUvtpexeLV MW KaT JtOAACt e<JTLV w<pEALflWTepov ABE


rear or from the flanks and without anyone coming to its aid, our line will be
torced to rush into headlong flight.
9 In actual combat, furthermore, because nobody has a good view of the
long battle line from the rear, frequently some men desert from their units or
banda unnoticed and provide the rest of the troops with an excuse to retreat.
'Ibis is truly pitiable. When they do retreat there is no way of turning back or of
checking the flight. None of those present, as was said, is able to call them back
tU' get them to turn around after they have rushed into flight.
10. Sometimes troops drawn up in a single line will seem to be pursuing the
battle with success and driving the enemy back in the fighting, but in the melee
of battle their formation will surely be broken up and they will continue the
pursuit in a disorderly manner. If, perchance, the fleeing enemy should happen
to turn around against the men pursuing them or if some other force should
lluddenly appear out of an ambush, then, without any doubt, the pursuers will
be forced to take to flight since, as mentioned above, they have nobody in
position to ward off or repel those who have turned about unexpectedly and are
charging against them.
11. I think that forming all the troops in one battle line has only one advantage, and that is, from a distance the formation will impress the enemy as very
large and imposing. But this advantage is theoretical only. It may, perhaps, have
another advantage, namely, because there is one large battle line, it is able to
circle around from one side and close in on the enemy, presuming that a person
can make use of this maneuver with proper reason and skill.
12. We believe that, as far as human reasoning goes, there are many
exceptionally compelling reasons that lead to the conclusion that there should
be a twofold battle line, the second of which should be for the support of the




Advance Preparation for Battle

75 rrapa-ra~eW<; exovT<; omcr8ev KaTa TOU VWTOU ainwv T~V 8eu-rpav T<l~lV <pUAUT-

TOuaav auTOU<; rrpo8ulloTpw<; llUXOVTat rrpo<; TOU<; JtOA1-llOU<;, O!lOLW<; 01;: Kal TU
aKpa ~youv Ta 8e~la Kal Ta aptmepa T~<; rrapa-ra~eW<; Ota TWV rrA.ayw<pUAUKWV
<pUAUH0!1Va a<p6~w<; rrpo<; TOU<; Ei11tpocr8ev JtOA!10UOlV. TO 8 rrHov rrpmPTJ!la, OTl T~<; 8eu-rpa<; rrapaTa~eW<; omcr8ev OUOT]<; o[ JtOAAUKl<; AlltOTaKTOUVT<;

EV Tft rrpw-rn rrapma~el ou -rperrovmt, W<; ETUXV, urro TWV omcr8ev UUTWV imomeu6!1VOl -rou-ro yap Kal !leyaA.T]v wcpA.etav rrot1 -rft 11axn- Kai


Kmp4J 8

W<; JtOAAUKl<; OUfl~aivet Tft rrpw-rn TU~l, yivnm ~ 8eu-rpa el<; UVTLAT]'JilV

Kai KUTa<puy~v, o8ev JtUAlV OUVUTOV auTOU<; avaKaA.e1a8m ~OT]80U!1EVOU<; i.mb

T~<; 8eu-rpa<; TU~eW<; Kai KaLa TWV mrrw6v-rwv tx8pwv JtUAlV avnmp<pw8m.

13. AHa Kat, o-r' av 8tWKWOl LOU<; tx8pou<;, o[ T~<; rrpWTT]<; rrapma~eW<;

aacpaA.w<; Kai fleTa rrpo8ullia<; JtOlOUVTal

T~V 8iw~lV. av yap avnmpa<pwmv,


rroHaKt<; yivnm, <peuyovT<; o[ x8poi ~ aAA.o8v rro8ev ai<pvtO[w<; rrA.8wmv

tx8po[, yivnm ~ 8eu-rpa TU~l<; arrav-rwaa Kai auvayouaa Kai <pUAUHOUOa TOU<;
T~<; rrpWTT]<; rrapma~eW<;. aHa Ka[, 0 11~ yVT]Tat, av OU!l~ft TAtav cporr~v

yeva8m T~<; rrpWTT]<; TU~eW<; Kai ou ouvaam avnmpa<p~vm KaTa TWV EJteA86vTWV auTft JtOA!1LWV, eup[OKTat ~ 8wrpa TU~l<; -roiwl Kai eUKOAW<; JtOAeflel Kal
Ka-raywvi~nm -r~v vav-riav 8Uva11tv, Kuv -raxa rrav-reA.w<; -rparrft ~ rrpWTTJ rrapam~t<;.

14. Kai yap avayKT] micra T~V TU~lV TWV x8pwv arro T~<; auyKp01"~0W<; TOU
95 rroA.11ou aKa<ama<ov yeva8m Kai 8taAAUflEVf]V, Kai T~<; ~11npa<; 8eu-rpa<;

<a~ew<; eUTUKTW<; icrmf1VT]<; Kai 11na Kammaaew<;,


8 -rwv x8pwv rre<pup-

!1EVTJ<; rrpon:peiv !1UAAOV T~V ~llHEpav Kai m8tWKlV LOU<;

I 8taA.uaavTa<; T~V


77 Ta2 MWA om. BE 78 Tio>.qwuow WA

7!0Af.l0Uat M 7lOAflWaL BE 78-79 7!Aeov 7!pOTEp!]flU MW flEL~ov ABE 8o-81 \momwOflEVOl MW tm~A7!0flVOL ABE 81 TOUTO MW cmEp ABE I yap MWB om. AE I 7!0LL..
flUX!] MW tv Tij flUX!] TIOLEL ABE I Kail MW om. ABE 82 7!pWTI] TU~L MWA 11apmu~t B
Tu~EL E I &wTepa MW &wTepa Tu~L<; A WTU~L<; BE 84 &wTepa<; MWA WBE 85 &twKwat
MABE &twKoumv W 87 tx8pol MW om. ABE 88 y1vmL MW euptcrKTm ABE I Tu~L<;
MW 11apuTa~L<; ABE 89-90 aHa ... TU~Ew<; MW A om. BE 89 tav crufl~ii ABE om. MW I
Tpo11ijv MABE Tpo7!ijv d OUfl~ii W (alia m.) 90 Mvacrm MA MvaTm W (corr. e Mvacrm)
OUVI]TaL BE 91 Kall MWA om. BE I i>K6Aw<; MW flHU TCt~Ew<; lcrTaflV!] Kal Ei>KOAW<; A
flHU TU~Ew<; lcrTaflEV!] BE I 7!0AflL MW KaTaTIOAeflEL A KaTa7!0AflEL UK6Aw<; BE 92 Tijv
vaVT1av MW Twv tvavTiwv ABE 94 txepwv De vaVT1wv txepwv codd. I auyKpoT~crew<;
MABE cruyKpoucrew<; W 96 TU~Ew<; MW 7!apaTU~w<; ABE 97 7!poTeplv MW u7!epxm
ABE I Tijv ~flTepav MWA Tij ~flETEpa BE I E7ll0LWKLV MWAE emOLWKel B
75 Kata ... vwTou MW Kal Kma vwTov ABE



tlrst. One reason is that the troops in the first battle line will fight more eagerly
against the enemy when they have the second line behind protecting their rear.
ln like manner, with their flanks, that is, the right and left wings of the battle
line, protected by the flank guards, they will fearlessly carry on the battle against
those in front of them. There is a further advantage: as has often happened, the
soldiers in the first line are not likely to turn and run away while the second line
Is to their rear, for they will be observed by the troops behind them. In combat
this can be extremely important. In the event, a fairly frequent one, that the first
line turns back, the second is there as a support and a place of refuge. The
support provided by the second line makes it possible to rally the troops once
again and gets them to turn back against the attacking enemy.
13. Moreover, when they are pursuing the enemy, the men in the first battle
line can safely and in good spirits carry out the pursuit. For if, as often happens,
the fleeing enemy should turn back or if they should attack unexpectedly from
another quarter, then the second line can confront them, join battle, and protect
the troops in the first line. But even if-may this not happen-the first line
should be completely routed and cannot turn back into action against the
enemy attacking it, the second line is standing there ready. It will easily continue
the battle and fight vigorously against the enemy forces, even though the first
line may have been completely routed.
14. The enemy's formation will most assuredly be broken up and disordered
by the crush of battle while our second line is still standing firmly in good order.
The enemy line will be thrown into confusion and ours will gain the advantage
and turn to pursue the foe, who will have broken up his formation.



Advance Preparation for Battle


15. The most compelling reason of all is that the division of the army into

15. AAA.a Kal TO avayKat6n:pov rrapa miv-ra, 6-rt ou f10VOV rrpoc; -rae; laOf1ET

pouc; OUVUf1l<:; ~youv TWV T ~llTpwv Kal TWV vav-r(wv awoo(a ea-rl Kal


e'lpf1TaL, ~ elc; Mo rrapa-ra~etc; Otaipeatc; TOU a-rpa-rou, a\.Aa Kat

rrpoc; -rae; imepqovaac; Kal rrA.ov TWV ~f1Tpwv ouaac; OUVUf1lc;.

16. 'Eav 0 -rtc; A.tyn, 6-rt -ri o<peA.oc;; -r~c; yap rrpw-rllc; -ra~ewc; mpaaao11v'lc;
Kal TPTrOf1EVTj<:; euxtpwc; Kal ~ eeu-rpa auvarraye-rat au-rfi Kal auvrprrnat

aHa UKOuaa-rw 6 TOlOUTOc; 6n, av ouo rrapa-ra~ewv, Ka8wc; dp~KUf1V, ytvo!lfVWV ma<; TO rrpawa yivnat, Tl av Ttc; A.rriaet 6-r' av Kal f1lU f10VTJ ea-rl
rrapam~tc; Kal -raUTfl -rparreiaa ouK exet -rpav, ot' ~c; ~o'le'le~vm ouvamt Kal

av Oe rraAlV A.tyn, 6n T~c; OUVUf1Wc; rraaTjc; ~youv TOU a-rpa-rou

f1Pl<0!1EVOU etc; rrpWTfiV Kal de; Oeu-rpav rrapam~tv aaeevw-rpa Kal aouva-rw110 -rpa ~ TU~lc; eup[aKTat, KQTaVO~aet Kal TOUTO, 6n, av f1EV ~ OUVUf1l<:; Ef1Pt<e-ro

Kat exwpi<em TOU TrOAEf10U, KaAwc; av TOUTO ~rr6pet. a\.A' ~f1ic; OU T~V OUVUf1lV
KAUOf1V f1pta8~vat, a\.Aa f10VOV TO ax~11a a\.Aay~vat. Kat yap, 0 rrpo TOU
aAA.ay~vat TO ax~lla auv~atV yeva8at, TO rriiaav T~V OUVUf1lV de; f1LUV rrapa-

Ta~lV maaOf1EVTJV f1UKpav Kal A.em~v eupiaKw8at, TOUTO EV Tfi TU~[
115 eurrop~aaf1V aU!1f1ETpouc; -rae; Mo Ta~etc; rrot~aav-rec; Ota TO TrATja(ov UAA~AWV

dvat, ou T~c; f1UXTJ<:; xwp[aav-rec;, a\.Aa TO ax~!la eva\.Aa~av-rec; Kat T~V f1EV
Ef1Trpoa8ev, T~V o omaeev Ta~av-rec; Kal rrAtov -rae; rrapa-ra~etc; Ota TOV rrpoetpTj!lfVOV -rp6rrov Kamxupwaav-rec;.
17. !lta TOUTO yap de; f1EP'l Ota<popa KaAwc; av Kal rrprrov ea-rl TO TOV rrav-ra
uo Ka~aA.A.aptKov a-rpa-rov Otaf1pi<wem, Kav -re rroA.uc; a-rt Kav -re au1111TPoc;.

U0f1AOV yap Kat rrprrov, LVU XPWaTfic;, W a-rpaTTjy, Aoyov Trotla8at Kat KUTaamatV,

we; evoxe-rat, 6-r' av f1UAtaTa Kal rrpoc; eev'l TrOAf1fic; TU~lV exovm Kal

100 ~youv ... EVUVTlWV MW om. ABE I EOTL MABE EOTlV


MWA om. BE

101 w~ dpf1Tal MW om. ABE

103 Ti o<peAo~ MW oMi-:v o<peAo~ T~~ 15EuTpa~ napaTa~ew~ ABE

TapaooOf!EVfl~ MW npWTfl~ yap mpaooOf!EVfl~ (napaTaoOOf!EVfl~ BE) napaTa~ew~ ABE

I auvanaynm ... auvTpennat MW auv miT~ Tpnnat

I Ka6w~ Eip~KUf!EV MW om. ABE 106 yivnat MWAB
yivf1TUt E I f!OVTJ MWA f16vov BE I eoTl MWA unapxfl BE 107 TaUTfl M a\hfl WABE I
hepav MWA OEUTEpav BE I ouvaTat MWAE ouvavTat B 109 Ei~ MWA om. BE

104 Kal TP1lOflEVfl~ MW om. ABE


105 ana MW om. ABE

112 aUa ... aUay~vat



113 auve~atVE

115 Eimop~oaf!EV MWA Ef11!0p~craf!EV BE I Mo MWA




117-118 Tov ... Tp6nov MW

Twv npoetpflf!EVWV Tp6nwv ABE 119 KaA&~ ... eoTl MW(ecrnv) npbrov eoTl Kal KaAOv
ABE I TO ... navTa M TO navTa W To navm Tov A navm Tov BE 120 tan MABE eoTtv W
121 EUOflAov ... noteiaOat MW npenov yap tan (eanv A) <ppovTioa noteiaSai ae



two battle lines, as said, is appropriate and necessary not only against forces
t>Lttml in numbers, ours and the enemy's, but also against forces greatly superior
to ours.
16. If someone were to ask: What is the advantage of this? If the first line is
thrown into confusion or driven back, the second will easily be carried along
With it and pushed back. Let such a person listen to this. If, as we have said, the
llituation is precarious with two battle lines in position, what hope can one have
when there is only one battle line? When that one is beaten back, there is no
other line capable of providing assistance and rallying the first. Again, if
llt>meone should say: By dividing up the entire military force into a first and a
second line, the battle line will be weaker and less effective. Let that man consider this. If the force had been divided and kept out of combat, this would surely
be open to question. However, we are not ordering the force to be divided but
tre merely changing its formation. Before the formation came to be changed,
the entire force was found to be drawn up in one long, thin battle line. We have
now arranged this in a double line and made two equal lines to stand close to
one another. We have not taken it out of action but have only altered its formation, drawing it up into a forward line and a rear line and further strengthening
the lines by the method noted above.
17 For these reasons it would be well and appropriate to divide every
cavalry army, whether large or of average strength, into various divisions. For it
is obvious and fitting that you, 0 commander, be obliged to act in accord with
the dictates of reason and adapt to circumstances, as best you can, especially
when you are waging war against a nation that is disciplined and skillful in



Advance Preparation for Battle


18. 'Eav o ouvaoat, fl~ Ttotft<; <pavepw<; TOV JTOAflOV, oT' av ytv<.V<JKD<; OTL
125 nA.dou<; oou dolv ol noAEflLOL. Kal yap npnov oot np6Tepov T~v ouvaflLV TWV
noAfltWV oou avaf1a81v Kal oihw<; not~oao8m T~v OU!J~OA.~v Tou noAEflOU.

19. 'Eav o

I exn<; 1t(LKOV 0Tpa-r6v,

JTOL~<Ja<J8at TOUTOU T~V nap6.-ra~LV, w<;

fltU -rau-ra OTJAW<JOflV v Tfi nepl Twv ne(wv Kal Twv <JUjlfltKTWV Tot<; Ka~aA.
A.ap(ot<; OLUTCt~l. av o jlOVOL Ka~aUO.pto( l<JLV KUL npo<; Ka~aAA.ap(ou<; un6-

6 n6AflO<;, Kal d<; Tpt<; Ka~aAA.aptKa<; ni~t<; OtaflptoL<; Tov o-rpaTov Kal
T~v flEV npWTTJV nap6.Ta~tv, ~n<; Atynm np6!Jaxo<;, d<; Tp(a 'ioa flEPTJ EKTU~L<;,


ano Tptwv flOLpwv exovT<; EKU<JTOU flEpou<; ~youv ano TplWV opouyywv EKU<JTT]<;
TOUpfla<;, KUL v T(\J flE(J(p flEpl TCt~l<; TOV unoo-rpUTTJYOV <JOU, v 0 TOt<; -rpot<;
ouo[v, ~youv T(\J 0~L(\J Kal T(\J apt<JTp(\J, TOU<; TWV flpwv apxovTa<;, flEOOU<; TWV
135 UJTOTTUYf1EVWV aU-rot<; apxovTWV ~youv TWV flOLpapxwv.

20. Tau-ra o TU Tp(a !JfPTJ <JU<JT~<Jl<; ano Koupowpwv ~youv TWV i<; Koup<JOV TTayflvwv oTpanwTwv, ou<; vuv Atyouot npoKA.aoTa<;, Kal ot<pevowpwv

~youv TWV unooexoflvwv Tou<; d<; To Koupoov A.auvovTa<; Kal eKOLKouvTwv



EKCt<JTOU flEpou<; TO TPLTOV JTO<JOV KOUp<JaTwpa<; dvat, TOUTOU<; o

140 dvm Kal To~6Ta<;, TO 0 O[flotpov, TO v flEmp Tou oTpaTou, Ot<pvowpa<; ~youv
Ko(Kou<;, Tou<; unooexoflvou<; Tou<; KoupoaTwpa<;.
21. TiapaT6.~L<; o v Tfi npwTn TCt~l oihw<; d<; jlEV TO apt<JTpov jlEpo<;, d<;

o flUAL<JTU Kal a[ KUKAW<JL<; TWV vavT(wv euK6A.w<; ylvovTm, Mo ~ Tpia ~O.voa

Yva dol nA.ayw<puA.aK<; loTCtflVOL 'ioot Tou aU-rou !JEpou<;, Kal ~O.voov v ~ Mo
145 ~O.voa TO~OTU<;, TOU<; AYO!JfVOU<; unpKepao-ra<; ~youv ETOlflOU<; ov-ra<; i<;

KUKAW<JLV TWV noAflLWV, TOUTOU<; <JT~<JL<; d<; TO flEpo<; TO 0~t6v. Kal T~v flEV
npWTTJV Ta~tv oihw<; napaTa~et<;.
22. T~v o 0UTpav napaTa~LV, T~V AYOflEVT]V ~OT]86v, TCt~l<; Yva exn TO
Tp[TOV nooov TOU JTUVTO<; o-rpaTOU, KUL TUUTT]V JTOL~<JL<; i<; Tf<J<Japa flEpT], Yva

W<; ano evo<; oaytno~OAOU Ota<JT~flUTO<; KUTU TU<; nA.eupa<; o.n~A.wv nepma124 ouvacrm MWA OUV'l BE
i:crtl BE

127 i:av MWAB ei E

125 JtAelOU~ MW JtAelOVE~ ABE

129 eiatv WA elm MBE


<JOl i:crtlv A (JOl

130 tpeT~ MWA tpei~ taxa BE

Ka~aUaptKa~ MWBE Ka~aUaptKa~ taxa A I ta~et~ MW om. ABE I tov crtpatov MWE to
crtpatEUf!a AB 134 tw 1 MW tw tE ABE 135 autOl~ ABE autou~ MW I f!Otpapxwv
MWBE toupf!apxwv A 137 crtpattwtwv De crtpateuf!atwv codd. 138 EKOtKouvtwv
MWA &eKOtKouvtwv BE 139 Koupcratwpa~ BE Koupcratopa~ MW Koucrwpa~ ABE
143 Kal ABE om. MW 144 eicrl MW A
BE I Mo MW A WBE 145 ~avoa MW om.
ABE 146 crt~cret~ MW A at~cret BE 149 tecrcrapa MW A o' BE 150 w~ MWA om. BE I
cmo ... Otacrt~jlato~ MW CtJtO Otacrt~jlato~ crayttto~6AOU tvo~ ABE I tO.~ JtAeupa~ MW
nft.eupav AE nft.eupwv B 150-151 nepmatoiiat W nepmatoiicrtv M nepmatwat ABE



18. If you are able, avoid openly engaging in battle when you know that the
enemy force is more numerous than yours. Be sure to ascertain the strength of
the enemy before engaging them in pitched battle.
19. If you have an army made up of infantry, you will line them up for battle
as we will subsequently explain in the constitution about infantry and mixed
formations with cavalry. If they consist only of cavalry and they are to do battle
against other cavalry, divide your mounted forces into three lines. Draw up the
first line, called promachos, into three equal divisions, with each division having
tluee moirai, that is, each tourma with three droungoi. Station your hypostrategos in the middle division. In the other two divisions, that is, the ones to the
right and to the left, post the officers of the divisions in the midst of the officers
under their command, that is, the moirarchs.
20. You will organize these three divisions into formations of assault troops,
that is, those assigned to assault, whom they now call proklastai, and into
defenders, that is, those who provide refuge for the men riding on to assault and
who cover for them. One third of each division should consist of assault troops:
these are to be archers; and two thirds, in the center of the army, should be
defenders or ekdikoi, who provide refuge for the assault troops.
21. Draw up the first line in this manner. Post three banda as flank guards to
the side of the left division, where hostile encircling movements may easily
occur, their front aligned with that of the division. To the side of the right
division post one or two banda of archers, known as outflankers, who should be
prepared to encircle the enemy. This is how you shall draw up the first line.
22. Organize the second battle line, referred to as the support line, consisting
of a third of the whole army, into four divisions. These divisions should station
themselves at about a bowshot's distance from one another's flanks. You will




Advance Preparation for Battle

TOU<Jl TCt TOtaum !lfPTJ TCt 8 mum !1EPTJ Ct!l<plGTO!la 1tot~m:u:; ~youv 8iaTO!lC!,
'lva KC!L oi f!11tpoaeev npo<; TO Ay0!1VOV !1ETW1tOV datv 8uva-rol Kal KaElwnA.ta
!lfVOl, O!lOLW<; Kal oi omaeev npo<; T~V Ay0!1EVT]V oupav 8uva-rol Kal KaElwnA.ta!lfVOl, 'Lva Ka[, av KQTCt TOU VWTOU ~youv 6n(aw au-rwv 1t0l~OWGL npoa~OA~V ol

txepo[, avna-rpe<pwv-rat KQL eup(aKWVTat Ct1t0 TWV DUO !lPWV ETOl!lOl avn-rcwl

awem. ana KQL v TOL<; QAAOL<; !1EPGLV omaeev

~youv v8ev Kal EK1Elv

T~<; 1tapma~W<; f:Ka-repweev

W<; Ct1t0 vo.:; aaytTTO~OAOU 8taaT~!1UTO<; EKTa~n.:; anb

v6.:; ~av8ov tv -ra~et vw-ro<puA.aKwv, olov d.:; -rpi-rTJv -ra~tv.

23. "Iva 8 KQL TCt v -r<iJ !lfGqJ xwp(a ~youv TCt 8taaT~!laTC! T~<; 8eu-rpa<;

TCt~W<; ~VW!1EVQ eupeElwat 8ta 1tQVTO<; KQL ~ niiaa TCt~l<;

ev GW!lU <patVT]Tat


Kal 11~ 8taa-rp<pT]Tat 1tpmmouaa, avayKa16v ao( EGTLV d.:; mum TCt v !lfG(jl
OtaAel!l!lam ano v6.:; ~av8ov KQTQGT~am d.:; OAOV TO UKatpov 8tCtGTf]!1U,
xov-ra TO ~aeo.:; ~youv TO naxo.:; ~ Ct1t0 Mo Ka~aAA.ap(wv ~ TO KQAW<; xov Ct1t0
-rwaapwv, !lCtAlOTQ 1tOAAOU OVTO<; TOU a-rpa-rou '(va, o-r' av Katpo<; YEVT]Tat TOU
165 uno8~aa8m

TCt -rp1t0!1VC! !lfPTJ T~<; 1tpWTf]<; 1tapa-ra~W<;, mum Ta -rp(a ~av8a,

TCt ov-ra v TOL<; UKa(pot<; T01t0l<;, U1tOGTAA0!1VQ Kal aua<ptyy6!1VQ UKatpa

1t0l0Uat TCt xwp(a npo<; T~V EKelVWV uno8ox~v KQL U!la !lEV unooexov-rat TOU<;
Tp1t0!1EVOU<; UKatpa xwp(a 1tOlOUVT<;, U!la 8 KC!L avaa-rA.A.ouat TOU<; 8:\.ovm.:;
GKOp1tt~WElat ~ <puy1v, U!lC!

8 KC!L i<; TptTT]V


VWTO<pUACtKWV anoao~ouat 1tOAACtKl<; TOU<; KC!TCt VWTOU ~youv omaElev m<patV0!1EVOU<; Kal nepxo11vou.:; x8pou.:; npo.:; -ro -rapa~m -r~v 8eu-rpav napam~tv Kat


I Ufl<plGTOf!U MWA a<piaTOf!U BE

153-154 6f!oiw~ ... KaewnA.taf!EYOl MWAE om. B

MW eial A wm BE

ABE I KUTU ... ~youv MW om. ABE

155 Mo MWA


157 ev<k .. OlUGT~f.lUTO~ MW

OlaaT~f.lUTO~ tvo~ aaytT0~6A.ou A OlUGT~f!UTO~ aaytTO~OAOU evo~ BE



158 TU~lV


tStaxwpiaf!UTU ABE tSeu-rtpa~ MWA

rrap<im~t~ ABE

I crwf!a



I Mo

164-165 -rou imo6t~aaem ABE om. MW

166 -ra MWA om. BE


168 xwpia MW Ta tStaxwp(af!UTU AB om. E

avaa-rtA.A.oumv W avaa-rtAA.wm BE

169 <puyeiv MW <peuyetv ABE




165 -rpe7t6f!EYU

I aua<ptyy6f!EVa MW

oniaw ABE 167 nowiim MBE notoiimv W 7tOlWat A 167-168

xwpia MWAB om. E


162 tStaA.df!f!UTU MW tStaxwpiaf!am ABE

163 exovm MW eivm tSe ABE

MWAB npm6f!EVU E lnpWTfl~ MWAE om. B



napeK~aAA.of!tvwv (napef.l~aAA.of!tvwv BE) ei~ -ra tStaxwpicrf!UTU ABE

164 -rwa<ipwv MWA tS' BE

159 xwpia ... tStaaT~f!UTU

160 -r<i~ew~ MW napa-r<i~ew~ ABE -r<i~t~ MW




152 eiatv

154 Kai MW om.

npo~ ...

I avaaTEAAOUat


170 anoao~oum MW

anav-rwm Kal anoKUKAUouat ( anoKuKA.uwm BE) ABE KaTa ... ~youv W KUTa vw-rov ~youv M
om. ABE

170-171 em<patVOf!EYOU~ KUL MW om. ABE

171 exepou~ MWAE JtOAEf!lOU~ B


make these divisions double-fronted, or two-fronted, making sure that those in

front, along the so-called front, are strong and well armed and, in like manner,
those to the rear, along the so-called tail, are also strong and well armed. Then,
If the enemy should launch an attack from the rear or behind, they will turn
ttbout and be ready to line up and face them from both sections. In the other
divisions behind the main battle line on both sides, here and there, at about a
bowshot away, draw up a bandon as a rear guard, that is, as a third line.
23. To make those spaces or intervals in the middle of the second line
aligned all the way and to make the entire line appear to be one body and not
become disordered when moving about, it is necessary for you to station one
bandon in these central intervals along the entire distance of the clear space.
They should be two mounted men deep, or thick; four is better, especially if it is
a large army. And so, when the time comes to provide refuge for the retreating
units of the first battle line, these three banda drawn up in the clear spaces close
up and pull back, leaving the clear spaces as a refuge for them. At the same time
as they provide refuge in the clear spaces for the retreating troops, they can also
turn back men dispersing or trying to run away. Moreover, when they form in
the third line with the rear guard, they often take part in repelling enemy forces
appearing in the rear or behind and attacking in order to harass the second line,








Advance Preparation for Battle

Constitution 12

Ota<pUAUHOUOW. Kal mum 11EV,

eav noA.uc;

i::anv 6 a-rpa-r6c;,

oi\-rwc; nm~onc;.
24. 'Eav oi:: <JDI111TPOV exnc; a-rpa-r6v, TOUT' anv ano e' XlAL<:iOwv ewe; OEKa ~
OWOKa, !lf]KETl T~V oeu-rpav napam~lV ano 8' 11PWV 1TOL~anc;, aHa ano Mo
Kati10VWV, W<JT v Kall16vov xwpiov ~youv T01TOV EXlV d\Kmpov etc; unooox~v
-rwv Ka-racpeuy6v-rwv. d 81:: 6A.tyw-rt:pov -rwv t:' XLAtaowv EXtc; a-rpa-r6v, TOT -r~v
8eu-rpav -ra~tv v Kal116vov 11poc; not~aetc;.
25. 'Enl TOUTOl<; oi:: TI<l<Jl KA\l011EV <JOl W<JT Kal -rp[a ~ -reaaapa pavoa, -roue;
AY011EVOU<; eveopouc; ~youv EYKPDI111aTa, v8ev Kal EK18ev T~c; napa-ra~t:wc;
acpopiot:tc; Kal Ta~etc;, 'iva elalv oi 11EV KWAUOVT<; -ra ano TWV ex8pwv eyxetpou11Va i::yKpDI111aTa KaTa TWV apt<JTepwv T~c; napa-ra~W<; <JOU, oi Oi:: 'iva 1TOlW<JlV
i::yKpD1111am Kal i::mopo11~v Ka-ra TOU Oe~lOU 11epouc; TWV ex8pwv, eav apa Kal oi
-r6nm t:ialv ap1168tot. I
26. L'll1elW<Jat yap, OTl ai KaTa TWV nA.ayiwv T~c; TWV exepwv napa-ra~t:wc;
Kal ai KaTa TOU VWTOU ~youv ano oma8ev aU-rwv YLV011Vat i::mopol1a[, eav
KaA.wc; yivwvmt Kal UKaipwc;, 11UAAOV opa<JTlKWTepai elm Kal avayKaim napa
-rae; YlV011EVac; Ot' O'VW<; 110V'lc; <; Kal we~aetc;. KUV T yap 6A.tyw-rt:poi
dmv oi ex8poi, we; i::~ai<pv'lc; i::mAa11Pav611VOl Kal KUKAOU11VOl Ota TWV TOlOU-rwv i::mopo11wv, 11eyaA.'lv -r~v PMP'lv uno11evoum 11~ ouva11vwv UK6A.wc;
aw~eaem TWV e~ au-rwv -rp1T011EVWV, KUV T ia611Tpoi dmv ~ Kal1TALOV<; TOU
a-rpa-rou TOU <JOU, t:ic; aywva 11yav eioepxovmt Kat cp6pov, V011l~OVT<; 1TA~8oc;
eLVat 1TOAU -roue; T~V emopo11~v notouvmc;.
27. IIp6aexe 0, OTl ou npenov ea-rl xwplc; avayK'lc; 6A.iyov a-rpa-rov npoc;
1TA~8oc; 1TOA11LWV VTUKTWV cpavepwc; npoc; 11UX'lV <JU111TAEKlV. ei Oi:: Kal avayK'l
TOUTOU YEV'lTal, 11~ navm cpavepwc; Kal Ota O'l'Wc; eyxetplv, KUV -raxa 1TAiovc;
172 Ota<pUAUTTOtHJlV MWA oua<pUAUTTOUOl BE I EOTlV MWA ~BE 174 e' MWE rrevre AB
I oeKa MWA l' BE 175 OWOEKU MWA tW BE I o' MWB -recrcrapwv AE I aHa MWAE a;\;\'
B I QUO MWA ~BE 176 Kall MW om. ABE I xwpiov MW OlaxwplOflU ABE I ~youv TOJtOV

MW om. ABE

177 e' MWBE rrev-re A

178 -rO.~tv MW rrapa-ra~tv ABE

179 -rpia MW A

I -recrcrapa MWAE o' B 181 acpopicrw; MW acpopicrm A a<pwpicrm BE I Ta~El~ MW

-ra~m ABE I eicrlv MW om. ABE I KwAl>ov-re~ MW KWAUWat ABE 182 i:va MWA om. BE

y' BE

183 EYKPUflflUTa MW eyKpUflU ABE

184 eicrlv MWA WOlV BE

om. ABE

186 ai MWAE om. B

ai A oi MW ai yap BE

ytv6flevm MWA yev6flEVat BE

em-r'loeiw Kmpw yivwv-rm ABE
UltOflEVoiimv WA

185 0'lflelWOUl ... OTl MW

Ka-ra ... arro MW om. ABE

187 yivwv-rm ... ei>Kaipw~ (yevwv-rm M) MW Kal tv

189 eimv MWA wmv BE

191 eimv MWA wmv BE

194 ea-rl MABE EOTlv

190 UJtOflEVoiim MBE

192 cr-rpa-rou ... crou MW crou cr-rpa-rou ABE

196 Ota 0\j!EW<; MW et~ rrp6crwrrov ABE

eimv MW rrAeiwv tcr-rlv A rrAeiwv ~ BE

196-197 JtAelOVE~


and so they keep that sector intact. This is what you should do if you have a
large army.
24. If you have an army of medium strength, that is, from five thousand to
ten or twelve thousand, you may no longer organize the second line into four
divisions but only into two. You will have only one clear space or location to
receive the men fleeing for protection. If you have an army of fewer than five
thousand, then you will post only one division in the second line.
25. In addition to all of the above, we order you to detail three or four banda,
referred to as ambush troops or ambushers, and station them on this side and
that side of the battle line. They are to prevent enemy attempts to ambush the
left of your battle line and they themselves can set up ambushes and assaults
against the right divisions of the enemy, if the terrain is favorable.
26. It should be noted that attacks against the flanks and the rear of the
enemy's battle line or behind, if they are well timed and well carried out, are
much more effective and decisive than limiting oneself to direct frontal attacks
and charges. If the enemy force is smaller, such attacks will catch them by
surprise, and by encircling them will subject them to great damage, since the
troops driven back will not easily reach safety. If the enemy army is equal to
yours or even superior, they will find themselves in a serious struggle and
become fearful in the belief that the attacking troops are very numerous.
27. Pay attention to this: unless forced to do so, it is not right for a small
army to engage a more numerous and disciplined enemy in open battle. If it
should become necessary, though, do not undertake frontal operations only,








Advance Preparation for Battle


dow 6 ~flEU:po<; mpaT6<;, aHa Kal Ota TOU VWTOU ~youv alto 6mo8v TWV
exepwv ~ Ota TWV nA.ay[wv Efl~UAA<J8at i<; QlJTOU<;. Kal yap mocpaA<; on Kal
EltlKLVOUVOV ~ ot' 0\j!EW<; flOVOV flUXfJ Kalnpo<; oiovo~JtOT 8vo<; ytVOflEVf], KUV
Taxa Kal 6A.tyWTpov 1tA~86<; E<JTl TO avnKa8t<JTUflVOV.
28. Oihw<; ouv W<; v K<paA.a[q> KAU0f.1EV <JOl Yva navm Ta Ka~aHaptKa
TUYflUTa i<; 1tpWTJ1V Kal 0UTpav napam~LV v Katp4J JtOAEflOU KUTa<JT~<Jn<;, oT'
av flUAl<JTQ Kal JtOAUV mpmov xn<;, Kal OlUTa~n<; KUTa TOV A.exetvm <JOl Tp6nov ei<; Koupowpa<; ~youv npoKA<iom<;, Toil<; Ef.11tpoo8ev T~<; napaTa~ew<; npo
TWV at..Awv KUTa TWV x8pwv 1tp0Tpxovm<; Kal i<; Otcpevowpa<; ~youv TOU<;
UTUKTW<; LaTUflEVOU<; Kal unooexwem flEAAOVTa<; TOU<; npoopaflOVTa<; KaTa TWV
exepwv, av fl~ TALW<; OlW~W<JlV aUTOU<;, aU' aveunompe\j!OU<JlV, Ell oe Kal i<;
nA.aytocpuA.aKa<; Kal ei<; unepKepama<; ~youv Toil<; ETOLflOU<; i<JTaflvou<; i<;
KUKAW<JlV TWV x8pwv, n oe Kal i<; vopou<; ~youv yKpUflflUTa, aHa Kal i<;
~Of]80u<; ~youv TOU<; omo8ev TETaYflEVOU<; Kal avamA.A.ovm<; TOU<; O<JOl flEAAOU<Jl <pUYLV T~V io[av KUTaAlflltUVOVT<; TU~lV, ETl oe Kal i<; VWTO<pUAUKU<;
~youv Toil<; 6mo8ev i<; cpuA.aK~V TOU JtaVTo<; <JTpaTou TTUYflEVOU<;.
29. 'Eav oe JtOAUV xwm mpaTOV Kal ouva<Jat TOlUUTa<; OlltAU<; napaTa~l<;
note'iv lT ouo ein: Tpci<; ~ Kal nA.eiova<;, I woT f.1Ept(of.1VfJV T~v Twv x8pwv
OUVUfllV npo<; avTa<; 6A.tywTpwv OVTWV a<J8VL<; yivwem Ta<; EKlVWV ~ npoo~aAOVTWV OflOU npo<; fllUV TWV <JWV napaTa~WV uno TWV at..Awv ~ OLWK<J8at ~
30. To oe ~a8o<; ~youv TO naxo<; TWV napma~WV, Ka8w<; o[ apxa'ioL 0LTa~avTO, ~pKEL flEV Ka<JTq> TUYflUTL d<; Te<Joapa<; Kal flOVOU<; Ka~aAA.ap[ou<;
y1vw8at, E1tLO~ TO JtAEOV TOUTWV apyov Kal avw<pAE<; OELKVUTat nl TWV
Ka~aAA.ap[wv, OUT yap ouvavmL, w<; nl T~<; TIE(LK~<; TU~W<;, ano omoeev Ola

Ota ... cmo MW TWV oma8ev flEpwv ABE


trnK[vouvo<; ABE


~youv EKOtKI]TCt<; ABE


Ejl~aA.Aecr8m MW bm[8ecr8m ABE I ei~

erna<paA.~ MW tma<paA.~~ ABE

tan MA taTiv W

~ BE




tv MWAE tv Tw B

204 ~youv


206 npoopajlOVTa~

AE npoaopajlOVTa<; MWB 207 aA.A' MWBE

ana A
I av8unoaTpE\jiOUO"lV MW av8unoaTpE\jiWO"lV ABE I d<; AB om. MWE
208 ETOljlOU<; w ETOljlW<; MABE 210-211 oaot jlEAAOUO"l MW ~OUAOjlEVOU<; ABE

<peuyetv MW <peuyetv Kal ABE 1 KmaALflTiavoVTe<; Ta~Lv MW Ta~Lv KamALflTiavetv ABE


ouvaam MWA OUVT) BE




ouo MWA

6A.tyw<pwv OVTWV MW om. ABE

aa8ev~<; yeva8m BE

oma8e M



I aa8evl<; y1vecr8m MW aa8ev~


npoa~aAA.ouaav A npoa~aA.ouaav BE

avayKatov BE

wBE l<pet<; MWA y' BE I waTE MW wan;~



y1vecr8m A


tan MABE tanv W l<wv avayKa[wv MWA TO


<'lta ... naxou<; MW om. ABE


oi.\Te MW ou ABE

I oma8ev WABE


even if our army is larger, but carry on attacks against the rear of the enemy,
behind them, or against their flanks. For a purely frontal attack against any
nation whatsoever is dangerous and full of risk, even if those opposing you may
be less numerous.
28. Thus, to sum it up, we order you to form all your cavalry units in a first
md a second battle line when engaged in combat, particularly when you have a
large army. Organize them, in the manner explained to you, into assault troops
or proklastai, those men in front of the battle line who ride out ahead of the
otllers against the enemy, and into defenders, those who position themselves in
good order, ready to provide refuge for those troops charging against the enemy
In the event that they do not pursue them all the way but have to turn back. Also
divide them into flank guards and into outflmkers, that is, men lined up ready
to encircle the enemy; and further, into ambush troops or ambushers, as well as
support troops who are in formation to the rear and who restrain the men who
intend to flee and desert their own formation; and finally into rear guards, that
is, those stationed behind to protect the whole army.
29. If they have a large army md you are able to form double battle lines of
the sort mentioned, whether it be two or three or even more, so that when the
smaller enemy force is divided in proportion to these, their force will be weak
or, as they charge against one of your lines, they may be pursued or encircled by
the others. This is an essential point.
30. For the depth or the thickness of the battle lines, the ancient authorities
prescribed that four, all mounted, were sufficient for each tagma. For cavalry
greater depth has been shown to be inefficient and useless. Unlike a formation



Advance Preparation for Battle

Constitution 12

Tou mixou<; rrpowtha!l<'lV rro1ei:v. TOT yap Kal 11~ ~ouA6!1evo1 ol l::!Jrrpoa8ev EK
niJv oma8ev rrpow80U!JVOI T~V Op!J~V trrlTa l::!Jrrpoa8ev TIOLOUCJL. TOUTO yap trrl
niiv rre(wv y[ve-rat. o[ o LTITIOI ou OUVUVTat rrpow8civ LOU<; l::!Jrrpoa8ev UUTWV, W<;
225 o[ rre(o[, ouo po~8wi n<; yivnat EK TWV rrepiCJCJOTEpwv ek TOU<; rrpWTOCJLC.lTU<;,
31. 0[ !JEV yap KOVLapaTot, o[ orr[aw TOU TeLCtpTOU, OU OUVUVLUI <p8a(etv el<;
TO l::!Jrrpoa8ev, o[ o LO~OLat ei<; TO livw avayKa(OVLUI LO~U1V Ola TOU<; !1rrpoa8ev
auTwv Kal o1a LOULO lirrpaKLOI Kma Twv tx8pwv tv mi:<;<; T~<;
!JUXTJ<; y[voVLUI ai aay(nat UUTWV, w<; ~ rre1pa OIOUCJK1 KULTOU<; Ct!J<pi~CtAAOVTU<;,

32."HpK1 ouv, Ka8w<; dTIO!JV, TO rraxo<; TWV TeCJaapwv Ka~aAA.apiwv, o.n:
OD!lPaiv1 TOU<; avope[ou<; mpanwTa<; OAIYWTEpou<; KaLa TUWU eup[GK235 ea8at, TOUT' an LOU<; l::!Jrrpoa8ev lGLU!JEVOU<;, TOU<; KULTa<; xcipa<; !JIYVUetV rrpo<;
rr6A.e11ov 6<peiA.ovTa<;, o1a TOUTo rrprrov taTl rrpo<; T~v ouva111V T<iiv my!JaTwv
oihw<; op[(etv KULTO rraxo<; T~<; rrapaTa~ew<; aU-rwv, oiov ei<; TU avope16Tepa, Ta
KUL !JEOOV LaCJCJ0!1VU TCtY!lUTa ei<; T~V TCt~IV T~V rrp6!Jaxov, arro (' Ka~aAA.ap[wv
TIOielV Kal EVO<; TratOO<; UTITJPETOU aUTWV, tv ot Tft ap1CJTP~ TCt~1, tv Kal tKl
240 OUTp01 KUTU T~V avop[av T~<; rrpO!JCtXOU TCt~W<; O<pelAOUat TUCJCJCJ8at, arro ('
avopwv EKUCJTT]V OeKapxiav, TICtAIV tv Oe~l~, tv Kal tKci iaoOUVU!101 livope<; T~<;
aplmepii<; 6<pe[A.ouatv elvat, arro avopwv T]', TU o A.oma Kal UTIOOECJTpa
Tawma arro T]' ~ OEKU avopwv y[vea8at rrpo<; Ta<; OKapxia<; LUOGO!JVU.
33 'Eav !JEVLOI CJU!1Pn 'lva I tK TWV urro0eempwv LOUTWV TUWUTWV ei<; T~V
245 rrpWTT]V rrapam~IV tKTa~n<;, ~ arro T]' ~ arro I' TIOI~an<; avopwv w<; aa8evempwv.
Ta o Tawam, TU tv OUTEP<;t TCt~1 LUGGO!JVU Kal trr[AKla OVLa, arro TIEVT
!JEV aTpanwTwv Kal ETepwv UTIT]pnwv ei<; Ta lip!Jma rroi~CJ1<;, waTe oeKa

223 rrotoiim MA TtoLOii<JLV WBE 226 to~6tm dol

226-227 Kovtapatot MW
229 to 1 MWA TOU~ BE 231 yivovtat ABE yivovtul w~ MW I crayittal

222 Ef!TtpocrOev MWBE Ef!TtpocrOe A

M to~6tm Eicrlv W Kovtapatot dol AE KovtapatoL iilm B

to~6tat ABE

MW crayituL A crayite~ BE

231-232 Kal. .. ~ouA.wvtat MW om. ABE 235 i:crn MABE

i:ottv W 237 oihw~ ... autwv MWAE om. B 238 (' MW emu ABE 240 t6.crcrecr8at
MW Katata<J<JE08at ABE I (' MW f;ma ABE 241 KC!l tKEL MW om. ABE 242 dvat ABE
om. MW 1 r)' M 6Ktw W 11ta tacrcretv ABE 243 t6.Yf!ata W ABE 11pawum M I 11' MWE
OKTW AB 244 tav f!EVTOL MW 11UALV tav f!EV ABE 245 11' WE OKTW MAB I t' MWBE
oeKa A 246 ta2 MWA om. BE I tv MW tv t~ ABE I TtEVtE MWA E' BE 247 f!EV MWAE
om. B I oeKa MWAE 1' B


of foot, they are unable to apply pressure from the rear because of the thickness,
for the men pushing forward from the rear put pressure on those in front who
may not wish to go forward. This is what happens with infantry. But horses are
not able to push those in front of them forward, as are foot soldiers. The front
ranks, that is, those stationed in front, receive no support from additional
troops, whether archers or lancers.
31. The lancers behind the fourth rank are unable to reach beyond the front.
The archers are forced to shoot up high because of those in front of them, and
the result is that their arrows are ineffectual against the enemy in the press of
battle. If anyone doubts this, let experience teach him.
32. Therefore, a thickness of four was enough, as we said. Since, however, the
number of courageous soldiers, that is, the men stationed in the front ranks who
have to engage the enemy in hand-to-hand fighting, is rather limited, it is
necessary to regulate the depth of their battle line in accord with the strength of
the units. So it is that the more courageous units drawn up in the center of the
first line, the promachos, should be composed of seven cavalrymen and one
serving boy. In the formation to the left, in which there may be men less noted
for courage than those in the promachos line, they ought to be organized with
each dekarchy consisting of seven men. The division on the right, in which the
men ought to be of equal strength with those on the left, should consist of eight
men. The rest of the units, made up of weaker troops, should be formed of eight
or ten men to a dekarchy.
33. If it should happen that you station some of these weaker units in the
first line, then, because they are weaker, make it eight or ten men. Form the
units composed of picked troops drawn up in the second line five regular
soldiers <deep>, followed by additional men-at-arms, so that each dekarchy has


Advance Preparation for Battle

Constitution 12

avopa<; EKCtGTT]V OeKapxiav exetv. OUtOL o o[, W<; e'Lp!]TaL, TnayflEVOL Iva Kataata8wmv bmf]Odw<; d<; T Km'>pawpa<; Kat tyKpUflflata.

34 OuK EGTLV ouv 1tptrrov TWV T]' ~ TO 1tOAU TWV 0Ka avopwv 1tAiw TO
TIUXO<; 1tOLelV T~<; 1tapaTCt~W<;, KUV TO 1tCtVU eiatv aa8ev~ Ta TCtYf1ata, ouoe TWV

e' 6,\tywTepov, oaov av dmv tTtiAKTa,


1tpE1tOV tatt KaTa TOV dpf]flEVOV

Tp6nov Kat T~V TOLaUTT]V OLaipemv apKOUVTW<; Kat Ta ~6.81] ~youv Ta TICtXT] tWV
napaTa~WV yivwem Kat flf]OE TO fl~KO<; ~youv TOV apL8f10V TWV 1tpWTOGTa-

255 TOUVTWV 6,\tyouaem 1tOAU. tav yap uno OtKa avopwv TO TIUXO<; tWV TaYf1UTWV

OAWV tv '(a<.p flETp<.p Ta~n<;, UXPW<; Kat GUVtOf1W<; tJ1t0 TWV KaTaGK01tWV TWV
tx8pwv apt8f1dG8at 1tOL~GL<; OLa TWV 1tpWtoGtaTWV o,\ov aou TOV GTpaTOV,
01tp OU OEOV 11av86.vetv TOU<; tx8pou<;. T~<; Oe dpf]flEVT]<; ~fllV ava,\oyia<; ~youv
TOU f1ETpou cpu,\anof1vou tK Tou 7tptaaeuovTo<; aTpaTou T~v OUTpav Kata26o GT~OL<; TCt~LV.

35 KeAUOf1V 0 aOL Kal Ta KOVTou~tpvta Twv aTpaTLWTWV



Kat vtwv yivw8aL avaA6yw<;, Iva fl~ o[ TtaAaLOt flOVOL TaGOOf1VOL Kae' EUUTOU<;
aa8evd<; eim flf]OE o[ VWTPOL QTaKTOL eupe8wmv W<; linetpOL.
36. DTIAian<;

T~v nap6.Ta~Lv oihw<; tov flEV 7tpwmaTUTT]V T~<; 1tpWTT]<;

265 TCt~t:W<; Kat TOV f1T' tKlvov LOTCtflVOV, TOUT'


TOV OeUTpov,


of. Kat TOV

eatwTa <'miaw TIUVTWV ~youv TOV oupayov KOVTap6.TOU<; 1tOL~GL<; flTa T~<;
AOL1t~<; aU-rwv t~01tALGW<;, TOU<; o AOL1tOU<; 1tUVTa<;, TOU<; tv flEG<.p tKlVWV

TaGOOflEVOU<;, OGOL TO~ULV o'(oam, xwpt<; KOVTapiwv eLVaL 1tOL~GL<;. ouo yap


00VTW<; 1tpt6.yLV nva TO~OV tTtavw ITITIOU, tav tv Tft apLGTP~

270 auTOU Kat TO GKOUTCtpLv KaTtxn Kal TO TO~OV. d of. YUf1Vaa8ft 6 GTpaTLWTT]<;

WGT, ~VLKa TO~Uf], <'miaw KUTU TOU VWTOU Uq>UW<; 1tEfl1tn TO GKOUT6.ptv, ouo
TOUTO axpTJGTOV l')flLV KaTacpatVTaL.
37 npo<; TOUTOL<; KAUOflEV OOL, d) GTpUTT]y, Iva acpopian<;, Kal flUALGTa i<;
T~V 1tp6f1axov 1tapa-ra~LV, tOU<; AYOf1EVOU<; 01tOTUTOU<;, TOUT'




248 ol MW om. ABE 250 !]' MWBE oKTw A I -rwv MW om. ABE I nA.eiw MW nA.Lov BE
om. A 251 -roM om. WABE I eioiv MWA ii>mv BE 252 e' MWBE ntv-re A I oA.tyompov
Va oA.tyw-rtpou<; codd. I dmv MWA dev BE I EO'Tl MWBE EO'TtV A 255 oA.tyouoem ...
myf!UTWV MWAE om. B I TIOAU MW E1lLTIOAU AE I OeKa MWA L' E 256 euxepw<; MW
Uf!lV MW 261 Kov-rou~tpvta WABE Kou-rou~tpvta M 263 dO'L MWA ii>m BE 265 EO'TL
MBE eonv WA 267 au-rwv MW au-r~<; BE om. A 268 o'iOaO'L MABE o'ioaO'Lv W
269 ton MBE EO'TLV WA 270 O'Kou-raptv MW O'Kou-raptov ABE I yuf!vaoe~ MWA
yeyuf!VU0'8!] E yeyl>f!vao8at B 271 on[ow ... vw-rou ABE om. MW I nef!TIIJ MW
napaTIBf!TIELV ABE I O'Kou-raptv Va O'Kou-raptov codd. 274 omo-ra-rou<; MW omo-ra-rou<; ABE


ten men. As mentioned, these men should be drawn up so they may conveniently be assigned as assault troops and ambushers.
34 It is wrong, therefore, to make the thickness of the battle line more than
eight or at most ten, no matter how weak the units might be, nor should it be
less than five, even for the elite units. The depth, or the thickness, of the battle
lines made in the above manner and in the proper proportions are correct and
adequate. The width, that is, the number of men in the front rank, should not be
greatly reduced. If you form all the units in equal measure at ten thick, you will
make it easy and quick for enemy spies to estimate the numbers of your entire
army <simply by counting> the file leaders. The enemy must not learn this. As
we have remarked, maintaining due proportion and measure, you should
organize the second line from among the remaining troops.
3 5. We order you to have the squads made up of veterans and younger men
in proper proportion. Otherwise the older men, if formed by themselves, may
be weak, and the younger men may turn out to be undisciplined because they
lack experience.
36. Arm the battle line in this manner. In the first rank have the file leader
and the man standing behind him, that is, the second, and also the one standing
behind everyone, that is, the ouragos, all bear lances with the rest of their
armament. Have all the others, drawn up in their middle, who know how to
shoot, be without lances, for it is not possible to draw the bow effectively on
horseback while holding a shield as well as a bow in his left hand. But it seems
more useful to train the soldier, while shooting, to shift the shield smoothly
behind him, on his back.
37 In addition to the above, we order you, 0 commander, to assign, especially in the first battle line, men known as deputies, that is, those who take care


Constitution 12

Advance Preparation for Battle

1-u::A.rrrac; -rwv -rpaullanl~o11vwv mpanw-rwv. Kal Kama-r~aetc; 6K-rw ~ oKa

avopac; Ka9' Kamov ~avoov tK TOU au-rou -rawa-roc; tA.a<ppouc; Kal yopyouc;
aveu onA.wv, -roue; 6<pLA.ovmc; omaeev we; ano f:KaTOV noowv Tote; ioiotc; -rawa<JLV UKOAou9lv tva -roue; tv Tal<:; <JU!lnAOKal<:; TOU noAE!lOU, we; noAACtKtc; yive-rat,
-rpau!laTL~O!lEVOU<:; tmKtVOUvwc; ~ tKnimovmc; ano TWV tnnwv Kat ll~ ouva280 !lEVOU<:; !lCtXW9at ava.\ywvmt Kat neptnOLWVTat, tva ll~ KamnaTWVTat uno T~c;
oeu-rpac; napa-ra~ewc; oi UAT]9wc; yevva1ot a-rpanw-rat Kal tK T~c; 6A.tywpiac; TWV
-rpaU!lUTWV Ota<p9eipwv-rat. Kat '(va oi Ota<JW~OVT<:; aU-roue; Aa!l~CtVW<JLV uni::p
!lt<J9ou ano TOU Ta!llLOU T~c; ~aatA.lac; ~!lWV KaTa va Kamov a-rpanWTT]V
Ota<JW~O!lVOV nap' au-rwv VO!ll<Jila v.
38. Eha oi:: oi TOLOUTOL llla TO -rpan~vat -roue; txepouc; Kal napeA.9e1v T~V
oeu-rpav napam~tV TOT -ra (JKUAa -ra eupt<JKO!lVa tv <4> -romp T~c; npWTT]<:;
<JU!l~OA~<:; auTOt auvayouat Kat TOt<:; 0KCtpXOt<:; ~youv TOt<:; npWTOCHCtTat<:; TOU
io[ou -rawa-roc; !leTa TO A.ue~vat T~V !lCtXTJV napxouatv au-ra. Aa!l~CtVOU<Jl oi:: Kat
au-rol imi::p TOUTOU napa TWV 0Kapxwv eic; napallueiav au-rwv !lOtpav nva.
2 9 o -rou-ro yap -ro1c; npwwma-rmc; tv m1c; 11axmc; npov611tov O[Katov Kal ap116otov tv
Tal<:; tm-ruximc; xetv KAUO!lV, Ka96n nA.ov TWV AOLTCWV T~c; avayKTj<:; !llExouatv tv -rft npw-rn <JU!l~OAft TOU nOAE!lOU. ayaeov Oi:: Kal -repov yivemt, tva ll~
ota -ro aKuA.euam wuc; nimovmc; txepouc; nvec; tK -rwv tnnwv Ka-rpxwv-rm Kal
-r~v napam~tv OtaA.uoumv.
39"Iva oi:: UK6Awc; tnl-rwv tnnwv ava~a[vwatv OtT AYO!lVOL 0TIOTUTOL
Kat oi -rpaullall~O!lVOL mpanw-rat oi ano TWV tnnwv n[mov-rec;, npnov ta-rlv
Iva 6 oenonhoc; -rae; Mo <JKCtAac; eic; TO aptmepov llpoc; T~c; aUac; exn, Tou-r'
ea-rt -r~v 11iav npoc; -r4J tllnpoa9oKoup~[<p Kal-r~v -rpav npoc; <4> 6ma9oKoup~(<p, Iva o-r' uv !lEAAW<JLV oi Mo tnl-rou tnnou avpxwem, 6 T oenma-roc; Kat 6

277 oJtA.wv ABE oJtA.ou MW I eKaTov MWAB

275 OKTW MWA 'l' BE I~ MWAE ~ Kal B


278 CtKOAouOEiv

avaAUfl~CtVWVTUl A





284 0Laaw<6f1eVOV MWA 0Laaw<6f1eVOL BE

285 eha ... TOLOUTOL MW ol


280 avaA.tywvmL

VOf1Laf1U WAE V0 MB (sic pro VOf1LOf1U)

oe miTol ABE I Kal MW AE om.

286 Ta aKuA.a MW om.

ABE scr. mg. TU TWV exOpwv OJtAQ Te Kal A.oma 7tp<iyf1UTQ auvayouatv
euptaKOflEVQ OJtAa ABE
lleK<ipxat~ BE



w I eUplaKOflEVU MW

I OeKapxol~ MWA
I<ivouat MW<ivwat ABE

287 QlJTOL auv<iyouat MW auvaywat ABE

288 Jtaptxouatv MW Jtaptxwmv ABE

293 aKuA.euam MW EKMam ABE

294 0LaA.uouatv MW 0LaA.Uwatv A lltaA.Uwat BE

295-296 tva ... Jt(moVTe~ MW om. ABE

297 lleJtOTCtTO~ MW llmoTCtTO~ ABE

296 o[l M om. W l1tpe1tov MW 1tp1tov 6i; ABE


298-299 Kal ... omaOoKoup~(w MWAE om. B


298 ean MB eanv

299 Mo MWAB



299-300 o ...

aTpanWTI]~ Va o Te Tpauf1UTt<6f1evo~ aTpanWTI]~ Kal 6 llmoT<iTo~ ABE om. MW


the wounded soldiers. You will station eight or ten men to each bandon, from
the same unit. They should be nimble, vigorous, and without weapons. Their
tll!ik is to follow about a hundred feet to the rear of their own units to pick up
~md give aid to those seriously wounded in the clash of battle, as frequently
hlppens, or who have fallen off their horses and are out of action, so that these
truly noble soldiers may not be trampled underfoot by the second line or die
tltrough neglect of their wounds. The corpsmen who rescue them should receive
one nomisma from Our Majesty's treasury as payment for each soldier rescued
38. Then, when the enemy has been routed and the second line has passed
by, these deputies should gather up the spoils found on the site of the first battle
md, after the fighting has ceased, they should hand them over to the dekarchs,
that is, the file leaders of their own units. They should then receive a share of it
from the dekarchs in recompense for their work. We order that it is just and
fitting to grant this perquisite to the file leaders for their success in combat,
because, more than the rest, they must bear the brunt of fighting in the first
onslaught. There is also another good reason: to prevent them from dismounting from their horses and breaking rank!i in order to despoil the fallen enemy.
39. To make it easier for the corpsmen and the wounded soldiers who have
fallen off their horses to get up onto the rescue horses, the corpsman must put
both stirrups on the left side of the saddle, that is, one toward the pommel and
the other toward the cantle. Then, when the two of them, the corpsman and the





Advance Preparation for Battle

TpaUI1aTl(OflVOt; <HpaTttlJTT]t;, 6 11EV 8tet Tfjc; <JKaAac; Tfjc; E11rrpocr8v, 6 8 8tet Tfjc.;

OOAOt; auTOlt; UTrO TWV tx8pwv yv~<JTat.

wounded soldier are ready to mount the horse, the first gets on with the front
11lirrup and the second with the other stirrup. It is also essential for those
assigned as corpsmen to carry flasks of water for the wounded who may well be
40. The soldiers are not to carry pennons on their lances during combat. 2
Pennons are just as useless in combat as they are important in military demonstrations and displays. For if one should wish to throw properly or hurl or shoot,
the pennon will not allow him to hurl his weapon accurately, directly, or for a
distance. When the time comes for archery, the pennons interfere with the fire
of the archers to the rear. And when it comes to charging, turning movements,
and wheeling about, they are no small impediment and, for this reason, they
ought not to be used in combat.
41. However, to present a fine appearance of the battle line from a distance,
keep the pennons on the lances until the enemy are about a mile away and then
furl them and put them back into their cases.
42. In addition to the above, we order you, 0 general, from among the
strong and powerful units to assign spies, that is, scouts for each tagma, and
from the weaker units for each tourma, two for the tagma and eight or twelve
for the tourma. These men should be alert, wide awake, and vigorous. Both
before and during the battle and until its final outcome, in their own locations
and in the places in which they are stationed at intervals, their duty is to
observe, so the army will not suffer an attack from ambush or some other trick
of the enemy.

I avepxnm MW UVEPXI]TaL ABE I an MA anv w

EOTlV Kai BE I 01tOTUTOU~ MW Ol1tOTUTOU~ ABE 302 <pA.aaKia MW ayyda ABE I
Tpauf.laTia~ MW TWV Tpauf.laTl~Of.lEVWV aTpaTtWTWV ABE 303 <f>Aaf.lOUAa ABE <pAaf.lOUAUTa
MW 304 KOf.l1tOV MW <pavTaaiav ABE scr. mg. oiov ei~ KOf.l1tO<pavnav W 305 av MW
av Te ABE 1 yap MABE om. W 306-307 ~aA.A.eaem MW pimwem ABE 307 Katpo~
yv!]Tat MWA trsp. BE 308 Kai2 maTpo<pa~ MWA om. BE 309 notoiiat MBE
nowumv WA 311 TOY KOf.l1tOV MW T~v <pavTaaiav ABE I WaTe ... f.l~Ko6ev MW om. ABE
313-314 anon6oumv MW anoTi6evTat A anoTt6GJmv BE 317 ~tyA.euovm~ MW
~tyAaTwpa~ ABE 318 OKTW MWA !]'BE I OWOEKa MWA tW BE 320 ei~ ou~ MWA om.
BE 321 Tou ... K~aaew~ MW auf.l1tA!]pwaew~ Tou noA.f.lou ABE 321-322 mopof.l~
06.\o~ MW ~ MA.o~ ~ mopof.l~ ABE 322 miTol~ MWA Tol~ B Twv E I yev~aeTat MW

(1973): 51-60.

Tpac; <JKaAac; avpxTm. avayKalOV 8 tan TOUt; AY011EVOUt; 8rtOTaTouc; de;

cpA.acrK[a uowp ~a<Ha(Lv 8tet TOUt; rroAAaKlt; A.mo8U110UVTat; Tpaul1m[ac;.
40. 'Ev 8 T0 Katp0 Tfjc; flaXT]t; <pAa110UAa Tet KOVTapta 11~ txTwcrav. oaov
yap dmv de; trr[8t~lV Kat K011Tt0V avayKa1a Tet <pAa110UAa, TO<JOUTOV l<JLV


I 11axmc;


axpTJGTa. tetv yap nc; ~OUAT]Tat UKa[pwc; p1\jfat ~ QKOVTL(Jat ~

TO~U<Jat, ou cruyxwp1 TO <pACt110UAOV U<JTOXWt; ic; 6p8ov ~ de; 11fiKoc.; ~aAA

cr8at TO ptrrTOI1VOV. tetv 8 Kat TO~[ac; Katpoc; YEVT]Tat, rrap11rt08t(l TOle; omcr8v TO~UOU<JLV, a\Aet Kat de; Tete; t~Aacr[ac; Kat lt; Tete; tm<Hpocpetc; Kat Lt; Tete;
avTtcrTpocpetc; ouK 6\[yov t11rro8tcr11ov rrotoum Kal 8tet TouTo


m1c; 11axmc;

muTa XPTJflaTt(Lv ou rrprrt.

41. 8tet 11v Tov K611rrov Tfjc; rrapaTa~wc;, wcrT cpa[vwem 11~Ko8v,
EXlV 11EV Tet <j>Aa110UAa ic; Tet KOVTapta we; av oi txepol cp8acrwmv arro 11LALOU
ev6c;, arro TOT 8 '(va (JU<JTEAAW<JLV auTet Kal

tv TOLe; 8T]Kaptotc; aUT<DV arroTt8ou-


42. Tipoc; TOUTOlt; KAU011EV <JOt, '(va arro T<DV icrxupwv Kal8uvmwv TayflaTWV Ka8' tKa<JTOV Tayl1a, arro 8 TWV a\Awv imoOE<HEpwv Ka8' EKa<JTT]V
Toup11av <JKOUAKaTwpac; ~youv ~tyAUOVTat; acpop[crnc;, 8uo 11EV KaTet TaYfla,
OKTW 8 ~ 8w8Ka KaTet TOUpflaV, aypurrvouc; Kat 8tYfJYPflEVOUt; Kal yopyouc;,
OLTLVc; Kat rrpo TOU TtOAE110U Kat



tv auT{il T0 Tt0AEI14J, tv TOLe; i8[otc; ainwv 11EP-

<JlV de; ouc; Kat Ta<J<JOVTat T6rrouc; arro 8ta<HT]11aTWV <JKOUAKUlV 6cpd\oumv

ewe; Tfjc; TAiac; TOU TtOAEflOU

tK~aawc;, tva 11~ arro tyKpUfll1aToc; tm8pOfl~ ~

301 htpa~ OKUAa~ MW omaeev ABE


See also Strat. 7.B.16-17. S. Dufrenne, "Aux sources des gonfanons:' Byzantion 43



Advance Preparation for Battle


43 Kal -roue; f.UV<Jopcnwpac; 8 -roam)-rouc; dvm, -roue; 6<pdA.ovmc;

43. There should be an appropriate number of surveyors who are assigned to

pavnv Kal -ra anALKTa flTpe'iv Kal -rae; 68ouc; npoyLvwaKt:Lv Kal npoc; -ra CinALKTa

go ahead and measure the camp sites, reconnoiter the roads and guide the army
to the camp. That is enough said about these matters.
44 It is incumbent on Your Excellency to organize the divisions of the first
battle line so that they march about close to one another and that the distance or
interval between one meros and another is not great, but enough to keep them
from crowding together while marching and not to have them appear separated
from each other.
45. The flank guards should remain close in until the enemy moves nearer.
As they approach, they should move out to the side about a bowshot from the
left meros but no further, especially if the battle line of the enemy is longer. In
like manner, form the outflankers, that is, those whose task it is to encircle the
enemy, on the right side.
46. Line up the divisions of the second battle line about a bowshot from one
another's side or flank, moving around to the rear or behind the first battle line.
While the enemy are still a good distance away, they are to follow along a mile
or more, depending on the terrain and, as much as possible without being
noticed, so that the enemy may not observe them from a distance and change
their tactics or their plans accordingly. But when the enemy gets close and the
second line indeed becomes visible, they have no time to adapt their tactics.
Then the second line should make itself seen and move up closely, four
bowshots from the first, and observe it and so regulate its moves. During battle,
the second line ought not to be so far from the first that it leaves it without
support, nor, on the other hand, so close that it gets mixed up with the first in

325 -rov mpa-rov OOT}ye'iv. Kal nepl flEV -rou-rwv -roaa\ha dp~a8w.
44 Xp~ 8 -r~v a~v v8o~6TTJTU -ra flEV -r~c; npw-rT}c; napma~ewc; flEPTJ napa<JKeua(eLV W<JT nAT}<JLOV UAA~AWV nepma-rdv Kal fl~ uno noAA.ou Ota<JT~flUToc;
~TOl 8LUAelflflUTOc; TO flTa~U

aimvv uno flEpouc; de; flEpoc;, ana 6aov

fl~ <JUV-

-rp!pwem v T{i> nepma-rdv flTJ8E 8LUKKplflEVU an' UAA~AWV <pa(vea8m.


45 Toile; 8 nA.ayw<puA.aKac; flEXPL flEV TOU yyl(t:LV -roue; x8pouc; yyuc; dvm,
6-r' av 8 yylawmv,

we; uno aayLnop6A.ou LOU apl<JTt:pou flEpouc; napeKpa!vt:LV

Kal fl~ nAtov, av flUAL<JTU uneptxn eic; fl~Koc; ~ n'ilv vav-r(wv napa-ra~Lc;. 6flolwc;

8 KUL -roue; unepKepaa-rac;


wile; KUKAOUV -roue; noAfllOUc; 6<pdA.ovmc;

-ra~etc; eic; -ro 8e~Lov flEpoc;.


46. Ta 8 flEPTJ -r~c; 8eu-rpac; napa-ra~ewc; Kma flEV nA.eupav aAA.~A.wv I ~-rm 317'
de; Ta nA.ayLa uno voc; aayLnop6A.ou TU~t:Lc;, KUTa oupav 8 ~youv KUT6ma8ev
-r~c; npw-rT}c; napa-ra~ewc; nepmme'iv wa-re, flEXPL flEV ol noAEflLOL flUKpav a<pea-r~Kamv, uno voc; ~ Kal nA.ov fllALOU npoc; T~V TOU -r6nou 8mv, 6aov 8uva-r6v

anv, a<pavwc; naKOAou8e'iv eic; TO fl~ Ka8opcw8m fl~Ko8ev TUUTTJV -ro'ic; noAEfll340

me; Kal fl8o8euw8m ~ mpouA.euw8m un' UUTWV. 6-r' av 8 o[ x8pol yyl(wmv

Kal A.omov <patVOflEVT}c; -r~c; 8eu-rpac; ou <p8a(wmv 6.pf16<Jaa8m, ToTe m<pa(vw8m UUT~V KUL EWe; T<J<JCtpWV aayLHOPOAWV yy((etV Tft npw-rn KUL KUVOVL(t:lV
~youv maKoneLV auT~V. ouo yap fl~Ko8ev noA.u 6<piAl dvm ~ 8eu-rpa T~c;

npwTT}c; v Katp{i> T~c; <JUflPoA.~c; tva fl~ apo~8TJTOV UUT~V KaTUAinn, ouo nUALV


noA.iJ yyuc;, tva fl~ <JUfl<pUpTJTUL Tft npw-rn v Tate; <JUflpoA.a'ic;, KOVLop-rou flUAL-

323 f1tvcrop6.twpa<;


327 Kal AE om. MWB



325 crtpatov

328 OtUAelf.lf.lUtO<; MW om. ABE

MW crtpatJ]yov ABE

I autwv MW autwv 1\taxwptOf.lU

ABE I f.lipo<; MW f.Lipo<; f.l~ ecrtw 1TOAU ABE I ana MW aU' ABE 329 OlUKKplf1iVa MW
330 f.lixpt. .. dvat MW EW<; ou 1TAI]crt6.crwcrtv ol txepol eyyu<;



331 rrapt:K~a(vetv


333 ~youv ... 6cpei\ovta<; MW om. ABE






334 f.Lipo<; MW f.Lipo<; ~youv tou<; 6<petAovta<;

KUKAwcrm tou<; rroAf1iou<; ABE

rr\ay(ou ABE

I Kat6mcr8ev

335 Kata MW Kat' ABE 336 d<; ... rrA<iyta MW EK

MW omcreev ABE 337-338 acpecrt~KUOlV MW dcrlv ABE

338 ~ ... f.ltAiou MW f.llAtou ~(om. BE) Kalrr\tov ABE

339 f.l~Ko8ev taut!]V MW trsp.

ABE 339-340 toT<; rroAf.ltOt<; MW urro twv 1TOAf.ltWV ABE 340 tyyi(wcrtv MW tyyi(wcrt
A tyyicrwm BE 341 cp86.(wcrtv MW OUf1<p86.(oucrtv A cruf1cp86.crwmv BE 341-342 t6te
tmcpa(vecrSat MWA ~ avncrtpatl]y~crat rrpo<; BE 343 E1TlOK01TLV MW E1Tl~Ae1TElV ABE I
aut~V MW aut~V Kalrrpo<; EKelVI]V rrepmatdv ABE I OEUtipa MW Oeuttpa rrap6.ta~t<; ABE

Constitution 12


Advance Preparation for Battle

am Ktvouf.1vou Kat npo -rou otaA.ue~vm -roue; noA.f.iiouc; Ka-raotwKovm<; -rhv

npWTfJV up9ft.

the fighting, especially when dust is being kicked up and before the enemy has
broken ranks in pursuit of the first line.

47 TO. o TCtYflaTa TU oma9V ni>v ctKpwv T~<; 0UTpa<; EKaTpw9V maa6-

47. The units stationed behind the wings on both sides of the second line,

flVa ~youv EVTU9v Kat EKi9v Ot W<; ano vo<; aaytno~6A.ou au-rwv de;

that is, here and there, should be drawn up about a bowshot behind to guard the
rear and should follow at the same distance.
48. Each tourma must have its flags or standards.' Those of the tagmata
should be fairly small and light, while those of the moirarchs or the droungarioi
should be larger and of a different design. In like manner, those of the tourmarchs should differ from those of the droungarioi under their command. The
flag of the lieutenant general should differ from the flags of the tourmarchs.
Finally, that of Your Excellency should be clearly distinctive, more conspicuous
than all the others, and well known to all, so that in case of adverse fortune both
officers and soldiers may easily see it, as said, and rally and regroup themselves.
49. When all the flags have been set up along the length of the line, you must
detail fifteen or even twenty men from among the most courageous soldiers in
formation around them to guard and defend each flag.
so. Superior officers should be stationed in safe places so they do not dash
forward in battle and fall. This greatly weakens the soldiers' resolve. If one of the
subordinate officers should happen to fall, it will not easily become known except only to the men of his own unit. But if one of the more prominent officers

350 vw-rou <puA.aKhv my~vat Kat oihw<; aKoA.ou9iv.

48. TO. o ~6.voa ~youv TU aflflta au-rwv XPh Kae' EKCtaTfJV TOUpflUV, TU flEV
TWV TaYflCtTWV fllKp6Tpa dvat Kat A.a<pp6., TU o TWV flOtpapxwv ~TOl TWV
opouyyapiwv flYaAWTpa Kat E~fJAAaYflEVa OflOLW<; o Kat Ta TWV TOUpflapxwv
E~fJAAUYflEVa npo<; TU TWV un' au-roue; TaHOflEVWV opouyyapiwv. TOo unoa-rpa355 T~you ~6.voov Ola<popav EXlV napa TU TWV TOUpflapxwv ~6.voa, wanp ouv Kat

TO T~<; a~<; voo~6TfJTO<; EVfJAAaYflEVOV 6<pLAl LVUl Kat ota<pav<; napa TU ana
n6.vm Kat miatv uyvwa-rov e<p' {p, EV 0UTEp<(t TDXD' npo<; aUTO ~A.nov-ra<;
UKOAW<;, W<; dpfJTUl, auv6.ywem Kat auTOU<; avaKaAia9at TOU<; T apxovm<;
Kat -roue; a-rpanwmc;.


49 IT6.v-rwv o TWV ~6.vowv taOflTWnwv v TCt~l [aTaflEVWV oeov EK TWV

npl aU-ra -raaaoflvwv a-rpa-rtw-rwv -roue; yvvmo-rpouc;, Kuv nVTKaioKa ~

Kat dKOat avopa<;, a<popiaat nt Tft EKCtaTOU au-rwv <j)UAaKft Kat OlKOIK~al.
so. Tou<; o apxovm<; TOU<; flt(ova<; aa<paA.w<; 0t Taaawem l<; TO fl~
npmtTUOflEVOU<; v Tat<; flCtXat<; otanimLv Kat EvTU9v -rot<; a-rpanw-rat<;

i aUfl~ft napal H~
TOt<; TOU to(ou -r6.yflaTO<; flOVOl<;,

365 OAtywpiav yy(vw9at. EK flEV yap TWV fllKpo-rpwv apxovTWV,

nw1v nva, OUOVt UKOAW<; ytvwaKTal aA.A.' ~



naKoAou6oucra ABE






346-347 T~v npWTIJV MW T~ npw<!] ABE





348 -ra2 MWA om. BE

349 v-reu6ev




349-350 au-rwv ... my~vm MW my~vm auTa Ei~ <puAaK~v -rwv 6mcr6iwv f.LEpwv ABE

I Ta MWA om. BE 354 i:~IJAAUYf.LEVa MW


353 i:~IJAAUYf.LEVa MW nap!]Haweva ABE


355 Twv ... pavoa MW trsp. ABE

I Ota<pavi:~


356 i:viJAAUYf.Levov MWAB i:v!]Hawtvou E

357 mimv euyvwcrTOV MW ltUOLV eucStayvwcrTOV A

euouiyvwcrTOV ltUOLV B EUOL<iyvwcrm mimv E I i:<p'


361 Kiiv ABE Kal MW lnevTeKaioeKa MW OEKUTIEVT A te' BE

363 iipxona~ ... f.Ld(ova~ MW trsp. ABE


i:vTeu6ev MW A

BE) MWBE 6Atywpiav

i MW i:av ABE

366 ouoevl

358 w~ MWA om. BE

362 etKOOL MWA K' BE

364 Otan[metv MW KLvOuveuetv ABE scr. mg.



TOT~ crTpanwTat~


364-365 ToT~ ... 6Atywpiav

365 yyivw6m ABE yyiyvecr6m

365-366 napanecrdv nva MW TLva Ktvouveucrm ABE


3. Cf. Const. 6, n. 6.


Advance Preparation for Battle

Constitution 12

i 0 Tic; TWV tfl<pavwv Olanean ~ TOte; Triiatv ~ TOte; TrOAAOtc; Of]A01JflVOc; 6 eava-roc; au-rou 6A.1ywpiav -r4J oA.<.p a-rpm4J iaayL.
51. L:l1o npenov ta-riv, mpatT]y, -rov imomp<i<T]yov Kal-rouc; mupflapxac;
flEXPI flh ano evoc; ~ oeu-repou aaymo~o:\ou -r~c; TWV tx0pwv napa-ra~ewc;
iaofle-rwnouc; -raaawem flELa -rwv ~avowv Kal tm~Ane1v Kal 6.pflo~elv -r~v
TCt~IV. o-r' O.v 0 flEAAD GUfl~OA~ yivea0at, EK TWV iOtKWV au-rwv av0pwnwv -roue;
yevvato-repouc; de; TO TrACtYIOV au-rwv napa-raaaweat Kalnpoepxweat eic; O'!'IV
auLC.iJV Kal GKETr1V aumuc; Kal tKe[vouc; flCtAAOV xetpac; fliYVULV.
52. T~v o a~v tvoo~Otf]La KAUOflV, flEXPI flEV 6 Katpoc; T~c; CJUfl~OA~c;
YEVf]TaL, TCtGG1V Kat m~AETr1V Kat 6.pflO~ea0at Tfi TWV txepwv KIV~G1, TOT o
f:v <4J iOIK4J aou pxea8at TCtYflaTI, onep OU npoc; flCtXTJV, aA:\a npoc; GKOTIOV nva
Kal Kavova T~c; npWTTjc; Kat oeu-repac; TCt~ewc; TELaKTat, TOUt' eanv tv <4! flEG(fl




38 5

xwp[<.p T~c; 8eu-rpac; TCt~Wc;.

53 TioA:\a 8 ~OUKIVa :\a:\dv ~ KIVtV tv Katp4J flCtXT]c;, we; m~Aa~c; OV, OU
GUfl~OUAUOflV tva ~-~~ tK TOULOU eopu~oc; Tic; Kal auyxumc; YEVT]Tat Kat yap 81a
LOUTO ouo -ra napayyeAAOflEVa KaA.wc; t~aKouweat Mvatal. aU' ei flEV 6
-ronoc; 6flaA6c; eupe0fi, apKd TO ~OUKIVOV TOU flEGOU flEpouc; EKa-rept;t napa-ra~1,
i 8 aVWflaAOc; f:anv ~ liVEflOc;, we; TrOAACtKtc;, -rapaxw8Tjc; KlVtTat ~ ~xoc; Matoc;
napeflno8i~T] -rfi <pwvfi mu Ka0apwc; 81aKouw8at, ouK l:ilonov -ro-re Kat tv -roic;
A.omoic; flEpemv EV ~OUKlVOV tv EKCtGTlp flEPl A.aA.dv, wa-re -rp[a AaAtV ~OUKtva
tv OAD Tfi TrapaTCt~l. OGOV yap ~aux[a <j>UACtlTlat, TOGOUTOV Kat OL VWtp0l
a-rapaxot KalTa a:\oya amupta y[vOVLal Kat ~ TCt~lc; <j>O~epw-rpa TOic; x0potc;
<pa[vLat Kat-ra flav8a-ra UKOAwc; ytVWGKOVTat.
367 OtUJ!E<Yf} MW KlVOUVEUOEl ABE 368 6\tywp(av MW 6\tywp(av Kal a8UfllUV ABE I
eimiyet MW ef11!0lel ABE 370 -rwv MWAE -rwv -rwv B I napa-ra~EW<; MW napma~EW<;
oi\af}<; ABE 372 -ra~tv MW napa-ra~tv ABE I y1vw8m MWA yevea8at BE I i&Kwv MW
ioiwv ABE 373 yevvmo-repou<; MW toxupo-repou<; ABE I au-rwv MWAE om. B
374 au-rou<; ABE om. MW 375-376 flEXpt. .. Ktv~m:t MW npo -r~<; aufl~OA~<; -rou noAEflOU
TU<YOELV (aTamv B) Kal em~AEJ!ElV TOV a-rpaTOV Kalnpo<; -r~v KlVT}<YlV TWV exSpwv C!pf16~wem
~v1Ka 0t ~ crufl~OA~ Tof> TIOAEflOU yevf}-rat ABE 377 i:'pxeoem -rayflaTt MW trsp.
ABE(-rayfla-ra) I aKon6v MWAE aKon~v B 38o \a\eiv MWA \eym BE I~ Ktveiv MW
om. ABE 380-381 W<; ... <YUfl~OUAeUOflEV MW ou OUfl~OUAeUOfleV em~Aa~e<; yap ABE
381 Kall ... YEVT}Tal MW YEVT)Lal Kal auyxum<; ABE 382 KUAW<; e~aKouwem MWAB trsp.
E I Mva-rat MW Mvavml ABE 383 eKmpa napaTU~el MW Ctfl<pOTEpat<; Tal<; napa-ra~EOLV
ABE 384 eOTLV MW eanv 6 T01l0<; ABE I W<; JlOAAUKl<; MW om. ABE 385 napef11l00l~f}
MW napEf11lOOl~el AB KlVT)Tal E I OlQKOUW8at MW e~aKouwem ABE I TOTe MWAB TE E
388 iimupm MW iiaKuAm ABE I yivov-rm ABE yive-rm MW 389 flUVOUTa MW
napayy\flma ABE



fall, his death becomes known to all or most of the troops and causes the
whole army to lose heart.
51. Therefore, 0 general, the lieutenant general and the tourmarchs must
take their stand on the same line as the flags, there to supervise and regulate the
formation until the army is one or two bowshots from the enemy's battle line.
When the fighting is just about to begin, the most courageous of our own men
are drawn up to the sides <of the flag guards> and should move forward in front
of them as a screen and then engage in hand-to-hand combat.
52. We order Your Excellency, up to the moment of the charge, to organize
the formation, supervise, and adapt to the movements of the enemy. Then you
should join your own tagma that is drawn up, not for battle, but as a sort of
landmark and guide for the first and second lines, that is, in the center of the
second line.
53 We do not approve of many trumpets being sounded or blown in time of
battle, for it is harmful and leads to some disturbance and confusion. It also
makes it impossible to hear the commands properly. If the ground is level, one
trumpet in the middle meros of each battle line is enough. If the ground is
uneven or a violent wind is blowing, as frequently happens, or the noise of water
makes it difficult to hear a voice clearly, then it is not a bad idea to have one
trumpet sound in each of the other divisions, which means that three trumpets
will sound in the whole battle line. The better silence is observed, the less
disturbed will the younger men be and the less excited the horses; the line will
appear more fearsome to the enemy, and the commands will be more easily


Constitution 12
54- ~lO ouo T~V oiavouv <pWV~V aKaipw~ 01 UK01JW0at flHa TO KlV1a0at

T~V rrapaTU~lV errl JTOAf10V, ana UflU TOU e~A0LV arro TOU <pOO"O"CtTOU ~youv
TOU U1tALKTOU TOY GTpaTOV errl T~V f1Ctxr1V navTo(av ~auxiav iiyLv KUL flf]Ofv

aKaipw~ <p0yywem. TOUTO yap ou flOVOV TOY mpaTOV aT<ipaxov <pUACtTTl,

ana Kal TU TWV apxovTWV ~avoa flHa rrpoaox~~ U1tOO"K01telG0at JtOl1.

55 To 0 flETpov Kall T~v rrot6TTJTU T~~ aufl~oA.~~ auTo TO rrpawa OoKtf1<'t(L .l

Kal ~ a<piy~t~ ~ npnouaa Kal ~ T<DV exepwv napouaia Kat KlVOUVTU flEV npo~

T~v auflJTAOK~v T~v auv~eTJ XptaTtavo'l~ vtKT]T~ptov Tou amupou <pwv~v avaKp<i(t:tv 01. ()T' UV 0 L~ Xlpa~ f..0n 6 GTpaTO~, TOT CtAQACt(lV ~ wpuaa0at, KUL
flCtAlO"Ta TOU~ oma0V TQO"O"OflEVOU~, npo~ KUTCt1tAT]~lV TWV exepwv KUL Otava400 O"Taatv T<DV iO(wv OUK iiTOJtOV eanv.
56. Apf100lOV 0 ~fllV KUTU<paivnm v T(il T~~ CJUf11tAOK~~ Katp(il Kat TO TWV

A.t:yoflvwv KavmTwpwv pyov. oDTot 6 dmv ol TOY aTpaTov &a A6ywv napo-

TpuvovT~ Kat CJUfl~OUAUOVT~ Kat KUTJtq00VT~ Kat napaKUAOUVT~ 1tp0~

TOU~ aywva~ Kal Iva, i OuvaTOV, ~ QUTWV eKdvwv TWV mpaTlWTWV ~ TWV

apxovTWV TO TOLOUTOV pyov 7tOllTat. emf..yovTal 0 TOlOUTOU~ f..oy(ou~ iiv-

Opa~ ol apxovT~ Kal ouvaTou~ Ota A6ywv 6f1LAtv T(il aTpaT(il. ~ yap Kotvwvia
TOU Kafl<'tTou Kal TWV n6vwv U7tt0t:mpou~ not[ TOU~ aKouovTa~ TOt~ napaKoA.oueoum aumpanwmt~.
57 AyLv 6 Toil~ KavT<iTwpa~ npo~ Tov aTpaTov npoTpt:rrnK<i nva rrpo~
410 Tov rr6AflOV Totaum rrpwTov flEV avafltflv~aKovTa~ Twv flta0wv T~~ d~ E>t:ov
rriaTW~ Kal Ta~ eK ~amAtwv t:ut:pywia~ Kai nvwv emTDXLWV rrpoyt:yVT]f1EVWV.

Advance Preparation for Battle


54 For these reasons, no improper sound of any kind should be heard after
battle line has started to move toward combat. 4 But as the army marches out
ot the entrenchments, or the camp, to combat, it should keep absolute silence
~t!ld not utter a word out of order. Not only does this keep the army undisturbed
but it also enables the flags of the officers to be observed more attentively.
55. The action itself, the necessary closing up of ranks, and the presence of
enemy dictates the measure and the quality of the charge. As it moves into
bli\ttle <the men> must loudly shout the victory cry of the cross, customary
~tmong Christians. 5 But when the army closes with the enemy, it is not a bad idea
<them> to shout war cries and cheer, especially those in the rear ranks, to
tnmerve the enemy and encourage our own troops.
56. The function of the so-called heralds in time of battle impresses us as
tuleful. They are the ones who address <the troops> urging them on, exhorting
them, stirring them by song, and encouraging them for the struggle. If possible,
this task should be performed by the soldiers or the officers themselves. The
t>lficers should select men who are eloquent and able to address the army with
fitting words. By sharing the toil and the labors, they make their hearers more
ready to obey their fellow soldiers who accompany them.
57 The heralds should speak to the army in words exhorting them on to
battle. First they should call to mind the reward for their faith in God and the
benefactions of the emperor, and some of their previous victories. The struggle
Is on behalf of God and his love for them and on behalf of the entire nation. It is,

Kal OTl 6 aywv imp E>wu ECJTl Kal T~~ d~ aUTOV ay<inT]~ Kal urrep OAOU TOU
397-398 6 omupoc; vtKi;t. vincit crux.
39o 6ET MWA om. BE 1 aKOum8m MWA 6taKouecr8m BE I Ktve1o8m MW Ktv~om ABE
391 aAA.a MW aAA.' ABE I TOU 1 MW TW AE TO B I TOU 2 . ~youv MW om. ABE 392 f!fJ6v
MWA f!fJ6va BE 394 arrooKorre1o8at MW arro~A.rrecr8at ABE 395 T~v TrOLOTfJTa MW
TOV <p6rrov ABE 397 xptonavo1c; ABE om. MW 397-398 avaKpa<Lv MWA avayKa<Lv
BE 398 wpuiio8at Va 6puiio8at MW wpum8at ABE 399-400 6tavaommv Va
avaoTa<JLV MW 6tyepmv ABE 400 i6iwv MWAB OLKelWV E 402 AYOf!EVWV MW om.
ABE 1 KavTmwpwv MW oTpaTOKfJpuKwv ABE 403 Kal KanmaoovTec; MW om. ABE
404 d MWAE de; B 405 rrotETTaL Va rrotouVTat MW TrOLWVTat ABE I A.oyiouc; MW
rrepiA.oyov A rrepl A.6yov BE 407-408 rrapaKoA.ou8oum MWE rrapaKoA.ou8oumv B

rrapaKaA.oum A (corr. ex rrapaKoA.ou8ouot) 409 6 MWBE 6 Kat A I KavTaTwpac; MW

oTpa<oK~puKac; ABE I Ttva MW nva Kal 6teyeipovm ABE 410-411 Twv ... rrioTewc; MW
Tijc; de; 8e6v rrionwc; TOV f!to86v ABE 411 ~amA.twv MW ~amA.Ewc; ABE I errtTUXLWV MW
euTUXLWV ABE 1 rrpoyeyVfJf!EVWV MWAE rrpooyeyVfJf!EVWV B 412 Kal' MWAB om. E I
ecrTt MWAB eonv E

4 See Dennis, "The Byzantines in Battle."

5. Stavros nika (the cross is victorious). On beginning their advance the soldiers were to
shout: Nobiscum Deus (God is with us): Strat. 2.18. Cf. also Vegetius, Epitoma rei militaris, 35








Advance Preparation for Battle


8vou<;. TIAtov 8 imp nov CtOeA<pWV TWV O!lOTfLO"TWV, i TUXOl, Kat imp yuvmKWV Kal TBKVWV Kal TraTp[8o<; Kal on aiwv[a !lEVel ~ !lY~!lfl TWV apt<HUOVTWV
KaLa TfOAe!lOU<; imp T~<; TWV aOcA<pWV eA.U8epla<; Kal on KaTa TWV TOU ewu
exepwv 6 TO(JOUTO<; aywv Kal on ~!lel<; !lfY TOY 8eOV xo!lY <pLAOV TOY xovTa
e~oua[av T~<; poTI~<; TOU rrOAe!lOU, eK1VOl 8 evavr[ov mhov xoucn 8ta T~<; i<;
mhov amaT[a<; Kal c'( n -repov TOUTOl<; O!lOlOV emvoouvm<; Tf0t1a8at T~V
TrpOTpemtK~v vou8w[av. rroAA.a yap iaxun Towuw<; A.6yo<; uKaipw<; ytv6!lYo<;
Oteydpat \lfVXa<; !liiAAov ~ XP'l!l<:hwv TIA~So<;.
58."En 8 aot Kai TOUTO ou rrapaAl\lfW, erret8~ yap 8uvm6v e<Hl KaTa<JTOXCtaaa9at TOU<; evavTLOU<; T~<; rroa6T!]TO<; TOU ~llnepou aTpmou W<; errmoA.U 8ta
TOU apt9!lOU TWV ~av8wv, avayKaLOV dvat A.oyt(O!leea Mo O!lOla ~av8a Ka8'
eKamov TCtY!la, v flEV TO au9eVTlKOV, TO O<peLAOV err' OYO!lUTl dvat TOU KO!ll]To<;, i!Tepov 8 TO Tou KevTapxou Kal a!l<p6-repa Ta ~av8a ~aaTa(wSm flBXPt T~<;
~llepa<; TOU rrOAB!lOU. KaT' auT~V 8 I T~V ~!lepav T~<; CJUfl~OA~<; Ta au9VTtKa
Kal116va ~av8a il\lfouaem, wm ll~ TroAA.wv ~av8wv U\lfOD!levwv <pupetv O.rravTa
~ Kal avm[yvwcna yeveaem TOL<; i8[ot<; auTWV aTpaminat<;. evTU9ev yap
8uvm6v ean Kal rroA.uv TOY GTpaTOV <pa[vwem eK TOU apt9!lOU auTWV Kal Tfi
~!lBP<;t TOU rroAe!lOU Ta au9vnKa, w<; UTtyvwam, <pa[vw9at.
59. IIpo 8 nvwv ~flepwv Tou Katpou -r~<; aull~oA.~<;, oT !lCtAtam Kal rrpoyullvaa[av 81 yeva9at TWV T TrapayyeA!lCtTWV KUL TWV !lPlKWV KlV~CJWV, Oct
TOU<; EKCtaTI]<; TODp!la<; apxovm<; !lTaKaA.eaaa9at Kal 8taA.aA.~aat rrpo<; TOU<;
-rou i8[ou 11epou<; Ta apf168ta, oiov 6-rt "ou !lCtTI]Y ai yullvaa[m -rwv a-rpanwTwv
rrapa T -rwv rraA.mwv Kal ni>v vwv a-rpm!]ywv e~n9J]crav Kal ai Ka-ra -rexv'lv
Trapma~el<; Kal ai err' eu9ela<; Kal KUTa KUKAOU<; Kal Ta aHa ax~llaTa KlV~(Jt<;.
431-582 Strat., 3.11-16.
417 pon~<; ... 1tOAEf!OU MW
trsp. ABE 417-418 T~<; ama-rla<; MW T~V -- amo-r[av ABE 418 TOUTOL<; Of!OLOV MW
trsp. ABE 419 ytv6f!VO<; MWA AEYOf!EVO<; BE 420 n:\~Oo<; MWA om. BE
421-422 ht. .. Ka-raa-roxaaaaOat MW nw5~ oe c5uva-r6v i:a-rt (anv A) c5ta -rou aptOf!ou -rwv
~avowv a-roxaaaaem ABE 422-423 w<; ... ~avowv MW om. ABE 423 ouo MWA p- BE
424 TCtYf!U MW TCtYf!U lVUl ABE I au6VTLKOV MW KUptov ABE 426 au6VTLKCt MW
Kupta ABE 427 Kal MWA om. BE I ~avou MWAE ~avoa -rou no:\11ou B 428 ~ MW
om. ABE I yeveaem MW ylvwem ABE 430 au6VTLKCt MW KUpla ABE I U7tlyvwcr-ra
MW AB enlyvwcr-ra E 431 npo MW AE npo<; B I nvwv ~f!Epwv MW trsp. ABE
432 yevtaem MWA ylvwem BE 433 f!ETUKaMcraaem MW npocrKaAecraaem ABE
433-434 Kal... C!pf!6c5ta MW -roil<; -rou tolou f!Epou<; Kal c5ta:\a:\~crm npo<; au-roil<; -ra
Ctpf!6~ovm ABE 43 5 TIUAULWV ... vtwv MW vewv Kal TWV TIUAULWV ABE 436 KUP ...
KLV~Ol<; MW KLV~Ol<; Kal TCt iiA.Aa crx~f!UTU ABE
413 niiv 1 W om. MABE

2 51

furthermore, on behalf of their brothers and fellow believers and, if it applies,

for their wives and children and their fatherland. Eternal indeed remains the
memory of those who have valiantly striven against the foe on behalf of the
freedom of their brothers, and who have struggled so bravely against the
tmemies of God. We indeed hold God as our friend who bears the power of
b<\hmce in war. The foe are the very opposite because of their lack of faith in
hlm. If the heralds think of anything else along these lines, they should make
Ul!e of it in their exhortations and admonitions. Such words uttered at the right
time are very powerful in arousing spirits, more than a large amount of money.
58. Still <addressing> you, I will not omit this. Since it is generally possible
the enemy to estimate the numbers in our army by the number of standards,
we consider it necessary for each unit to have two standards, both very similar.
One is the authentic standard which ought to be in the name of the count and
the other that of the kentarch. Both standards should be carried aloft until the
day of battle, but on that day the authentic standard alone should be raised.
f1lying a large number of standards leads to confusion and they may not be
recognized by their own soldiers. In this way, then, it is possible for the army to
appear large from the number of standards and on the day of battle to fly the
authentic one only and it will be easily recognized.
59 Some days before the day of battle, especially when preparatory drilling
in the commands and the maneuvers of divisions is scheduled, the officers of
each tourma should be called together and should address appropriate words to
the men of their own divisions, along the following lines.6 It was not in vain that
the generals, both ancient and modern, regulated the drills and the skillfully
arranged battle lines, as well as maneuvers that are direct, those that are circular,

416 n)v 1 EXOf!V MW trsp. ABE

6. Sections 59-80 derive from Strat. 3.11-16.







Advance Preparation for Battle

d yap aypta ({ila 0lWKOflVa, oiov i:A.acpot Kal A.aywol ~ UAAO n TWV etJTeAWV
(<.i>wv EV TOL<:; KUV'lYLOl<:; OU naVTW<:; ~w8ev ~w Kal n' eu8eta<:; T~V <puy~v notOUVTal, aU' ano~A.novTa npo<:; TOV TOVOV Kal T~V 6pf.L~V TWV E7tlTt8flEVWV
UUTOL<:; OUTW<:; Kal Ta<:; imoxwp~aet<:; nOLOUVTal, n6a<p Oe'i f.LClAAOV TOU<:; av8pwnou<:; v auvaet ovm<:; Kal imp f.LeyO.A.wv npayflO.Twv aywvt(oflvou<:; npoaexovTw<:; Kal Ta<:; OlW~et<:; Kal Ta<:; imoxwp~aet<:; nme1a8m v Tal<:; flCtXat<:;, Kal fl~ wanep
nl uomo<:; nl -ra l:f.Lnpoa8ev ~ nl -ra 6n[aw Kxea8m f.LLKpii<:;, w<:; eiK6<:;, Ttvo<:;
w8~aew<:; ~ TOt<:; x8po1<:; ytVOf.LEV'l<:; ~ nap' aUTWV nayOflEV'l<:;, Kal aflETpw<:;
OUTW<:; EAaUVOflEVOU<:; KlVOUVUlV, aHa navTa i>nOf.LEVetV, wa-re ~ oiouo~no-re
-rp6nou anouM(etv vtKav -rov x8p6v. ouo yap -ro npo<:; 6:\[yov Otw~m -rov
vavT[ov Kal acpe'lvm TAe[a VLK'l m(v, ouo TO npo<:; fllKpov i>noxwp~aat Kal
miAlV CtVTl<1Tpa<p~Vat ~TTa, ana ano TOU npaTO<:; TOU nOAEf.LOU EKUTepa Oe[KVUTal Kal npo<:; auT<) Oel aywv[(ea8m." TaUTa Kal TOUTOl<:; Of.LOla T{il mpaT{il
OtaA.aA.e'iv xpewmoumv oi Kaa-rou f.LEpou<:; -roupf.LO.pxat Kal io[w<:; -roT<:; io(m<:;
6o. LV o fleTa T~V iOLa(ouaav TWV TOUpf.Lapxwv Kal YUflVaa[av Kal OLaAaALO.v, a-rpaTTJYE, TCt~l<:; ei<:; TO ana~ ~ Kal TO noA.u oeu-repov T~V OA'lV napaTa~LV
Kal Of.LOLW<:; KaTaa-r~aeL<:; aMou<:; Kal OLU A.6ywv Kal Ot' i:pywv ETOLf.LOU<:; e!vm Kal
Eflndpou<:; naVTOT npo<:; TOU<:; noAfllKOU<:; aywva<:;.
61. TiapayydA.n<:; O TOt<:; T* npWT'l<:; ~TOL T~<:; npOflUXOU TU~ew<:; apxoumv
wme -r{il I f.LE<1<p nd8w8m flEpet, v8a -rov i>noa-rpa-r'ly6v aou aufl~a[vet Taaaw8m ~TOL TOV A.ey6flVOV vuv TOU 8f.laTO<:; flPUPX'lV Kal iaoua8m auT{il Kal T~v aufl~OA~v note'la8m. Kal muT'l<:; yevof.!EV'l<:;, av -rpanwmv ol x8po(,
TOU<:; f.lEV KOUpawpa<:; auv Aaa(<;t 6pf.!UV KaT' au-rwv ei<:; mo(w~LV ew<:; aUTOU TOU
cpoaaa-rou aMwv, -rou<:; 0 Otcpvawpa<:; naKoA.ou8e1v v -ra~eL Kal fl~ anof.!EVetv
Iva -rwv x8pwv, w<:; eiK6<:;, avnmpecpof.!vwv, av !l~ ouv118wmv ~aa-raam oi



MWBE 439-440 aAA.' ... notofwrat
439-440 tnm8q.uvwv m'>Tot~ MW emOtwK6vTwv mha A om. BE 440 oihw~ MW oihw A
437 (wa


om. BE I od f.!CtAAOV MW trsp. ABE

on[aw MW omaeev ABE


443 Ef.!1tpoaeev MW Ef.!1tpoaeev f.!OVOV ABE

I w~ ... TLVO~ MW TLVO<; w<; eLKO<; ABE

448 ana MWAE an' B lnpmo~ MW TfAOU<; ABE

450 xpewaTOUO"LV MW ocpetAOUO"L TW O"TpaTW ABE

otaft.aft.~am BE

452-453 f.!eTa ... napam~Lv MW

I en[3 ...

445 E~ o[ouo~JtOTe MABE

449 Ka\2 MWA Kal

I TOt<; iotOL<; MWA YUf.!VUO"at Kal

w aTpaTI]ye

f.!eTa To Toil<; Toupf.!apxa<;

io[w<; YUf.!VUO"at Kal OtaAaAijO"at TOt<; O"TpaTLWTULc; Ta~etc; (Ta~LV B) T~V OAI]V napaTa~LV ana~~

I ~TOL. ..


456 napayyetA!]<; MA napayyeiAeL<; WE napayyeiAa<; B

npof.!axou MW om. ABE

I Ta~ew<; MWA napma~ew<; BE

457 netewem f.!pet MW trsp.

ABE I evea MWA WO"Te BE 458 TOU MWAE om. B 459

I tav MWA iiv BE 462 ouv'lewmv MWE ouv'lewm AB

yeVOf.!fVI]c; MW YLVOf.!fVI]<; ABE


und those that take other forms. For if wild animals, such as deer, rabbits, and
other small animals, when pursued during the hunt, do not utterly abandon
themselves to headlong flight, but look back to see the vigor and speed of their
!lttackers and regulate their own running away accordingly, how much more
llhould men possessing intelligence and struggling in the greatest of causes be
very attentive to how they conduct their pursuits and their withdrawals in
battle. They should not be like water which flows now forward, now backward.
With every little advance of the enemy or of their own forces, as likely, they
should not charge out without control and endanger themselves, but they ought
to be steadfast in everything and strive in every conceivable way to defeat the
enemy. To pursue the enemy a short distance and let them go is not a decisive
victory. Neither is it a defeat to fall back a little and turn back against them. But
It is after the conclusion of the war that both can be determined, and it is toward
that goal that one must continue to struggle. The tourmarchs of each division
have the obligation of conveying these and similar instructions to the army and
individually to their own soldiers.
6o. After dealing individually with the tourmarchs and after their drilling
and giving instructions, you, 0 general, will draw up the entire battle line once
or at the most twice and, in like manner, you will get them ever ready and
always experienced, both by word and deed, for the struggles of battle.
61. Give orders to the officers of the first or promachos line to conform <to
the movements of> the center meros, where your lieutenant general, who is now
referred to as the merarch of the theme, is usually stationed. They should keep
abreast of it and launch their charge at the same time. If the enemy are driven
back by the charge, then the assault troops should quickly chase after them,
pursuing them right up to the enemy camp. The defenders are to follow in
formation and without stopping. Then in case the enemy wheels about and the




Constitution 12

Advance Preparation for Battle

K01Jpowp<;, EK TOU TIAfl<JLOV t<; TOU<; Ot<pvowpa<; Ka-ra<pn)yov-r<; miAtV rau-rou<;

avaKaAE<JWVTal. av !1EVTOl v mJ-rft Tft <JD!l~OAft <JD!l~ft ~ EV 11po<; ~ TU OAa
-rpan~vat, imoxwplv TOU<; KOUpowpa<; W<; nl T~V ow-rpav TCt~lV btl EV il
OcUTcpov oaytn6~0AOV Kal TICtAlV avno-rp<pw8m KaTU TWV x8pwv, TWV
ouv~8wv Kct't ap11ooiwv <pwvwv !1-rot napayyA!1<'nwv AY0!1vwv.
62. Kai, d 11rv ouvfl8wmv l<; <puy~v -rp1j!m -rou<; x8pouc;, otwKtv Ka-r'
ctUTWV, fTtcl TOL Y imoxwpctV Kctl TtUAlV avno-rp<pw8m. i Of ana~ ~ 0UTpov
yxnpouv-r<; ~-~~ loxuowmv av-rw8~oat TOU<; x8pou<;, TOT T~<; ow-rpa<; TCt~W<;
m<p8ctVOU<Jfl<; KctTa<puytV npo<; aU-r~v, Kctl Ota TWV UKaipwv ctUT~<; xwpiwv
nappxw8m Kctl v Ttp !1Hct~U Ota<JT~IlctTl KaTU oupav T~<; ow-rpa<; Kal -rpLTfl<;
~Al<J00!1EVfl<; U!lct -rft ow-rpq Tcl~H opouyytml !lyouv 0!10U f<J<plY!lEVW<; TOt<;
x8pot<; npxw8at Kctl, av -rpam.iJ<JLV, fTtctKOAOU8tV ctUTOt<; O~EW<;.
63.; o Kctl -rot<; nA.ayw<puA.a~tv wm, eav 11rv !1ctKp6-rpov
Upc8ft TO av-rl<; KEpct<;, <JTtOUOcl~HV nl KEpct<;, -rou-r' eonv nl <JKOUTCtptv, KALVOVTa<; <JUVKTivw8at au-r(il, LV(( ~-~~ un' au-rou KQTaKUKAW<JL<; Ttp jlEp1 YEVflTctl, i
Of KOVTOTpov Upc8ft TO av-r't<; KEpct<;, <JTtOUOcl~HV jlflVOlOW<; !lyouv KctTU
~jlLKUKALOV mKA.ivw8m Kctl f!111ptAct!1~avtv aU-ro ow8v, nplv il -ro jlEpo<;
<p8aon <JD!l~ctAclV, Tou-r' E<JTlV, 6-r' iiv 11A.An ~ <pWV~ T~<; <JD!l~OA~<; yivw8m T~<;
llclXfl<;, L Of 'loov ml TO av-ri<;, !1fVlV v -rft io[q Tcl~H w<; Ot<pvowpa<; Kctl
<JD!l~CtAAHV jlHU TOU jlEpou<;.
64.; or Kctl TOt<; U11pKcpct0Tctt<; on, !1EXPl<; oi> yvwv-rat oi
x8pol w<; ano ouo oaymo~6A.wv il -rptwv T~<; Ttctpa-ra~W<;, AAfl86-rw<; XP~
napctKOAou8tV -r(il &~t(il Kpan, -rou 11v rvo<; -rawa-ro<; nl 11-rwnov ilyouv
E!111poo8v exov-ro<; TOU<; 0Kapxa<; ~ TtVTapxac;-apKOU<Jl yap ano TtEVT
!10VWV TO ~a8o<; I av dm XP~<Jl!lOl-TOU Of f-rpou -rawa-ro<; opouyyw-rl ilyouv J
nvKvw<; Kctl OjlOU 6mo8v au-rou 6.KoA.ou8ouv-ro<;.
464 cru11~~ MWA om. BE 465 owrpav MW Mo A WBE 466 craym6~oA.ov MW
craytT6~oA.a ABE 468-469 KaT' aimiiv MW auTOu~ ABE 469 brei ... ye MW d o !l~
ABE 470 lcrxucrwatv MWBE lcrxucroumv A 471 euKaipwv ... xwpiwv MW TUUTfJ~
OtaxwptOj.l(lTWV ABE 472 oupav MW oupav ~youv omcr8ev ABE I Kal TPLTfJ~ MW
rrapaTCt~EW~ ABE 473 E~EAlOOOj.lEVfJ~ MW E~Ata00j.lEVOU~ ABE I opouyytcrTl. .. Oj.lOU MW
Oj.lOU Kal ABE 476 aVTl~ MW T<iiv tvavTiwv ABE I OKOUTCtptv MW crKouTaptov ABE
478-479 ~youv ... ~j.ltKuKA.tov MW ~Tot atyj.laToetow~ ABE 481 tcrTl E ecrTtv MWAB I
avTi~ MW T<iiv tvaVTiwv ABE 1 ioia TCt~et MWAB otan't~et E 483 yvwvTat ABE yivovTat
MW 48 4 Mo MWA W BE I A.eA.fJ86Tw<; XP~ MW Kpu<pa Kal A.eA.fJ86Tw~ ABE
486 exovTO~ ABE exovm~ MW I rrVT MWAE rr' B (sic) 487 dat MWA
488 m.>KVW~ ABE rruKvou~ MW I CtKoA.ou8oiiVTo<; Va CtKoAou8oiivTa<; MW aKoAou8eiv ABE



'*~~nult troops cannot handle the fighting at close quarters, they can take refuge
.mwng the defenders and rally themselves again. If it should happen that in the
h;ntle itself one meros, or all of them, are driven back, the assault troops should
withdraw a bowshot or two, as though heading for the second line, and again
wrn around to face the enemy. The usual, appropriate words or commands are
11houted out.

62. If they are able to turn the enemy into flight, they should pursue them,

withdraw and wheel about again. If after one or two attempts they do not
l!ucceed in pushing the enemy back, the second line should move up and the
seek refuge in it, passing through the clear spaces in it, and in the area
bttween the rear of the second line and the third line it should reform and,
tosether with the second line, attack the enemy in irregular formation, that is,
til tightly packed together. If they turn, pursue them sharply.
63. You should give these orders to the flank guards. If the opposite flank is
longer, make every effort, inclining to the flank, that is, the shield, to extend our
flank <in line with> theirs to prevent its encirclement of the meros. But if the
t1pposite flank is shorter, make every effort to advance in crescent formation,
that is, in a semicircle, and envelop it on the inside before the meros is there to
ttttack, that is, just before the signal for the battle charge is given. But if the
opposite line is the same length, they should remain in their own position as
defenders and join the meros in the charge.
64. You should give these orders to the outflankers. Until the enemy
advances to two or three bowshots from our battle line, they are to follow the
right wing closely, but under cover. One tagma should have its dekarchs and
pentarchs posted forward in the front rank, for a depth of only five is enough if
the men are suitable. The other tagma follows along behind the first in irregular
order, that is, thickly together.


Advance Preparation for Battle

Constitution 12
65. Ta 8 ~aY8a ~youy -rae; KE<paAi:tc; auTWY fl~ 6peac; KpaTELY, aAf..a bttK-

we; Katpoc; YEYI'jTal xplac; TOD cpa[ywem au-ra, Elc; TO ll~ npo<patYOflEVa Tote; exepoi:c; mytYWGK0'em Kal flCiAAOY m~OUAU0'em im' auTWY Touc;

490 KAlflEYac;

KpaTODVTac; auTa.
66. Kal ay flaKpOTEpOY TO UYTlc; KEpac; EUpEeft, np6TEpOY nl Kpac; KAlV-

aem, TOUT' EaTlY nl KOYTaptY, Kal 6\.[yoy TOD

Ot~lOD flEpouc; y T(il 11EpmaTlY

495 Efl~paOUYOVTOc; napEKTELYat flEXpt<c; ou> Kal ~fllGU aaytTTO~OAOU 8ta TO U11p~aAat TO UYTlc; KEpac; de'

oihwc; EKYEUOYTac; KaT' au-roil Kal KUKAODYTac; napay-


The standards, that is, their heads, should not be held straight up but
!ndlned down until the time is right to display them. Otherwise they may be
"''ognized by the enemy, who may then take action against the flag bearers.
66. If the opposite flank is longer, first incline to the flank, that is, the lance,
the right meros slackens its pace a bit, extending itself to about half a
bowshot in order to outflank the opposing wing. While they are turning to the
and encircling it, give the command: "Head out:' Immediately the condroungos should suddenly charge out from behind with great force and

yAAlY TO "~Ae" Kal uewc; E11l11Efl\f!aL KaLa TOD YWTOU aUTWY TOY AaYeaYOYTa 8poiJyyoy Q<j)YW KaTa Aa<J[ac; 6~lac;.
67. Tp110flEYWV 8 TWY exepwY ll~ m8tWKlY Touc; <pEUYOYTac;, aA.Aa uewc;
500 Ka-ra -roil Yw-rou -rwY ia-raflYwY pxwem lifla -r(il t-rpc.p -ray11an l

8 KoY-r6-r-

p6Y anY, uewc; ~pxwem Kal flTJYon8wc; flnEptAafl~aYtY mho l 8 '(aoY

EGTlY, 6\.[yoy napEKTlYlY Kal imp~aAAlV TO UYTtc;, Eha oihwc;, we; dpl'jTal,
OPflCiY KaT' au-roil. ay flY OUY, o-r' (iy napEKTElYWYTat oi U11EpKEpaa-ra[, ~OUAI'j
ewatY Kal oi UYTlc; OflOLWc; napEKTElv0'em, 81 Kal uewc; KaT' aUTWY 6pflUY, y

oac.p UKaTaaTaTOl EUpl<JKOYTat. aYayKI'j yap a-rpE<pOflEYWV auTWY nl KEpac; Kal

-ra 8~l<X au-rwY YUflYa EXELY Kal T~Y acp(y~tY 8taAAUflEYI'jV.

68. Tau-rae; 8 -rae; KuKA.wanc;

ll~ flOYOY 8oy -roue; unEpKEpaa-rac; KaYoYI(EtY

~youv -roue; -roil 8c:~wu flEpouc; npoflaxouc; de; -ro ll~ noA.u Efl~paouYELY, flTJ8

11UALY npo 110AAOU 110lELY, aA.Aa Kal TOY TOD flEpouc; apxoYTa, Eh TOUpflUPX'lc;

489 aHa MW aA.A' ABE 489-490

490 <paivw6m MWAB <ppaivwem E 493


MW AB bnKeKAtaf!EVa~ E
MW Twv i:vaVTiwv ABE 494 KovTaptv

MW KOVTapwv ABE 495 f!EXPL~ ou Strat. f!EXPL codd. I ~f!LO'u MWA ~f.liaew~ BE
495-496 urrep~aAat MW rrept~aAeiv ABE 496 avTl~ MW i:~evavTia~ ABE 497 KUTa ...
VWTOU MW orr[aw ABE 498 KUTCt MW f.leTCt ABE 499 i:mOLWKeLV MW A OlWKeLV BE
499-500 ana ... pxw6at MW aAA.' LO'Taf!EVOU~ orriaw ltOAf!iV ABE 500 TWV iaTaf!EVWV
Va LO'Taf!EVOU~ codd. 501 EO'TlV MW EO'TlV (EO'Tl BE) TO e~evaVT[a~ Kepa~ ABE I]VOl0W~
MW mwaToetow~ ABE I Ef!rreptAaf.l~avetv Va i:mAaf!~<'tvw6m MW rreptAaf.l~<'tvetv ABE I
auTo ABE auToii MW 501-502 ei ... aVTi<; MWA om. BE 502 To aVTi~ MW auTo A om.
BE 503 i:O.v ... ilv MW ih' ilv f!EV ouv ABE 503-504 ~oUA1]6wmv ... rrapeKTeivwem
MWA om. BE 503-504 ~OUA1]6wmv MW eav ~OUA1]6Wm A om. BE 504 aVTl~ MW
i:vavTLOL A om. BE I Kal2 MW om. ABE 505 oaw MWAB oaa E 506 a<piy~tv MW a~v
TU~Lv A avvTa~Lv BE I 8taAAUf!EVI]V MW 8taAAUf!EVI]V Kat f.l~ auvw<pLYf!EVI]V ABE
507 f.l~ ... 8eov MW XP~ f.l~ f16vov ABE
509 rraAtv MW AE om. B

508 ~youv ... rrpof!<'txou~ MW om. ABE

67. If the enemy are turned back in flight we should not pursue them, but
lltr<lightaway link up with the other tagma and attack the rear of the remaining
~,ttlits. If <the enemy line> is shorter, move out immediately and in crescent
ft:mnation envelop it. If <the lines> are of the same length, extend the ranks a
little to outflank the opposing wing. Then, as instructed, charge against it. If,
therefore, while the outflankers are extending their ranks, our opponents want
to extend theirs in like manner, then you must immediately charge against them
while they are still moving about. As they turn by the flank, they will necessarily
have to expose their right, and their tight formation will be broken up.
68. Not only must the outflankers, that is, those in the promachos line of the
right meros, regulate these encircling movements so that they are not too far
behind or, on the other hand, too much ahead; rather, the commander of the




Advance Preparation for Battle

ECJTtV dn: n:p6~ Tt~, wan: yxetpouvrwv TWV imepKepaaTWV Kat apxoflEVWV

whether a tourmarch or of some other rank, should bring the entire

mems into action at the same time that the outflankers make their attack and
!lnemy are beginning to get confused.

TWV CtVTt~ eopu~eiaem, TOT Kat a\m)v TO OAOV flEpo~ miyetv.

69. A6yo~ 0 T(iJ apxovTl yivwem 6cpetAl TOU, ei flEV an 8UVUTOV mh(iJ,


TO CtVTL~ flEpo~, rre( TO( ye OU, KUV iaouaem auT(iJ, av Kat flaKpo-

69. That officer ought to be instructed to outflank the opposing meros if he

TEpa eupeen TWV vavT(wv ~ rrapaTa~l~, wme EVTeueev Ctpflo8(w~ 8Uvaa8at

do so, but if he cannot, he should extend his line to the same length. If the
battle line is longer, he should enable the outflankers to go about their

TOU~ urrepKepaaTa~

TO pyov aUTWV TrOlelV.

70. nvwaK 8, OTt oi urrepKepamal 8ta TOUTO eiatv avayKatOl, Kaeo Kal EV
YUflVOl~ TOTrOl~ TU~ m8pOflCt~ Tr0lLV aacpaA.eaTepw~ ouvavTm.

71. 'Ofloiw~ 8 Kal Tft 8eUTp<;t Ta~et rrapayydA.n~, I wme Tov flEaov T6rrov v

4> aufl~aivet Taaaeaem T~v a~v v8o~6T'lTa, rrdeweai aot Kat Kavovi(etv ~youv

aTOXCt(ea8at, WaT EV T(iJ Katp(iJ T~~ aUfl~OA~~ CtT0 TplWV ~ Teaaapwv aaytTTO~OAWV T~~ TrpWT'l~ rrapaTa~ew~ etJpe8~vat auT~V tva, av Tparrwatv o[ x8po(,



auT~ ~youv EK8lK'lT~~ Kat ~o'leo~ EV TCt~l rraKoA.ouen Kal fl~

CtTrOflLVD. ei 8 Tparrft Tt TWV T~~ rrpWT'l~ TCt~W~ TaYflCtTWV, i:Jrro8xea8at TO

~apOUflVOV Kat EpXOflVOV flEpo~ e[~ Kamcpuy~v Kat Ufla TOt~ T~~ rrpWT'l~

525 Ta~ew~ rrpxwem auvTemwevw~ Kal fl~ 8taA.Uwem flEXPt TeA.eia~ K~aaew~
TOU TrOAEflOU Kal T~~ rrl TO cpoaaaTov urroaTpocp~~' ana Ct(j>lEVal oihw~ aUVTTaYflEVW~ q>UACtTTwem Kal fl~ m8twKlV CtTCtKTW~ TOU~ exepou~.

72. 'Eav 8 c'tflcp(~oA.o~ ~ flCtX'l T~~ rrpwT'l~ Ta~ew~ cpaiv'lTat Kal 8tw~et~ Kal
avn8tw~l~ yivovTat, XP~ CtVaflEVlV Kal eewpeiv T~V TOU rrpCtYflaTO~ EK~aatv



70. Note that the outflankers are essential for the reason that they can launch
with impunity, even in open country.

71. In like manner give these orders to the second line. It is to obey you and
tit)tlform, that is, adjust, its movements to the center division in which Your
t\xcellency normally takes your stand. At the moment of engagement it should
three or four bowshots from the first battle line in order that, if the enemy
tttms back, it should follow along as a support line without any delay and in
tbnnation as defenders or ekdikoi. If one of the units of the first line turns back,
the second line should receive the division that is under pressure and heading
Into flight. Together with the soldiers of the first line, the second should advance
in good order and not break up until the final outcome of the battle and its
return to camp. They must always maintain their formation and not become
disordered in pursuing the enemy.

Kal m~CtAAlV 8euTepov ~ TPLTOV cpwva~ ~puww8et~ rrp6~ T 8tavaaTaatV TWV

72. If the battle seems to be in doubt as far as the first line is concerned, and

flaXOflEVWV Kat KaTCtTIA'l~lV TWV x8pwv, fl~ arrou8Ct(etv 8 rrpoxeipw~ aUflflLYVU-

there are pursuits and counter-pursuits, then it is necessary to wait and see how
things turn out. Let out two or three rousing cheers to encourage our fighters
and to frighten the enemy. Be careful not to get into action prematurely or to get
too close to the first line, which could result in confusion and a stupid defeat in
the heat of battle. But if, as often happens, the second line also turns back, it

a8m ~ yyi(etV TrOAU Tft rrpwTn rrapaTa~el tva fl~ Tl~ cpupat~ Kal UAAOKOTO~
Tporr~ EV Tft aUfl~OAft T~~ flCtX'l~ rrapaKOAou8~an. ei


w~ TrOAAUKl~ aUfl~a(vet,

510-511 apxof!EVWV ... av-rlc:; MW

TWV tvav-r[wv apxoflEVWV ABE 511 au-rov Va au-rotc:;

MW au-roue:; ABE 1-ro ... trrayetv MW flHU TOU OAOU f!Epouc:; bmiElecrElat ABE 512 A.6yoc:;

MW q>pov-rlc:; ABE I yivecrElat Oq>eLAEl MW ea-rw ABE 1-rou Va tva MW om. ABE I ouva-rov
MWA ouva-r6v EOTlV BE I mhw MW om. ABE 513 TO av-rlc:; MW TWV tvav-r[wv AB TWV

evav E I f!Epoc:; MW Kepac:; AE om. B I brei. .. ou MW ei oe fl~ AE om. B 513-514 KUV ...
tvav-riwv MWAE om. B 516 KaElo MW 6-rt ABE 517 aacpaA.ea-ripwc:; MWA
aacpaA.ea-repov BE 520 -rptwv .. . -reaaapwv MWA y' ~ o' BE 521 auT~v Va au-r~ codd.
523 an:OfleLVIJ MW an:Of!EVIJ ABE I n -rwv MWA -ro BE I -rawa-rwv MWA -rawa BE I
un:ooexecrElat MWA un:ooexecrElw BE 524 f!Epoc:; MW om. ABE I lif!a MW lifla Oe ABE
525 EK~aaewc:; MW OUfllTA!]pWcrewc:; ABE 526 acptevat oi\-rwc:; MW om. ABE
530 ~PUYflWOel<; MW Kal wpuecrElat ABE 532-533 UAAOKOTO<; -rpon:~ MW -rpon:~
n:apaA.oyoc:; ABE




Advance Preparation for Battle

Kai ~ 8wrpa rrapaTU~l<:; Tparrft flEXPL TWV VWTO(j>UACtKWV ~youv T~<:; TpLTfJ<:;
535 T<i~ew<:; tpxoflEVfJ, arrouM(nv'tvwem atn~v.

73- 'Eav 8 arro tv8pa<:; TLVO<:; 8ta VWTOU ~youv arro 6ma8ev cpo8o<:; flfJVU8ft
Kal rrA.eum<:; txepwv, tav flEV OALYOL eialv o[ flfJVUOfleVOl Kal apKOUaLV o[ T~<;
TplTfJ<; TCt~eW<;, TOT UUT~V KaT' fKelVWV fKTrEflTrelV ei o fl~ apKOUaLV, TOT,
Ka8w<; EGTLV ~ TCt~l<;, avnaTpeq>Of.LEVWV TWV npoawnwv, Of.LOLW<; 8 Kal TOU
540 ~avoou fleTa TOU apxovTo<; ei<; oupav ~youv on[aw tpxof.LEVOU, W<; Ctfl(j>laTOflO<:; ~
T<i~L<; -r~v auf.L~oA.~v apf.Loo[w<; rroteTTm, Kal Tpenoflvwv -rwv txepwv TOT Tou<:;

VWTO<jlUAaKa<:;, ehe ev ehe ouo ~av8a eUpe8wmv, W<; Koupawpa<; KaT' auTWV
74.'Eav 8 rroAA.o[ eimv ol flfJVUOfleVOL T~v cpo8ov rrotdv, TOT
545 TO "fleTUAAa~ov" Kal pxov-rm o[ OeKapxm trrl oupav ~youv aTpecpov-rm 6ma8ev

KaTa TUYf!U Wale fKelVO TO flEpo<; T~<; I oupii<:; flETWTrOV y[veaem.

75. Kal muTa<; f!EV -ra<; rrapayyeA.ta<; rrot~an<; rrpo 6:\[you Kmpou -r~<:; flUXfJ<:;
Kal n.ilv aywvwv, Iva ytvwaKWaLV o[ mpanWTUL Ta apf.LO(ovTa. 6 yap TWV
aywvwv Katpo<; Ta TOLaUTa 8tMaKelV TOU<; f.l~TrW TOUTWV Tre'lpav A.a~ovm<; OUK
550 tmTperrn, ei fl~ apa fle-r' O~UTTJTO<; Ta (JUVTOfla rrapayyA.flaTa flOVa.

76. ITUALV o,

tav rrpo rroUou xpovou rrapayydA.n<;, ei<:;

A.~8fJV y[ve-rm Ta

A.ex8evTa. Kal ota -rouTo XP~ a rrpo flLKpou Kmpou Tou rroA.Eflou -ra<;<:;
Tr0lLa8m. rrapayydA.n<; 8 Kal Ka8oA.ou 7tCtaLV WaLe flfJ8va eapp~aat T~V
OeuTepav TCt~lV 7tapeA.8eLV KUV, w<; eLKO<;, Tporr~ TL<; Tft rrpwTn TCt~el YEVfJTUL, Iva
555 fl~ rrpo<:; T~v (w~v Ktvouveuan, ehe napa Twv txepwv ehe Kal rrapa Twv i8[wv,

w<; a~LO<; <8avaTOU>, ei fl~ apa, W<; e'lpfJTUL, TOGUUTfJ arrapa[TfJTO<; avayKfJ

535 pxof1EVIJ ABE pxo!lVf]V MW I crrrouoa(LV MW arrouM(etv rrpoa~KEL ABE I au-r~v

MWBE i:auT~V A 536 vopa<; MW eyKpUfl!laTO<; ABE I oul... ~youv MW om. ABE I (mo 2
MW cmo nvv ABE 536-537 !l!]VU8~ ... x8pwv MW Kal ETCEAEUat<; tx8pwv !lf]VU8~ ABE
537 eav MWA ei BE I UpKOUatV WAB apKOUat ME 540 Ufi(j>LOT0!-10<; Va U!lCJ>lOTOflOU codd.
541 -r6-re MWA -rou -re BE 542 ouo MWA WBE 544 f.av MWA ei BE 545 oeKapxm
MWA aeKapxm Kal ol BE 546 yivw8at MWBE yeva8m A 547 Katpou ... !lCtXIJ<; MWAE
om. B 548 Kal... aywvwv MW aywvwv B om. AE 549 Katpo<; MW Katpo<; ou auyxwp1
ABE I -ra -rotau-ra MW -rau-ra ABE I -rou-rwv rrdpav MW rrdpav -rou-rwv A rreTpav -rou-rou BE
549-550 ouK m-rprret MW om. ABE 550 f16va MWBE 1-16vov A 552 filKpou MW
oAiyou ABE 554 TCt~El MW rrapa-ra~El ABE 555 rrpo<; MW Ei<; ABE I (w~v MW (w~v
au-rou ABE I Kal MW A om. BE 556 8ava-rou ci. De om. codd.


%lmuld go as far as the rear guard, that is, the third line, and set about recovering
73 What if you are informed of an enemy attack or assault from some
!!itnbush to the rear, that is, from behind? If it is only a small detachment that
have been warned about, then the troops of the third line can deal with it,
!lend them out against it. But if they cannot deal with it, then <the second>
stays as it is while the individuals turn around. In like manner, the
!iOfllmanding officer with the standard moves to the rear, that is, behind, so the
is facing both ways and easily makes its attack. As the enemy are turned
then the rear guard, whether one or two banda, should attack them in
74. If the enemy force making the attack is reported to be numerous, give
command: "Countermarch:' In each tagma the dekarchs march to the rear,
that is, they turn backwards, and that section of the rear becomes the front.
75. You will give these commands a short time before the struggles of battle
110 that the soldiers may know their duties. The actual moment of combat does
not permit those who have not yet had experience of these matters to learn
them, except perhaps only those commands which are given rapidly and concisely.
76. Moreover, if you give the commands a long time before <combat>, what
you have said will be forgotten. For this reason, you must recall them to mind a
11hort time before actual combat. Issue a standing order to all the troops that
nobody should dare to pass beyond the second line even if, as might happen, the
llrst line should be routed, so that they do not put their lives at risk, whether at
the hands of the enemy or of their own men, as deserving <of death>, except, as
noted, when they encounter a pressing and unavoidable necessity.




Advance Preparation for Battle

77 'Ermo~ o Kai ano vopac; OEOV mra T~<.; napa-ra~W<.; niJv txepwv

auflP<iA.ALV, XP~ -roue; de; -r~v vopav ~youv yKpUflfla maaoflvouc; napayyAnpo TIUVTWV piyAa<.; npoTIEfl1tlV 'iva fl~ (mavT'lfla, we; dK6<.;, uno TWV
txepwv a8p6wc; UTIOfllVWatV ~ vopav EK TIAayiou ~ Kai ano VWTOU ~youv ano
oma8V T~<.; TWV txepwv napma~W<.;.
7S. IIoA.AaKt<.; yap Kai ol tx8poi de; ouo -raaaovmt -ra~tc; Kal, av fl~ npoaX6v-rwc; y(vwv-rat a[ KaLa T~<.; 1tpWT'l<.; aUTWV napma~W<.; Ot' yKpUflf.!CtTWV
565 ETIAU()'t<.;, EV0pUOVT(ll f.!CtAAOV EK TOU vav-r(ou un' EKElVWV. av ouv ol
txepoi Of.!OlW<.; de; ouo TCt~1<.; -raaawv-rat, OUK a-rt npnov T<fl vwnp ~youv T<fl
6ma8(tp f.!Ept T~<.; npWT'l<.; au-rwv TU~W<.; E<p0putV, a:\Aa T<fl aKp(fl auT~<.;
~youv T<fl KEpan, d-r ~ evoc; f.!Epouc; ~ <poooc; yivTat d-r EK TWV ouo, we;
79 Tov o Katpov T~<.; KaT' au-r~c; EYXtp~aW<.; Kavovi(tv ()' XP~ Kai a-roxa(wem, wa-r fl~T npoAaflP<ivtv noAu -r~c; ~flTEpac; napa-ra~w<.; fl~T ua-rp1v,
aA.A' o-r' av we; ano ouo ~ -rptwv aaymop6AWV a[ napa-ra~1<.; aAA~AWV yvwvTm, -r6-r yxtp1v Kma -rwv txepwv -roue; nl -ro yKpUflfla ~youv -r~v vopav
aTIPXOflEVOU<.;. -raum o navm OUK nl YUflVaa(ac;, aA.A' nl TWV npawa-rwv
575 au-rwv napaAaflP<ivovmt.
So. Taum flEV ouv <ou f.!6vov> -r~v a~v voo~6-r'lm Kai napayyA.Atv Kai
rrapaGKUCt(LV KAUOflV, a;\Aa Kat EKCtaT(fl TOUpflapxn rrpoa-ra~m ~ Kat yypa<pW<.; I arrooouvm, arrp Ka( ()'Ol rrpoLp~KaflV, 'iva ytvwaKn Kal au-roc; TOU ioiou
flEpouc; T~V Ka-raammv. WGT EKaa-rov TOUpf.!CtPXTJV TO -rpi-rov rroaov TOU un'
580 au-rov OAOU a-rpmou TIOl~()'(ll KOupawpac; ~youv npOKAQ()'TU<.; Kal v8v Kai
Kd8v TOU f.!Epouc; TQ()'()'lV au-roue;, TO o Olf.!Otpov TOU a-rpa-rou, TO v flEG(fl,
-ra~m de; Ot<pvawpac; ~youv EKOtKouvmc;.

77. Since it is necessary to lay ambushes against the enemy's battle line, you
must issue orders to the men assigned to the ambush or hidden attack that,
~hove all, they should send patrols ahead so that, as is likely, they will not
tncounter an enemy force unexpectedly and be subjected to an ambush from
flank or from the rear, that is, from the rear of the enemy's battle line.
7S. Frequently the enemy draws up in two lines and, unless carefully done,
our attacks from ambush against their first battle line may have a very opposite
result as our forces are ambushed by theirs. Therefore, if the enemy should also
tt\ake their formation in two lines, it is not right to launch a raid against their
renr, that is, the rear section of their first line, but against a flank or a wing,
whether, as noted, the attack takes place from one side or from two.
79 You must regulate, that is, estimate, the time of this attack against their
llne so that it does not occur too much in advance of our own battle line or too
much after. But when the two lines are about two or three bowshots apart, then
the detachments sent out on ambuscade, that is, ambush, should assault the
enemy. All these things <are not taught> in training, but they are learned from
actual practice.

56o e~vat WaT

558 E1tl0~ MWA Eltl o B E1tl0~ o E I veopa<; oeov MW EYKPUflflaTO<; ABE I

napaT6.~ewc; ... xBpwv MW TWV txepwv napm6.~ew<; oeov ABE 559 T~v ... eyKpUflflU MW
TO eyKpUflflU ABE 561 Kal MWA om. BE I cm6 1 ~youv MW om. ABE 563 DUO MWA
WBE 565 im' EKivwv ABE om. MW 566 Of!Otw<; MW om. ABE I DUo MWA WBE I ouK
tan MW ouKen ABE lnpenov MW npenov aTlv A npenov aTl BE I nii 1 ~youv MW om.
ABE 567 npwu1c; MW om. ABE I Ta~ewc; MW napaT6.~ewc; ABE I <peopeum MWE
veopeuetv AB 568 Mo MWA WBE 570 XP~ MW M ABE 572 Mo MWAB WE
573 ~youv ... veopav MWA om. BE 576 ou f16vov Va om. codd. 577 napacrKwa~nv
ABE otacrKeua~etv MW 578 6.noooiivm MW mooiivm ABE 579 noaov MW f1po<;
ABE 581 o MWA Te BE I tv MW tv Tw ABE 582 EKOLKoiivTa<; MW EKOLKijTU<; ABE
post EKDLKoiiVTa<; scr. tit. const. xiii, i.e. 7tOAfllKWV napaaKeuwv OL6.Ta~L<; ty' M



So. We order Your Excellency not only to issue these commands that we
have already given to you and to put them into practice, but you should also
pass these orders on to each tourmarch or even hand them on in writing, so that
he himself will know the situation of his own meros. Each tourmarch should
designate one third of the entire army under his command as assault troops,
that is, proklastai, and post them here and there about the meros; the other two
thirds of the army, those in the center, should be formed as defenders, that is,








77. 'Em: tO~ 0 Kal curo EVEOpw:; oov KaT a T~c; rrapa-ra~ewc; ni!v txElpwv
GU!J~6.Uav, XP~ Toile; de; T~v vopav ~youv yKpU!J!Ja Taaaollvouc; rrapayyeA.El~vat WCJT rrpo naVTWV; nponE!JnlV tva ll~ cm6.vnwa, we; iK6c;, uno TWV
txElpwv aElp6wc; unO!Jdvwmv ~ EVEOpav EK nA.aytou ~ Kal uno VWTOU ~youv uno
omaElev T~c; TWV txElpwv napaTa~ewc;.
78. IToAA.6.Ktc; yap Kal oi txElpol eic; ouo TaaaovTat Ta~etc; Kat, tav ll~ npoaex6VTwc; ytVWVTal ai KaLa T~c; npWTT]c; mhwv napaTa~ewc; Ot' EYKPU!J!JUTWV
EnAU(Jtc;, EV0pUOVTal !JUAAOV EK TOU EVaVTtOU un' EKdvwv. tav ouv oi
txElpol O!JOtwc; de; ouo TU~Lc; TCt(JCJWVTat, OUK E(JTL npnov T{il vwnp ~youv T{il
6maEltqJ !JEPL T~c; npWTT]c; a1.rrwv Ta~ewc; E<p0pUlV, ana T{il UKp4J mh~c;
~youv T{il KEpaTt, dT E~ evoc; !JEpouc; ~ cpoooc; ytvTat h EK TWV ouo, we;
79 Tov 8 Katpov T~c; KaT' auT~c; tyxap~aewc; Kavovt(1V (J XP~ Kal CJToxa(wElm, waT !J~T npoA.a!J~6.vav noA.u T~c; ~llnpac; napma~ewc; ll~T uaTepeiv,
aU' ()T' av we; uno Mo ~ Tptwv aaymo~6A.wv ai napaTa~Lc; aAA.~A.wv yvwvTat, ToTe tyxapLv Kma Twv txElpwv Toile; tnl To yKpU!J!Ja ~youv T~v vopav
anepxo!JEVOUc;. Taum 8 navm OUK tnl YU!JVaatac;, aU' Enl TWV npaY!JCtTWV
aUTWV napaAa!J~UVOVTal.

8o. Taum !JEV ouv <ou !J6vov> T~v a~v voo~6Tf]Ta Kal napayyAA.etv Kal
napaaKUa(lV KAUO!JV, aHa Kal EKUGT4J TOUp!Japxn npoaTa~at ~ Kal tyypa<pwc; I anooouvat, anep Kat aotnpoap~Ka!JEV, va ytvwaKn Kal auToc; TOU iotou 331'
!JEpouc; T~V KaTaammv. W(JT EKaCJTOV TOUp!JUPXTJV TO TptTOV noaov TOU un'
580 auTOV OAOU GTpaTOU not~(Jat Koupawpac; ~youv npoKAaamc; Kal vElev Kal
EKiElev TOU !JEpouc; TQ(J(JlV auTouc;, TO o Ot!JOtpov TOU GTpaTOU, TO EV !JEG4J,
Ta~m de; 8tcpvawpac; ~youv EKOtKouvmc;.

558 en:euS~ MWA en:l 8 B em:t8~ 8 E I ev8pa~ Otov MW EYKPDflf!UtO~ ABE I

n:apcmi~eW~ ... exepwv MW tWV exepwv n:apata~eW~ Otov ABE 559 t~V ... eyKpUflflU MW
tO eyKpUflflU ABE 561 Kal MWA om. BE I an:o 1 ~youv MW om. ABE 563 SUo MW A
WBE 565 im' eKeivwv ABE om. MW 566 Of!Oiw~ MW om. ABE 1 SUo MWA WBE 1 ouK
tan MW OUKEtl ABE I n:pn:ov MW n:pn:ov eatlv A n:pn:ov eatl BE I tw 1 ~youv MW om.
ABE 567 n:pwtT]~ MW om. ABE I ta~ew~ MW n:apata~ew~ ABE 1 q>e8peunv MWE
ve8peuetv AB 568 SUo MWA WBE 570 XP~ MW 8eT ABE 572 SUo MWAB W E
573 ~youv ... v8pav MWA om. BE 576 ou f16vov Va om. codd. 577 n:apaaKEUa~etv
ABE 8taaKEUCt~elV MW 578 an:o8ouvm MW em8ouvat ABE 579 n:oaov MW f!Epo~
ABE 581 8 MWA te BE I tv MW tv tw ABE 582 K8tKouvta~ MW eK8LKT]tCt~ ABE
post EK8tKouvta~ scr. tit. const. xiii, i.e. n:oAeflLKWV n:apaaKwwv 8tata~t~ ty' M

Advance Preparation for Battle


77. Since it is necessary to lay ambushes against the enemy's battle line, you
must issue orders to the men assigned to the ambush or hidden attack that,
above all, they should send patrols ahead so that, as is likely, they will not
encounter an enemy force unexpectedly and be subjected to an ambush from
the flank or from the rear, that is, from the rear of the enemy's battle line.
78. Frequently the enemy draws up in two lines and, unless carefully done,
our attacks from ambush against their first battle line may have a very opposite
result as our forces are ambushed by theirs. Therefore, if the enemy should also
make their formation in two lines, it is not right to launch a raid against their
rear, that is, the rear section of their first line, but against a flank or a wing,
whether, as noted, the attack takes place from one side or from two.
79 You must regulate, that is, estimate, the time of this attack against their
line so that it does not occur too much in advance of our own battle line or too
much after. But when the two lines are about two or three bowshots apart, then
the detachments sent out on ambuscade, that is, ambush, should assault the
enemy. All these things <are not taught> in training, but they are learned from
actual practice.
8o. We order Your Excellency not only to issue these commands that we
have already given to you and to put them into practice, but you should also
pass these orders on to each tourmarch or even hand them on in writing, so that
he himself will know the situation of his own meros. Each tourmarch should
designate one third of the entire army under his command as assault troops,
that is, proklastai, and post them here and there about the meros; the other two
thirds of the army, those in the center, should be formed as defenders, that is,


Advance Preparation for Battle

Constitution 12

81. l1pt nov tv KOVTap(ot<; q>AaflOUAWV.

Kat nx KOVT<ipta Of: mhwv fl~ EXLV <pA<iflOUAa


81. About the pennons on the lances.?

tv np Katp<iJ T~<; TOU 1tOAEflOU

GUfl~OA~c;, an' '(va trraipwat Kat ~anwmv atha d<; TU Eh]K<ipta mhwv, (h' &v

q>Sa<wmv o[ txSpot am) evo<; fllALOU. rrp6Tpov o TOU Katpou TOUTOU EXLV a1JTa
rravTw<; d<; Ta KOVT<ipta.
82. l1pt 8ta<popii<; ~avowv.
Ta o ~avoa TWV TaYflUTWV fllKp6Tpa dvm ~TOL TWV KOfl~TWV, TU o TWV

opouyyap(wv TALOTpa Kat anoia, OflOLW<; o Kat TO TOU TOUpflO.pxou tVT)AA.ayflEVOV rrpoc; TU ana yivw8m, W<; flOl E'LpT)Tat.

83. l1pl Tfj<; wpa<; TOU 1tOAEflOU.

'Ev OE T<iJ Katp<iJ Tfj<; GUfl~OA~<; TOU 1tOAEflOU flTU T~V q>WV~V Tfj<; TOU maupou VLKT)<; aA.aM<Lv oci Kal wpuiia8m flUAl<JTa TOU<; om<J8v Kalrrpo8Uf101t0lLV

Kat an~A.ou<; Kat TOU<; EflTipoa8v. Kat TO fl~ A.aA.civ


Katp<iJ flUX'l<; rrona

~OUKLVa apKci yap Kal TO TOU TOUpflO.pxou flOVOV.

84. <l1pl maaw<; apxovTwv tv flO.xn.>

Tov OE TOUpfl<ipX'lV flE<JOV TOU flEpou<; TQ<J<Ja8m T~c; urr' mhov T<i~W<;,
TOUT' E<JTL flE<JOV TWV OL<pvawpwv, TOU<; Of: opouyyap(ou<; i<; TU EKaTtpw8v
6oo flEP'l flltaov Twv ~avowv Twv Koupawpwv.

85. l1pl Toii tpwviiv Tou<; T6rrou<; rrpo Tou rroAtflou.

'Ev o T<!i Katp<iJ Tfj<; rrapaT<i~W<; rrpopwviiv Otov Ota flaVOaTwpwv TOU<;
T~<; <JUfl~OA~<; T01tOU<;, TOuT'

an TOU<; flE<JOV T~<; io(a<; rrapaTa~W<; Kat Tfj<; TWV

exSpwv, fl~1tOT AaKKOL iaiv ~ opuwam ~ TEAflaTa, lirrp Atynm rr<iAflaTa, ~


o6A.ot nvt<;,


w<; iK6<;, rrapa Twv tx8pwv flATWflVot Kai, t<iv TL TotoiiTov Up-

8ft, avaflEVLV T~v ~flTtpav Ta~tv tva oi tx8pol avmu<; rraptA.Swm, Kal TOT ~

~flntpa rrapam~t<; tv T<!i Ka8ap<iJ K<iflrrc.p arravT~an.

86. l1pl ~avoou Toii ToupflO.pxou.


Their lances should not have pennons attached when the time comes for
actual fighting in battle. Rather they should be removed and put in their cases
when the enemy has come to about a mile away. Before that time they may
certainly carry them on their lances.
82. About the difference in standards.
The standards of the tagmata, that is, of the counts, should be rather small,
those of the droungarioi larger and of a different pattern and, in like manner,
that of the tourmarch should stand out among the others, as I have said.
83. About the moment of battle.
At the moment of contact in battle, after shouting the victory cry of the
cross, they should shout the war cry and cheer, especially those in the rear, to
encourage one another and the men in front of them. At the moment of combat
a number of trumpets should not be sounded; that of the tourmarch is enough
by itself.
84. About the post of the officers in battle.
The tourmarch should station himself in the middle of the meros of the line
under his command, that is, in the middle of the defenders, whereas the droungarioi should be in the middle of the meros on either side, among the banda of
assault troops.
85. About reconnoitering the area before the battle.
When the battle line is being formed, the heralds must reconnoiter the site
of the battle, that is, the ground between our own battle line and that of the
enemy, in case there are ponds, ditches, swamps, called palmata, or any traps
that the enemy may be likely to have planned. If any such are found, our line
should stay put, so the enemy may move past them, and then our battle line
should encounter them on unobstructed ground.
86. About the standard of the tourmarch.

583-690 Strat., 7.B.16-17.

tnaipouat W tnaipwatv E I ~aHwatv MWBE ~aA.watv A

588 nEpi. .. ~avowv MWA om. BE 589 ta ... niiv' Va niiv
o codd. 590 aHota MWBE nap!]AAUYf!EVU A I TOU AE om. MWB 591 W<; MW Ka6w<;
ABE 594 wpuaa6at Va opuO.a6at MW wpuca6at ABE 595 Ef!7Ipoa6Ev Va Ef!7Ipoa6Ev
7IEpl OtllOEW<; apx6VTWV EV f!CtXIJ codd. quod ad 597 trsp. De 596 ~OUKLVU MW ~OUKLVa
KaAov ABE I tou ABE om. MW 597 nEpl. .. f!CtXIJ De om. codd. 599 tout' ean M tout'
eattv WABE 603 tout' eatt M tout' eat tv W ABE 6o4 tEAf!ata ... AiyETat MW om. ABE
6os nve<; MW tlVE<; EtEpot ABE 6o6 tCt~LV MW napata~LV ABE I napeA.6wat MA
naptA.6watv WBE 607 KCtf!7IW MW t6nw ABE
585 braipwat MAB

586 npotEpov MW npo ABE

7 Sections 81-105 derive from Strat. 7.B.16-17.


Constitution 12

To 0 ~avoov TOU TOUpllapxou, we; dpflTal, i-!OVOV E~f1AAawvov TO dooc;

napa Ta ii:\Aa Ta i.m' al.JTOV ~avoa not~crat Iva EGTtV eumiyvwmov niiat Tole; i.m'
auTov ~avOo<p6potc;.
87. Tiept Gfl!lLWV Kat KlV~GWc; ~CtVOOU.
1\A:\.a Kat ota Ktv~aewc; nvoc; ~v11c; Kat otmp6pou xwpi(w8m auTo ~ tv np
IaTaaem ~ avw ~ KCtTW ~ Oe~l~ ~ O.ptGTp~, ~ auvexwc; tmKAivwem ~ tyeipetv
61 5 T~v K<paA.~v ToiJ ~avoou ~ nuKvwc; nvaaaetv auTo 6p8ov waT Kat de; T~v
auyxumv UKOAWc; uno TWV AOl11WV ~avowv yvwpi(w8at.
88. Tiept Tou 8tw:ppnv Ta ~avoa n1lv Touwapxwv O.AA.~A.wv.
Ou 01 of. OAWV TWV TOUpllapxwv Ta ~avoa v Gfli-!dov xnv, O.AA.a tVflAAayllEVa aull~oA.a eKaGTflV Toup11av, aTtva Kat 6<piA.ouatv t8i(etv Touc; aTpanwmc;
620 <oi TOUpllapxw> Ota npoyullvaa(ac; yvwpi(tV. ou i-!OVOV yap tK TOUTOU TQ uno
Tov TOupll<iPXTJV eKaaTov ~avoa w<peA.ouvTm To 11poc; auTwv auvT611wc; GTflpi(ovTa, O.AA.a Kat oi tv auT01c; Tnawvot TO TOU TOUpllapxou ~avoov tmytvwGKOVTc; Ot' al.JTOU UKOAWc; Kat Ta 'iota <oi>, we; iK6c;, nA.avWi-!VOl eupiaKOUatV.
89. Tiept TOU ~A.netv TOV mpanWTflV TO ~avoov TOU apxovToc;.
t.1 yap Ctt tv EKCtGTD llaxn, tav Kai Tl GU!l~ft TOV mpanWTflV WGT anoxwptcr8~vat !laKpav TOU ~avoou TOU [O(ou TCtY!laTOc;, naVTt Tpomp anouoa(etv
evouaem aunp, Iva ~ TCt~tc; a<pupTOc; Olallvouaa T~V GWTflpiav Gfl!laivn TOU
90. Tiept ToiJ Otaxwpi(etv Touc; O.AA.o<puA.ouc; T~c; napaTa~ewc;.
'Eav of. GU!l~ft dvat tv Tq> GTpaTq> nvac; O!lO<pUAouc; TWV nOA1-llWV, oeov npo
T~c; ~11pac; TOU noAEi-!OU xwpi(etv al>Touc; Kat tv Tpotc; Tonotc; !lTa eu.\6you
npo<paaewc; n11netv.
91. Tiept Tou Katopouyyapiouc; Kat KO!lflTac; Tov mpaTov napop11av.


Tou MWBE om. A I e~fJAAUYf!Evov MW rrapfJUawtvov ABE I To doO<; MW txtTw T~v

xpoav ABE 610 TtOL~<Jat MW om. ABE I f<JTLV MWA ~ BE 612 Kal MABE om. w I
KlV~<JeW<; MWAE KlY~<JeWV B I ~avoou MWA ~avowv BE 614 eyeipelY Va tyxetpeTv codd.
615 nvaaanv MABE nvaaanv a1JTo W 616 A.omwv MWAB om. E 617 ota<pepetv MW
OlU<j>EpetV aU~A.wv ABE I aU~A.wv MW om. ABE 618 aHa MWA aU' BE 619 Kal
MWBE om. A 620 oi Toup!J.apxm Va om. codd. 621 Tov ... KaaTov MWBE KaaTov
Toup!J.UPX'lV A 622-623 i:mytvwaKovTc<; MWA &taytvwaKovTe<; BE 623 &' m!Tou
MW AE ota TOU B I oi Strat. om. codd. I eupiaKouatv MB om. WAE 625 ad ... !J.UXfJ MW A
i;y EKU<JTfj !J.UXfJ ad BE I Ka[ Tl MWBE om. A I TOY <JTpanwTfJY MWA TW <JTpanwT'l BE I
waTe MWBE om. A 630 dvm ... aTpmw MW A i;v TW aTpmw dvm BE I rrpo MW A rr~::pl BE
632 TtE!J.Ttetv ABE rrportE!J.Ttetv MW 633 Ka\2 MW Kal TOU<; ABE I rrapop!J.iiY MABE om. W

Advance Preparation for Battle


The standard of the tourmarch, as noted, should be different in appearance

from the other standards in his command, so as to be easily recognized by all
the standard-bearers under him.
87. About signals and movement of the standard.
But it must be set apart by some unusual and distinctive motion, either by
remaining in place or held high or low or to the right or the left, or by keeping
the head of the standard lowered or raised on high or holding it upright and
waving it frequently. In this way, even in the confusion, it will be easily recognized by the rest of the standards.
88. About the standards of the tourmarchs differing from one another.
The standards of all the tourmarchs must not have only one way of signaling
but each tourma must have its own distinctive way of signaling. It is the duty of
the tourmarchs to see that the soldiers become familiar with these signals and
get to know them during preparatory training. By this means the standards
identifying each tourmarch not only ought to enable them to locate their own
meros quickly, but it also makes it easier for any likely stragglers, recognizing
the standard of the meros to which they belong, to find their own unit.
89. About the soldier keeping the standard of the commanding officer in
In every action it is always necessary that if something causes a soldier to be
separated some distance from the standard of his own unit, he must take every
step to join it again, so that the formation will remain free of confusion, <for
this> may well signify the salvation of the army.
90. About keeping foreigners away from the battle line.
If it should happen that there are some men of the same race as the enemy in
the army, they must be segregated the day before the battle and sent elsewhere
on some plausible pretext.
91. About the droungarioi and the counts urging the army on.







Constitution 12

Advance Preparation for Battle

Kai TOLe; !lEV TOUP!lCtPXatC: mum rrpanav 1tp001"Ct~l<;. aAAa Kai fKCt0Hfl
opouyyapi(!J Kai KO!lf]ll Ci!la athoTc; rrapaKAUOU Kai rrp60Ta00, W0T m(f]Tdv
mhouc; EK rraVToc; Ta otovm E1TlTATv TOV mpm6v.
92. I1piTOU rravTwc; rrpwT Kai i::arrtpac; \jiaAAlV TOV mpaTOV TOV TptaaytOv
Xpeov yap, 'iT i::v <poaaaT4J otaya KaaTov Tawa ~Tot To ~avoov 'iT Kai 1
Ka8' auTO 01TOU0~1TOT Ct1TAlKUl, rrpwtac; de; a1rrov TOV op8pov rrpo rravToc;
rrpawaToc; ml de; i::arrtpav 611oiwc; !11"0. To &Trrvov Kai Tac; 11iaaac; TO TptaaytOv
\jiaA.A.w8m Kai Ta A.oma KaLa T~v auv~8aav.
93 IJepi KaTa0la0W<; KOVTOU~pVtWV.
TO. oi:: KOVTOU~tpvta ~TOl TU olov !llKpa ~avoa n:Vv UKlWV, Ka8wc; Kat 00l
aUTtlJ rrpWf]V wp[aa!lV, rrpoma~m arro rraA.mwv Kai vtwv a1nouc; rrotdv.
94. Tiepi 611Aiaewc; Twv aKtwv.
Tov oi:: 11pWTOV Kai OUTpov T~c; UK[ac; Kai TOV oupayov ~youv TOV oma8ev
Kai TOV 11po aUTOU Kovmpa-rouc; dvat, TOV oi:: -rp[-rov Kai -rtmpmv 1"0~6-rac; Kai
couc; v 11ta(J> we; ~ xpda a11m-rd.
95. 'On ~A<i11m -ra <pAa!lOUAa v GU!l~o,\ft !lCtXflC:
Th OE <pACt!lOUAa TWV KOVTapiwv EV TtlJ Katpt\J TOU 110Af!10U !1~ U<ptLV, we;
dpf]Tat, de; -ra KOVTapta tva !1~ TOTe; oma8ev Kai au-roTc; exoum KOVTapta E!11100[(wmv OU !10VOV Of, a,\,\a Kai Tate; ~aAAO!lfVat<; 11apa TWV TO~OTWV aayinatc;.
96. Tiepl -rwv A.eyo11tvwv OTIOT<ilwv.
Touc; oi:: A.eyo11tvouc; omo-ramuc;, Ka8wc; aot Kai E!111poa8ev otna~a!l8a,
ouc; de; 8epa11tav KaiTipoc; TO avaaw(tV LOU<; 11AT)yamuc; a-rpa-rtwmc; wpi0a!lV,
11poma~Lc;, tva Ka8' eKamov au-rwv -rawa e~ ~ OKTW EK TWV imooew-rtpwv
U<pOpl0W0lV, tVa EV Katpt\J <TIOAf!lOU> 11pL11otWVTat TOU<; Tpau!lan(O!lfVOU<;.
97. Tiepi; Kai <puAaK* ~avoou i::v Katpt\J !lCtXflC:

You will command the tourmarchs to do these things. Together with them
you will also command and give orders to each droungarios and count to strive
in every way so the army may accomplish its objectives.
92. About having the army chant the Trisagion hymn every morning and
33 2'

Whether each tagma or bandon remains in the main camp or is camping

someplace else by itself, early, at the crack of dawn before any other task, and
likewise in the evening after supper and the dismissal, the Trisagion must be
chanted and the rest of the customary practices observed. s
93 About organizing the squads.
You should order the squads, that is, like small banda of the files, as we have
prescribed for you earlier, to be composed of both young and older men.
94. About the armament of the files.
The first and second man of the file and the file closer in the rear and the
man in front of him should bear lances, while the third and fourth carry bows,
and the men in the middle whatever is needed at the time.
95 That pennons are harmful in actual combat.
Lance pennons should not, as noted, be carried on the lances at the time of
battle since they get in the way of those in the rear who also carry lances; not
only that, but they interfere with the shooting of arrows by the archers.
96. About the so-called deputies.
The so-called deputies, as we prescribed for you earlier, are the men who
have been designated by us to take care of and to rescue wounded soldiers. You
shall give orders that among the less-qualified men in each tagma six or eight
must be set apart to take care of the wounded during combat.
97. About scouts and guarding the standard during battle.

635 rrp6amaae MWA om. BE I tm(fJTE1v MWBE avayK6.(av A 637 rr6.vTw<; MWA om.
BE I1J16.AA.etv MWA om. BE I TOV aTpaTov MW om. ABE 638 UflVOV MWA UflVOV EKTEAE1v
BE 639 xpeov MW XP~ A XPEWV BE I yap MW of: A yap 'tva BE I TO MWBE om. A
640 UTIAlKEUEl MW UTIAfJKEUEl A UTIAlKEU<JEl BE I opSpov MW AB opSov E 641 fll<J<Ja<; w
flLVaa<; MABE I To2 MW Tov ABE 642 1j16.AA.m8at MW A 1JIUAAfJTat BE
643 KOVTO\l~epviwv ABE KOUTOU~epviwv MW 644 KOVTou~epvta ABE KOUTou~epvta MW
I Ta ... aKtwv (o1ov om BE) MWBE Ta<; aKia<; A 647 aKia<; MWBE aKia<; ~Tot Toii A.Oxou A

650 <JUfl~OA~ flUXfJ<; MWA T~ flUXfJ B flUXfJ E 651 acpietv MW exetv A acptevat BE
652 exou<Jt AE exwat MWB 653 aayiTTat<; MW aaytTUl<; AE aayiTa<; B 654 OETIOTUTWV


658 TIOAEflOU ci. Va om. codd.


659 Katpw MW wpa

8. Cf. Const. 11 19.



Advance Preparation for Battle


L'.uo oi:: GKOUAKcrrwpa<; ~youv KaTaaKorrouc; ~ ~tyA.crrwpac; XPTJGl!lOU<:; Kal


aypurrvouc; Kal avOpt:[ouc; mA.eywem Kat Mo llavocrrwpac;. a<popi(t:lV Oi:: Kat EK

niJv de; TCt<:; CtKtac; Taaaollevwv Mo avopac;, XPTJGl!lOU<:; t:ic; <pUAaK~V TOU ~avoou
v Katp(\) rroA.e11ou.
98. Tit:pl Tou A.t:yo11evou KavTaTwpoc;.
TiaVTW<:; oi:: Kal n)v AYO!lVOV KavTaTwpa mAywem mT~0elOV Kal


A6ywv eva mpanWTf]V Kat a<pop[am, WaT v QlJTOL<:; TOt<:; aywm rrt:ptTpexovTa
KaTmqot:tv Tole; aTpaTtwmtc; Tou Tawmoc; Kal Ott:ydpt:tv t:ic; rrpoeu11iav 8ta
rrpoTpt:rrnKwv A6ywv Kma Tov n)rrov, ovrrt:p aot rrpootwptaallt:ea.
99 TioT XP~ Mo ~avoa exnv Kat TrOT v;
TiotdTwaav 6 v Tole; llfYUAOL<:; Tawam Kal omA.a ~avoa Kal rrpo Tou


TCOAe!lOV I TO !lEV ev TOY apxovTa xnv TOU TUY!laTO<:;, TO 8 &.Uo TOY rrpwTOV 333
EKaTOVTUpXfJV. v Of: Tft ~11p<;t TOU TrOAe!iOU 11~ TCt OUO ~aaTa(t:a0at ~TOl 6p0oua0at, aHa TO TOU apxovTO<:; llOVOV.

Ti Ot:i m<pepwem Touc; mpanwmc; de; Tpo<p~v v Katp{\} llUXfJ<:;;

Xp~ ouv Kal v Tft ~llP<;t TOU rroAe!lOU EKaaTOV mpanWTT]V v Tal<:;



QlJTWV m<pept:a0at uowp t:ic; Ta AfYO!lVa <pA.aaK[a Kat rra~allUTT]V v T(\)

at:Uorrouyy[qJ Kat &.A.eupov !liav ~ Kal Mo AlTpac;, WGT xnv v avayKf]<:; Katp{\}
Kat aUTOL<:; t:i<:; lJ\jtUXtav Kat rrapa11u0iav Kat ETepOL<:;, W<:; iKO<:;, t:i<:; T~V cmo
OAtywp[ac; CtVUKTf]atV.
101. Tit:pl Tou 11~ aKuA.t:unv Touc; <poveuo11evouc; rrpo T~c; K~aat:wc; Tou



Select two scouts, that is, spies or watchmen, efficient, alert, and brave, and
two heralds. And from the troops formed in files pick out two men to serve as
guards for the standard in time of battle.
98. About the so-called cantor.
Be sure to select one soldier, competent and educated, for the position
referred to as cantor. Assign him to move about quickly in the midst of the
fighting to encourage the troops in the unit and to arouse them to enthusiasm
by hortatory words according to the model that we have prescribed for you.
99. When is it necessary to have two standards and when just one?
In the large tagmata let two standards be prepared before the battle; one
should be kept by the commander of the tagma, the other by the first hekatontarch. On the day of battle, however, do not carry or raise the two standards but
only that of the commander.
100. What must the soldiers carry for nourishment in time of battle?
On the day of battle, then, each soldier must carry on his saddle, in his
saddle bags, a flask, as it is called, of water and hardtack and one or two measures of barley meal. 9 In an emergency, then, he can lift up his own spirits and
offer comfort to himself and others who are likely to have become downcast.
101. About not plundering the dead before the conclusion of the battle.
They should know that before the end of the battle, while the fighting is still
going on, the soldier must not plunder the enemy. Repeat this order to the men

'Ev oi:: Katp(\) !lCtXfJ<:; Iva ytvWGKWatV OTl ou 01 mpaTlWTf]V rrpo T~<:; EK~aat:wc;
Tou rroA.11ou aKuA.t:unv x0pov Kal TouTo rroUaKt<:; ainoic; rrapayyeA.A.nv.

661 acpopi<m ABE acpopiawat MW 662 UKta<; MWAE UKOU<; B 664 Kavn'nwpo<; MW
~youv aTpaToK~puKo<; ABE 665 KUVT<iTwpa A KavTaTopa MW Kavocnwpa



666 rrepnpexovm ABE rreptTpexovm<; MW

667 KaTerraoetv MW bnA.eym ABE

Tot<; aTpmtwTat<; De TW aTpmw codd. I TUYflaTO<; MW T6.Yf!aTo<; Ta rrpoTpbroVTa A TUYflaTO<;

Ta rrperrovm BE I Oteydpetv MWBE OteydpovTa A 667-668 Ota ... A6ywv MW om. ABE
668 rrpol5twptcr6.f!e8a MWA 15topl0'6.f!e8a BE 669 exetv ABE om. MW 670 15 MWBE

15 Kal A I T6.yf!acrt MABE Tawamv W 672 KaTovT6.PXlJV MW A i:KaT6vmpxov BE I Mo



67 4 d<; MW rrpo<; AB rrpo E

67 5 T~ ~f!Epa MW A Tw Katpw BE

cpA.acrKia MW Ta<; A.eyof!ltva<; acrKOOauA.a<; (acrKoM~A.a<; BE) ABE

rra~af!O.nov ABE

677 Mo MWA


676 Ta ...


678-679 Kall ... avaKTT)O'lV MW d<; rrapaf!u8iav

68o TOU<;


I EK~acrew<; MW O'Uf!ITA!]pwcrew<; ABE 682 EK~acrew<; MW

683 ToiJTo MWAE mu B I rrapayyeAA.etv MWA<; BE

<povEUOf!EVOU<; ABE om. MW

cruf!ITA!]pwcrew<; ABE


9 Cf. Const. 6, n. 14-



Advance Preparation for Battle


102. Where should the baggage train be situated?

102. ITou od TOV TOUAOOV Taaaw8at;


Et<; o T<l<; 60omop(a<; 11~ auyKmai1LYVUlV 11la TOU TOUAOOU TO"U<;

<JTpaTtWm<; Kal 11CtAtam x8pwv npoaOOKW11EVWV, ana TO 11fV ~avoov E11npoa8v io(w<;, TO 8 TOUAOOV 6ma8v ~ Kal w<; ~ xpLa KaAe<JOl, Ka8w<; Kal v T{il
nepl TOU TOUAOOU ~11tV Ke<paAa(q> e'ipT]ml. mum, anep <JOl npo8tm~al18a, Kal
mho<; EKCt<JT(J) K011T]ll Kal 8pouyyap(q>, ana Kal TOUP11CtPXn io(w<; Kal npoytvw-


<JKlV Kat fT([TAtV Kat napayyt:Ad<; Kat napa<JKUCt<Jl<;.

103. 'On ~


ovvam( Tl<; VlKUV TOU<; x8pou<;, Taum Oet <puAanw8at

LOL 8 KAU011V,

w<JTpaTT]y, W<JT api100LW<; KXP~<J8at TOt<; Katpot<; v

-rat<; 11axm<; Kal np6Tt:pov 11v cpuA<inea8a[ a Ta<; acpop11a<;, Ot' wv ai ~Aa~m

napa TWV x8pwv <JU11~a[vouat y(vwem, Kal TOT 8ta TWV TOlOUTWV a<pOPI1WV
KaTa Twv x8pwv tyxetpdv.
104. ITt:pl Tou 11 ~ otwKetv tx8pou<; aTaKTw<;.
Kal npo navTWV oov (J Ta<; napa TWV vavT(wv flATWI1EVa<; v8pa<;
peuvav Ota ~tyAwv nUKVWV KaLa TWV Teaaapwv 11PWV TOU T6nou, evea ~

700 napam~t<;

y[vTat, Kal anxea8at TWV aTCtKTWV Kat f<JKopm<J11EVWV OtW~WV.

105. ITt:pl TOU 11~ TOV mpaTT]YOV Ta<; nponTet<; yxetp~<Jl<; notdv ana 8ta
TWV apxovTWV.
Koupaa 8 ~ npont:T1<; yxetp~at<; ota aeauTou nott:tv oi>K mTpno11v aot,

aHa 8ta I TWV api100LWV apxovTWV mum y(vwem. av 11fV yap fK TWV a:\Awv

apxovTWV napcmTWfla ~ amoxla YEVT]TUl, eanv Ani<; <JUVTOI10<; navop8w<JW<;,

i 0 6 npwm<; LOU <JTpaTOU 1tTaL<Jl, avapx[a<; np6<paat<; ~ TOUTOU OlCtrrTW<Jl<;
106. LO<pO<; 0 <JTpanwo<; Kal apt<JTO<; 6 npo TOU noAE110U TQ TWV x8pwv
noAunpaYf.lOVWV Kat npo<; 11fV TU nAOVKT~11am aUTWV <pUAaHOflVO<;, npo<; OE

710 Ta U<JTP~I1aTa m~aAAOI1VO<;, oiov, W<;

tv Ke<paAa[q>

intV. unep (J Ka~aAAa-


On the march the soldiers should not get mixed in with the baggage train,
especially if the enemy are expected. The bandon goes ahead by itself and the
baggage train to the rear or as the situation requires, as we have noted in our
chapter about the baggage train. These matters that we have prescribed for you
are those about which you will give orders and you will see that each individual
count and droungarios, as well as the tourmarch, will know them and carry
them out.
103. That a person must observe those things that enable him to defeat the
enemy. 10
We order you, 0 general, to take advantage of favorable times in engaging
the enemy in battle. First, you must be on your guard against enemy assaults
that inflict harm <on your troops>, and then you must launch the same sort of
assaults against the enemy.
104. About not pursuing the enemy in a disorderly manner.
Above all, you must be on the lookout for ambushes being planned by your
opponents, sending out frequent patrols to the four quarters of the area where
the battle line is deployed. And refrain from disordered and uncoordinated
105. About the general not engaging in headlong attacks but <leaving such>
to his subordinate officers.
We do not permit you to take part personally in raids or headlong attacks.
These should be carried out by suitable officers. For if one of the subordinate
officers blunders or fails, we can hope to straighten out the situation quickly. But
if the first in the army fails, his failure can open the way to complete disorder.
106. The best and wisest general is he who, before waging war, carefully
studies the enemy and is on his guard against those areas in which <the enemy>
is stronger and who takes advantage of those in which he is weaker. To sum it

691-733 Strat., 7.A.praef.

684 tov ABE to MW 685-686 tou ... crtpanwta; MW twv crtpattwtwv tov touMov ABE
686 Kal MWA om. BE
rrepl BE

687 io1w; MW io1w; rrepmate1v ABE

687-688 tw ... toii MWA

688 ~f.!lV MWAE ~fllV ~fllV B I mum MW taiita f.!EV ABE I rrpooteta~Uf.!E6a ABE

Oteta~af.!e6a MW

689-690 Kal3 . rrapaaKeuacret; MW rrapayydAet; rrpoytvwaKetv Kal


MWA t':ydpetv BE


702 apxovtwv MW apxovtwv TUUTU y1ve6at BE

oe ~ BE om. MW I crot MWA om. BE

696 eyxetpdv

703 Koiipaa ... ~ A

705 rrapamw11a ... yevfjtat MW Ot>fl~~

TLVU aa-rox~aat ~ KlVOUVEUOat ABE I aUVTOf.!O; erravop6waEW; MW trsp. ABE

MWA y1vetat rrepl ao<poii crtpatfjyou BE


707 y1vetat

Sections 103-108 derive from Strat. praef.7.A.

2 74




Advance Preparation for Battle


piou<; xn 6 txepo<; rr:\dova<;, oeov (J TU<; poaKa<; a<pavi<nv Ota TO TOU<; 'lrrrrou<;
oarrCtVf]<; U<JtEpEtV. tav o Ei<; rr:\~6o<; avopwv TrAEOVEKtft, TU<; tOUTWV oarrava<;
rrepl<JTEAAE ft a<p<ivt<e. tav 0 arro Ota<p6pwv tevwv <JUVE<Jtf]KEV, owpot<; KUL
xapl<<Jl Kal trrayye:\[at<; i>rrov66eue TOU<; (JUV aut4J. tav 0 f.L<'t6n<; on tvavt[a<;
ta<;<; rrpo<; aAA~AOU<; xou<JLV oi tx6po[, tOU<; rrpwtou<; autwv f.lETUXLPL<ou. KOVtapiot<; f.lCtXETat TO 6vo<;, Ei<; ouaxwp[a<; auto rrpo<JKaAOU trrl f.lCtXfJV. tav
o to~6tat eia[v, ei<; KCtf.lTrOU<; TCt<J<JE<J6at autou<; KUL T~V tK XEtpo<; f.lCtXfJV rrotd<J6at. tav o a<pUACtKtW<; 60otrropoiJ<JLV ft arrAtKEUOU<JlV, tv VUKTL ft tv ~f.lEp<;t,
tOUTOl<; UOOK~TW<; tvopeue. tav o 6paaw<; Kal atCtKTW<; ta<; f.lCtXU<; TrOlOUVtat
KUL TOU KaKorra6e1v iirretpo[ d<JLV, <JXf]f.lati<ou f.lEV autou<; w<; rrpo<; <JUf.lPOA~V,
avapa:\Aou OE Kal rrapaaupe f.ltXpt<; ou to <ov toiJ 6Uf.lOU tvowan Ka[, ot' iiv
arrOKV~<JW<JlV, TOTE T~V <JUf.lPOA~V Kat' autwv TrOlf]<JOV. tav o tv rr:\~6Et rre<wv
rrpotepeun, d<; Of.laAou<; t6rrou<; TOUTOU<; rrpotptrrou Kal f.l~ auveyyu<;, ana
f.l~K06Ev Ot' aKOVtlWV ta<; f.lCtXU<; TrOlEL<J6at.


73 o

107. Ta yap TWV TrOAEf.lWV KUVf]yiot<; eialv Of.lOlU. warrep yap tKEl Ola KataCfKOTrWV Kal tyKpUf.lf.lCtTwv Kal KataKUKAwcrewv Kal totou-rwv ao<ptcrf.l<'ttwv
f.lUAAOV ft OUVCtf.l1 ~ tOUtWV 6~pa yivEtat, OUTW<; OEL Kat trrl TWV TrOAEf.lWV<w6at, e'Lte rrpo<; rr:\eiova<; dte rrpo<; 6:\iyou<; yivovtat.
108. To yap <pavepw<; Kal xetpl ot' 0\j!EW<; f.LOVOV Pta<w6at TOU<; tvavtiou<;,
ott: Kal 06~e1 n<; toutou<; vtKiiv f.lETU KtvMvou Kal <TJf.lia<; ou t~<; -ruxou<Jf]<; ~ tof>
rrpawato<; arr6pam<; aut4J <JUf.lPUtVEl orrep TWV a:\oyiatwv tcrtlv avayKf]<;
f.lfYl<JTf]<; xwpl<; I f.lETU <TJf.lla<; VlKf]V Ktiicr6at, KEV~V KUL f.lataiav UTrOAf]\jllV f.lOVf]V

711 TO MWAE om. B


B xapt<Jf.LU~ E

712 To{JTwv ABE To{rrou MW



714-716 eaV ... f.LETUXELPt(ou MWA om. BE

om. BE

713 nep[crn:A.AE MW neptKorrTE

714 xapt<Jf.LU<Jl MWA xapt<Jf.LU<JLV




tav KOVTap[w~ B d KOVTap[w~ E I oucrxwp[a~ MW

MWA Ei BE 718 MomopoiJ<JLV MW MomopW<JLV ABE I

A om. BE

716 KOYraptoL~ MWA


I eav

721 nap6.crupe MW nap6.crupe TOV n6Af.LOV ABE


724 &' MWBE &a A


725-726 KaTa<JK6nwv

727 ~ ... e~pa MW ~ e~pa TOUTWV ABE TIOAEf.LWV

729 ot' o\jlew~ MW Ei~ rrp6crwnov ABE


722 anoKv~<JW<JLV WA anoKLv~crw<JL

725 TIOAEf.LWV Va TIOAEflLWV codd.

731 auTw MWAE auToii B

732 f.LOV!]V MW om.



up: if the enemy has more cavalry than you, you must destroy their pasturage so
as to reduce the fodder for their horses. If the enemy has more men than you,
cut off and destroy their provisions. If the men in his army come from diverse
nations, corrupt them with gifts, favors, and promises. If you learn that there is
much dissension among the enemy, deal with their leading men. This people
relies on the lance, summon them into battle on difficult terrain. If they are
archers, have them take their stand in the open and engage them in hand-tohand combat. If they march or make camp without taking precautions, either at
night or during the day, catch them by surprise in an ambush. If they are
reckless and undisciplined in combat and are not inured to hardship, make
believe you are going to attack but delay and drag things out until their ardor
cools and when they begin to hesitate, then launch your attack against them. If
the enemy is superior in numbers of infantry, entice them into level areas and,
not too close but at a safe distance, fight them with javelins.
107. Warfare is like hunting. Wild animals are taken by scouting, by lying in
wait, by circling around, and by other such stratagems rather than by force. And
so we must accommodate ourselves to warfare in the same way, whether the
enemy be many or few.
108. To try to simply overpower our adversaries in the open, hand-to-hand
and face-to-face, even though you might appear to win, is an enterprise fraught
with danger and can result in serious harm. Apart from an extreme emergency,
it is absolutely ridiculous to try to gain a victory that is so costly and brings only
empty and vain glory.


Constitution 12

109. 'Err[ TOllTOl<; napaKAUOf18a GOt, wmpa-rqy, Kat oaa XP~ (J JtOlelV
735 rrpo T~<; TOU JtOAEflOU ~flpa<;, OT Kat avayKq <J KaTJteLYL npo<; flUXllV E~t:A.8e'lv
KaTa T(OV ex8pwv.


KUTa Twv


Advance Preparation for Battle


109. These are the orders we issue to you, 0 general, that you are obliged to
carry out before the day of battle, when you are forced to go out and do battle
against the foe.



About the Day before Battle


'Dan: napaaKEUU~ElV TO"Ut; TOUpf.lapxat; npo f.LlUt; ~ OEUTEpat; ~f.lpat; TOU

noAEf.LOU TU ~avoa ayta~ElV Ola nvv ieptwv Kal oihwt; mot06vat TOlt; ~avoocp65

pott; -rwv -rayf.laTwv.

2. Tov o EKUO'TOU TCtyf.laTOt; KOf.LT]Ta npoKa8taTUV n't KOVTOU~pvta Kal
O.vanAT]pouv -ra A.drrovm GWf.LUTa.
3. L:nouoaaet~:; o -ra Ka-ra -rout; txepou~:; noA.unpawov~am ota ~tyA.wv
b.Kpl~Wt; Kal Ola KaTUO"K6nwv T~V TE KLVT]aLV m'nwv Kal TO noaov TOU nA.~eout;

10 au-rwv Kal -r~v m)vm~tv Kal oihwt; <.lpf.L6~w8m eit; -ro f.l~ aicpvtOtacr8~vat nap'

4 LUVTU~Elt; o nl axoA.~t; TOV mpmov KaTa opouyyou<; Kal KaTa;
Kal f.l~ navm Of.LOD dt; v tv vl -romp Kal OtaA.aA.~crELt; au-roit; -ra nptnovm ~ ot'
auTOU ~ Ola TWV io(wv apxovTWV, naA.atO.t; TE O.vaf.Llf.LV~O'KWV VLKT]t; Kal npo-r15 pwv E1tlTUXLWV Kal ota TOLOUTWV npo8Uf.LOnotELV auTOUt; nayydA.acr8a( TE T~V EK
T~t; ~aatAELat; ~f.LWV Ctf.LOl~~V Kat EUEpyecr(av Kat TOV imp T~t; EUVOtat; T~t;

noAm(at; f.LL086v, Ell o npocrunOf.Llf.LV~O"KELV Kal TU OLOOf.LEVa f.laVOUTU Kal T~V

an11v napayyeA.iav, ~v napa ; aou au-rou Kalnapa -rwv iOtKwv aU-rwv apxov-rwv EA.a~ov Ka8' EKacrTov

M (mut.) W ABE

1. A day or two before combat, the tourmarchs should see that the standards
are blessed by the priests and then present them to the standard-bearers of the
2. The commanding officer of each tagma should organize it into squads and
bring them up to full strength.
3 You will make every effort, employing scouts and spies, to obtain accurate
intelligence about the enemy's movements and the number and disposition of
their troops. This will allow you to make proper adjustments and not be caught
off guard by them.
4 When you are not otherwise occupied, you shall assemble the army by
droungoi and by tourmai, but not all at once in one place. Appropriate speeches
should be addressed to them, either by yourself or their individual officers.
Recall their past victories and their earlier successes to encourage them. Promise rewards and benefactions from Our Majesty and recompense for their
loyalty to the state. Remind them, furthermore, of the commands given them
and the other orders that they have received from you personally and from their
own officers in each unit.

Va PG 107:844

1-102 Strat., 7.A.1-14.

1 noAefHKwv napacrKevwv MW A om. BE 2 npo MWA om. BE 3 Toupf1apxa<; MWAE
TOUpflapxou<; B I ~flepa<; MWAE om. B 6 KOfll]TU MW apxovTa ABE I KOVTOU~epvta AB
KOUTou~epvta MW KOVTof> ~epvta E 7 crwf1a-ra MW om. ABE 8 -ra MW A om. BE I -roil<;
exSpoil<; ABE TWV exSpwv MW 9 TO nocrov MW T~V 1!0<YOTT)Ta ABE 12 tnl crxo>.ij<; MW
tv apyia ABE 13 nav-ra MW OAOV ABE I Of10U MWAE Ef10U B I d<; ev MW om AB EV E
13-14 <'it' eau-roii MW <'ita creau-roii ABE 14 ioiwv MWA om. BE 15 em-ruxtwv MW
eil-ruxtwv ABE I -re MWA -re Kal BE 16 -rov MW -rov f1tcr8ov -rov ABE 16-17 -rij<;
rro>.mia<; MW -r~v npo<; -r~v no>.t-rdav ABE 17 f1tcr86v MW om. ABE 18 napa -re MW
Kalnapa ABE I i<'itKwv MW i<'iiwv ABE

1. Sections 1-17 derive from Strat. 7.A.1-14.








The Day before the Battle

s.'Eav 0 nv<; ni>v txepwv auflPfl KpaTfl8f]vm ~ npoapuf]vm, i fl!::v y~::vvato( dat TOt<; GWflaal Kal dJOTtAOL, TOUTOU<; fl~ Oflf.10GlULV <4> a-rpaT4J aAA.' tv
-rep<.p TOTt<.p a<pavw<; tKTteflTtELV mhou<;, d oi:: tJTAEl<; tat, TOU<; fl!::V npoapUOflVOU<; tm-r118uat<; tm8t~m <4> a-rpa-r<-9 nav-ri, -rou<; oi:: Kpmouf.1vou<; yuflvou<;
nt:ptayt<; Kal imoe~aL<; au-rou<; napaKaA.dv -rou<; a-rpanwm<; fl~ <povcu8f]vm,
Ei<; -ro navm<; -rou<; txepou<; tA.~::ELvou<; dvm vofll(wem napa -rwv a-rpanw-rwv.
6. 'Exepwv 8 tyyt(6v-rwv KalOflflOaiou npoa8oKwf.1vou noMf.!ou napayy~::i
A.n<; TOt<; apxouat TWV I TaYf.!UTWV WGT fl~ TtOLtV tv tKlVat<; Tat<; ~flltpm<; GUV~
AUGL<; KaTCt TWV UTaKTOUVTWV mpaTLWTWV, <pUAanwem oi:: TtaVTOLW<; fl~
KaKWGUL TOV a-rpanWTflV, UAAU Kal TOU<; tv lJTtO'!'L<;t ovm<; AUTtfl<; nvo<; EVKa
flETaXELPi(wem d<; U8Ufl(av, d oi:: UflETaxdptaTOl o[ TOLOtJTOL flltVOUatV, xwpiat<;
aU-ro~<; npo<; flLKpov Kal -rep<.p napanltfl'!'EL<; -r6n<.p flTa npo<paa~::w<; ~::uA6you
flXpt -rf]<; -rov TtOAeflOU tKpaa~::w<;, Iva fl~ -roi<; txepoi<; npoa<puy6v-r<; ~::'(nwa(v TL
wv ou XP~ YLVWGKELV au-rou<;. TOU<; oi:: OflOYVi<; TWV txepwv, W<; ~Ofl npot:(TtoflEV, npo TtOAAOV XWpt(ELV Kal tv TtOAefl<.p TOUTOU<; fl~ <pepELV KaTCt TWV io(wv flUXwem.
7 'D-r' liv oi:: flHn<; d<; flUXflV, mpaTfly, XP~ a Kal Ta d<;
ocu-repav TUXflV UTtOGKOTtiV Kat Ta<; tKi8V tvavnWG1<; npoaa<paA((wem Kal

20 CJVfl~~ MW CJVfl~~ etc; ~(yAav ABE lnpocrpv~vat MW npocro:pvydv ABE 21 euonAot De

fVOTIAOl codd. 22 oe MWAE oe KUl B I eicrt MBE ELCJlV WA 22-23 npocrpVOflEVOV<; MW
npocro:peuyovmc; ABE 23 emod~at MW E1tl0El~Elc; ABE I Tlll ... 1tUVTl MW OAW nil crTpm:w
ABE 24 neptayetc; MW neptayayELc; de; oAov To crTpaTEVfla ABE I imo8~<mc; mhoilc; MW
napayyetAI'jc; mhoic; wcrTE ABE 25 eic; ... crTpanwT<ilv MW aHa Kai Tepa p~flaTa Atyetv
ii~LU eAovc; Kal CJVfl1tU8dac; we; iiv TOlOUTOV; EAWvoilc; auTOilc; ~AETIWV 6 crTpm:oc; KUi TOile;
iiAAovc; iinavmc; tx8poilc; TotouTovc;, dvm imovo~cr!J ABE 27 Tote; ... myflO.Twv MW micrt
Tote; im6 cre iipxovcrt ABE 27-35 wcrTe ... flO.xw8m MW fl!]&tva T<ilv imoxwp(wv auT<ilv
ETIE~epxwem (tntpxwem BE) tav TlVU am~(av 1t0l~CJT] Kalnav-rl Tp6nw o:pvAo.nwem W(JTE
fl~ AV1t~(JCll T01J; crTpUTlWTUc; ana Kai Toile; (TOte; B) f.v lJTIO'!'LU ovmc; AU1tl'j; nvoc; Kal EKELVOV;
napaflv8eicr8m Kal eu8vflOTepovc; napacrKwa<ELv et oe Kal (Kal om. BE) ou flETU~aHovmt EK
T~c; 8Alljiewc; a>-A' E1tlflEVOVCJt (E1tlflEVovcrtv A) crnovoacretc; Toii flETCt euA6yov (flETCt A6yov BE)
npoo:pacrewc; anoxwp(crm UUToilc; EK TOU crTpUTOU flEXptc; iiv 6 1tOAEflO<; TEAELW8~ 1tOAAUKl; yap
ol ToLOuTot AvTIODflEVOL npocro:peuyovcrt ToT<; noAEfltOtc; Kal npO.yflaTa nva auToi<;
aTIOKUAUTITOVCJlV a OUK E(JTl (ECJTlV BE) OEOV flU8dv auToilc; Toile; oi:: OflOYEVEtc; KUL OflO<puAovc;
TWV 1tOAEfllWV 1tp6 TIOAAWV ~flEp<ilv anoxwpt<ElV KUi fl~ enaywem UUToilc; EV T~ ~flEpa TOU
MW Kai Ta evav-r(a Aoyi<wem Kai ABE I Ta MW om. ABE 37 anocrKondv MW



5 If some of the enemy happen to be captured or desert <to us>, then, if

they are impressive in bodily appearance and in their armament, do not show
them to the army but secretly send them off to some other place. But if they
look wretched, make sure to exhibit the deserters to the whole army; strip the
prisoners and parade them about and force them to entreat the soldiers not to
kill them, so that our soldiers will think that all the enemy are that miserable.
6. When the enemy are approaching and a pitched battle is imminent, you
should order the commanders of the tagmata not to pass judgment in those days
against soldiers who are disorderly, and not to deal harshly with the soldiers at
all. They should, rather, deal with those who are suspected of having some
grievance in such a manner as to render them benevolent. But if these men
remain intractable, separate them and send them off to some other place for a
while, on some plausible pretext, until the battle is over. Otherwise they may go
over to the enemy and provide them with information they must not have. Men
of the same race as the enemy should, as we have already prescribed, be sent
away long before. You should not allow them to fight against their own people.
7 When you are about to engage in battle, 0 general, you must keep in
mind the possibility of second fortune and take steps to guard against its

The Day before the Battle

Constitution 13


flCtAtoTa, W<; 110AACtKL<; ~fllV dpf]TUL, Ta<; Ct110Tpo<pa<; ~flpwv 6A.[ywv TWV T
aTpanwTwv Kal TWV t1111WV auvayLv Kal <poaaa-ra oxupwTpa J10LLV Kal EV
40 E11LTf]8eLOL<; TOJ10L<;, ev8a 8uvaTOV TO Mwp J1CtVTW<; EK8LKia8aL EV Katp<}J avay-


8. M~ aflA~an<; 8 T~<; apLaTOJ10Lla<; TOU aTpaTOU. i flEV yap, em auflpouA.eu8ft<;, ~ auflpoA.~ y[vTCll J1CtVTW<; EV 4> av 8oKLflCtan<; Kmp<}J, TO aptaTOV TOU
a-rpaTou ytva8w. et 8 Toiho fl~ eanv, flEAAovm<; Toii noAEflOU, navTw<; TO rrpwt
45 y[vw8m TO liptaTOV tva,

i TIJXOL, Kal eupwaTOL elaL Kal 8t' OAf]<; J10AACtKL<; T~<;

~flpa<; Toii noAEflOU KpoTOUflEVou fl~ KA.u8wmv.

9 Xp~ 8 a J1CtVTW<;, ib a-rpa-rfjy, fl~ flOVOV EV TOL<; UAAOL<; Kmpo1<;, ana Kal
EV T<fl TOLOlmp yyu<; TOU 110AEflOU Kmp<}J fl~ af1A1v TOU auflpouA.euw8m, aA.Aa
Kal TOT flUALma auyKaA.aL<; Tou<; un6 ae ToUpflc'tpxa<; Kal d nva Tepov
50 80KLflc'tan<; ayx[vouv Kal <pp6VLflOV ei<; T~V KaTa TOY Kmpov O<pLAOflEVf]V yev-

a8m auflPOuA~V, Kal oihw<; pouA.euaaa8a[ a 8ov Ta 11pl TOU J10AEflOU.

Ka-ravo1v 8 aKplpw<; Kal TOY TOJ10V v8a ~ auflPOA~ TOU J10AEflOU


flEAAL y(vw8m.
IIporrapayye[A.n<; 8 TOt<; apxoumv tva KaTa T~V 11pWTf]V <pWV~V TOU



pouK[vou v Tft vuKTl T~<; Tou noAEflOU ~flpa<; Tou<; tnnou<; nl TOY no-rov
napaaKeuaawmv ~ayayelv tva fl~, w<; eiK6<;, af1AOUVT<; TODTOU v T<fl Kmp<}J
T~<; rrapaTa~ew<; arroA.lrrwvTm.

IIporrapayyLA.n<; 0, Ka8w<; avwTpw ~fllV dpf]TUL, tva Kal d<; EKaaTo<;


a-rpaTLWTfj<; EV T<}J KLV1V 11p0<; rrapa-ra~LV exn EV T<fl aeHonouyyi<p aUTOU flLaV ~


negative effects. 2 In particular, as we have frequently said, collect food for a few
days for both soldiers and horses. Construct strongly fortified camps in suitable
locations in which, above all, water may be safely stored for emergencies.
8. Do not neglect the preparation of meals for the army. If, after consultation, fighting is to take place, be sure to schedule the meal for the army at
whatever time you think best. If no fighting is anticipated, then by all means, the
army should plan to take its main meal very early so that, in case <battle> does
take place, the men may be in good physical condition and, while the battle is
being waged throughout the day, may not fall apart.
9. By all means, 0 general, you must, not only at other times, but also in that
hour when combat is imminent, not neglect to enter into consultation. Especially at that time, call together the tourmarchs under your command and anyone
else you regard as shrewd and thoughtful to seek their advice on what ought to
be done at that time. In this way you must make your plans regarding the battle.
10. Make accurate observations about the location in which the battle is to
be fought.
11. Issue orders ahead of time to the officers that, at the first sound of the
trumpet on the night before battle, they should make sure to lead the horses out
to water. If they should neglect this, their horses may fail <them> when it is
time to form the battle line.
12. Issue orders ahead of time, as we have previously prescribed, that each
soldier, as he moves up to tlle battle line, should carry in his saddle bags a

59 ad auToii des. M
38 Ct1!0Tpocpa~ WABE CtTIO<Hpocpa~ M

38-39 ~J.IEPWV ... auvayetv MW auvayetv TWV TE

l1!1!WV Kal TWV avopwv KUV OAiywv ~J.lepwv ABE

42 T~~ aptOT01!0llU~ MW TOU YEUJ.IUTO~ ABE


43 OUJ.l~OA~

40 f1llTI]OelOl~ T01!0l~ MW trsp. ABE

42-43 OUJ.l~OUAEU8~~ MW OUJ.l~OUAI]S~~ A


44-46 J.IEAAOVTO~ ...

EKAu8watv MW EV T~ a~ e~ouaia aU' UO!]AO~ eanv ~ TOU 1!0AEJ.IOU OUJ.l~OA~ OUJ.lq>Epov EOTLV
'tva TO npwl aptoTWotv ol oTpaTtWTat ouJ.l~aiv!] yap .St' OAT]~ T~~ ~J.!Epa~ auyKpoTLo8at Tov
1!0AEJ.IOV Kal



TVXWOl yeuOUJ.IEVOl ioxup6Tepoi eiat Kal OUVUVTat .St' OAT]~ T~~ ~J.!Epa~


ToTe A om. BE

oe ABE





45 T~~


ev ... TOlOUTW MW om. ABE I Jl~ ... TOU 2 MW Kal

48-49 0.\Aa ... J.IUAtata MW om. ABE

49 ouyKaAeoet~ MW auyKaAEOet~

50 OOKlJ.IUOI]~ ... q>pOVlJ.IOV MW oloa~ elvat q>pOVlJ.IOV Kal emT~OElOV ABE I Katpov

MW Katpov Keivov ABE

55 T~~ MW AB om. E



51 OUJ.l~OuA~v MW ~ouA~v ABE

I oi!tw~

MWA oi!tw BE

58 nponapayydATJ~ BE napayyeiAet~ MW A I Ka8w~ MW Ka8w~ Kal

59 ex'l MWAE exetv B



"Second fortune:' a frequent euphemism for ill fortune, i.e., defeat.





The Day before the Battle

Constitution 13

Kal QUO A.hpac; apTOU ~ aA.upou ~ Tfl<HOU E'\'fjTOU ~ rra~aflCtOac; ~ Kpac; EXLV o
Kal <pAa<JKLV fllKpov tv Tft apya~i<;t UOatoc; YEflOV Kal flh o'ivou Ota T Tac; TUXfjpac; rrptaTCt<JLc; Kal Tac; arravTwaac; xpiac;. TCOAACtKtc; yap TpTCOflEVWY tx8pwv
Kal oxupwflaTt rrpoGTPXOVTWV xpia rrapaKa8(aat mhoic; Ota VUKTO<:; Kal
~flpac; ~ Thv GDfl~oA.hv flEXPL T~c; i::arrepac; rrapaTivw8at. Kal avayKai6v
tanv tmc:ppw8at oarr<ivfjV 'iva flh Tft tAA.i'!'L T~c; oarr<ivfjc; TO rrpaKTov tflTCOoi(TjTat.
13.'Eav 8 rrpoc; ouvmov 8voc; tmlv 6 rr6AflO<:; Kal tK rrpoA.~'!'wc; nvoc; tv
&tA.i<;t taTlv 6 aTpaT6c;, flh arrouManc; cruf.trrA.Kw8m OfjflOaiwc; u8uc;, aAA.a
rrp6Tpov a<J<paAwc; tmT~0D rrpo T~c; ~flpac; TOU TCOAeflOD flHCt t~rrA~KTWV Kal
XPTj<JlflWV avopwv AATj86twc; Kal flh c:pavpwc; I trrpxw8a[ nvt flEPl a\nwv. tav
yap c:pavpwc; c:povu8wai nvc; Twv tvavTiwv ~ (wvTc; auAA.fJc:p8wm, VOflt<JL To
rrA.f)8oc; TWV aTpaTLWTWV, on 0DVCtfll tyvno TO <JDfl~CtV, Kal rrpo8Dfl0Tp0l
yivovtal ThY 0LALUV arro~aAAOflYOL Kal oihwc; KaTa fllKpov t8i(ovTat TOAflUV
Kal KaT' ainwv tyxnpciv.
14. 'Eav of: aic:pvtOLa<JflO<:; YEVfJTaL imo TWV tx8pwv KUL flh <JDfl~aivn Tft TOU
TCOAEflOD xpL<;t ~ 6 T6rroc; we; oaauc; Kal 0D<JXPhc; ~ 6 Katpoc; arrp6ac:pop6c; tanv,
o1ov rroAA.ou XLflwvoc; ~ 6floiwc; KaUflaToc;, flh mTfjOuanc; <JDfl~aA.iv auTolc; ~
TOT ~ tKi<J, aA.A.a anouoa( flUAAOV auvaytV <JTpatov Kal TOTCOV 'iOtOV KpUTlv de; arrALKTOV Kal impTL8ou, flEXptc; av Kal TOTIOD ETCLTTJ&iou Kal Katpou
6f10LW<:; UTCop~anc;, KUL flh UKOD<JLW<:; <JDfl~CtAAnc;. TOUTO yap TCOLWV OUXL TOY
tx8pov <pu~n aAA.a TOY avmtT~OflOV Kat ai<JDfl<pOpov TOTCOV <pDAUTTOflVO<:; an.
6o ouo WAE WB 1 hJ!!]<Ou WA hJ!!]f.U~You BE I rra~aJ.laoa~ WA rra~af.l<ha~ BE
fllKpoY W O.aKooapA.aY J.llKpaY ABE

O.pyapia W pyapia ABE


63 rrapaKa8iam mhot~ W A rreptKa8iaat au<ou~ BE

w AEiiJ!El



61 cpA.aaKlY

yef.IOY W yflouaaY ABE

TCt~ w~ elKO~ ABE

64 napa<EiYw8at W Kpa<E1Y ABE

<GUT!]~ BE I npaKTEOY Va npaKmioY w

65-66 EJ.ITCooi~l]<at W EJ.ITCootaS~ ABE
67 ta<lY ... rroA.eJ.lo~ WA 6 noA.eJ.lo~ ~ BE 68 a<lY WA imapxTJ BE 69 e~nA.~K<wY w
A.acppwY ABE 7 1 yap cpaYepw~ W yap ABE I auAA.l]cpSwm W Kpa<l]S<i>mY A Kpa<l]S<i>at

6s EAAEiiJ!El

I '~~



flEAAOY npaxS~Ym A J.IEAAOY napexS~Ym BE


w CtTCO OUYCtf.lEW~ ABE 73

w OUJ.IPCtAl]Tal ABE 76
ABE I eanv w {mapxTJ ABE


anopaAAOJ.IEYOl A anopaAOJ.IEYOl


ouaxep~~ w OU(JKOAO~ ABE I anpoacpop6~ w

77 OflOtW~ w om. ABE I ETClTl]OEUCJl]~ w



75 OUJ.IPaiYl]

78 a<pa<OY De aeamoY codd.

79-80 TOTCOU ... eunop~Ol]~

A <WY txepwY W om. BE

79 imep<iSou W imep<i8ou <o noAEJ.IOY ABE

w TOTCOY Kal KatpOY EJtlT~OElOY eilpl]~ ABE


80-81 TOY txepoY

cpeu~TJ W cpeuyet~ ABE I aYem<~aetoY WAE m<~oetov B

cpuAaHOJ.IEYO~ ECJl] W napacpuACtnl] ABE

28 5

measure or two of bread or barley meal or boiled meal or hardtack or meat. He

should also carry a little sack containing a small flask of water but not wine.
These may be needed in fortunate circumstances as well as in <other> needs
that may occur. For a defeated enemy will often race back to a fortified position,
and our men may have to spend the night as well as the day there or even
continue the fighting until <the next> evening. It is essential that they carry
provisions with them so that the lack of them may not interfere with operations.
13. If we are waging war against a powerful nation, and the army, not
knowing what to expect, becomes nervous, do not try to engage in a pitched
battle right away. First, before the day of battle, carefully arrange for some
lightly armed, capable soldiers to go secretly, without being observed, and attack
some detachment of the enemy. If, out in the open, they kill some of our
adversaries or take some alive, then most of our soldiers will regard this as
evidence of our strength. Their morale will pick up, they will get over their
nervousness, and they will gradually become bolder and bolder in fighting
against them.
14. If the enemy should launch a surprise attack and conditions are not
favorable for battle, either because the area is rugged or thickly wooded or the
time is not to our advantage because of heavy storms, say, or scorching heat, do
not prepare for combat at that time or in that place. Instead, you should take
steps to assemble your army, occupy a place suitable for camp, and delay until
you have the luck <to find> a suitable place and time. Do not engage in battle
unwillingly. Acting in this manner does not mean you are running away from
the enemy, but that you are avoiding an unsuitable and disadvantageous


The Day before the Battle

Constitution 13

15. If God grants us the victory and the enemy are routed, order the soldiers

15. ewu 8 VlKf]V napexovTO~, av o[ nOAE!llOl -rpanwmv, cmexw8at TO[~







napayyeHe -rou aKuA.euELv -rou~ veKpou~ Twv x8pwv To yap ~

VEKpou~ <JKUAEUELV ~ TOUAOqJ ~ Cj>O<J<JUT(!J nOAE!llWV nepxw8at npo TEAELa~
EK~aaew~ Tou noA11ou npawa 6A8ptov Kal mKivouv6v tan. oto XP~ ae
nponapayyeHetV TO nav-ro[w~ cmexw8at TOUTWV. noHaKt~ yap o[ VlK~<JaVTE~
OUl TOLOUTWV -rp6nwv OU !lOVOV ~H~8f]<Jav, CtAAa Kai CtnWAOVTO <JKopn[<JaVTE~
eaUTOU~ Kal uno TWV txepwv atcpvtOtaa8evTE~ Kal oihw~ KLVOUVEU<JaVTE~.
16. 'Dnep 8 ~IllY Kalnp6-repov e'ipf]Tat, od llUAL<JTa TWV noAE!llWV yyt(6v-rwv Kal npoaooKwllevou noA11ou tva, av tv cpoaaaT4J 8tayEL 6 mpa-ro~ Kal
TOU~ txepou~ avallEVEL EKEl<JE, ll~ !lOVOV EUTpen[(etV Kal ano-rt8evat xop-rov ~
axupov llltCt~ ~ OEUTepa~ ~11pa~ TWV a:\6ywv, CtAAa Kat, av KLV~<JTI 6 a-rpaTO~
Kai ~OUAHat Kai EV ETEpqJ an:\[KT(!J cme:\8dv KCtKd8ev napa-ra~aa8at, avayKa[6v E<JTLV W<JTE xop-rov ~ axupov KUV !llCt~ ~llepa~ ~a<JTa(etV Kai OUTW~ ev Tqi
ytVO!lEVqJ Cj>O<J<JUTqJ anm[8w8at TOUTOV. '(aw~ yap ou auyxwpouVTat uno TWV
ex8pwv o[ Unf]pHOUVTE~ na10E~ aU-rfi Tfi ~11p~ ~e:\8dv Kai XOpTo:\oy~aat ODTE
8 Ta liA.oya et~ ~o<JK~v K~aA.dv.
17. Ei 8 o[ x8pol noA.u yyi(ou<Jtv, OUK li-ronov tv Tqi nepma-rdv, w~ Kal
aHaxou ~IllY e'ipf]Tat, EKa<JTOV auvayetV TOY xopmv, TOY 6cpetAOVTa anoTee~vat. ouo yap !lETa TO anALKEU(Jat noHaKt~ auyxwpouvTat oi na[Oe~ ~eA.8e1v
Kal xop-roA.oy~aat, nA.et6vwv llUAL<JTa TWV Ka~aHapiwv TWV ex8pwv eupt<JKOIlEVWV.
18. Taum 11ev aotnpo -r~~ -rou noA.11ou au11~oA.~~ Ta 11v 8taTaaaw8m, -ra
8 Otanpanea8at I ei~ EVTEAEaLepav !1U8f]<JLV TWV Te un6 <JE apxov-rwv Kal TWV
<JTpanw-rwv napaKEAEUO!leea, e~f]~ 8 Kai, oaa XP~ ehe notelV (Je ehe napa-

82 Tpanwmv W Tpanwm ABE

cmoOUElV ~ ABE

82-83 <'mtxw8at. .. Tou W rrapayyeUe Tou~ aTpanwm~ f.l~

w TOU~

83 VEKpou~ ... ex8pwv

aKuAeuetv WE om. AB

84 rrpo W npo T~<; ABE

rroAEf.!OU W noAtf.!ou TOiJTo yap ABE

JllJlTOVTa~ ex8pou~

91 6.rroTt8evat W anoTi8w8at ABE

83-84 TO ...

Kal... i:an W i:an Kal i:mKivouvov ABE

86 rrponapayytUEtv W napayytUetv ABE I TO W Tou ABE

W A Ota Twv BE I Kal W Kal TeAdw~ ABE


85 eK~aaew~ W auf.!JtArJPwaew~ ABE 1

1 yap

89 Twv W om. ABE

W AB yap Kal E

87 ota

90 tva i:av W Ei f.!EV ABE

92 ~f.!Epa<; W ~f.!Epa~ J.6you ABE

93 ~ouAETat W

I Kai2 WA om. BE I KCtKl8Ev w Kai an' fKEl8v ABE 94 KUV ABE om. w
OUT o w ouo ABE 98 OUK w OUK EOTLV ABE 98-99 w~ ... e'ipT)Tal w om. ABE



99 TOV 1 W om. ABE

101 Twv 1 W om. ABE



I 8 w OE

rra8dv ABE




am W aot napaKEAUOf.lE8a ABE

W A om. BE

105-106 rrapaq>UAUTT08at

105 rrapaKAEUOf.!E8a W om.

w rrapaq>UAUTT08at

TOU f.l~




to refrain from plundering the enemy dead. Plundering the dead or attacking
their baggage train or their camp before the battle is completely finished is
fraught with danger and can be disastrous. You must order the soldiers ahead of
time, without exception, to refrain from such actions. Often enough, by acting
in this fashion, victorious troops have not only suffered defeat but, scattered
about and caught by surprise, they have fallen into great danger and have been
completely wiped out.
16. We have previously written about the following. Especially as the enemy
are approaching and battle is expected and, if the army is to stay within the
fortifications and there await the enemy, you must get ready and store enough
hay or grass for the horses for one or two days. Not only that, but if the army is
to march out with the intention of moving off to another camp and there form
its battle line, then it is necessary for it to carry along one day's supply of hay
and grass and store it in the new fortification. It is not likely that the enemy will
allow the servants who do this work to go out foraging on that day or send out
the horses to graze.
17. But if the enemy come very close, it is not a bad idea, as we have
remarked somewhere else, while marching along, for each man to gather the
fodder he needs to store. Frequently, after they have set up camp, the boys are
not allowed to go out and forage, especially if the enemy cavalry is found to outnumber ours.
18. Before engaging in battle, we order you to make the above arrangements
and to make sure that the officers and soldiers under your command are more
fully instructed in them. Next in order, we will address ourselves, to the best of


Constitution 13

cpu.Acrnw6at f.!HU T~c; {m6 0" OUVCtf.!EWc; EV ClUTft Tft ~f.!Ep<;t T~c; O"Uf.l~OA~c; TOU
TIOAEf.!OU, KClTCt OUVClf.!LV ~Ofj p0Uf.lV.

107 Ka-ru ... pouf.!ev W om. ABE

The Day before the Battle


our ability, to the steps you and the force under your command must take and,
on the very day of battle, what you must be on your guard against.



About the Day of Battle




ouv crot, a-rpmfly, rrp6 ye miv-rwv tv -rft ~!lpq. -rou rroA.!lOU KaOapov elvat TOV mpmov Kal eux~v yevcr0at Ola T~<; VUKTO<; tKTV~ ota
niiv iepwv Kal aytaae~vat JtCtVTU<; Kal o{\Tw<; Kal pyot<; Kal A6yot<; rraae~vat
on TOV E>eov xouat ~Ofl06v, Kal trrl TOtJT(JJ KlV~aat rrpo<; TOV 1tOA!lOV Aa!lrrpou<;
2. LE 0 ll~ rroAA.a rrove1v tv -rft ~11pq. T~<; au!l~OA~<; 'tva ll~ T{il rroAA.(il K6rrq>
Kal Tft auv-rpt~ft niiv avayKa(wv tmA.aveavn, !lflOE KaTOAtywpe1v ae arro T~<;
cppov-r(Oo<;, I aHa avOflpW<; Kal eueapaw<; rrappxecr0at T~V rrapa-ra~LV Kal Wu~!
rrpoeu!l01tOleLV rravm<; Ota A.6ywv. I
3 Kalil~ GU!l1tAEKW0at TOL<; 1t0A!ll0l<; Ota xetp6<;. aTpaTLWTOU yap !lUAAOV ~ 335
aTpaTflYOU TOUTO tmtv. ana 1t0lLV ae !lEV Ta ap!l6(ovm rravm, tv t1tlTflOel4J
OE lamaOat TOTI(JJ, oOev opav ouvaaat TOU<; T aywvt(O!lEVOU<; Kal TOU<;, W<;
eLKO<;, a!lAOUVTa<;, Kal trreuxecrOat Ta OEOVTU Kal arrouoa(etv Ota TWV tv tJTIO~O
flOdq. ovTwv auva(pecrOm T{il oeo1-1vq> llEpet, TouT' anv Ota -rwv rrA.ayLOcpuA<'tKwv Kal VWTO<jlUACtKWV.
4 'Eav !lEv ouv tv m1<; rrapma~ecr( aou rrpo<; -ro~6-ra<; tmlv 6 rr6A.e1-1o<;, Toil<;
ouaxepe'i<; T01tOU<; Kal TOU<; rrp6rroOa<; TWV 6pwv ~youv Ta<; rrpwTa<; ava~aaet<;
trrl Ta Opfl TICtVTW<; TOUTOU<; CjlUAaTTOU Kal ll~ tv auTO[<; avll~ane T~V !lCtXflV.
e'Lye ouva-r6v ao( tanv, Kal ~ tv -r{il ihjtet -r~v rrapam~tv Kmaae ~ TAe(w<;
1. 'Yrron01-leOa

Now then, 0 general, before all else, we enjoin upon you that on the day
of battle your army should be free from sin. The night before, the priests are to
offer fervent prayers of intercession. Everyone should be sanctified and so, by
words and deeds, they should be convinced that they have the help of God. On
this note they are to advance into battle bright and enthusiastic.'
2. On the day of battle you should not take on too many tasks.2 You might
exert yourself too much, wear yourself out, and overlook essential matters. Anxiety should not make you <appear> downcast, but ride jauntily and confidently
along the battle line, encouraging all by your words.

3 Do not join in hand-to-hand fighting with the enemy; that is the role of
the soldier, not of the general. But you are to make all the proper arrangements
and then station yourself in a suitable location from which you can observe the
troops fighting hard and others, quite possibly, not so hard. You should see to
their needs and take steps to call up your reserves, that is, the flank and rear
guards, to go to the assistance of a unit in trouble.
4 When you are in formation and have to fight against archers, avoid
difficult terrain and, by all means, the lower slopes of mountains, that is, where
the mountains first begin to ascend. Do not initiate hostilities there. If you can
do so, form your battle line on the heights or else come all the way down the

M (rout.) W A V (part.) BE Va (part.) PG 107:848 12 ad Kal de novo inc. M

3-7 Strat., 2.18.

8-196 Strat., 7.B.1-14.

1 1tOAJllKWV rrapacrKeuwv WA om. BE 3 ye W om. ABE

5 pyote; ... A6yotc; WA trsp. BE
8 rrovetv W Korroucr6m ABE 9 <wv ... emft.av6<iv!] W trsp. ABE(mft.av6avetv) 10 aHa
WA aU' BE 12 Jl~ MWA om. BE 12-13 <JTpanWTOU ... ecrnv MW LOULO yap
<JTpanwTOU JlUAAOV emlv ou (TOU BE) <JTpUT!]yOu ABE 14 ouvacrat MW 8uv~<Jl] ABE
14-15 we;
eiK6c; MW om. ABE 15-16 urro~o!]6e1a MWBE em~o!]6e1a A
16 cruva1pecr6at. .. 8eoJlEVW MW tm~o!]6etv TW KULU1tOVOUJlEVW ABE 18 eav MWA et BE I
JleV MW om. ABE I rrapa<a~ecri MABE rrapa<a~eatv W 19 8ucrxepetc; 1:6rrouc; MW
8ucrK6Aouc; -r6rrouc; arr6<peuye ABE 19-20 -rae; ... -roumuc; MW TU KUTwn:pa JlEP!] ABE
20 rrav-rwc; Mom. WABE I <puA<inou WABE <puA<ine M 21 e!ye ... ecr-rtv MW om. ABE


Cf. Strat. 2.18.


Sections 2-29 derive from Strat. 7.B.1-14.


The Day of Battle

Constitution 14

cm6~atV TOU opou<; Kal fV OflaAWTEpq> Kal YUflVtP -r6nq> napa-rcwaou, Yva fl~

ex8pwv, W<; ElKO<;, fK18v fV0pUOVTWV cmo TOU U\j!OU<; ~ napaTa~l<;

0.8p6w<; ~tc't(f]Tat.

5 1\A:\.a flTJOE auflnAKou napa-ra~t noAflLWv, flTJOt -r~v io[av aou npoolK-

vu mho1<; nplv av T~V TCt~lV a\nwv KaTavo~an<; Kal Ta<;, W<; ElKO<;, flATWflEVa<;
nap' ainwv vopa<; ~-rot f:yKpDflflaTa no:\unpawov~an<;.
6. 'Eav 81:: ol -r6not v ol<; flEAAL<; auf.i~c't:\Am yuf.ivo( eim Kaln8tvol Kal ouK
eanv UKOAW<; T~V 0UTpav aou TCt~lV Kpunmv fV mho1<;, Ei<; TO fl~ TOU<;


30 8pou<; npoytvwaKtv v -r4J Ktv1v -rov a-rpa-rov Ei<; -r~v flCtXfJV, v-reu8v ~OTJ -r~v

owtpav -rci~tv Km6ma8v t~<; npWTTJ<; n:\Tja[ov auvaKoA.ou8e1v no[f]GOV, wa-r

ta<; ouo W<; fllaV TOt<; evav-r[ot<; <pa(vw8at, o-r' av 8 evo<; fllALOU T~<; TWV
noAflLWV yvT]Tat napmci~ew<;, TOT t~v &utpav xpeov Ka-r' 6:\(yov Efl~pa
ouvouaav xwpt(lV aUT~V ano T~<; npWTTj<; TO eipfjflEVOV OlCtGTTjfla Kal i<; TO
35 'Lotov ax~fla Ka8tmav WGT LVat 0Utpav napa-ra~LV EVTU8v yap TOL<; noA-

fllOl<; ouK d\yvwa-ro<; npo no:\Aou ~ -ra~t<; y(vTm.

7 Ta<; OE \.moxwp~aL<; Kal <puya<; TWV x8pwv GKETITOU Kal fl~ aKpaTW<;
n(-rpex Ola TCt GO<jllGflaTa TCt, W<; ElKO<;, ytVOf1Va, ana f1Ta GUVTCt~W<; 8[WK,
ew<; ou M~n<; nAfjpO<pop(av T~<; aa<paALa<; T~<; VLKTJ<;.

8. 'Eav 8 ano TWV x8pwv nAUat<; flTjVU8fi KaTa T~<; npWTTj<; napa-ra~W<;
Kal OUK ean nw<; ~ OlCt TWV nAayto<pUACtKWV ~ 8ta TWV

I d<; vopav KaTa TWV

x8pwv nflnOflvwv ~ofJ81v, TOT Oov K -rwv ei<; -ra iiKpa -r~<; 8w-rpa<; napa-ra~w<; TaGGOflEVWV ~av8wv flTa-rtewem d<; aUTOU<;. d flEV ~ evo<; nAay(ou

epxovTat, ~ EKElVOU TOU flEpou<;, i 8 fK TWV OUO, ~ fKaTpw8v. OflOLW<; 8 Kal

45 TOL<; KaTa VWTOU T~<; OUTpa<; Ta~W<; EPXOflEVOl<;, av fl~ apKWGlV ol VWTO<pU-

22 (m6~atVE MW cm6~ULVE arro ABE I rrapanicrcrou MW rrapamcrcrE ABE 25 !lfJOi:: T~V

WABE T~v of: M I crou MWA am BE 26 ni~ MW ta AE mum B I !lEAETw!lva~ MW
ytv6!lcva ABE 27 tvopa~ ~Tot MW om. ABE 30 rrpoytvwcrKEtv MW rrpoylV<.iJcrKEtv
U1JT~V ABE I EVTEU8EV ~OfJ MW JtOtfJcrOv ABE 31 ocun\pav MWAE
rrapata~tv ABE I rrpWTfJ~ MW rrpwtfJ~ Kal ABE I rro(fJcrov MW om. ABE 32 Mo MWAE W
B I w~ ABE d~ MW 33 YEVfJTUL MW yvwvTm ABE I t~V ... XPEOV MW XP~ t~V Ocutpav
ABE 34 xwp(~Etv aut~v MW xwp[~w8m arro ABE 3 5 Ka8tcrtav ... rrapata~tv MW
arroKa8icrmcr8m ABE 35-36 tot~ ... rroUou MW ouK dlyvwcrto~ rrpo rroUou tot~
rroAE!liot~ ABE 37 aKpaTw~ MW aKpatw~ Kal a<puA<iKtw~ A aKpatw~ Kal ataKtw~ BE
38 cro<p[cr!lata MW rravoupycu!lata ABE 39 ou ABE om. MW 41 an MABE i:crttv W I
vopav MW eyKpu!llla ABE 44 ouo MWA WBE I ~ eKatpw8Ev MW ~ Ct!l<potepwv ABE
45 tot~ ... vwtou MW rrpo~ tou~ omcr8cv ABE I t<i~Ew~ MW rrapata~Ew~ ABE I tpxo1-1vot~

MWBE epxollvou~ A



mountain and draw up on level, open ground. Otherwise there is a chance that
your formation may be suddenly overcome by the enemy lying in ambush under
cover of the high ground.
5 Do not come to grips with the enemy formation and do not give them a
good look at your own before you reconnoiter their lines and take steps to
forestall the traps or ambushes they are likely to be setting against us.
6. If the site of the projected battle is in open and flat country, such that you
cannot easily hide your second line there, then, to keep the enemy from getting
a good idea of the army as it advances to combat, then and there, have the
second line follow very closely behind the first so that the two lines will appear
to them as one. About a mile away from the enemy battle formation, the second
line must slow down a little, separate itself the prescribed distance from the first,
and then assume its normal formation as a second battle line. This will prevent
the enemy from forming a clear picture, much ahead of time, of the disposition
of <our troops>.
7. Be very cautious when you see the enemy withdraw and take flight. Do
not race after them intemperately, because they are likely to set traps for you.
Rather, pursue them in good order until you receive definitive information that
your victory is assured.
8. If it is reported to you that the enemy has attacked the first battle line and
there is no way for you to send in their support either the flank guards or the
troops assigned to ambush the enemy, then have some of the banda stationed on
the wings of the second line move up to join it. If they are attacking from one
side, <the support should come> from that sector, if from two sides, then from
both sectors. In like manner, if they attack the rear of the second line and its rear


The Day of Battle

Constitution 14

AUKE<; m'n~c; ot' auni>v!6(w8at, TCt UlJTCt Tiot~crnc; Yva o[ AOLTIOL (:mep[ana-

guard is not strong enough to deal with it by itself, take the same action. The rest
of the troops can continue to concentrate on supporting the first line.
9. If the enemy's army is large and the multitude of horses and of men makes
it appear enormous and formidable, be sure not to draw up your own army on
high ground immediately, while the enemy are still at a distance. 3 Apprehensive
at the sight of such a multitude, our men may easily become discouraged.
Instead, form them on lower ground where they will not see the enemy or be
seen by them. When your foe advances within about a mile or half a mile, then
bring your army to high ground so that the fighting will begin before your men
lose courage. But if such terrain is not found and the enemy can be seen from a
distance, then, as the army is drawn up for battle, spread the report that what
they are looking at is not just soldiers but a multitude of horses or pack animals.
10. If you are able to do so, launch your attack against the enemy before they
form their line for battle, while they are still milling about, and you will be able
to inflict serious harm.
11. Always keep one or two banda about a mile or two in front of the main
body before combat while the army is moving into formation. In this way the
enemy will not have the opportunity to observe our formation before the battle
and outmaneuver us.
12. If the army is not composed of infantry, leave the boys, the servants of
the soldiers, behind so they may be stationed along the fortifications of the

<JTOL f.lEVWat npoc; ~o~8etav T~c; npwt'lc; napani~ewc;.

9 'Eav o TIOAU<; tanv 6 ni>v tx8pwv <Jtpatoc; Kal OtCt TIA~8oc; O.A6ywv ~
avopwv KOf.!TIO<; ~youv t~wyKWf.!EVO<; cpaiV'lTat, f.l~ tmT~OEUe eu8uc; eic; D\jl'lAOV

f.l~Ko8ev Twv tx8pwv ovTwv, 'lva f.l~ Tfi 8<;t Tou

nA~8ouc; npoKaTaAaf.l~av6f.!Evoc; oetAtcwn npoxeipwc;, O.H' tv KotAOTep<p t6n<p

50 t6nov Tov mpaTov Tcwcretv

niaae auTouc;, o8ev ouo KaTOTITEUEt muc; tx8pouc;, ouo Ka8opcnat UTIO TWV
txepwv Kat ot' av ~ CtTIO voc; ~ CtTIO ~f.ll<JEW<; <J'lf.lElOU yevwvmt ol tx8po[, TOTe
tv t4> u\jiEL cppetv Tov crtpatov 'lva nptv oetAtaan ~ auf.!~OA~ yv'lmt. Ei 0 f.l~

eup[aKeTat t6noc; Totof>Toc;, f.l~Ko8ev ol tx8pol t4J atpat4J cpaivovTat,

np6Aeye t4> mpaT4> tv auTfi Tfi napata~Et on 6.A6ywv ~ m6Aoou TIA~86c; tan TO
cpmv6f.!evov Kat ouK av8pwnwv f.!6vwv.
10. 'Eav 0 <JOt ouvaTOV tan Kat npo TOU napata~aa8at TOU<; TIOAEf.llOU<;


<JUf.l~aAELV a\noic; iht Ct<JU<JTUTOtc; ouatv, f.!UAAOV UUTOU<; ~Aa\jlat iaxuaetc;.

11. IlaVTwc; o EV ~ Kat OEtmpov ~avoov EXE we; CtTIO voc; ~ OEUTepou f.!tAlOU

T~c; napaTa~ewc; npo Tof> noAEf.!OU, tv oa<p TU<J<JETat 6 crtpaToc; Yva f.l~ Metav
exwatv ol TIOAEf.ltOt npo T~c; f.!UX'lc; KaTa<JKOTIELV T~V TU~tv Kat ao<pi(w8at Kat'

tav ne(tKoc; ouK ean crtpat6c;, Touc; na1oac; Twv atpaTtwTwv ~Tot
Toile; OOUAeUOVTac; auToic; KaTaA[f.!TiaVE, W<JTE Otaf.!ep[(ea8at ot' OAOU TOU tv T4>



48-50 Cf. Schol. in Eurip. Phoen., 6oo.

6 aut~<; Va autou<; MW om. ABE 1 &t' ... ap116<ea8m MW om. ABE 46-47 cmepiarcaatot
MW A arrepiatatot BE 48 av MWA ei BE 49 KO!!rro<; ~youv MW om. ABE I
~wyKW!!EVO<; MWBE urrtpoyKo<; A I cpaiV!lTUl MW A cpaivetal BE 50 !!~Ko8ev ... OVtWV
MW om. ABE 51 rrpoxdpw<; MW om. ABE I KOtAottpw MW ~a8utpw Kal xa!!llAottpw
ABE 52 o8ev ABE 6rr68ev MW 52-53 Katomeuet. .. x8pwv MW tOU<; exSpou<;

Ka8opav ouvavtat ouoe urro tWV x8pwv Ka8opaa8m ABE 53 ~ MWA om. BE I all!!elOU
MW !!LAiou ABE 55 eupiaKeTUt MW eupiaKeTUt 6 ABE 56 an MA attv WBE
57 av8pwrrwv MWA avopwv BE 58 tav MWAE ei B I tan M eatLV WABE I

rrapata~aa8m MWA ta~aa8m B rrpota~aa8m E 59 au!!~aAe'iv MW au11~aHetv ABE

oumv MW A oum BE 6o oemepov MW ouo AE WB I ~avoov Va ~avoa ABE om. MW

6o-6t exe ... rrapata~ew<; MW xe !!rrpoa8ev t~<; rrapata~ew<; w<; arro evo<; ~ ouo !!LAiwv rrpo
tot\ rroAE!!OU AE exn arro evo<; ~ W!!LAiwv E!!rrpoa8ev t~<; rrapata~ew<; B 61 taaaetat MW
rrapataaaetm ABE 62 exwmv MWAB exetv E I aocpi~eaem MWA KaTUaocp[~eaSm BE
62-63 Kat' aut~<; MWA TUUtll BE 64 av MWA d BE 65 KataAi!!rrave MW A
KataAL!!rravetv BE I tot\ MW A om. BE


3 Cf. Scholia on Euripides' Phoenissae, 6oo.


The Day of Battle

Constitution 14

<poaacm.p UTIALKTOU EKaGTOV m:pi T~V aw Tpa<pov flTU OTIAWV, eh TO~ULV

ouvavTUL dTe UKOVTL~LV dTe 0<pevOoviiv, O.AA.O. Kai v ~avoov flH' aUTWV, TO
6<pei:A.ov ~tyA.euLv Kai Ta~ nopTa~ Tou <poaaaTou <puA.anLV ~youv Tou nepL<ppayf1vou QT(ALKTOU, Kai apxov-ra 0 XP~aLflOV TOU OAOU TOLOUTOU <poaaaTOU.
13. MfJOfTIOT TOUAOOV tnl napma~eW~ nept<pepe, I ei ouvmov f(JTL, Kai yap
fTOLflOV TOL~ tx8poi:~ ~pWfla y[vnm f:av tv flUXn eupe8fi. tav flEVTOL, w~ elKO~,
60omopouvTo~ aou, MoK~Tw~ tnA.eum~ napa Twv txepwv yvfJTUL Kai ou
<p8a~n~ QT(ALKU(JaL Kai O.a<paf..[aaaem TO TOUAOOV, TOT <ppe auTO KaTa TOU
Oe~Lou flpou~ tK nA.ay[ou T~~ 8euTpa~ napaTa~ew~ Kai tKd n'wa Kai v ~
75 0Utepov ~avoov tK TWV nepl00WV ek napa<puAaK~V UUTOU a<popl~.
14. 'Eav Of fl~ ETUXOV, W~ dpfJTaL, npoano8f1VOL XOPTOV, Kai tv auTfi Tfi TOU
TfOAEflOU ~flpq, TWV aAA.wv QT(ALTWV tnl T~V napaTa~LV KLVOUVTWV, Ta naAALKCtpta TWV 0TpaTLWTWV Kai TWV apxovTWV Iva t~tpxwvTm ei~ TO flEpO~ TO 6n(aw
T~~ napaTa~ew~ Tou 6A.ou aTpmou fld 6A.iywv ~tyA.mwpwv tK TouT~~ napaTaso ~W~ flEpou~ KaTaALflTraVOflEVWV Kai auvayoum TOV apKOUVTa xopTOV, tv 00(!) 6
T(OAeflO~ y[vnm. TOL~ o xopToA.oyoumv 6pt0l~ ooe~vm ~avoa Kai 0fJf1elW0l~
tv U\j!TJAOTpot~ Tonm~ Kal Ota<popm~, WGT tvavT[ou nvo~ GUfl~a[vovTo~ TO
O.vaKAfJTLKOV ~xLv npo~ auv~eLav, TOT O.vaxwpelV auTOU~ opofla[w~ Kai tnl TO
<poaaaTOV aw~wem Iva fl~ ~w QT(OKALG8wmv. TOUTO o O.vayKai:ov taTL
s 5 yivwem ota To MfJA.ov T~~ tK~aaw~. tav yap tvavTiw~ t~tA.en To npawa,
OanaVT}V EXOVT~ Kai aUTWV Kai TWV af..oywv o[ GTpanWTaL, TaXfW~ auTOU~
npo~ TO aVaflaxwem O.vaKaAOUVTaL ~youv Kai naALV TIOAfl~0Ql Kai VLK~(JQL ~,
ei fl~ TOUTO, euetw~ O.vaxwp~aoumv flHa TQ~W~ ETL tv OUVCtflel TWV lnnwv
66 cpoaacrrw ... f.lETU MW arrA.TjK-rou cpoaac'nw (arrA.TjKTw cpoaacrrou BE) rrpl TO aw6v
67 MvaVTal MW MvaTat ABE I TO
MW om. ABE 68-69 rrEpt<ppawtvou M

f.!Epo~ T~~ aou.Sa~ fKUOTOV f.lETU TWV ElTlTTjOdwv ABE

MWA om. BE


~youv ... arrA.iKTou

mpme<ppawtvou W om. ABE

8 ABE 72

69 TotouTou MW A TOilTo BE 70 f.lT]OirroT MW f.!TJOEJTOT



76 ETUXOV ... dpTjTat MW om. ABE I rrpoarro6Ef.!EVOt MW rrpoarr6vTo A

B rrpoarreu6VTa E 77-78 Ta rraAA.tKapta MW ol UlTTJPETat ABE 78 Kal
TWV MW AB Kal TWV Kal TWV E I f.!Epo~ ... oniaw MW orriaw f.!EpO~ ABE 79 TOU 1 aTpaTOU


MW om. ABE

I f.ld

MW f.lET<l ABE

rrapaTCt~EW<; OTTjOOVTat

79-80 K ... Kal MW o'(nv<; rrpo<; TO f.!Epo~ T~<;

8 ABE So auvayouat MW auva~ouat AE

83 rrpo<; auv!j6tav MW Kal ABE I
8pof.taiw~ MWAE .Spof.taiou<; B 84 arroKAta6watv MWA arroKAta6wat BE I tan MABE
aTtv W 85 K~aaw~ MW EK~aaw<; TOil rroA.f.tou ABE 86 tauTou<; ABE auTou<; MW
87 UVUf.!CtXW6at MW UVUf.laxaaa6at A avaKaHaca6at BE 88 d MWA Kal BE I
avaxwpljaouatv MW avaxwpljaouat ABE

auvau~ouat B

~lYAUOVT<; ol

81 OTJf.!Etwat<; MW OTJf.lda nva ABE



camp, each one along the inner ditch and provided with weapons he can handle:
bow, javelin, or sling. One bandon should stay with them under orders to patrol
and to guard the gates of the entrenchment, that is, the fortified camp, and place
a competent officer over this entire fortification.
13. Never bring the baggage train up to the front line, if it is possible. If
discovered in battle, it is an easy prey for the enemy. Now, if it happens that the
enemy launches a surprise attack as you are marching along and you do not
have time to set up camp and secure the baggage train, then bring it over to the
right sector, on the flank of the second battle line, and detail one or two banda
from whatever troops are available to guard it.
14. If it has not been possible to gather a supply of fodder ahead of time, as
recommended, then, on the very day of battle, as the other heavy-armed troops
are moving into formation, the servants of the soldiers should go out to gather it
in the area to the rear of the battle line of the whole army. They should be
accompanied by a few scouts taken from the men left behind in the area of the
battle line. While the battle is in progress, they should gather a sufficient supply
of fodder. Instruct those who are out gathering fodder that they will be given
signals, <such as by> flags from high, conspicuous places to let them know that
a hostile force is approaching and the customary signal for recall is sounded.
They are then to return as fast as they can and take refuge in the camp, so they
may not be cut off outside. This is essential because the outcome is uncertain. If
things turn out adversely, the soldiers will have provisions for themselves and
their horses; they can quickly rouse themselves to fight once more, that is, again

The Day of Battle

Constitution 14


a\milv Upl<JKOf1EVWV, rcplv ~ Ta T TWV avepwrcwv <ppoV~f.laTa ercl TCAEOV KaTa90

rceawm Kal al TWV LTCTCWV 6UVCtf1W;, Ortp yt:veaem MvaTat, eav




ETOL!l(Jl ~ 6arc6.Vf1. yap ~rrav ouod~ eappt:l e~epxwem i~ aunoy~v xopTOU Kal oi Yrcrcot Alf!WTTOVT~ aeuf![av -ro1~ a-rpanwmt~ rcapexoum Kal ~ouA.~v
rtpo<; GUf.l<j>Epov OUK f<JTl yt:veaem T~~ y6[a~ Kal TOU <j>O~OU ~ta(Of!EVWV aUT~V.
ana XP~ TCUVTW~ Kal T~V TWV aA6ywv arco-rpocp~v rcapa-rtewem f.llCt~ ~ Kal


95 Ot:u-repa~ ~f.lpa~, i 6uvmov Kal TCAEOV, f.lUAl<JTa

icrlv ai ~ocrKaL

15. Ei 6 KaTa T~V rtpWTllV ~f.lpav T~~ <JUf.l~OA~~ TOU TCOAef!OU evav-r[a
eK~aat~ rtapaKOAOue~an-o f.l~ yvotTO-~f.llV

aGUf.l<j>Opov <pa[vnat TO KaTa



f.lV rtaVTOLWc; artpoacpopov Kal

Ta~ au-ra~ ~f.lpa~ ~youv

KaLa TOY alJTOV Katpov

I rcpo~ 6f1f10UlOV TCOAf10V eyxnp~aat TOU~ fK T~~ rcapa-ra~W~ ~rrlleev-

m~. 6to oM cruf1~ouA.t:uaof1v aot,

wmpa-r11y, rcpo~ -rou-ro m-r116t:ut:tv. ream

yap T(QVTOT 6uaxt:p~ f(JTl TOUTO Kal ouod~ t:'lwet:v veew~ arco Ta~ ~rra~
avaf!O.xwem crrcavtov yap -rou-ro Kal 'Pwf!a[ot~ avo[Kt:tov. wa-r, t:i Kal acpO.A.f!a
rcapaKoA.oue~an Kal /..rc[at

mpaTfiYO~ -rou-ro 6ta T~~ 6w-rpa~ f!UXfl~

6wpeouaem, OUK e<JTlV iKavov TO rct..~eo~ T~V ai-r[av 8taytvwcrKOV <TOU> rcpoatpe<Jl i~ 6f1f!OG[av f.lUXfiV t:ueew~ w~ yap fK et:La~ \j!~<j>OU oihw~ TO 6q6f1VOV ev rcaan 6tAL\l y[vnat. 6to XP~ (J avayKfl~ Kal rtptaTa(JW<;

xwpl~ f.l~ fTCITf16UlV <KaLa Ta~ au-ra~ ~f!Epa~> cpavt:pw~ <JU!l~anlv

f.lUXfiV f!Ha 6f1f!OU[av ~rrav 6ta rcapa-ra~W~, ana OOA(Jl Kal arca-rn arcou6a(

KatpocrKorcwv, orcw~ aicpvt6taan~ Kal To 6~ A.t:y6f1Vov cpuyof.lax~crn~, w~ iiv t:i~

A~eflv T~~ 6tf..[a~ fKlVfl~ YVOf1VO~


6 UTpaTO~


enter into combat and be victorious. Or else, if this is not <possible>, they may
immediately retreat in an orderly fashion, while their horses are still in good
condition, before the men become more dejected and the horses grow weak.
This is what can happen if provisions are not available. For after a defeat nobody
dares to go out to gather fodder. The horses lose their strength and this destroys
the morale of the soldiers. Lack of necessities and fear crush any desire to
improve things. Always make sure to keep on hand food for the horses for one
or two days, more if possible, especially if there is good grazing near the camp.
15. If the clash of battle on the first day results in an adverse outcome-may
such not happen-it is, in our opinion, absolutely undesirable and useless for
those troops who have been defeated in the field to undertake actual combat
again about the same time or even within a few days. Therefore, 0 general, we
do not advise you to try this. It is always a difficult task for everyone. Nobody
makes a habit of immediately retrieving a defeat. 4 This is very rare and foreign to
the Romans. Even though the general may understand his mistake and hope to
remedy it by means of a second battle, most of the soldiers will be unable to
understand his reasons for choosing to go right back into combat. They tend to
accept what happened as God's will and completely lose heart. Apart, then, from
necessity and special circumstances you must not attempt to fight a pitched
battle during those same days after an open, public defeat in the field. Instead,
employ tricks and deception, carefully timed surprise moves, and the so-called
fighting while fleeing, until the army comes to forget its discouragement and

eapp~an TOU TCUAlV TCOl~<Jaaem

Cf. Thuc. 7.61.7


93 an MAE EOTtY W en B

MBE napxoumY WA

I T~~ y/5ia~

MW Toii

92 rrapexoum


AB Toii

95 oeuTpa~ MWA BE I EUY MWA Ei BE 97-98 EYUVTia ... rrapaKOAOU8~0T]

MW EYUYTlOV Tl OUfl~~ ABE 98 o... yeYOlTO MW om. ABE I f!eV MWA oe BE I
rraYToiw~ ... Kat MW rravTEAW~ ABE 100 T~~ MW om. ABE 101 OUf!~OUAEUOOf!eY MBE
OUf!~OuAEUOf!EY WA 102 miYTOTE MWBE om. A I on MABE i:onY W 103 omiYtoY ...





l'itaytYWOKOY Toii Va l'itaytyvwoKOv MW ytvwoKov ioia ABE


107 EV MWA om. BE

Va om. codd.
BE 115~ MWAB om. E


I OE MW Oe xwpl~ ABE

108 xwpl~


A8dv MW aT~vm

MW om. ABE I KUTU ...

KatpooKorrwY MW emTT]p<iiv TOY Katpov A i:mTT]peiv TOY KatpoY

111 6etAia~ MW AB oou;\da~ E


4. Cf. Thucydides 7.61.





Constitution 14

The Day of Battle

UUj.l~OA~V &' eu\6you<; ah[a<; noAACtKL<; ETrl<JUj.l~atvouaa<;, U<; apn ypaqmv OUK
eanv UKOAOV.
16. 'Eav 6 Kal ana~ 8app~an<; UUj.l~aALV j.lTU T~V ano~oA~V T~<; 6et\[a<;,
6L T~V np6j.laxov TCt~LV W<; KaTaKpoua8iaav el<; 6UTEpav TCt~LV nOLLV Kat T~V
6euTepav d<; np611axov lle-ra Twv tmA.eKTwv -rawaTwv Twv tv Tfi npwTn fHKpoTepa yap ouaa T~<; npWTTJ<; Ka8' i:auT~V OUK napKi.
17. AU' oM Ej.l~pa6Uvetv 6d aaK6nw<; nl -rai<; vavTiat<; eK~aaem Tof>
nOAEj.lOU, d 11~ nou \nl<; UUj.l!laxia<; ~ ihepo<; Tp6no<; ~o118ia<; npoa6oKii-rat ~'
w<; LKO<;, cm6Kptat<; napa niiv x8pwv yive-rat, ~vnep avayKaiov j.l~ nou~ALKL<LV
npoxeipw<;, aHa 6~ i6i<t TaUTflV !laveavLV. Ka[, av TO npOTLVOj.lVOV napeueu
yivw8at MvaTat, 11~ ava~aHw8at, aHa npaTmv auTo aacpa\w<; 6t' 6\jfi6wv ~
opKWV. eL 6 m~Aa~e<; E<JTLV Kal 6t' unp8ea[v TLVO<; Kat xauvwatv TOU OXAOU
\eye-rat, Ta vavTia 6d q>TJ!li<etv, aKAf1p6Tepa Twv npoTetvo11evwv, tva <Tfi
anayopeu<JL niiv npoTLVO!lEVWV> !lUAAOV 6 a-rpaTO<; npo<; opy~v 6taVLUTCt!lVO<; Tfi aVCtYKn l<JXUPOTEpW<; TOt<; x8pot<; aVTLKaTaUTfi Kat ETL net8~VLO<; TtP
apxovn YEVflTat. oaov yap ~pa6uT~<; yivTat, TO<JOUTOV o[ ~TTTJ8EVT<; 6etA6Tpot yivovTat Kal oi VLK~aavTe<; TOA!lTJPOTepot.
18. Tiplv ~ ouv et<; TEAtov Ta cppov~!laTa Ka-raneawm, XPTJ ae,
6ta T TWV apxovTWV TWV -rawaTWV Kal TWV 6eKapxwv Kal nevTapxwv npoTpE\jfaaeat TOV UTpaTOV Kal etneiv, W<; OUK ean Katpo<; I 6etALCt<Jat, aU' OP!llle~Vat !lUAAOV KaTa TWV txepwv Kal TO yev6!lVOV napa TLVWV U<j>CtA!la av6pdw<;
avaKaAeaaaeat. Taf>-ra Kal Ta O!lOLa 61 (J 6taA.aA.~aat.
19. Kal ei !lEV anv \nl<; Tou 6ta napa-ra~ew<; 6f1!lOa[a<; T~v !lCtXflV avaKaA.aaa8at, Tfi npOLPTJ!lEvn !l800<p T~<; TCt~W<; XP~an. l 6 TOUTO OU npo~a[vet,
6ei au11cpep6vTw<; Twv Ktv6uvwv Ka-raTOA!liiv.
20. Kal ei 11ev ne<oi eimv oi vtKI'JaavTe<; txepoi, anou6a<etv !leTa Twv l:nnwv
UTCtKTW<; Ta<; avaxwp~aet<; ~TOL !lla<JTCt<JL<; TOU <jlOU<JCtTOU EKelVOU aacpa\w<;
noteia8at Kal 11~ ava!levetv. ei 6 Ka~aHaptot wmv, !lCtAta-ra Twv neptaawv Kal
~apUTEpWV a\6ywv Kat npay!lCtTWV 6[ nept<j>pOVLV Kat ne(fi Ka8ia-raa8at Kat




ABE cruAA.oy~v MW I apn ypa<pnv ABE avnypa<peLV MW 114 T~V

MW arro~oMcrOm T~V OELAiav ABE 119 Tp6rro<; MWA T01t0<; BE
120 1tOU~ALKi<eLV MW OT)f!OOLEUELV ABE 121 rrpoxeipw<; MW eu0w<; A euOu<; BE I aAA.a ...
Kai MW aAA.' ABE I eav MWA et BE l11apeuOu MW 11apeuOi><; ABE 124 Oet MW om. ABE
124-125 T~ ... TipoTELVOf!EVWV Va om. codd. 129 ~ MW om. ABE I ei<; TEAELOV MW
TeAeiw<; ABE I KUTUTIEOWOL MBE KaTaJtecrwmv WA 131 W<; MW OTl ABE I ecrn MABE
ecrTLV W 131-132 6pf!T)O~vm MWA 6pf!~OaL BE 132 f!UAAov MWAE om. B
138 EKeivou MWE EKelVOU KalAB 139 wmv MWA etm BE
112 OUf!~OA~V




regains the confidence to engage in battle once more. Good reasons for this may
readily be adduced, but it is not convenient to list them here.
16. Provided that you succeed in encouraging <the army> to enter into
battle after it has cast aside its discouragement, you must make the shattered
promachos line into the second line and make the second into the promachos,
retaining selected tagmata of the first line, since the second by itself is smaller
than the first and will be too weak.
17 In the event of an adverse outcome in battle, there must be no indecision
or delay, unless of course there is reason to expect the arrival of allies or some
other form of assistance or, as may well be the case, overtures are made by the
enemy. These must not be made public right away, but study them privately. If
what is proposed can be done immediately, do not put it off but go along with it,
confirming it with hostages or by oath. But if the terms are harsh and proposed
for the purpose of delaying and getting the men to drop their guard, you must
counter this by spreading rumors making them more unfavorable than the
actual proposals, so that in rejecting the actual proposals, the army will rather
be moved to anger and feel compelled to resist the enemy more forcefully, and it
will be more obedient to its commander. The longer the delay, the more demoralized do the vanquished become and the more confident the victors.
18. Therefore, before the men become utterly depressed, you must, 0 general, have the tagmatic commanders, including the dekarchs and pentarchs,
exhort the army and point out that this is no time for despondency; rather, they
should be aroused against the enemy and valiantly make up for the failure of a
few. You should address them in these and similar words.
19. If there is some hope that the defeat may be retrieved in the open field,
employ the prescribed method of formation. But if this is not the case, it is
important to show a bold front in the face of dangers.
20. If the victorious foe consists mostly of infantry, do not remain there but
make haste to withdraw in good order with your horses or safely move your
camp elsewhere. But if they are horsemen, you must disregard superfluous and
cumbersome property and horses. Except for a small mounted force, all should

The Day of Battle

Constitution 14


aveu 6f.(ywv Ka~aHap(wv ncwra<:; i<:; ouo <paf.ayya<:; ~TOL TU~fl<:; ~ Kal ei<:;

v Tnpaywvov 1tALV8(ou

OX~fla napaTa~aa8m. Kat flEOOV flEv Ta af.oya ~

TOV TOUA8ov <ppeLV, ~w8ev 8 exnv TOU<:; a-rpanwm<:;, W<:; dpf]TaL, v TU~fl Kal
TOU<:; TO~OTa<:; ~w-rpw Kat o{hw<:; Ta<:; fleTaOTaOfl<:; Kat avaxwp~OL<:; 1tOLt08aL
145 aa<paf.w<:;.

21. ITaf.Lv 0, av aiaiw<:; -ra -rou nof.flou ~f.8n Kal E>eoii ~o118oiiv-ro<:;
ap~f]Tal ~ VlKf], ou 81 Tfi we~aL Kat flOVn apKeta8m W<:; aneLpOKUAOU<:;, fl~

eiMm<:; xp~aaaem Tip Katpip. aHa aKa(pw<:; aKOlJLV <pLAOUVTa<:; TO "v(Ka Kal fl~
unepv(Ka," Kat v8LOOVTa<:; O<paf.epw<:; Kat flt(ova 8La T~<:; v86aew<:; TOU Katpou
150 KUflaTOV mawpeuovm<:; Kal 0.8f]AOV -r~v flEAAouaav eK~amv au-rot<:; KaTaOKeu-

a(ovm<:;, aHa 81 Tfi TOU x8pou TAel<;l KaTaAUO'L E1tlflEVLV.

22. Ei 8 v oxupwflaTL Kam<peuyeL, anouoa(etv ~ xnpt ~ 8La TWV ALTIOVTWV
ei8wv TOt<:; av8pw1tOL<:; ~ TOt<:; af.oyoL<:; 8La napa<pUAaK~<:; O'Tevoxwpeiv au-rov
flEXPL -ref.e(a<:; au-rou Ka-raf.uaew<:; ~ nw<pef.wv ~fltV YLVOflvwv OUfl<pwvwv Kat
155 flf]OE EKAuea8aL Tfi 6f.iyn we~afl, fl'l8 aflALV T~<:; TOU npayflaTO<:; EK~aaew<:; 8t'

OALYfJV Kap-rep(av fleTa TOOOUTOV novov Kat KUflaTOV Kat fleTa TOO'OUTOV EK TOU
noAEflOU Kiv8uvov, net Kat f:nt -roii Kuv'lyiou -ro napa flLKpov av-rt -rou flfJ8evo<:;
23. M~T fl~V nepL<ppovdv T~<:; TWV a-rpanw-rwv eum~(a<:; ano T~<:; VlK'l<:;
16o flUALO'Ta, aAAa OUVTTayflEVOU<:; 8LWKLV Kat flTa ETILOT~fl'l<:; Kat vouvex(a<:;

E1tlOK01tOUVTa TOV O'TpaTfJYOV Ta Oov-ra. OUK apKet yap OUVaflL<:; flOVf] ei<:;
aa<paAt:Lav i8iav ~ ~AU~f]V TWV x8pwv, aHa flTa T~V TOU @eou ~o~J8eLav Kat~ H
TOU OTPaT'lYOU OLOLKf]Ol<:; avayKa[a KatnpWT'l -ruyxaveL.
24. I1pnov ()' OUV,

wOTpaTf]y, TOt<:; T Katpo1<:; Kat TOt<:; TOTIOL<:; apfl08(w<:;

165 Kexp~aem Kat, av OOKlflUOn<:; TOU TIUVTW<:; yeva8m 1tOAflOV 8f]flOOLOV, nav-ra

148-149 Men. Sent., 419; Strat., 1.B.12.4.


take their stand on foot in two phalanxes or formations or in one four-sided,

rectangular formation. Place the horses and the baggage train in the middle
with the soldiers lined up on the outside, as described, and the archers in front
of them. In this way the army can safely change location.
21. Again, if the outcome of the battle is favorable and, with the help of God,
victory is ours, we must not be satisfied with merely driving the enemy back,
like inexperienced leaders who do not know how to take advantage of an opportunity. Instead, they have an inordinate love of the saying: "Be victorious but do
not press your victory too hard:'s To their own peril they make concessions and,
by surrendering the opportunity, they only heap up more trouble for themselves
and place the ultimate results in doubt. You must keep at it until the enemy is
utterly destroyed.
22. If they seek refuge behind fortifications, be sure to apply pressure directly or else prevent them from getting more supplies for men and horses until
they are completely wiped out or agree to terms advantageous to us. Do not let
up after driving them back a short distance. After so much labor and hard work
and after so many dangers in battle, do not jeopardize the outcome of the affair
because of a lack of persistence. As in hunting, a near miss is still a complete
miss. 6
23. Especially after a victory, do not disregard the good order of the soldiers.
They are to maintain formation in pursuit and the general is to use his knowledge and good sense in supervising what has to be done. Strength alone is not
sufficient to safeguard oneself and to inflict damage on the enemy but, after the
assistance of God, the primary and essential factor is the general's leadership.
24. Therefore, it is incumbent on you, 0 general, to take advantage of times
and places. If you make a definite decision to get into a pitched battle, you must

157-158 Arist. Phys., 197a30.

141 mivm~ MW iinavTa~ ABE I d~ MWA om. BE I ~ MW ~ Kal ABE


143 Tov ABE To

MW 146 aiaiw~ MW npm6vTw~ ABE 147 T~ MWAE om. B I am:tpoKaA.ou~ MW om.

ABE 148 doom~ MW ytvwaKovm~ ABE 149 Kmpou MW Kmpou K6nov Kai ABE
150 tmawp~:uovm~
ABE 150-151 KaTaaKeua(ovm~
KUTaaKeua(ovT~ BE 152 anouM(ELv MW anouM(t:tv XP~ ABE I XEtpi ... A.m6vTwv MW
ota ouvaf!Ew~ ~ ota Twv A.~:m6vTwv ABE 155 w1ot 1 MWA f!~ BE 155-156 T~ ... oA.iyTJv
MWAE om. B 155 T~~ ... EK~aa~:w~ MW Toii TtA.ou~ Toii npawmo~ AE 159 f!~T f!~V
MW f!~T 8 A f!TJOE BE I 1!Ept<ppovlv MW A KUTa<ppovEiv BE 160 vouv~:xia~ MW
<ppov~a~:w~ ABE 161 tmaKonouvm MW maKonlv ABE 162 T~v MW T~~ ABE I
~o~6tav MW ~0!]6da~ ABE

164 ae MW om. ABE

ouv MWAE ouv aTtv B

165 KEXP~crem MW KEXp~aem a ABE lnavTw<; MW ABE

5 Menander, Sententiae, 419; Strat. 7.B.12.4; see Attaleiates, Historia, ed. I. Bekker (Bonn,
1853), 26.17.
6. Aristotle, Physics, 197a30.


Constitution 14

The Day of Battle






KalT6nov mT~0LOv yuflv6v n: Kal 6flaAov ota Tou~ Kovmpcnou~

Kal fl~ flOVOV Ta Of~ta Kal aptcrn:pa Kal 6n(cr8ta flEpfl npoepeuvav 01 Kal ano
Mo Kal Tptwv ~flepwv T~~ napani~W~ flEXPL lOU npam~ lOU nOAEflOU, ana
Kal mu~ npoKtflvou~ T6nou~ \jfflAa<pav, fl~noT AaKKot eicrlv ~ aMo<pu1~ ~
wpUYf.lEVOl ~ OOAO~ ll~ ano~ np6KelTal.
25. Kma o T~V TOU nOAEflOU ~flpav, w~ avw e'lnOfleV, TWV ~LYAWV npoe~ep
XOflEVWV Ufla npw1 ei~ Tcrcrapa flEPfl lOU T6nou, evea i) O'Ufl~OA~ y(vnat, ano
Mo KalTptwv flLAtwv tv om:\ai:~ ~(y:\m~ napayyHetv a\nou~ fl~ fl6vov npo~
T~V TWV txepwv KLVflO'lV ano~Anetv Kal flflVUlV, ana Kalnpo~ TOU~ 8AoVTa~
npocrpu~vat, w~ eLKO~, TOL~ txepoi:~ anocrKoniv Kal cruvtxnv aUTOU~. EVTeU8v
yap KalTou~ ano<peuyovm~ K Tou mpmou p<;tolw~ KwAuoum KalTou~ K Twv
x8pwv ~OUAOflEVOU~ npocrpu~vat Kat m<pepOflEVOU~, W~ iK6~, e'lOfl TLVa fleTa
acrcpa:\da~ imooxovmt i~ TO fl~ Enflpea(wem aUTOU~ napa llVWV KaKWV
avepwnwv, onep Kal ae( ae XP~ napa<puAanetv ei~ TOU~ npocr<peuyovm~ fleTCt
nvwv npayflCtTWV Tft ~fleTEp<;t noALTel<(t, w~ avayKaiov Kal OLKULOV.
26. 0[ o KaTa Ta flnpocr8ev flEPflT~~ napaTa~eW~ ~lYAeUOVTe~ axpt vo~
craytno~6:\ou T~~ Twv txepwv napaTa~ew~ flnpocr8ev T~~ lola~ nepmaTeiTwcrav Kal OOflyehwcrav fl~nw~, w~ e'lpflTUl, <p6crcrat ~youv 6pUYflUTCt eimv ~ Tepo~
06:\o~ flefleAETflTat napa Twv txepwv Kal avamnetv Tou~ ioiou~ ei~ To fl~
aOOK~TW~ nepl1tl1tlelV.
27. 'Ev yap TOL~ avayKaLOl~ T6not~ Kal Katpoi~ fl~ flOVOV, w~ e'lpflTUl, anAa~
~(y:\a~ KaTa TWV aUTWV notlcr8at, ana Kal om:\a~ tva T~~ fll<'i~, w~ iK6~,
:\aveavOflEVfl~ T~v Tpav fl~ OtaAtten.

168 Mo MWAE

W B I TOu 7tepaTO~ MW
I eialv MWA wmv BE

7tapaKELf!eVOU~ codd.

auf17lAI]pwaew~ ABE

169 7tpoKELf!ivou~ Va
173 ouo MW A

172 7!pwT MW A om. BE

BE 175 7!poapu~VUL MW 7!poa<puyEiv ABE I auvexeLV MW KUTiXELV ABE 176 paoiw~

MW EUKOAW~ ABE I KwA.Uoum MBE KwA.Uoumv WA 177 7tpoapu~vm MW 7tpoacpuyEiv


MW 7tpawa-ra ABE 179 ae XP~ MWBE XP~ ae A I 7tapacpuAit-rmv MW

183 cpoaam ~youv MW om. ABE I Eimv MWA wmv BE

7!apacpuA.anecr6m ABE

185 7!Epl7ll7!TELV






186 fl~


186-187 e'ipl]tat. .. ~iyA.a~ MW cmA.a~ (cmA.w~ E) ~iyA.a~ w~ e'ipl]tat ABE

7!0Letcr6m MW TOV autov T07!0V 7!0LEL<16UL XP~ ABE
eav t~V fllUV we; elKOc; A.aewmv o[ exepol ABE



187 twv ...

187-188 T~~ ... A.aveavOf!iVI]~ MW

188 8LaAit61] MW 0LaAit6wmv A 8LaAit6wm


investigate every open and level location suitable for lancers. You must reconnoiter not only the sectors to the right and left and rear for two or three days
before forming the line and until the conclusion of the battle, but also closely
examine the ground in front in case pools of water, either natural or excavated,
or some other trap lies before you.
25. On the day of battle, as we remarked above, patrols, twice the usual
number, are to head out early in the morning for two or three miles in the four
directions of the area where the battle is to take place. Order them not only to
observe and report the movements of the enemy but also to discover and to
detain any of our men who, as may happen, want to go over to the enemy. Out
there they can easily intercept deserters from our army. Also, in case enemy
soldiers want to come over to us bringing with them, as is likely, their equipment, the patrols may receive them in safety so they will not be waylaid by evil
men. It is essential and just that you always be protective of those seeking refuge
in our nation along with their possessions.
26. The patrols covering the area in front of our battle line should work their
way to about a bowshot from the enemy line in front of their own to make sure,
as mentioned, that the enemy are not digging any ditches or planning some
other trap. This will keep their own men from falling into unexpected trouble.
27. When under pressure because of the terrain and the time, do not send, as
prescribed, only one patrol into the area against them but send two, so that if
the first one, as can happen, fails to notice <enemy activity>, the second one will
be sure to detect it.





Constitution 14

The Day of Battle

28. Ka[, tav hotf16c; tanv ~ Ta~tc; Kal 6 T6n:oc; mT~Onoc;, fl~ avaf.LEVLv Touc;
xEJpouc; EV Tfi <1Uf.L~OAfi, Iva f.L~ KaVOVL(W<1L Kal f.L800eUW<1l T~V TU~LV, a.\Aa
aacpa.\wc; 6pf.LCtV Kal EmT[Elmem TOte; txepo1c;.
29. 'Eav of: un:p8emv exn, we; iK6c;, Ta T~c; <1Uf.L~OA~c; Ota nvac; euMyouc;
ah[ac;, avayKm6v E<1TLV T~V owiTpav f.LUAL<1Ta TU~LV EV Tate; eupl<1KOf.LEVatc;
u.\mc; ~ Tote; KOLAOTEpOLc; TOn:OLc; omaeev KpumLV, Iva fl~ n:po n:o.\Aou Tote;
txElpotc; UKa[pwc; n:poq>atVOf.LEVT] aUT~ f.LEl00UTaL Kal E1tl~OUAUTat un:o tyKpUf.Lf.LUTWV ~ Kat un:o UAAWV EYXLp~<1WV KaTa<10q:>L(TaL.
30. 'En:el of: n:epl ~ty.\wv Ef.LVT]f.LOVU<JaflV, Od <1 aun\c; <'>xupac; 1tOLtV Kal
Olatpdv Touc; ~LYAUOVTac;, Iva oi f.LEV un:voumv, oi of: typf]yopoumv Kal oihwc;
tva.\Aaaaov-rac; a.\A~.\ouc; ~LYAULV. f.L~ yap 1tl<1TUanc; nv[, KUV un:oaxemv
n:OLehm, OATJV T~v vl>Km ypf]yop~om clypun:vov Kal yap voxemt Kal mh6f.LaTov i.\n:vov n:e.\8etv. EV of: Tate; cl.\Amc; ~[y.\mc;, OT xpe[a, n:avTwc; Kal 6p8ouc;
ioTaf.LEVOUc; ~LYAULV. ai yap Ka8opm Kal ai avaKAL<Jetc; Ta OWf.LaTa f.Lapa[vou<1LV eic; un:vov, ~ of: TWV <1KAWV <JTa<JLc; Otyepmv T~c; Otavo[ac; 1t0lel.
31. AvayKatov 0 aOL f.LTa Tov n:6Af.LOV, oTpaTTjy, Touc; n:.\TjywElvmc; tv
auT4J TWV <1TpanwTWV n:apaf.LUEldoElm Kal Touc; Otan:[n:TOVTac; EV Tti> n:OAEflql
Taq:>~c; U~LOUV Kat f.LaKapt(LV 0Lf]VKwc;, We; un:f:p T~c; 1tl<JTWc; Kat TWV U0A<j>WV
f.Lf]OE T~V auTWV (w~v n:pOTlfl~<1aVTac;, E1tL0~ Kal om6v E<JTLV Kal n:poElUf.Ltav
Tote; (wmv f.Ln:OLel.


28. Further, if our lines are ready and the terrain is suitable, do not wait for

the enemy to give battle, allowing them to adapt and modify their formation,
but in safety charge and fall upon them.
29. In the likely case that the charge is delayed for some good reasons, it is
absolutely necessary to hide the second line in the woods that may be found
there or on lower ground to the rear. If it is seen by the enemy too soon, they
will adapt and deal with it by ambushes or outwit it by other methods.
30. Since we have brought up the subject of patrols, you must make them
strong. Divide the scouts in such a way that, while some are sleeping, others are
awake, and so they carry out the patrols alternating with one another. Do not
trust anyone to be awake and vigilant through the entire night, no matter how
much he promises to do so. For it is possible that sleep will come upon him of
itself. When other patrols are necessary, always have the scouts stand up
straight. Chairs and recliners lull the body into sleep whereas standing on your
legs keeps the mind alert.
31. After the battle, 0 general, you are obliged to see to the comfort of the
soldiers wounded in the action, as well as to provide proper burial for those who
have fallen/ Constantly pronounce them blessed because they have not preferred their own lives over their faith and their brothers. This is a religious act
and it greatly helps the morale of the living.

204-208 Strat., 7.B.6.

189 eav MWA av BE

I EO"TlV ... TCt~l~

MWA ~ TCt~l~ ~ BE

190 Kavov[(wm Kal MW om.

ABE 1 Ta~tv MW Ta~tv Kal KaTa<npaTI]ywmv auT~v (auT~~ BE) ABE 1 ana MWA aU' BE
192 w~ iK6~ MW om. ABE

W ABE eoTt M

I OUfl~OA~~


195 npo<patVOflEVI] MW <patVOflEVI] A <pUAaTTOflEVOl BE

I Kal MW A om. BE I iiA>..wv MWA

MW om. ABE


aypunVElV BE

iiA.Awv Ttvwv BE

197 end MWA enctO~ BE

MW OtaflEp[(Etv ABE
ypljyopwm BE


I oxupa~

MWE om. AB

196 ~ MWBE om.

I KaTacro<p[(ETat

Va Kamcro<p[(I]Tal

MW acr<paA.ET~ ABE

198 Otatpdv

I imvoiimv MW KOlflWVTal ABE I eypljyopoiimv MW ypljyopwmv A

evaA>..aooovTa~ MWA EAAaOO"OVTa~ BE I aU~A.ou~ MW aAA.~A.ou~ Kal
I KUV MWA Kal BE 200 YP'lYOP~Oat ... Kall MW aypunv~oat A

202-203 ai' ... unvov MW TO yap Ka8e(w8at Kal (To BE) avaKA[vw8at [~

urrvov Ta OC:OflaTa KaTa<pepet ABE

202-203 flapa[vouotv W flapa[voum M om. ABE

203 ~ ABE a[ MW





anoev~OKOVTa<; ABE


193 EOTlV

194 KotAoTepot~ MW ~a8uTepot~ A ~a8u-repot~ Kal xafli]AOTEpot<; BE

flE800EUETat. .. em~OUAEUETat MW flE8oOEui]Tat Kal em~OUAEUTal ABE



204 scr. mg. 7tEpl -rou napaf1U8Eto8at Toil~


206 Ta<p~<; a~lOUV MW eamEtV ABE

205 Otan[movTa~




7 Strat. 7.B.6.






The Day of Battle

Constitution 14

32. Et o Kai TEKva atJTOt<; eiatv ~ <J1l!l~l0<; Kai <pavep6v anv, on aywvt(611evot 11po6u!lw<; TeAwil6f]aav, Kai mum 11apalluela<; a~wuv T~<; 7tpOGfJKOU<Jf]<;.
33.'E11l0~ o eupt<JKO!lV Kai'Pwlla(ou<; Kai mivm<; TOU<; 6vlKOU<;, W<; E11t7tav
!l~Ko6ev Ta<; aAA~AWV 7tapaTCt~l<; 6pwvm<;, f11l<Jf]!la(vwem T~V muyvoTepav
!lCtAAOV Tft O\fil E11lTUYXCtVlV v Tat<; !lCtXat<; ~11p T~V v TOt<; 011AOl<; Aa!1110U<Jav,
KCtV Taxa \fiUOE<; f<JTlV TO xuoatov TOUTO. !lTa yap T~<; Kpt<JW<; TOU Ekou Tft
TOU <JTpaTf]yOu OlOlK~<Jl Kai 7tpoeu!lt<;t TOU mpaTOU 6 TIOA!10<; KptvTat. aU'
oi>v Ola TOU<; Ta TOlaUTa moxa(O!lEVOU<; Mov f<JTLV, W<JT et !lfV UAal ~ KOtAOl
TOTIOL 7tp6KlVTat, EKt<J TOV <JTpaTov a7toKpu~Lv Kai 11po 11oHou Tot<; TIOA!11ot<; !l~ mOlKVUlV, W<JT !l~ KaTa<Jo<pl(wem Kai m~OUAUlV aunj), i !l~11W
newmv cmo EVO<; ~ OeuTepou Gf]!ldou.
34 Et o YD!lVO<; 6 TOTIO<; Kai Ka6apo<; 6 a~p f<JTlV, TOT Ta<; Ka<J<J(Oa<;
7tapa<JKU<i(Lv !l~ 7tp0 110AAOU <j>Opt<J6at, ana Tat<; xepai KaTexwem, !lEXPl<;
liv yylawmv oi txepol ana Kai Ta GKOUTCtpta !llKpa OVTa f!l11poaeev L<; TO
<JT~6o<; q>EpLv Kai <JKE11lV Ot' aunliv Kai Ta AwptKla Kai Ta<; aKaTIA(Oa<; omaeev
I KaTa TWV W!l011AaTWV <ppLV. d xou<Jl <JlOf]pii <JKOUT<ipta Aa!l11PU, ana Kai Ta
a(Ofjpa TWV Kovmplwv aTioKpumetv d<; TO TiavTolw<; Ta OTIAa !l~Ko6ev <11~>
OtaACt!l11tv Ota Tov elpfJ!lvov Tp611ov, aH' wme Kai &a TotouTou OfJ!ldou, o11ep
<JfJ!ltolivTm oi vavTiot, 7tpoKaTaAa!l~<ivwem Ta<; yvw11a<; mhwv, Kai d<;
0LA(av Kai 11po T~<; !lCtXfJ<; !lTa7tt11TlV.

ad f!TU7ttJtTetv des. Va



209 OUf!~LO<;








Kal xuoaTov ABE


MWAE np66uf.!o<; B

n:\w.i>6T]crav MW <'m6avov ABE



212 napaT<i~L<;





taTtv ... ToiiTo MW aTt (~ BE) ToiiTo

npo6Uf!lU MWAE TIOAEf!la B I TOU <rTpaToii MW om. ABE ln6AEf!O<;


waTE MW om. ABE I KOLAOL MW ~a6El<; Kat (~ E) xaf.lf]AOl ABE

Kat MW anoKpuTITELV Kat 11~ ABE

auTov ABE I fl~Tiw MW fl~Tiou ABE



tmTuyxavEtv MW Eun>xTv A VTuxIv BE

217 anoKpu~ELV

32. If they have children or a wife and it is clear that they met their end
struggling valiantly, then provide proper comfort to their children and wives.
33 We are well aware that the Romans and all other peoples, when observing each other's battle lines from a distance, generally pick out the more gloomylooking one as more likely to win the battle rather than the one in gleaming
armor. Although common, this view is clearly wrong. After the judgment of
God, war is decided by the leadership of the general and the morale of the army.
Be that as it may, following <the report of> those who are attentive to such
matters, if woods or hollows are found in the vicinity, the army should be
concealed in them and not be visible to the enemy for a long time, until it
advances to within a mile or two. This will not allow the enemy to organize
countermeasures against it.
34 If the ground is open and the air is clear, then train <the troops> not to
wear their helmets during a long wait before <battle> but to hold them in their
hands until the enemy gets close. If their shields are small, have them carry
them in front on their chests, in this way covering their mail coats, and throw
the mail head pieces back over their shoulders. They should conceal bright iron
shields, if they have them, and also the iron of the lances. By adopting the above
measures, our weapons will not seem to shine at all from a distance. By such
indications, which the enemy also make use of, we will frustrate them and, even
before the battle, they will fall into dejection.


napaf!u6ia<; ... npo<rf]KOUcrf]<; MW T~<; npO<rf]KOUOf]<; napaf!u6ia<; a~toiiv ABE

xepcrt MABE xepalv

Strat. Kaaaioa<; ~ codd.





tyyiawatv MWA tyyi~watv BE

6ma8Ev ... Aaf!npa MW d

ACtf.!Tiovm 6niaw d<; Tou<; Wf!OTIA<im<; anoppimEtv ABE

225-226 f.l~Ko6Ev ... OtaAaf.!TIELv

MW om. ABE

<Yf]f.!Eiou MW f!LAiou ABE


218 f.l~ 1






navtoiw<; MW f!J]Oaf.!w<; ABE


225 11~



<rJ]f.!ELOiivTm ... tvavTiot MW ol txepot napaT!]poiivmt Ka\6v tan (eanv B) ABE

OEtAiav Ef.!Tiinwv Kalnpo T~<; f.!CtX!]<; ABE



TOY ... Tp6nov



Va om. codd.


yvwf.!a<; MW otavoia<; ABE



crTtv MWA tan

xwm atOf]pa <rKOUT<ipta

MW 6taA<if.!TIELV ano f!CtKpo6ev ABE


I autw


d<; ... f.!ETaniTITEtv MW npoKamn\~nwem Kat d<;




derive from Strat.









The Day of Battle


35 KAU0jlV 0 O"Ol, wO"Tpanw, flCtAlaTQ Kat n':tc; vopac; ~TOl eyKpUflflUTa v Tft 11axn KUTa A.6yov not1a8m ~Tot KUTa Tov npcbl]v ~111v otaTunw8vTa
Tp6nov. mhai yap emTI]Odwc; Kai npm6vTwc; ytv6jlVat flyiamc; w<pAiac; v
True; flUXatc; 7TOlOUat, KUL 0tacp6pwc;; OUVUjllc; uno 6:\[ywv KUTEAUO"UV,
waT !11]15 Kmpov yva8m T~v OATJV napam~tv crujlnAaK~vm.
36. Oi jlEV yap T6nwv emTI]odwv npoc; Taum tmop~aavTc;, oiov ~ uA.l]c;
oaadac; ~ KOlAUOoc; ~ ~ouvou jlyaA.ou ~ cpapayy[wv ~ 6pwv eyyt(OVTWV, KUL
jlEXPl T~c; ni>v x8pwv napaTCt~wc; O"UVKTlVOf1EVWV, WaT ot' mhwv A.a81V KUL
11~ n6ppw8v 6pWjlVov TO yKpUf1f1U jl8ooU8~vm npoc; m~ouA.~v. ouTwc; oi>v
Tote; vwTotc; T<i>v x8pwv 6ma8v licpvw nA.86vTc; npo T~c; auflnAoK~c; otnapa~av Kat Tp\jlav a\nouc;.
37 'AHot 0 OU 7TAI]O"LOV TWV ex8pwv T~c; napaTa~Wc; TUUTT]V ETIOLT]O"UV,
emT~OlOV OUK EXOVT<; T07TOV, aHa fK nA.ay[ou ai>Twv jlEGOV T~c; io[ac; Kai T~c;
T<i>v x8pwv Ta~wc; not~cravT<; ~ Kai 6ma8v T~c; io[ac; eK nA.ayiou, Kai T~v 11ev
flEL(ova OUVUjllV de; eyKpUjlflUTU ETU~av, T~V o Mnova O"XTJflUTlKWc; Ejl7Tpoa8v m~av.
38. 'AHot 0 flEpoc; Tou aTpaTou Ta~av ic; yKpUjlf1U, Kai ou To fl1(ov
flEpoc;, aHa TO 6A.ty6Tpov. T~<; 15 O"Ujl~OA~c; YV0f1EV1]<; EKOUa[wc; TWV npotayvTWV de; cpuy~v 6pjll]cravTwv, Kai T<i>v x8pwv T~v oiw~tv aTaKTwc; notou!lvwv, jlTa To napA.81v ai>Touc; Tov T6nov T~c; vopac; ~A.86vTc; oi To yKpuf1f1U not~aavTc; KaTa Tou vwTou 6ma8v T<i>v x8pwv nm11aav. dTa Kai oi
cpuy6vTc; UVTtcrTpocpot ytVOjlVOl npoc; TO auv8l]jlU 07Tp npo6ptcrav v T<P flE0"4J
250 ad <JUV81]f1U des. W
229-407 Strat., 4.

ot ABE om.


I TU~ ... ~TOl

rrpoTurrwaaf1V TaiiTa ABE


I Kme\uaav

35 We order you, 0 general, to make particular use of ambuscades or ambushes in battle in the prescribed manner, that is, the manner previously set
forth by us.9 When well planned and properly carried out, they are extremely
advantageous in warfare. In various ways they have caused large forces to be
destroyed by a few men before they had a chance to bring their entire battle line
into action.
36. Some commanders have availed themselves of favorable terrain for these
purposes, such as dense woods, hollows, steep hills, ravines, or nearby mountains extending up to the enemy battle line. They have used these to conceal
themselves and avoid being detected from a distance and so have organized
their ambush and gotten it ready. Then, well before battle, they suddenly
charged in from behind against the enemy's rear and threw them into disarray
and routed them.
37. Others, when the terrain was not to their advantage, would not lay the
ambush close to the enemy battle line, but would set it up off to their flanks,
between the enemy's line and their own or even to the rear of their own flank.
They stationed the larger force in ambush with a smaller force assuming a
position out in front.
38. Still others have designated a division of the army for an ambush, not the
larger division but a smaller one. When the charge began, those who had been
so drawn up quickly rushed into flight and, in disorder, the enemy pursued
them. They rode past the site of the ambush and the troops who had set the
ambush charged out behind them and struck the enemy in the rear. Then, at the
prearranged signal, the men who had been fleeing wheeled about and caught the
enemy in the middle. The Northern tribes and the Scythians do this very

230-231 ~TOl ... auml MW Ka8w~ (JOl


232 rrotouat MW rrowiiatv ABE

I Ota<p6pw~

MW 8ta TotouTwv Tp6rrwv KUTAU8T]aav ABE

MW rroA.AaKt~

234 Oi De d codd.


MW errnuxovn:~ ABE 234-235 UAT]~ ... KOlAUOO~ MW oaaou~ ~ KOlAUOWV

ABE 235 <papayyiwv MW <papayywv ABE I eyyt~OVTWV Kal MW om. ABE
236 cruvKTLVOf1evwv MW rrKTtvoflvwv ABE 237 f.l8oowe~vat. .. em~ou\~v MW


KaTacrTpamyT]e~vm Kal bn~ou\w8~vm ABE

omcr8v MW om. ABE

238 vwTot~ MW 6mcr8iot~ f.lEpwt ABE

240 TWV ... rrapaTa~W~ MW T~~ TWV exepwv rrapma~W~ ABE


ioia~ MW ioia~ ~ ABE

243-244 Ef.lrrpocr8v eTa~av MW rrpotm~av Ef.lrrpocr8v ABE

246-247 rrpomyvTWV MW rrpoTpanEVTWV ABE


249 Kma ... omcr8v



248 Tij~ evtopa~ MW TOU eyKpUf.lf.lUTO~


250 aVTtcrTpocpot



avncrTpa<pEVT~ ABE <JUV8T]f.lU ... rrpo6ptcrav M OT]f.lELOV Kal TO cruv8T]f.lU 0 npowptcrav ABE


9. Sections 35-57 derive from Strat. 4.






Constitution 14

anL\a~ov mhouc;. TOtrro oi: we; brl TrOAU i:rrl TWV ~opELOTEpwv Kal LKU8LKWV
8vwv ylvnm ota -ro a-raK-ra Elvm, olov ToupKwv Kal -rwv 6f.Lolwv au-roic;.
39 'Eav 0 TLc; q>6aaav ~a8Eiav ~youv opuwa i:rrl OKTW ~ OEKa rr6oac; TO
TrAaToc; i:nl iKavov OLCtO'TT]fla 6pu~n, Kal O'KE1taO'n TaUTT]V ~UAOLc; AE1tToic; xopT(j.l
TE Kal XWflaTL, WO'TE ~vw!f.LEVT]V Kal6flolav T~v i:mq>avELav -rou 6puwa-roc; dvm
Tft i:yyt(oucrn au-r<iJ yft, Kal KaTa f.LT]Oi:v OLaAACtTTELV. ana f.LT]Oi: TO nap8i:v
XWflU i:acrn napaKEicr8m au-r<iJ, Iva 11~ Ef.Lq>alvn TLVU ~EV01tpE1tELUV i:v T<i> flEO'(j.l oi:
-rou au-rou 6pl>yflaToc; KamA.lnn nvac; -r6nouc; cr-repwuc; O'EO'TJflELWflvouc; Kal
i:yvWO'flEVOUc; npoc; TO napov T<i> LOL(j.l O'Tpa-r<iJ. EKaTEpw8Ev oi: ~youv v8Ev
KaKEi8Ev EK TOU 1tAT]O'LOV TOU 6puwa-roc; eyKpUflflU de; aq>avEic; T01touc; TrOL~O'n,
Kal napa-ra~n Toile; Aomoilc; 1tp0 TOU opUYf.LaToc;. Eha O'Ufl~OA~c; YEVOflEVT]c;
EKOUO'tWc; o[ npo-rayevTE<; T~V Tp01t~V O'XTJflUTLO'CtflEVOL au-col fli:V Olcl TWV i:yvwcrf.LEVWV au-roic; T01tWV Kal OTEpEWV aKLVOUvwc; napA.8wmv. o[ Oi: i:vavTtOL aq>o8pwc; Kal acrx-rwc; T~V o[w~LV 1tOLT]O"CtflEVOL Efl1tEO'WO'LV v T<i> 6pUYflUTL, U1tE~EA86vTEc; Oi: aq>vw oi TO yKpUflflU 1tOLTJO'CtflEVOL, Eha navacr-rp'JfaVTE<; Kal oi T~v
unoxwpTJOLv crxTJflUTLO"af.LEVOL, -roilc; nA.eiouc; -rwv tx8pwv anoA.tawm nav-rwc;,
Toile; fli:V W<; Efl1tEO"OVTa<; Eic; TO opuwa, Toile; oi: we; -rpanev-rac; aTCtKTWc; i:nl T<i>
UOOK~T(j.l O"Ufl1tTWflUTL, d fl~ apa napa TWV tx8pwv 1tpoyvwcr8ft ~ OLCt TLVWV
npocrpUEVTWV aUTOL<; KUTaflT]VU8ft.
40. 'Eav Oi: -rov OflOLov -rp6nov Kal 8ta naA.wv nmTJwvwv -rtc; not~crn, ouo
Kal ~ -rpEic; ELO"OOOUc; ana8Eic; mvo~crn i:yVWO"flEVac; T<iJ 1tapaTaO'O'OflEV4J O'TpaT<iJ,
ha npo -rwv naA.wv i:Kdvwv napa-r<i~T]TaL Kal OXTJflUTLO"Ctflvoc; i:v -rft O'Ufl~OAft
Ka-ra -rov OflOLov -rp6nov -r~v q>uy~v rrpo-rpE'JITJTUL -roue; x8poilc; -roic; naA.OLc;
1tpmwiv. Kal i:~a[q>vT]c; i:nA.86v-rc; o'( T -co yKpUflflU xovTc; i:K nA.ayiou, Kal

251 cmAa~ov M CU!EKAWJav ABE ITIOAU M T01lAElOTOV ABE 253 <p6aaav ... opuyt.ta M
Kal opuyfla 1!0t~aac; ~aeu ABE 254 TUUTTJV M TOUTO ABE 255 E1ll<pUVEtav M 0\f'lV ABE
256 yyt<ouaTJ M TIATJma<oucrfJ ABE I OtaH<inetv MBE Ota>.A<iaaetv A 257 Ttva M Ttva
11apaHay~v Kal ABE 258-259 OEOTJf!ElWf!EVOuc; ... yvwaflvouc; M U7tOOTJf!ElWV Ttvwv
yvwpt<Of!EVouc; ABE 259-260 EKaTepw8ev ... i!yKpUflf!U M ev8ev 6t Kal EKet8ev TOU
6puyt.tmoc; EK TOU 1lATJOlOV eyKpUf!f!UTa ABE 260 T01!0Uc; M T01lOUc; Aa8paiwc; ABE
261 Kal ... >.omouc; M Toile; of: >.omouc; 7tapm<i~TJ ABE I 1tapm<i~T] ABE 1tapma~et M
262 T~V Tporr~v M <puy~v ABE 264 aaxeTwc; M aKpmwc; ABE 265 rravamp\f'UVTec; M
imoaTpE\f'UVTec; ABE 266 U1lOXWPTJatV M <puy~v ABE I rr>.douc; M 1!AeiaTouc; ABE
268 UOOK~TW M arrpoaOOK~TW ABE 269 rrpoapuEVTWV M 7tpoa<puywv ABE
2 71 elaooouc; ... yvwcrf!Evac; M rrap66ouc; KaTaAei<p8TJ rrpoeyvwaf!Evac; ABE 272 7tpo M
l::f!7tpoa8ev ABE I OXfJf!UTlOUf!EVoc; M OXfJflUTlcr<if!EVoc; <puy~v ABE 273 T~v <puy~v Mom.
ABE 274 rre>.86vTEc; M t~eA86VTec; ABE ITEM om. ABE

The Day of Battle


lrcquently because they are undisciplined, like the Turks and those similar to
them. 10
39. A commander might dig a deep trench or ditch eight or ten feet wide
.md extending a good distance and cover it over with light pieces of wood and
with hay and earth so it looks uninterrupted and just like the ground around the
excavation, so there seems to be no difference at all. He ought then to allow the
~xcavated earth to remain at the site to avoid giving it a strange appearance. In
the middle of this trench he might leave several solid spots, well marked and
known to his own army. Close to the trench on both sides, that is, here and
there, he might lay an ambush in places that cannot be seen and draw up the
r~tmaining troops in formation in front of the excavation. When battle is joined,
the men stationed in front make believe they are being routed and without harm
{:ross over the solid spots that they know about. The enemy might begin an
Impetuous and unrestrained pursuit and fall into the trench. Then the soldiers
lying in ambush suddenly charge out and the men who had feigned retreat turn
back. Most of the enemy will surely perish, some because they will fall into the
trench, others because they will be routed in disorder by the unexpected
disaster. Of course, this will not work if the enemy learns of it ahead of time or is
warned by some men going over to them.
40. If a person were to devise something similar, he could fix stakes in the
!\round. Plan two or three safe passageways known to the army drawn up in
1\mnation. Then draw it up in front of those stakes. In similar fashion, during
the fighting it will pretend to take to flight and so cause the enemy to fall upon

10. Cf. Const. 18. Scythian was a general designation for peoples north of the Black Sea.
"Northern tribes" probably refers to the Rhos. At this time, "Turks'' designated the people
known as Magyars or Hungarians.


The Day of Battle

Constitution 14

o[ GXfJflUTlGCq_tVOl T~V <puy~v KaTa Kpc'no<; Kai oihw<; TOU<; txElpou<; cmo\aouatv.
41. flVTat 8 TOlOUTO<; OOAO<; KaTa T<DV txEJpwv Kat UVU opUYflUTO<; ~
mi\wv, tav Tl<; Tpt06\ou<; at8f]pi't<; aGUfl<paVW<; pi\l'n npo<; wpav tv G<jlf]KWflUalV
imo8eOflEVa<; ei<; TO ETOlflW<; aum\\wElat fleTa T~V xpLav, TOUTEGTlV tni


nAa.-ro<; flEV p' no8wv, Kai npo<; fl~Ko<; 8 npo<; To <~<; napma~ew<; 8taGTfJflU. tv
Tip flEG4J 8 Teaaapa<; ~ nEVT nap68ou<; KaTUAinn ano TptaKoaiwv no8wv
n\aTO<; tyvWGflEVa<; Tip GUf100.\Aovn aTpaTip, Kai GWf]fllWflEVa<; ano KA<i8wv
flYUAWV ~ KOVTapiwv K<paAa<; ~evonpme1<; txovTWV ~ y~<; avapo\wv W<;
TUf10iwv ~ \[EJwv anonElflEVWV ~ Tepov U0f1AOV Gf] flelOV, OU flOVOV KaT' UUTU<;


Ta<; apxa<;, ~TOl TWV flT<imwv TOU fl~KOU<; TWV Tpt06\wv, aHa

I Kai KaTa TOU

pa.eou<; ~Tot -rou n\0.-rou<; nap' i:xa-repa -rwv nap68wv, wme T~<; auf10o\~<;
yeVOflEVfl<; GXfJflUTiaaaElat -rpon~v Kal fleTa TO nape\Eldv 8ta -rwv TOLOUTwv
tyvwaflvwv nap6owv TOV mpmov tnaipwElat Ta Totaum Gf]flela, ~Tot Ka-ramp<pwElm napa TWV ei<; TOUTO U<popt<OflEVWV Ka0a\Aap[wv, e'LEJ' oihw<; T~V

tv8pav tK TWV Mo n\ayiwv ime~pxwElat evElev KUK1Elev KQTQ TWV txElpwv

neptTilJTTOVTWV TOt<; Tpt06\ot<;, Kal ou OUVaflEVWV oM np6aw oM omaElev
euK6Aw<; imoxwpe1v.
42. fivwem 8 Mvamt Kal KaTa TOV OflOlOV Tp6nov Kal aveu Tpt06\wv, tav
n<; mpoyyu\a 6puwam,


a e\eyov

o[ naAatOTpOl [nnOKACtaTa<;, 6pu~n 8t-

anapf1Va ano EVO<; no86<; TO 8taGTf]flU exovm, Kal pa.eo<; Mo ~ Tptwv no8wv,
Kai na\ou<; 6~1<; Efln~~n v auTo1<;. muTa 8 napfJUawva opu~et Kai fl~ n'


the stakes. Suddenly the troops in ambush on the flank, together with those who
had feigned flight, charge out in force and utterly destroy the enemy.
41. The same sort of trap may be laid for the enemy without a trench or
stakes if, in timely fashion and secretly, a person should scatter iron caltrops
strung together so they can easily be collected after use. They should extend the
whole length of the battle line to a depth of one hundred feet. In the middle
section, which would be about three hundred feet wide, one might leave four or
five passageways known to our army in combat, marked by large tree branches,
spear heads with odd shapes, heaps of earth like burial mounds, piles of stone,
or other obvious signs. These could be placed not only at the entrances, that is,
the front of the section covered by the caltrops, but also deeply and broadly on
both sides of the passages. Then during the battle, after the units feigning flight
have passed through these passages known to them, remove the markers or have
them overturned by the cavalry men assigned to this task. The men in ambush
on both flanks can then charge out here and there while the enemy are tripping
over the caltrops and find themselves unable to move forward or backward with
42. It is possible to do something along the same lines, even without
caltrops. A person could dig round pits here and there, that the older authorities
referred to as horsebreakers. 11 They should be about one foot in diameter and
two or three feet deep with sharp stakes set into them. Dig these in alternating
rows, not in straight lines, about three feet apart from one another in all four

euEleia<; ~ ano Tptwv no8wv UAA~AWV KaTa Ta Teaaapa flEPfl a<pWTf]KOTWV, nl

297 ad Tptwv de novo inc. W

293-305 Strat., 4-3-53

278 aoufi<pavwc; M Kpu<pa ABE 279 uTto8coqtvac; M aTtoo8cf1vac; ABE
auaTA.Aw8m ... xpiav M T((lAlV f1TCt T~V xpiav OUOTEAAW8at ABE 280 p' ... Ttpoc; 1 M
Ttoowv eKmov de; ABE 281 Ttap6oouc; M Moue; ABE 281-282 aTto ... yvwof1vac; M
TtAUToc; xouaac; alto TptaKoaiwv Ttoowv Ttpoyvwaf1vac; ABE 282 oufi~aAA.ovn M om.
ABE 282-283 oW!]f1ELWf1vac; ... f1Eya,\wv M alto KAaowv f1ya,\wv OWI]f1LWf1EVac; ABE
283 ~VOT!pmdc; M ~vo1tp1t1c; Kal TtUp!]AAUYf1EVac; ABE 283-284 ~ 2 TUfl~[wv M om.
ABE 284 ,\i8wv M ,\[8wv we; awpwv ABE I hcpov ... Ol]fidOV M hpwv Ol]flElWV OI]AWV Kal
<pavEpwv ABE 285 Twv 1 M KaTi:t ABE 285-286 ToiJ2 ... TtAamuc; M To ~a8oc; ~Tot TO
ltAUToc; ABE 291 ou M OUT Ef11tpoa8v ABE I ouoi:: 1 M OUt ABE I 1tp6aw ouoi:: Mom.
ABE 293 Kall M om. ABE 294 6puwam M 6puwma 6pu~IJ ABE I 6pu~IJ M om. ABE
295 OtUOT!]flU M T!Aatoc; ABE 296-297 T!Up!]AAUYflEVU ... ~ M fl~ Kat' U8dav aAA~AWV
6pu~!] aA.Ai:t TtUp!]AAUYfiEVa ABE 297 a<pwt!]K6twv MW aTtexovta ABE



Strat. 4-353





Constitution 14

The Day of Battle

TrAClTO<; Of: TrOOa<; pv', flflKO<; Of: rrpo Tfl<; Trapani~fW<; OHXGTflfla. Kat T01JTOU
yeVOflEVOU i:.v Tft GUfl~OAft, (\Tav f.!EV ~ TrpWTfl TCt~l<; rrporrapaTCtGGflTUL, 1tpE1tOV
'(va W<; rrpo EVO<; fllALOU TOU TOLOUTOU (JO<pL<JflaTO<; ~ mh~ i'<JTaTUL, ~ of:
omcreev aUTOU Ot' o.\ou TOU Ota<JT~flaTO<; ei<; TU AeLflflaTU TWV 6pUYf.!CtTWV W<;
arro Mo ~ TplWV crayLTTO~OAWV omcreev i'va i:.av xpe[a YEVflTUL, Kai oi Tperrof.lfVOl Tfj<; rrpwTfl<; 6ta Twv aKtvouvwv rrapepxwvTm, Kai T~v OeuTepav Ta~tv, i:.av
xpela i:.miv tmetcrem TOt<; txepot<;, Ota TWV aUTWV fUKalpwv 6ta.\eLf.!flCtTWV
OtepxOflEVflV Kai aVff.lTIOOLGTW<; oihw<; i:.mTlewem TOt<; txepot<;.
43 'DTav 6 ou rrpo TOU cro<p[<Jf.!UTO<; ~ rrapaTU~l<; YEVflTUL micra, aHa omcreev aUTOU, Otov arro TWV TplWV craytno~o.\wv TOUTOU omcreev T~V rrapaTa~LV
i'crmcrem, Kai omv oi txepol rrape.\ewmv ~ Kam.\a.~wm To cro<ptcrf.!a, ToTe
imavna~etv aUTOt<;, i'va <p86.crwmv oi l1tTIOl aUTWV Ef11tWOVTf<; a<pavtcr8fjvm.
ana TOT ou XP~ rro.\u TrAUTEa Ta fUKatpa xwp[a TOU cro<pL<JflUTO<; KUTaALf11tCtVflV, omv ~ rrapaTa~t<; orricrw auTwv i:.crnv, wme fl~ Tou<; rro.\Aou<; Twv txepwv
rrapooeuovm<; aKtvMvw<; Tfj<; f.!CtXfl<; rrpocramwem.
44 TO. of: TOLaUTU i:.yxetp~flaTa ~youv <JO<pl<JflaTU .\aveavovTw<; cre Oet TrOlftV,
GTPUTflYE, OL' 6.\(ywv Kai mmwv avepwrrwv ~ i:.v auTft Tft TOU 1tOAEf.!OU ~flEP<;t
~ rrpo fllU<; aUTOU ~f.!Epa<; rrepi Ta<; OetALVCt<; auTOU wpa<; ~ VUKTO<;, tv i:.Ke[vtp
o11.\ovon T<!> Torr<.p i:.v 4> 1 ~ f.!CtXflrrpocr6oKaTat, KaKetcre Touc; txepouc; avaflvetv,
KUL rrpo<; wpav 8appctV TOt<; TOU <JTpaTOU, Kat KaT' i:.~a[peTOV TOt<; ~aVOO<pOpOL<;

directions and covering an area of 150 feet, extending the length of the battle
line. After this has been done and it is time for battle, the first line should draw
up in formation, taking its position about a mile in front of these traps. The
second line should be two or three bowshots to the rear, that is, behind those
traps along the whole distance in the clear spaces between the pits. In an
emergency, then, when the troops in the first line are driven back, they can pass
through without danger and, if it is necessary to attack the enemy, the second
line may safely advance unobstructed through those same clear spaces and fall
upon them.
43 When the entire battle line is drawn up, not in front of those traps but to
their rear, the line should take its stand about three bowshots behind them.
When the enemy advances and encounters the traps, then charge out against
them as their horses are falling into the pits and being destroyed. At the same
time, when our line is drawn up behind those traps, the clear spaces left
between them must not be very wide. This is to prevent large numbers of the
enemy from passing through and, having avoided danger, take part in the


298 rrpo MW rrpo<; -ro ABE l&acr-rTJfla MW cStacrTTJfla Ka-ra;l..lrrfJ .S Kal Moil<; -recrcrapa<; ~
rrev-re rrpoeyvwcrflva<; Tw a-rpa-rw ABE

299 rrporrapa-raa<JT]Tat M rrporrapa-racronm W

Ef!Trpocreev -rwv -rowu-rwv 6puwa-rwv rrapa-racr<Jf]Tat ABE

300 ao<pi<Jf!ULO<; ... auT~ MW rravoupyEuf!aTo<; ABE

I rrperrov MW rrperrov tcr-rlv ABE

301 .St' ... 6puwa-rwv MW ei<; -ra

303 rrpwTT]<; MW rrpwTfJ<; rrapa-ra~ew<; A om. BE I aKtvMvwv

MW C!Ktv.Suvwv -r6rrwv Kal fl~ txov-rwv 6puyflaTa A om. BE I -r~v ... -ra~tv MW mi\tv A om.

.StaxwpiaflaTa -rwv Mwv ABE


304 tcr-rlv ... txepoT<; MW yivf]Tat 'iva Kal ~ .Seu-ripa rrapa-ra~t<; t<popf!~<JT] Ka-ra -rwv

txepwv EUKOAW<; .Stu TWV TOlOUTWV cStaxwplOf!UTWV .SttAef] Kal arrapEf!TrO.StcrTw<; TOt<; txepoi<;


306 ou ... ~ MW ~ rra<Ja ABE

306-307 YEVf]TUl ... au-rou MW 6rrt<JW TOU

307 .Stov MW cStov w<; ABE I -rwv MW


-rotou-rou cro<ptcrf!a-ro<; f!EAATJ rrapa-racrawem ABE



TOUTOU ... rrapa-ra~LV

308-309 rrap\ewmv ... auToi<; MW rrapt\ewat -ra 6puwa-ra -r6-re Ka-rarrp6crwrrov au-roil<;
arrav-riiv ABE


309 EflTrE<JOVTE<; MW Ef!TrWOVTE<; Ei<; TCt 6puwa-ra ABE





311 o-rav ... ecr-rtv

310 ElJKatpa ...




312 rrapo.SeuovTa<; ... rrpoaamecreat MW CtKtvMvw<; eSt' au-rwv rrape\eov-ra<; f!axwem ABE
313 eyxetp~flaTa ... cro<pt<JflaTa MW <JO<pl<JflaTa Kal flTIXaV~flaTU ABE

314-316 .St' ...

rrpocr.SoKa-rm MW rrpo (rrpo<; B) fiLii<; ~flepa<; -rou rro\ef!OU ev -rw -r6rrw ev <.ll 6 rr6AEf!O<;
rrpocr.SOKUTUL f!UAL<JTU .S Tau-ra rrepl TU<; c5EtALVCt<; wpa<; TrOLElY ~ rrpo<; i:arrepav .St' 6\[ywv Kal
Trl<JTWV avepwrrwv ABE

317 wpav MW wpav TOUTO ABE



44 You must prepare this sort of operation or artifice secretly, 0 general,

with a few reliable men, either on the very day of battle or late in the evening or
at night on the previous day and, of course, in that location in which the battle is
expected, and there await the enemy. When the time is right, inform the men in
your army, especially the standard-bearers, so they may know and be on their


The Day of Battle

Constitution 14

ot doom:; <pUAa~OV!Ql Kal omaeev TC.DV ~avowv a<ptyKrol UKOAoueoumv, W<:;

ol 1\Kmpot -r6not moexov-rm.

45 ToUTO
naVT<:; napayyeA.ewatv, '(va TOi<:; ~aVOOl<:; tau-rwv EV T(il uno-


xwpeiv f.LUALaTa UKOAouewmv, Iva fl~-onep fl~ yvfjTat-nAaVWf1VOl mhol

nepm[moum -rft naylot.
46. TiavTWV
TWV dpfjf.LEVWV ao<ptaf.LUTWV, w<:; ~Y01Jf18a, ~ Ota TWV Tpt~6-


AWV anaTfj UKOAWTpa w<:; Kal f.LUAAOV AAfj86-rw<:; EV Kaan.p -romp ovvamt
325 y[vwem. Ota TOUTO ouv XP~ npo<:; TOU<:; -r6nou<:; Kal T~V TU~lV apf16~wem.

47 Kal av 06~n aOL auf1<ppov -r~v e<pooov KaTa -r~<:; -rwv txepwv napma~
w<:; yeva8at, w<:; ~Ofj ~fllV dpfjTaL, a<pop[aL<:; ano tvo<:; ~ Kal OUTpou ~avoou ~

npo<:; TO noaov TOU OVTO<:; aTpaTOU nA.dova<:; flTa apxovTWV avopdwv Kal
TOAflfjpwv Kal <ppovlf.LWV Kal a-rpanw-rwv XPllaLf.LWV. d<:; f.LEV -ro 'Lowv Oe~tov
33 o f1po<:;, -roii -r6nou OfjA.ov6n auf.Lnpanov-ro<:;, f.Liav vopav 6<pdA.oumv Ka-ra -r~<:;

TWV txepwv yxLp~aat napa-ra~W<:;, KaLa

ot apta-repov T~V UAAfjV vopav.

48. Kal av f.LEV napa TWV x8pwv yxLpfjTat TaUTfjV T~V v0pav ~OUAO
f.LEVfjV TWV x8pwv avaaTEAALV, Kal fl~ OOUVat Kmpov :\8lv Kal Tapa~at T~V
napa-ra~LV. i

ot fl~ EYXLP~Tal napa TWV txepwv npxw8at, tva Ota TOU f.LEpOU<:;

335 Kdvou ~ d<:; -ro -rouA.oov -rwv txepwv, w<:; eiK6<:;, Kiae euptaK6f1vov nA.8wmv
~ Kal -roi<:; -rwv txepwv vw-rot<:; ~ -r(il Kepa-rt, ~youv -r(il KuKA.ouv-rt f1EpL -r~<:; -rwv

x8pwv napaTa~W<:; Iva fl~, w<:; LKO<:;, Kal TWV x8pwv EV 0UTpq Ta~l Taaaof.LEVWV ~ Kal aUTWV eyKpUflfla omaeev T~<:; io[a<:; aUTWV Ta~W<:; EXOVTWV eup318 oi: eioom; MW ytvwcrKovte~ ABE 318-319 Kal. .. emoexovtm MW napayydA.fJ~ Oi::
tva ~6.voov tW ~avow eJtaKOAouSi) npo~ tO OtaxwplOf.lU Kal tO JtAUtO~ tWV KataAlf.!ltaVOf.Lt~VWV
Mwv tva f.l~ tv tW OJtOUOU~OVtE~ naptpxwem JtEpm[mwm tol~ opuyf.!aOLV ABE
320 tol~ ... eautwv MW om. ABE 321 f.!UALOta MW f.!UALOta tol~ ~UVOOl~ autwv ABE I
onep ... ytvT]tat MW om. ABE 322 nepm[moum MW nepm[mwm ABE 323-324 ~ ... w~
MW EUKOAWtEpa ecrtlv ~ OlCt tWV tpl~OAWV ClltUtfJ ABE 324-325 ouvatal y1vwem MWBE
trsp. A 326 cruf.!<pepov MW cruf.!<pEpov dvm ABE 326-327 napata~ew~ yevtcrem MW
trsp. ABE 328 npo~ ... nA.Eiova~ MW Kal nA.dova~ npo~ t~v nocr6tT]ta tou crtpatou ABE
330 tou ... 6<pLA.oumv MW cruf.!npattovto~ Kal cruvepyouvto~ OfJAov6tt tou t6nou ev (av
BE) o<pElAOV ABE I evtopav De EYXElpEtV codd. 331 eyxetpi)crm MW emetcrem
ABE I Oi:: MW OE to ABE 332-334 yxLp!]tUl ... napata~lV MW yEVOf.!EVOV
em8ecr8m (emt18w8m B) ~ouA!]tUL ti) ~f.letepa napata~El uno tou d~ to aptcrtepov f.!Epo<;
YLVOf.!EVOU eyKpUf.lf.lato<; avaataA~OETUl Kal KwA.ue~cretm ABE 332 t~V eveopav MW
iitepov ABE 334 tva MW om. ABE 335 ei<; ... touA.Oov MW Kata tou toUA.oou ABE I w<;
MW om. ABE 1 euptcrK6f.!Evov MW eupwKof.!evou ABE 336 tol<; ... vwtot<; MW ei<; ta
0Jtt8La (6n1cr8ta B) tWV txepwv ABE I ii 2 MW ii Kal ABE 336-337 tWV i:x8pwv2 MW auti)<;
ABE 337 napata~Ew<; MW napata~EW<; <puA<'tttecr8a[ OE (oi: B) XP~ ABE 338 autwv
ta~ew<; MW napata~ew<; ABE

338-339 eupe8wm MBE eupe8wmv W A


guard, and the troops will follow behind the standards in close order, as the
dear spaces permit.
45 All the soldiers must be ordered to follow their own standards, especially
in withdrawing lest-may it not happen-they wander about and themselves
fall into the trap.
46. Of all the stratagems described here, it is our opinion that the stratagem
of the caltrops can more easily and with greater secrecy be employed on every
kind of ground. One must also, of course, form the line in accord with the
47. If you see an advantage in attacking the enemy battle line, then, as we
have prescribed earlier, detail one or two banda, or even more, depending on
the size of the army, made up of competent soldiers under intelligent, courageous, and bold officers. If the terrain is favorable, obviously, you should have
them undertake one ambush against the enemy battle line on their own right
and another one on their left.
48. If the enemy should launch an attack, those units are to repel any
attempt planned by the enemy and not allow them the chance to reach and
harass our battle line. If the enemy does not attempt any such attack, then those
units should attack in that sector or against the enemy's baggage train, if it
happens to be in that place, or against the enemy rear or flank, that is, the
encircling section of the enemy's battle line. In the likely event that the enemy
are drawn up in a second line or have ambushing units behind their own line


The Day of Battle

Constitution 14

ewm -ra aa eyKpUf.lf.lU<ct EK -rou vav-r[ou im:' a\nwv ~Act1tlOf.lVct. o1 yap Kcti

cttnOU<; -rou<; i<; eyKpUf.lf.lU arrpXOf.lEVOU<; rrpoaKOUAKUlV aa<pctAw<;, Kctl ou-rw<;!O(<J8ctl -rfi Kct<a <WV x8pwv m8al.
49 Tov of: Kcttpov TOU eyKpUf.lf.lU<O<; ETrlf.lAW<; KctVOVL(lV Kctl f.lfjOE rrpo
rroUou -r~<; rrapa-r6.~ew<; yxnplv, 'tva f.l~ w<; 6;\[you<; exouaa ~ vopa urro -rwv
ex8pwv ~ctp~-rctt f.lfjOE rr6.AlV ua-repeiv, '(va f.l~ ~ aUf.l~OA~ <~<; rrapctT6.~ew<;





yeva8ctt Kctl avw<pA~<; ctUTfi eupe8fi.

so. A.Ua rrprrov v -rqi Uf.lct f.lEV KlVLV T~V T rrap6.-rct~lV Kcti au-ra eh ev eh
ouo yivov-rm eyKpUf.lf.lctlct'iAAOV of: 6;\[yov I rrpOKlV~actl ~v rrap6.Tct~lV, 'tva ~
f.lEV rrap6.-rct~l<; Ola TWV cpavepwv -r6rrwv epxof.!EVfj EK18ev -roue; exepou<; avnrreptarr(i, ~ of: Ota TWV acpavwv Of.!OLW<; rreptarr(i Kcti aU~AOU<; Ota aKOUAKct<; Kcti
afjf.ldWV Kcti eLKctaf.!OU Kctvov[(lV Kcti TOV, w<; elKO<;, Ola aUVTOf.llct<; TOU -r6rrou
rrpoActf.!~O.vov-ra Ef.l~paouvnv Kctl CtVctf.!EVlV TOV iiUov wa-r, W<; voexTctl, 'law<;
Ta<; Ctf.l<pO<Epct<; T~V T EVEOpctv ~youv TO eyKpUf.lf.lU Kcti T~V rrctp6.-rct~lV UptaK<J8ctt KctTa TWV exepwv Kcti 6;\[yov n ~v vopav'iAAOV rrpoKpounv 'tva, (hav
ap~WVlctl o[ exepoi uno T~<; vopct<; OlctTctp6.H<J8ctl, -r6-r ~ nap6.Tct~l<; yyu<;
euptaKOf.!EVfj auf.!~O.An.
51. ~la ouv TOUTOV TOV Tp6nov, av oi -r6not emT~OelOL eiatv, EK -rwv ouo
f.!Epwv 01 a -ra eyKpUf.lf.lUTct EKTrEf.lTrlV, f.lUAta-ra av TrOAUV Kcti f.!Eyav a-rpctTOV
exnc;, 'tva TO f.lEV ev eyKpUf.lf.lU TOU<; ETrPXOf.!EVOU<; avaa-rUn, TO of: E-repov!OO[w<; -roi<; ex8poi<; emxnpfi.
52. 'Eav Of EYXlpOUVT<;, W<; iKO<;, f.l~ ETrl<UXWatV ~ Kcti Tporr~ <~<; TrctpctTU~W<; v Toaounp napctKOAOU8~an, f.lfjOE OUTW<; EVOlOOVctl ~ a<ptlV TOU<; exepou<;,
f.lfjOE ni ~v OeUTEpctv TCt~lV epxwem Kcti auvctTrAEK<J8ctl -roi<; cpeuyouatv, aUa
e~w8ev CtTrOf.lEVlV Kcti anouoa(nv cttnOL<; T(iJ vwnp TWV x8pwv ~TOl oma8ev
EV0pUlV Kcti npxwem Kcti v-reueev avctKctAla8ctt ~v TWV io[wv cpuy~v.
340 <mepxofltvou~ MW btepxofltvou~ ABE

342 flfJOt MW oToxa~wem woTe fl~Te ABE

344 fll]Ot MW fl~TE ABE I UOTEpetv

MW UOTP~ ABE 346-347 auTa ... yivovTat MW TU ABE 347-348 ~ ... napam~l~ MW
auT~ ABE 348-349 UVTl7!ptomi MW 7tpto7lWOlV ABE 349 ~ MW TU ABE I OKOUA.KU~
MW ~iy;\a~ ABE 350 Ol]fldwv ABE Ol]fldW MW I Kavovi~etv MW Kavovi~wmv AE

343 xouoa ... tveopa MW exov TO EYKPUflflU ABE

Kavovi~Elf!Ol B I ouVTOflia~ MW ouvTof11av ABE 352 Ta~ Ufl<pOTepa~ MW ltfl<p<'mpa ABE I

evtopav ~youv MW napaTU~lV Kal ABE

353 T~V evtopav MW TO EYKPUflflU ABE

3 54 T~~ ... Otatapaneo9at MW TOU eyKpUflflUTO~ &ampao<JETUl ABE

MW trsp. ABE


360 fl~ emTUXWOlV MW om. ABE

eKlVOl emxetpouotv ABE

enepxw9at MW emTi9w9at ABE

3 56 ouv TOUTOV

361 TOOOUTW 7tapaKOAOU9~0'1] MW

363 aU1:oi~ ... VWTW MW omoeev ABE

363-364 ~TOl. ..


assigned to discover and harm your ambushing units opposed to them, our
units that have been sent off to set ambushes must keep up careful reconnaissance and adapt their plans as necessary for their assault against the enemy.
49 The time of the ambush should be carefully arranged. Our men should
not make their attack too far ahead of the main battle line for, being less numerous, their ambush will be crushed by the enemy. On the other hand, they should
not be too far behind so that they show up after the main battle line has gotten
into action and they cannot be of any help to it.
so. The units assigned to ambuscades and to the main battle line must move
at the same time, whether there is to be one ambush or two. But it is better to
have the main battle line move out a bit earlier, because it advances through
open spaces where it diverts the enemy's attention; the other likewise distracts
the enemy but under cover. They should coordinate <their moves> with one
another by scouts, signals, and estimates. If one happens to use a short cut to get
ahead, it should slow down and wait for the other one, so that, if possible, both
of them, the ambush, that is, the ambuscade, and the main line, should make
contact with the enemy at the same time, rather, with the ambush unit pushing
ahead just a little. The purpose of this is that when the enemy begins to be
thrown into disorder by the ambush, the main battle line moves closer and
51. In this manner, then, if the ground permits, you must send out ambushes
from both sides, especially if you have a large and numerous army. One ambushing party may repel enemy assaults while the other is free to attack them.
52. In the event that the assaults are unsuccessful or, in the meantime, your
main battle line is driven back, do not for this reason give in or break off contact
with the enemy or fall back on the second line and get mixed in with the
fugitives, but remain out in the open and try to ambush and attack the enemy's
rear, that is, behind, and in this way rally your own men in flight.







Constitution 14

53 A<J<paAe<; oe imoAafl~CtVOf.tloV [va oi rrpo<; EYKPUflflaTa TIf1TIOflVOl e'fre ei<;

rrAeuatv cmo omcr8ev ~ EK rr:\ay(wv TLVO<; rrapa-ra~ew<; ehe et<; TOUAOOU <pUAaK~V ehe ei<; o~eiav ~o~8etav f1Epou<; nvo<;, w<; eLKO<;, ~apOUflEVOU, e'iTe ei<; VWTOU<; rrapaTa~ew<; <puAaK~v ehe ei<; ~(y:\av, 6:\(yot oi Totof>Tot, <lpflOOtov E<JTLV,
[va flCtAAOV opouyytml TCt<J<JWVTal, ~youv Of10U w<; f1Ct(a aveu 6po(vwv, ouxl 0
ETILflaKpii<; rrapaTa~ew<;, TOUTE<JTL KaT' opotvov UKta<; ~ OKapxla<; ~ rrevmpxla<;.
aUT~ yap KOflTI~ Kat ~oyKWf1EV'l Kal tcrxupoTpa Kat UTaKTOTpa E<Jll, Kat
acr<paAw<; TU<; <JUfl~OAa<; tv Tat<; flCtXat<; TIOlLTat ~paoeia oe Kal OU<Jf1eTCt8To<;
tan Tal<; xpelat<;, ~ oe opouyytcrTl Ta<J<JOflEV'l Ta tvav-r(a exet Kal tv Tal<; tvopat<; f1CtAAOV UKOAW<; Aav8avetv MvaTat 6:\(yqJ TOTiqJ apKOUflEV'l Kal <JUVTOflW<; fleTaTteemt rrpo<; Ta<; xpela<;. OLO XP~ !leTa YUflVacr(a<; 00Klf1Ct<Jat UKa(pw<; I Kal TO avayKatOTepov ot' auT~<; T~<; rrelpa<; tm:\~acr8at.
54 Apf10(et o Kal npo<; TO TIO<JOV TOU mpaTOU, TOU tnl TOUTqJ TIf11t0f1EVOU,
Kal rrpo<; Ta<; Twv Tonwv 8cret<;. tav yap ~ flel(wv Mvaflt<; ~ tcrof1Tpo<; T~<;
<pavepw<; Ta<J<JOflEV'l<; TIEflTI'lTat ei<; eyKpUflfla ot' EVO<; TOTIOU tyxetp~crat npocrOOKW<Ja, TOT OETat KaTa OKapxlav TCt<J<Je<J8at. et o 6:\(yot eicrlv oi TIf.lTIOflVOl
~ KaLa ota<popwv TOTIWV, TOT opouyytcrTl Kal OflOU aveu 6po(vwv <J<ptyKTOU<;
55 'Ev TOUTOL<; yap tcrnv ~ Ota<popa, w<; e'ip'lTat, Ufl<pOTpwv, on ~ flEV tv
<JUVTCt~l YLVOflEV'l tvopa TO tcrxupw<; Kal acr<paAW<; llaxecr8at exet, ~ oe opouyytml YLVOflEV'l TO 6~w<; rrapxnv Ta<; ~o'l8e(a<; KUL Ta<; OLW~l<; KUL Ta<; a8poa<;
tne:\eucret<; Kal mpaxa<; TIOlL<J8at.
56. TaUT'lV oi:Jv T~V TCt~lV tnl TWV Ka~aAAap(wv CtpflOO(av VOflt(Of1V, ~V Oel
(J KaTop8ouv Ola cruvexou<; YUflVacr(a<;, Ka8' ov eip~Kaf1V Tporrov, dye ll~ tv
rrdp<;t TaUT'l<; rrpoyyova<;. av yap aUT~ OeOVTW<; KaTop8w8ft, ouo flaVOUTWV
xpela tv Katp(!) TIOAEflOU, ouo UAATJ<; rrapayye:\(a<;. auT~ yap~ TCt~l<; Kal YUflVacr(a EKa<JTOV 0LOU<JKl -ra OEOVTa. '(aw<; o TLV<; TWV OKVT]pOTpwv Kal acr<paAecrTEpwv :\oy((ovTat TIOLKLA'lV nva Kal TIOAULO~ T~V TCt~lV TaUTT]V elvm Kal tvTeU-

367-368 vurrou~ ... <puA.aK~v MW <puA.aK~v Twv 6ma0Ev Tfj~ rrapaTa~Ew~ ABE 371 KOf!1!~
MW Ef!<pavEaTepa f!EV ABE I aT[ MBE tanv WA 373 tan MBE tanv W tanv tv A
373-374 TUL~ vecSpat~ MW TOL~ eyKpUf!f!UOl ABE 374 Mvmm MW OUVUTUl tv AE
MvavTm B 377 TO rroaov MW T~v rroa6T!]TU ABE 378 ia6f!Hpo~ BE ia6f!Epo~ MWA
380 6AiyOL dalv ABE 6\(ywv MW 383 w~ Elp!]Tal MW om. ABE I ~ 2 MW TO ABE
384 ytvof!EVlJ tveopa MW ytv6f!Evov eyKpuf!f!U ABE I ~ MW To ABE 385 ytvof!EVlJ MW
Taaa6f!cvov ABE 388-389 dye ... rrpoyeyova~ MW om. ABE 389 OEOVTW~ MW
rrpcrrovTw~ ABE 390 rrapayycA.ia~ MWBE rrapayycA.ia A

The Day of Battle



53 Assuredly, we take it for granted that detachments sent out to lay ambushes or to attack the rear or the flanks of a battle line or to guard the baggage
train or to give quick support to a unit which is hard pressed, as is likely, or to
guard the rear of the battle line or the small parties sent out for reconnaissance,
are more effective if they assume irregular formation, that is, in a mass without
regular columns, not as in a large battle formation arranged in files with
dekarchies and pentarchies. A battle line is impressive, very full, stronger, and
better ordered and it can make its charge more securely in battle, but in
emergencies it is slow and not very flexible. The irregular formation has the
opposite characteristics. It can be easily concealed when setting up ambushes; it
does not require much space, and it can move about quickly in an emergency.
For these reasons you must spend time practicing it, and learning its basic
elements from experience itsel
54 It should be adapted to the size of the army sent out for this and to the
lay of the land. If a very large or even moderate-sized force of the line drawn up
in the open is assigned to an ambush with the expectation that it will attack in
one place, then it should be organized by dekarchies. But if only a few troops are
sent out or they are to attack in different locations, then form them in irregular
formation, tight together but not in regular ranks.
55 To repeat, the difference between the two is this: the ambush in regular
formation enables one to fight with strength and safety; the irregular one is for
quick support, for pursuits, and for sudden raids and harassment.
56. We believe this formation is suitable for cavalry and you must perfect it
by constant drilling in the manner we have described, unless you have already
learned it from experience. If the skills are acquired properly, there will be no
need of instructions in time of battle or of other commands. The formation
itself and the drill teach each man what he has to do. Perhaps some people,
hesitant and overcautious, might argue that this formation is rather complicated







The Day of Battle

Constitution 14

eev btl KOTIOV. ouc; eiOEVat 0ov on o[ aOAT]TUL Kat ~vioxm Kat UAAOL nvc; TlDV
de; naiyvta Kat TEp'JILV aywvL~O!lEVWV, wv ~ !lEV emTUxia 6A.iywv e<JTL XPTJ!l<lTWV
eunopia, ~ o amoxia a~~!lL6c; E<1TL AU1tf]. OUTOL ouv TO<JOihov !l6x8ov Kat
KCt!laTOV UTIO!lEVOUaL !lTa Vf]aTdac; ~PW!lCtTWV Kalnapac:puA.aK~c; Kat avevOOTOU
yu!lvaaiac;, de; TO ouvf]O~vm 11a8eiv, noia !lEV dm n1npoc; ~Aa~T]V Twv avnmiA.wv YLVO!lVa, Tiva o Ta <pUACtTTOVTU T~V ~ aUTWV eyxnpOU!lEVf]V epyaaiav.
TIO<J(JJ !lUAAOV evmuea XP~ MKvwc; Kat 1tOAUTp6nwc; Kat <JWO<pLO!lEVWc; Tac;
napaTa~nc; Kal yu11vaaiac; noteiaOm, onou TO 11v ac:paA.!la napeuOuc; ~ Tov
8avaTOV ~ T~V Xetpova 8aVCtTOU c:puy~v <pEpet, ~ OE ETILTUX[a xapav Kat KEpOoc;
Kat UTIOAT]'JILV ayae~v Kat !lY~!lT]V evoo~ov UAT]O<ipyf]TOV.
57 ITwc; yap OUK UTOTIOV Kat m~Aa~c; Kat OAE8ptov, vl Kat T(il auT(il UTIA{il
Tp6nqJ niaawOm Kat eK Tou TUX6VToc; ac:paA.!laToc; Kpimv ToaouTou nA.~Oouc;
avopwv yivwem, Kat !lf]OE mytvwaKw8at TOY Ct!lapT~aavm; ana T(il ac:paA.!laTL TOU voc; navmc; unaywem, I 6n6mv oM TIOAACt dm Taxa Ta Kec:paA.ata Ta
6c:pdA.ovm yivwem, aU' o[ A.oyLO!lOL TWV aiTLWV aUTWV E!l~Kuvav TOY A6yov.
58. Toaai\Ta !lEV OUV nept T~c; Ka~aA\.apLK~c; TCt~ewc; ~!liV dp~a8w, nept OE
T~c; 1t~LK~c; Kat T~c; OD!l!llKTOU ~Of] epOU!lV iinep avayKaia KaTa TOY TOU noA!lOU Katpov yevEaOat VO!ll~O!lV nept wv aKpl~E<JTepov ~!liV Kat ev fTEp(JJ A.6y(JJ
59 ToUTWV yap oi !lEV eim <JKOUTllTOL AYO!lVOL, ouc; Kat6nA.imc; KaAOU!lV.
Kat Touc; 11v aKouTaTouc; 6pianc; oihwc; np6Tepov 11v nm~anc; Tac; aKiac; ~youv
Touc; 6poivouc; TOU TawaToc; EKU<JTOU, nvc; apwTepa, Kai nvec; 0~La TOU
~avoou, ~youv TOU apxoVToc; TCt<J<JOVTal. Kat nponopeuO!lEVOU TOU apxovToc;
ii!la T(il ~avooc:p6p(JJ Kat T(il ~ouKtvciTwpt Kat Toic; A.omoic; KaTa auv~Oewv naKoA.ou8oumv we; wpiaOT]aav o[ A.oxayoi npWTOV o[ TOU apL<Hpou !lEpouc;, eha o[
TOU oe~LOU. YLVO!lEVWV o auTWV ev T(il T~c; napma~ewc; TOTI(JJ, l<JTUTat 6 apxwv

and variable and, consequently, is too much trouble. Those people ought to
realize that athletes, charioteers, and others who compete for sport and amusement are rewarded for their success by only a small amount of money, and the
only penalty for failure is their own sorrow. They subject themselves to so much
hardship and labor; they rigidly restrict their diet and never cease training so
they may learn various ways of injuring their adversaries as well as ways of
warding off actions attempted by them. How much more, then, ought we to
practice those formations and drills tirelessly, with flexibility and with intelligence? In this case, failure brings swift death or flight that is worse than death.
Success brings gratification, material gain, good reputation, and a glorious
memory that will not be forgotten.
57. How is it not out of place, harmful, and destructive to line up in one and
the same simple manner? One accidental mistake decides the fate of such a
great multitude of men. The one responsible may never be known, but for the
mistake of one man all must suffer. In any case, perhaps, the topics that must
<still> be brought up are not many; moreover, listing the reasons themselves has
<already> lengthened this book.
58. We have said enough about cavalry formations. We now turn to what we
believe is fundamental for the infantry and the mixed formations in time of
battle, which we have already set forth in greater detail in another chapter.
59. Among these are those called heavy-armed troops, whom we also refer
to as hoplites. 12 This is how you shall organize the heavy-armed troops. First line
up the files or columns of each tagma, some to the left and some to the right of
the standard, that is, the commanding officer. The commander moves forward
together with the standard-bearer, the trumpeter, and the rest as is customary.
The group leaders follow in their assigned positions, first those on the left side,
then those on the right. On arriving at the site of the battle line, the commander

412-463 Strat., 12.B.11-13.

393 Otov MW

7tpoo~w A XP~ BE

I oi

De d codd.

396 KUflaTov MW K6Jtov ABE

uJtOflEVOUOL MBE uJtOflEVOUOLV W A scr. mg wp<aiov> oAov W


400 Tov MW om. ABE



Tp67tw aJtAwc; ABE

410 yevo9m MW yivecrBm ABE


I q>epet MW om.

403-404 C!1!AW Tp67!W MW

406-407 c'm6mv ... 6q>dAovTa MW Kal ToTe flT)OE JtoUwv ovTwV Twv



399 KaP ... Tac; MW om.

401 Bavmov MW BavaTov tmq>tpet ABE



oi MW oi yap ABE



oe \jllAOL oilc; T0~6mc;

MW eKamou eha lltopioT) ABE

415 iipxovTOc; 1 MW iipxovToc; 6q>dAouot TaooecrBat ABE

MW Aomoic; Tote; ABE

408 ~fllV MW om. ABE


416 iifla MW ouv ABE


I Aomoic;
12. Sections 59-63 derive from Strat. 12.B.11-13.


Constitution 14

The Day of Battle

KUL flET' UVTOV 6 ~UVOO<p6po<; KUL Ol n:po<; OUV~8LaV. KUL n:apa-raOOOVtUL UUttP

halts with the standard-bearer behind him and the others in the usual manner.
'l he files draw up in formation on both sides of them as they have been ordered,
at first far enough apart so they will not bump into each other. They keep the
depth at sixteen, with the light-armed troops to the rear. Hold the points of the
spears high to avoid any obstructions. The field guide, that is, the one who
reconnoiters the sites, and the herald march out in front of the line, the one for
guide duty and the other to transmit orders from the commander. When the
units have been organized, as we have prescribed, into moirai and divisions, that
is, into their droungoi and tourmai, and the entire battle line of the
heavy-armed soldiers is in place, then draw up the light-armed troops in different places.

420 i::KaTpw8V a[ CtKLUL W<; wpio8f]OUV, n:purrov tv apatoTEp<.p OLUOT~flUTl, '(va fl~
ouvTpt~WVTUL un:' a\A~AWV ano e~KUL0KU TO ~a8o<; xouom Kal -rou<; 'f!LAOU<;

omo8v. TCt oi:: ~lq>TJ nllv Kov-rapiwv -rtw<; avw ~AETIOVTU, LVU fl~ tflTIOO[~WVTUL un'

o TOU flETWTIOU 1tpma-roumv 6 KUf11tlOOUKTWp, ~youv 6 TOU<;

T6n:ou<; tpwvwv, Kai 6 flUVOUTWp, 6 flEV tnl TOU<; TOTIOU<; OOTJYWV, 6 o -ra f.lUVM-ra yvwfln -rou apxovTO<; OLOOU<;. OTUV o Ka-raa-ra8watv TCt TUYflUTU, Ka8w<;

airrwv. f11tpoo8V

n:poOLWptoa!l8a, i<; !loipa<; Kai d<; !lEpf], ~youv Ei<; TOU<; Opouyyou<; UUTWV Kai
d<; Ta<; Toup!la<; Kal yvTJTUL ~ n:aaa n:apa-ra~t<; -rwv oKou-raTwv, TOT n:apaTa~t<;
Kai Toil<; 'f!tAou<; AYO!lvou<; KaLa Ota<p6pou<; T6nou<;.
6o. Tou<; !lEV -ro~6-ra<; omo8v EKUOTTJ<; CtKta<; npo<; -ro flETpov TWV OVTWV,
430 TOUTEOTLV i<; TOU<; e~Kai&Ka OKOUTUTOU<; Tooapa<; 'f!LAOU<;, 'tva KUL !lEXPL

-rooapwv !lEPL~O!lEVTJ<; -rfj<; Twv 6nAt-rwv, ~Tot Twv Ayo11vwv oKouTaTwv aKia<;
Up8ft EL<; TO~OTTJ<; omo8v UUTfj<;. tav

o an:m-rft, TU~El<; au-rou<; d<; -ro ~a8o<;

-rwv CtKLWV eva n:ap' eva OKOU-rapaTOV Kat -ro~OTTJV. 1tOTE Ot KUL El<; -ra<; aK(a<; KUL
d<; Ta Ktpa-ra Tfj<; n:apa-ra~w<;, TouTa-rtv ow8v -rwv Ka~aAAapiwv, noHaKt<;

o Kal ~w8V airrwv ano !llKpou Otao-r~!lUTO<;, !llCt I KaloAiywv OKou-rapa-rwv,

Ei<; TO 0LKOLKlV -rou<; t~w-rpov EOTW-ra<; Ka~aAAapiou<;. TOUtO 0 tav n:o:\Ao[
ELOLV o[ 'f!LAOL o[

o plKTapta ~ T~lKOUpta ~ n

tOlOUTOV exovT<; ~ omo8v -rwv

aKtwv Twv oKou-rapa-rwv ~ i<; Ta liKpa Tfj<; n:apaTa~w<;, Kal ouK tv T4J 11o<.p. ol

o o<pVOO~OALOlULTIUVTW<; d<; TCt UKpa -rfj<; n:apa-ra~W<;.


61. Ei<;

oi:: -ra liKpa -rfj<; 1t~lKfj<; n:apa-ra~W<; -raooo8m TOU<; Ka~aAA.ap(ou<;

oi:: !li~ova -rawa-ra !lETa TWV apxovTWV aU-rwv t~wTtpw. KUL tav

KADO!lV. -ra

OtKa TO ~a8o<; ~youv -ro n:axo<; -rfj<; aKia<; T~V napata~LV yivw8m. i
OAtywnpot -rou 11-rpou tOUTOU, an:o 1tEVT LVUL

o Kal

oi:: tK n:Eptooou nva<; omo8v d<;

445 un:o~o~8LaV aUTWV ~w -rwv Ctfla~wv 'tva, tav !lEV TLV<; TWV txepwv OLCt -rou

VWTOU ~youv -rwv omo8v <pavwmv, anooo~~OWOLV UUTOU<;. i

o !l~Y, 1tpOOT-

419 npo~ MW iiA.Aot oi Ka-ra ABE 420 aKiat MW aKiat ~youv oi \oxayol ABE
421 e~KaioeKa MW 0 oeKae~ A t<;' BE 424-425 f.lavocna yv<.Of.ll] MW ~-rot -ra
napayyt\f.laTU yvwf!l] Kal npo-rpon~ ABE 425 Ka-raa-ra6w<nv M Ka-raa-ra6wat WABE
430 -rou-rtanv MWBE -rou-rtan A I E~KatOEKa MW t~' ABE 431 AEYOf.lEVWV MW om. ABE
433 aKou-rapcnov MW aKou-rcnov ABE 435 aKoumpa-rwv MW aKou-ra-rwv ABE
436 e~w-repov MW e~weev ABE 437 ptKTapta MW pm-rapta ABE 438 OKoumpa-rwv
MW aKou-ra-rwv ABE 439 acpevoo~o\ta-ral MW acpevoov~-rat ABE I napa-ra~ew~ MW
napa-ra~ew~ mxe~aov-rat ABE 442 OWOEKU MW tW ABE 445-446 &ta ... TWV MW
oma6ev ABE 446 (moao~~awmv MW Ct1tOKWAUOWatV ABE



6o. The archers are posted in the rear of each file in proportion to the numbers of men, that is, four light -armed men for the sixteen heavy infantry, so that
if the hoplites are reduced to four deep, that is, a file of heavy infantry, as they
are called, there will be one archer behind it. If called for, station them in the
depth of the files alternating one heavy-armed soldier with one archer, at
another time, inside the files and on the flanks of the battle line, that is, on the
inside of the cavalry. If there is a large number of light-armed troops, <station
them> a short distance to the outside, along with a few heavy-armed infantry to
provide cover for the cavalry riding along further out. The men with short
javelins, axes, or similar weapons should be behind the files of heavy infantry or
on the flanks of the line, not in the middle. The slingers always belong on the
Hanks of the line.
61. We order that the cavalry should be drawn up on the flanks of the battle
line, the larger units with their own officers further out. If the cavalry force is
large, that is, more than twelve thousand, the line should be ten deep, that is, the
thickness of the file. If the force is less than that number, the line should be five
deep. An extra force should be posted for their support to the rear, outside the
wagons. In case some of the enemy should appear behind, that is, to the rear,


45 o





Constitution 14

0wcrt TOt~ nA.ay(ot~ Kat a{no(. TCl<J<JOVtat 0 Kat alJtOL i~ tO apat6tcpov np6tpov Ota<JtT], Iva !l~ Ef.lnooi<wvtm ot yvT]tat Kal Katpo~ Kai f.lEAAoum f1ta~aAA.cr0m tO crxtifla T~~ <JtCt<JEW~ aUtWV.
62. Toil~ 8e Ka~aAA.ap(ou~ napayyLA.n~ !l~ KatatpXtv twv x0pwv f.IT]Oe
acpiataaem t~~ nE<lK~~ napata~eW~ nl noM OlCt<JTT] Kliv taxa Kai tpanwmv
oi ex0po(, Iva !l~ v8pa~ ~youv eyKpUf.lf.lato~ nap' autwv YEVOf.lEVOU, av nEp
uno Ota<JT~f.lat6~ d<JL YUf.lVOUf.lEVOl t~~ napata~(t)~ EnT]pwaewmv, w~ 6A.ty<.i>tpot. aA.A.a Kal eav ~tacr0wmv, w~ iK6~, uno twv vavt[wv Kata tou VWtOU ~youv
OTCl<J0eV t~~ napata~eW~ npO<J<j>EUYW<Jl, Kat f.l~ nappxwvtat ta~ Ctf.lCt~a~. ECtV Oe
il~ oihw~ avtxwm Katpxccr0m autoil~ EK tWV lnnwv Kal outw~ nc<fi tautoil~
63. 'Eav 8e ~ouA.'l0fi~ napata~wem f.IEV tov crtpat6v, !l~ au!l~aAA.LV 8e t~v
f.IUXT]V Kata t~V aut~V ~f.lEpav, Kat 6pf1~<JOU<JlV oi x0poi Kata tWV Ka~aAA.ap(wv, Kal !l~ ~aata<JW<JlV autoil~ EKlVOl, !l~ avaf1EVlV autoil~ d~ ta Kpata t~~
napata~(t)~ Kal TWV aAA.' i tOUTO YEVT]Tal, tOT xpda f.IEL(ovo~ tou EV
t4J f.IE<Jq> Ota<JT~f.lato~ Iva f.lEta~aAAOf.lEVWV, w~ iK6~, TWV Ka~aAA.ap(wv il~
<JTVOXWPT]0wmv f.IT]Oe ai twv ex0pwv aayittat ~Aa\jlwmv autou~.
64. OuK ayvoOUf.leV Oe Ott TWV vuv EipT]f.lEVWV Tlva Kal EV tfi ncpl YUf.lVa<J(a~
Otata~1 Eip~Kaf.IEV. aAA.' ouoev atonov Kal EV tfi ncpl tou nOAEf.lOU Otata~1
npoaunolflV~<Jat ncpl autwv toil~ vtuyxavovta~. OUtW yap <JKOnOUf.lEV W<Jt
navta t4J noAEf.l(!l apf16(ovta Kai EV tfi YUf.lVa<J(q. 81v Ctpf16(Lv, nA.~v f.IOVOU tOU
Ct<JLOT]pOV yivwem t~v eKta~tV Kal Uf.laxov. o0v Kai toi~ Of.lOLOl~ Ef.l<j>lAOxwp~<Jat OUK WKV~<Jaf.IEV unOf.lV~<JEWV xaptv EKElVWV. ou yap f.llKpov TO napa

The Day of Battle

they can repel them. If such is not the case, they may be assigned to the flanks.
'!bey should first line up in a very open formation so they may not be impeded
when the time comes for them to change the shape of their position.
62. You should order the cavalry not to race after the enemy or to get too far
away from the infantry battle line even if the enemy are routed. They might run
Into an ambush or ambuscade set by them and, few in numbers, bereft of help
and far from the main line, they might be done in. But if, as is likely, they should
be driven back by the enemy, they should seek refuge to the rear or behind the
battle line, but they should not go further than the wagons. If they still cannot
hold out, they should dismount and defend themselves on foot.
63. If you wtsh to have the army form in line but not engage in battle that
same day, and the enemy charges against our cavalry, who may not be able to
deal wtth it, they should not await the enemy on the flanks of the battle line and
of the wagons. If this should happen, then the distance between them should be
Increased, so the cavalry may not be cramped in any maneuvers they may have
to make and may not be injured by the enemy's arrows.
64. We are not unaware that, in the constitution on drilling, we have already
written about some matters now under discussion in this chapter. But it is not at
all out of place, even in this constitution about combat, to speak to our readers
about the same topics. It is our aim that everything appropriate to combat must
also be appropriate to training except, of course, that those exercises are carried
out wtth blunt weapons and without actual fighting. With this in mind then, we
have not hesitated to dwell upon related topics once more to aid in remembering those matters. Missing by a small amount is not a small matterY

469-470 Cf. Arist. Phys., 197a3o.

447-448 To ... Ota<HflflU MW apat<'mpov 6ta<JTflflU rcp6Tepov ABE 448 Kall MW om.
ABE 448-449 fleTa~aAA.w8at MW flETaAAa~at ABE 451 Kal MW om. ABE
452 evellpa<; ~youv MW om. ABE I YEVOflEVOU MW ytVOflEVOU ABE 453-454 oA.ty<impot
MW oA.ty<impot f!UKpo8ev T~<; rcapaTCt~EW<; euptOKOf!EVOL ABE 455 rcpocr<peuywm MBE
rcpocr<peuywmv W rcpocr<peuyoumv A 456 avTexwcrt MW avTexwmv A arcavTwat BE I
oiiTw<;2 MW om. ABE 457 EKiltKEtV MW llteKiltKetv ABE 459 6pfl~<Joucrtv ABE
6pfl~crwmv MW 464 rcepl MW om. ABE 466 waTe MW om. ABE 467 rcaVTa MW
rcavm Ta ABE I lle1v MW lleov ABE 467-468 f16vou ... liflaxov MW f16vov To liveu
atll~pou Kal f!UXfl<; T~v TotmJTflV YUf!Va<Jiav yivecr8at ABE 468-469 Kai2 ... Ef!<ptA.oxwp~crat
MW Ta Of!Otet elrrdv ABE 469 UTIOf!V~crewv MW UTIOflV~crew<; ABE


13. Cf. Aristotle, Physics 197.30.


The Day of Battle

Constitution 14
65. Ta~w;


T<l f.LEP'l T~<; napaTa~ewc:; ano EKUTOV ~ OLUKOO'LWV noowv

CtAA~AWV OLUKKplf.LEVU, tva fl~ mevoxwpoiJVTUL


aH~A.wv v T(ji nepmaTLV,

v Oe T(ji Katp(ji T~<; O'Ufl~OA~<; EVOUVTUL KUL ~Of]0WatV EUUTOL<; Kalnapayy\AwvTUL T(ji f.LE0'4J f.LEpet nel0ecr0m, v0a To Toli mpmf]you ~ '!Lvoc:; tTpou Tnawevou
475 apxovToc; ~avoov 6cpdAL Taaaecr0m. TOV yap f.LEO'OV T01tOV T~<; napaTa~ewc; o[

apxaTOL OLa TOUTO O'TOflU EKUAWUV Kal 6cp0aAf.LOV Yva a\H<ji Ta A.oma f.LEP'l
66. 'EnLO~ of: TO acp[yyw0m ~TOL 1tUKVOiJa0UL npoc; TO apmouaem KUL

nA.ar6vecr0m O'UVTOflc.iJTpov KUL aacpaA.mep6v anv, ou XP~ ano npoOLfllWV

E~Ka[OeKU TO ~a0oc:; TWV 6po[vwv ~TOL TWV aKLWV Taaawem, ana ano TWO'Ct-

pwv, Yva Kal KOfl1tWOWTpa cpa[Vf]TUL m1c; rtoAf.LLOL<; ~ napam~L<;, Kal avnwTpOL y[vwvTm oi v T(ji nepmaTe1v f.LUALam nt otaaTf]flU. tav yap ytvf]TUL
xpda ~ ano OKTW ~ ano E~KUL0KU yeva0m TO ~a0oc; v T(ji nepmaTeLV auvT6f.LW<; y[vnm Kal acp[yyemL.
67. Ei f.LEVTOL crcptyKT~<; KUL KOVT~<; OUO'f]<; T~c; napaTa~ewc; xpda YEVf]TUL
fKTU0~vm TO fl~KO<; auT~<;, noAA~<; wpac; OLTUL de; TOUTO, KUL OUK faTL XPLW0<;

Twv noA.ef.L[wv yyt(6VTwv KT[vetv T~v napam~LV.

68. Oi of: ~avoocp6pOL f.LEXPL f.LEV T~<; napaTa~ewc; Ka~aA.A<ipLOL flTa TWV
apxovTWV UUTWV, v of: Tft napaTa~L KUL UUTOL1t(0t 6cpe[A.oumv '(maaem.

69. 'DaTe avayKf] flf]OE TWV e~KULOeKa 1tAEOV TO ~a0oc; TWV CtKLWV ylvw0m,
Kuv ij Twv vavTiwv ~a0uTpa aTiv, flf]OE Twv Twaapwv A.anov, Kuv ei A.emoTepa tcrTl Twv tvavTiwv ~ napam~tc:;. wcrTe TO f.LEV nA.Eov Twv t~KaloeKa liXP'l-

65. You will form the divisions of the battle line about one hundred or two
hundred feet apart from one another so they will not be crowded all together on
the march. But when the time comes for battle, they act in unison and provide
mutual support. They should be ordered to use the central meros as a guide, for
it is there that the standard of the general, or of another officer posted there,
ought to be fixed. For this reason the ancient authorities referred to the middle
location as the mouth and the eye because the divisions obey it. 14
66. Since it is quicker and safer to tighten or close ranks than to open or
widen them, the initial formation of the columns or the files does not need to be
sixteen deep, but only four. 15 This makes the battle line look more impressive to
the enemy and the heavy infantry will be more relaxed while marching,
especially if it is for some distance. If, while marching along, it should become
necessary to assume a depth of eight or sixteen, they may do this and close
ranks quickly.
67. If the battle line is tightly formed and short and the need arises to extend
its width, many hours are needed for this. Furthermore, it is not helpful to extend the battle line while the enemy are approaching.
68. The standard-bearers, together with their officers, should remain mounted until the battle line is formed; then they are to take their position in the line
on foot.
69. The depth of the files must not be more than sixteen or less than four,
even if the battle line of the enemy is deeper than that or not as deep. More than

489 ad \oumv de novo inc. V

475-477 Cf. Asclepiod., 2.5; Aelian., 7.3; eta!.
472 6taKeKplf1EVa MW 6taKXWPl<Jf1EVa ABE

478-532 Strat., 12.B.17-18.

I <JTevoxwpouvmt MW crTvoxwpwvmt ABE

476 6cp8aAf10V MW 6f1cpa\ov ABE

ABE 479 <JUVTOflUlTepov
<JUVTOf1WTep6v E<JTl ABE 479-480 E<JTlV ... UAAU MW napa TO apmoucr8at Kal 1TAUTUV<J8at
ou XP~ E~ apxfJ<; UJTO l~' TO ~a8o<; TWV \oxwv Tacrcrw8m aU' ABE 481 KOf11TW0<JTEpa MW
Ef1cpavwTepa ABE 481-482 avTWTepot yivwvTat MW om. ABE 482 flUAl<JTa ...
Ola<JTflf1U MW MelUV exwmv fl~ im' UAA~AWV <JTVOXWPOUf1VOl ABE 483 E~KatOeKa MW
OeKa~ A u;' BE 484 Kal crcpiyyTm MW TOUTO Kal crcpiyyTm ~ napam~t<; ABE
487 eKTdvnv T~v MW d<; flfJKo<; EKTdvetv ABE 489 mhwv MW auTwv 6cpd\oum
nepmaT1v ABE I ocpei\oumv MW 6cpd\oum AVBE 490 e~KatOeKa MW t<;' AVBE
491 tvavTiwv MWB tvavTiwv napam~t<; AVE I d MW om. AVBE 492 eaT\ MVBE ecrTlv
W ecrTlv ~ A 1ij ... waT MW om. AVBE I f1Ev MW flEV yap AVBE I e~KaiOeKa MW u;' AVBE


473-474 napayyeUwvTat ABE napayyeUovTat MW

478-479 apawucr8at ... JTAUTUV<J8at

14 Cf. Asclepiodotus, 2.5; Aelian, 7.3; eta!.

15. Sections 66-76 derive from Strat. 12.B.17-18.


The Day of Battle

Constitution 14

(JTOV, TO o oA.ty<.lrn:pov TWV n:aaapwv aa0ev<;. !lf<JT) o TU~l<; TWV OKTW <JKOU495


70. ITapayydA.n<; o wa-re miaav ~auxlav yeva0at tv T(jl a-rpaT(jl. Kal oi
EKU<JTT)<; CtKta<; oupayol tav ew<; 'Jft0upta!lOU CtKOU<JW<Jl napa nvo<; TWV !leT'
aUTWV, !leTa TWV aanALWV VU<J<JOUatV al>Tou<;. I Kal tv nu<; <JUjl~OAa1<; o ~youv
tv Tfi !l<iXn w0ouat mu<; E!l1tpoa0ev auTWV ei<; TO !l~ nva<; TWV 6-n:ALTWV t~


6A.tywp(a<;, W<; eiKo<;, ano11vetv.

71. M~ tmTT)Oeun o tnlnoA.u OLCt<JTil!la TOU<; ne~ou<; W1tAL<J!lEVOU<; nepmaTelV, aA.Aa Kal tav tll~paouvwmv oi avnma<JO!lVOL Kal xpe(a TOU ava!lfLVat T~V

napa-ra~LV yv11TaL KaTa TOV Katpov, ll~ avayKa~eLV al>Tou<; '(a-raaem 1tOAAU<;
wpa<;, Yva ll~ W<; ~ape1av 01tAlatV exovTe<; tv Tfi <JU! KK01tLW!lEVOl eupe0watV, aA.A.a napa<JKUCt~lV aUTOU<; Ka0~ea0m Kal avanauecr0m Kat, OlaV tK TOU
505 TIAT)<JLOV A.0w<nv, TOT tyelpetv auTOU<;, '(va 0.K01t0l Kal Ct<JUVTpL1tTOl !lEVWatV.

72. MT)OE tv Katp(jl !lCtXT)<; jlnpoa0ev T~<; napma~ew<; nepmme1v, n:A.~v -rwv
-roup11apxwv Ka~aA.Aaplwv Kal 11avoanopwv Mo Kal Ka!lmoouK-rwpwv Mo Kal
a-rpa-rwpo<; tvo<; Kal ana0ap(ou tvo<;, w<; jlOL Kal 11npoa0ev e'lp11mL, Ka0' Kaa-rov O.pxovTa !lEXPL<; ou tyy(aw<nv oi 1tOAE!llOL. TOT o EKa<JTOV acr<paAw<; tv T(jl
51o iO(tp 11pet pxea0m Kal Ya-raaem.
73 'Eav o oo~n aOL TOY Kapayov ~youv TU<; Ct!la~a<; CtKOAoue~am Tfi napa-

TU~et, -raacrea0m aUTO ano tvo<; TAelOU aaytTTO~OAOU T~<; napa-ra~ew<; Kal
auvaKOAou0e1v tv TU~et T(jl iO(tp !lEpet, TO<JOUTOV o OLCtaTT)!la Kpa-rdv Ta<;

Ct!lCt~a<; oaov ~ napam~L<; exet, Yva ll~ ~weev YLVO!lfVOL TaUTT)<; a~o~011TOL
515 jlelVWatV.
74 'EKa<JTT)V o TWV Ct!la~wv KLALKL4J TO oma0ev llpo<; aKnea0m, '(va Kal oi

Ct!la~eAaTat O.vw iaTCt!lVOl Kat llaXO!lfVOl W<; ano npo!laxwvwv ~01100UVTal, Kal
oi ~oe<; <pUAaTTWVTaL ano TWV ~aAAO!lEVWV aaytnwv, TU<; o ~aA.ta-rpo<popou<;
Ct!l<i~a<;, ~TOL TU<; exoucra<; TU<; A.eyollva<; TO~o~o::\(a-rpa<;, Kat TU llayyavLKU
493-494 aKol.rrapcrrwv MW aKou-rcrrwv AVBE 494 i:a-rtv MW om. AVBE 495 wa-re
MW om. AVBE 496 aKm!awat MAVBE aKouawatv W 497 aan\twv vuaaouatv MW
~u\wv -rwv Kov-rapiwv TIArrn-rwaav AVBE 498 -rf] ... weouat MW(wEloumv) mi~ f.!OXat~
wed-rwaav AVBE I TlVU~ MW TlVU AVBE 500 E7tlTllOE:Ull MW i:m-rlllleull~ AVBE
502 Kala ... Katp6v MW om. AVBE 502-503 'ia-raaem ... wpa~ MW 7t0AAU~ wpa~
'ia-raaElat KUTU TOV Katpov EKELVOV AVBE 505 e\Elwmv MW e~\Elwmv AVBE 506 f.!UXll~
MW f.!CtXll~ E-rep6v nva AVBE 51l -rov ... ~youv MW om. AVBE 512 mho MW au-ro~
ABE 514 ytv6f.!evot -rauTT]~ MW trsp. AVBE 515 f.!dvwmv MW Kam\wpElwmv AVBE
516 Ctf.!a~wv MW 7tpoa~Ket AVBE 517 7tpOf.laxwvwv MAVBE 7tpOf.laxwv-rwv W I
~o11Elouv-rat MW ~oT]Elwvmt AVBE

518 a1to AVBE u1to MW


sixteen is useless and less than four is weak. The middle section consists of eight
men referred to as heavy armed, also as hoplites.
70. You shall order absolute silence to be observed by the army. If the file
,:losers of each file hear so much as a whisper from one of their men, they are to
poke him with their lance. In combat also, that is, during the fighting they are to
push forward the men in front of them so that none of them will lose heart and
be likely to fall back.
71. Do not arrange for the foot soldiers to march for long distances in full
lrrnor. But, in case their adversaries are slow in coming and the troops on the
battle line have to wait in place for some time, they should not be forced to
~tand there for many hours. When the fighting begins they will already be
exhausted because of the heavy armament they are wearing. But arrange for
them to sit down and rest so they will not become tired and worn out. Only
when the enemy gets close, call them to attention.
72. At the time of combat, nobody should march in front of the battle line
except the tourmarchs, mounted, each officer accompanied by two heralds, two
tldd guides, one strator and one spatharios, as I have prescribed earlier. They
Ntay until the enemy gets close, then each should depart safely and take his
position in his own meros.
73. If you decide to have the baggage train, that is, the wagons, follow the
battle line, station it a full bowshot from that line with each section following its
<JWI1 meros in order. The wagons should cover the same extent of ground as the
battle line for, if they go beyond it, they will remain without protection.
74 Each wagon should have its back part covered by heavy cloth so that the
drivers can stand up and fight, as though protected by a bulwark, and the oxen
are protected from the hail of arrows. The wagons carrying the ballistai, that is,
having the so-called toxobolistrai and the alakatia machines, should be distrib-


The Day of Battle

Constitution 14


aAaKcrna, 01' OAOU !-lEV KaTa!-lt:pt(lV LOU OlaOT~!-laTO<;, Ta<; o n\t:lova<; Ta<;
XP1W01<; v TOL<; aKpot<; T<.l<J<J1V.
75 Tou<; 0 a!-la~'<; aKovncrTa<; Ot:I dvm ~ a<pevoo~6A.wv ~ T(IKouplwv ~
!-laT(OUKlWV ~ crayiHWV. aw8t:v o TWV U!-la~wv t:u8w<; TO AOITIOV TU<J<J<J8at
LOii\oov, <p'



Tov 1-1crov T6nov Twv a1-1a~wv Kat T~<; napaTa~ew<; d)Kmpov

dvm '(va, Kiiv npo<; o1<paA.ayylav Katpo<; yv'1Tat, !-lPI<J8~vm LOU<; <JKoumpaTou<;
~ta(o!-lvwv Twv a!-la~wv, t:'LT Tou<; Ka~aHaplou<; t:h Tou<; ne(ou<;, 1-1~ exwmv

fln60I<J!-la !-1'10 cruyxwvmt.

76. 'Eav o noAA.~ OUVa!-11<; TWV vaVTtWV EK TWV oma8t:v Tal<; U!-lU~at<; voxAft, Kat ouK avTxwmv ol Ufla~'lA.aml ~ ol,

w<; dK6<;, npo<; Ol<paA.ayylav !-lP1(6-

!-lVOI, TOT plmwem 6A.Iya<; TPI~OAOU<;. aH' av ptTITWVTal, napa<pUAUH<J8at

XP~ TOU ~-~~ 01' auT~<; T~<; ooou imomp\jlat TOV <JTpaTOV,

aHa 01' hpa<; '(va ~-~~

~AU~'l Tl<; uno TWV Tpi~OAWV yv'1Tat auTc.'j).

77 Kat Tofn6 <Jot KAUO!-lV,

wmpaT'ly, [va Kan\ T~v ~1-1pav TOU noA.1-1ou

T~<; nt:(IK~<; ~ Kat <JUfl!-llKTou napaTa~t:w<;, av noAA.ol t:imv ol Ka~aA.A.ap101 Twv


vavTtWV, Kal unp TO ~~-~ETt:p6v E<JTI TO nA.~8o<; aUTWV, Kat Kapayo<; OUK aKOA.ou8fi Tot<; ~flTpo1<;, 1-1~ mT'l0t:un<; d<; laov Kat nlneoov T6nov napaTacrcrea8m,

aHa !-lUAAOV d<; Tonou<; oucrxepd<; Kat OU<J~UTOU<;, TOUTE<JTLV ~ EAWOEI<;

Kal naA.!-laTw01<; ~ nnpw01<; Kat avw!-laA.ou<; ~ oaat:I<;.

78. <DpovTt<J1<; 0 Kat Ta<;, w<; t:iK6<;, KaLa Tou vwLOu Kat Twv nA.aylwv

nAU<J1<;, Ka8a noHaKI<; dp~Ka!-lV, TO aa<paAI(w8at Ola ~lyA.a<;. EX1<; o Kat

6A.Iyou<; <JKOUTapaTOU<; t:i<; Ta aKpa TWV U!-la~IWV Kat t:i<; TO !-lEOOV aUTWV tva, av
xpt:la YEVT}Tat, m~o'l8oumv EK TWV, w<; dKO<;, ~OUAO!-lEVWV napt:voxA.t:Lv x8pwv
~ a1JTai<; ~ Tfi napaTa~1, Kat Tot<; Ka~aAA.aplo1<; auT~<;.

79. 'Eav 0 noT ouv'l8fi<;, anAT}Kt:u6vTwv Twv noA!-liwv Kat en aKammaTwv

5 45

ovTwv, KAE\jlat Tov n6A!-10V Kat TOT <JU!-l~aA.dv auToi<;, navTw<; iiv Ta !-lEYI<JTa
~AU'!'1<; auTou<;.

520 Ta<;2 MW Kal A VBE 522 ~~ MW ~ Eflndpou<; AVBE 524 ecp' MW w<m AVBE
525 crKoumpcnou<; MW crKouTaTou<; AVBE 529 6.fla~J] AVBE <' MW
530 p[mecr6at MW pimw6at npom'JKet AVBE 532 uno MW ano A VBE 534 ~ Kal MW
~TOt AVBE 535 EO'Tl MAVBE EO'TLV w 535-536 KaF ... aKOAOU6~ MW al CtflU~at o OUK
aKoAou6<i>crt AVBE 536 enineoov MW Of!UAOV AVBE 537 oucrxepei<; MW Tpaxei<;
A VBE I t\woet<; MW u\woet<; AVBE 538 ~ 2 MW Kal A VBE 539 KaT(\... vwTou MW eK
TWV omcr6ev A VBE


540 TO MW TOU AVBE I ~iy\a<; MW ~LYAWV AVBE I exet<; MW exetv

I <'tfla~twv MW <'tfla~wv AVBE

541 crKouTapaTou<; MW crKouTaTou<; AVBE

543 auT~<; MW aUTOl<; AVBE


3 35

uted along the entire distance with the most useful ones positioned on the
75 The drivers must be able to throw javelins, slings, axes, metal darts, or
arrows. Form the rest of the baggage in a line to the inside of the wagons. The
<lrea between the wagons and the battle line must be kept clear so that in case
the heavy-armed soldiers, either mounted or on foot, have to split up into the
double phalanx because of pressure on the wagons, the wagons will not be an
obstacle or cause disorder.
76. If a strong, hostile force harasses the wagons from behind, and the drivers cannot hold them off, and it is not likely that the men making up the
double phalanx can do so, then throw out a few caltrops. But if you do throw
them out, you must make sure that the army does not return by the same route
but by another, so it will not suffer harm from the caltrops.
77 And we enjoin this upon you, 0 general, that on the day when the infantry or even the mixed formation faces battle, if the enemy has a large cavalry
force, more numerous than ours, and the baggage train is not accompanying us,
do not draw up your formation in open or level terrain. Line up instead on
rugged, impassable ground, that is, swampy, muddy, rocky, uneven, or thickly
78. Take care, as we have frequently remarked, to protect yourself by means
of patrols against likely attacks from the rear and the flanks. Post a few heavyarmed men to the sides of the wagons and in between them, so that, when
needed, they may come to assist them against the enemy seeking to harass the
wagons or the battle line and its cavalry.
79 If, at some time when the enemy are setting up camp and are still in
disarray, you are able to bring about battle by stealth, then charge into them and
you will certainly inflict the greatest amount of harm on them.


The Day of Battle

Constitution 14
So. TioA:\ou<; Oi:: Ka~aA.Aap[ou<; tv Tal<; n(tKat<; f.HlXat<; fl~ ~CtAAlV, aA.A'

So. Do not send large numbers of cavalry into an infantry battle, but just a

6:\[you<; KUTU TWV aKpwv T~<; napaTCt~W<; axpl TplWV ~ TWGCtpwv XLAlCtOWV

few on the wings of the battle line. There should be no more than three or four
thousand well-armed and effective horsemen. If the opportunity presents itself,
they are to attack and pursue the enemy who have turned to flight. More than
this number in an average-sized infantry force is not safe.
S1. If the enemy, although on horseback, are hesitant to engage the infantry
in battle and we have a large number of cavalry but few infantry, station the
cavalry in the front lines. Have the infantry follow them in formation about one
or two miles behind the cavalry. Order the cavalry not to separate itself further
than this distance from the infantry formation. Then, if they come under
pressure from the enemy, they should ride on through the flanks and the rear of
the battle line, that is, behind it, and not through the front so they might not
break it up.
S2. On the day of battle, as I have previously remarked, do not attempt to
have the infantry formation march outside its camp for a long distance, further
than two miles, so the men will not be worn out by the weight of their armament. If the enemy puts off attacking in battle, have your men sit down and
relax until the enemy are about to draw close.
S3. If it is summertime, have them take off their helmets so their heads may
breathe a bit. At such a time the soldiers ought not to partake of wine because it
might warm them up and make them dizzy. But carry water in the wagons and
distribute it to those requesting it as they stand in formation.
S4. Before engaging in battle you must, just as you did with the cavalry,
bring the infantry army all together on one day. If the soldiers already know
what is mandated by law, that is, the military punishments, then remind them
of it all. If they do not know them, have each commanding officer announce to
the men in his own tagma those prescriptions that we gave earlier in this book

A.wptKaTwv Kal XP'lGLflou<; Tou<; 6q:>eiA.ovm<;, i Kmpo<; yev'lTm, Tou<; Tpenof.!ev550 ou<; TWV tvavTiwv tnLTi8w8m Kal OtwKLV. TO yap TOtJTou nAtov tv GUflflETP'-!J

n(lKtp OUK aaq:>aAe<;.

S1. 'Eav O o[ tx8pol Ka~aAACtplOl OVT<; tOLAta<JaV npo<; T~V n(lK~V flCtX'lV,
KalnoA.Ao[ imv ol Ka~a!..Aaptot ~f.!WV, 6:\iyot 01:: ol ne(o[, TOU<; f.!EV Ka~aA.Aap[
ou<; TCt(J(JlV d<; Ta Eflnpoa8V flEP'l> omaeev Oi:: T~V n(lK~V napaTa~LV tnaKO555

3 37

A.ou8LV tv TCt~l ano vo<; ~ OeuTepou fllALOU TWV Ka~aA.Aapiwv. KalnapayyiAl<; TOl<; Ka~a!..Aap[OL<; TO"U Ola<JT~flaTo<; TOVTOU fl~ aq:>i<JTaaem T~<; n(lK~<;

napaTCt~W<;. i oi:: Kal ~ap'lewmv uno TWV txepwv, Ota ni>v nA.ay[wv Kal TOU
VWTOU T~<; napaTCt~W<;, ~youv 6ma8v auT~<; npOTPEXLV, Kal fl~ Ota O\jiW<; Yva
fl~ OtaAU<JW(JLV aUT~V.

S2. 'Ev 0 Tfi ~flepq. T~<; GUfl~OA~<; fl~ anouoa(LV T~V n(lK~V napaTa~LV, W<;
flOL Kalnp6a8ev dp'lTm, tnlnoA.u OtacrT'lfla Ktveiv nepmTepw Mo f.!LA[wv ~w8ev
TOU <jlOO"GCtTOU, Yva fl~ Ttp ~Ctpl Kal Tfi 6nA.icrl cruvTpl~'lTUl, aA.A' tav unpTL8vTUl o[ tx8pol T~V TOU nOAeflOU O"Ufl~OA~V, Ka8(w8m Kal avanauecr8m flEXpl<;
ou flEAAWGlV tyyi(LV.
S3. Ei Oi:: Kmpo<; eepou<; tmlv Kal Ta<; Kacrcr[Oa<; aUTWV tnaiplV 'iva otanvWVTUL a[ Kq:> auTwv. o'(vou Oi:: tv Tot<; TOLOUTOL<; Kmpot<; flTUAafl~CtVLV TOU<;
mpaTLWLU<; ou XP~> 'iva fl~ ava(ewv OUTO<; O"KOTWcrn aUTOU<;, ana i.\Owp tv Tal<;

Uf.!Ct~Ul<; ~ama(lV Kal Ka8' eva OLOOVUL TOt<; 00flEVOl<; w<; dcrtv tv Tfi napaTCt~l
s4. Tipo oi:: Tou Kmpou Tou noAtf.!OU I 01 Kal a\.JTov Tov ne(tKov crTpaTov
wcrnep Kal tnl TWV Ka~a!..Aap(wv tveyKm tv ~flepq. fll\t Of.!OU O"UV'l)'f.!EVOV. Kal i
f.!EV o'ioamv ol mpanwTm Ta Ota Tou VOf.!OU flavoam, ~youv Ta crTpaTtWTtKa
ETtlTlflla, unOflV~(JUl aUTOl<; anavTa i oi:: fl~ ye, inLV auTOl<; Ota TWV [OLKWV
aUTWV apxovTWV io[w<; EKCtaT'-!J TCt)'flaTL, &.nep dp'lTUl ~fllV tv TOl<; avwTepw

549 - 55 o toil<; tpen:of1vou<; MW tol<; tpmof!EVOL<; AVBE 550 15twKetv MW bnotwKav

AVBE 551 m::(tKW MW m:(tKW atpatw AVBE 556 Ka~aA.Aapiot<; MW Ka~aA.Aapiot<;

rr\eov toutou AVBE 557 Kal 1 MW om. AVBE 557-558 Kall ... rrpotpexetv MW
&tatpexovta<; oma6ev t~<; l1E(lK~<; rrapani~EW<; yiveaem A VBE 560 arrouoa(ELY MW
arrouoa(m J1AEOV tWV DUO
B) fllAlWV rrepmatELY AVBE 560-561 w<; ... fllAlWY MW om.
A VBE 562 Kal WA VBE om. M 563 Ka6e(ea6m MW Ka6e(w6m ainou<; AVBE
2 flav06.ta ... t<'t2 MW om. AVBE 573 ainol<; 1 MW autou<; AVBE I i&tKwv MW ioiwv



The Day of Battle

Constitution 14

KlflEVOt<;, m:pl nov TOL<; Uf!UpTUVOU<Jt cr-rpuno.nm<; Ktf!EVWV bmtf!lWV v f!UXT]<;

Katp{\l. Kal-raum ytvwcrKov-ra<; ou-rw<; A81v btl T~v rrapa-ra~tv.
8s. OuK axpfl<JTOV {j <JOt, cr-rpUTT]y, w<; v ETttTOfl<.p KULT~V TWV TtUAatOTEpwv TUKTtKwv imood~m Otan!rrwmv, ~v v -ro1<; rr(tKo1<; T Kal-ro1<; <JUflflLKTOt<;
rrotoiivTo mpa-rUfla<Jtv, ih f!UAt<JTU Kal rroAAou eurr6pouv cr-rpaToii.
86. T~v yap arracruv Tte(tK~V mpunav el<; OEKU ~ XtAtUOU<; KUL TptaKO<JlOU<;
oyoo~KOVTU -rcrcrapa<; avopa<; EflETpouv w<; TOU apt8f!OU TOUTOU EK TtOAAWV
TUKTtKWV apt8f!WV <JUVT]YflEVOU KUL apKOUVTO<; el<; TAdav rrapaTa~tV, KUL Ouvaf!EVOU Otatpe1cr8at KUL KUTUflepi(w8at l<JW<; arro TOU TO(JOUTOU TtA~8ou<; flEXPt
Kal v6<;, Kal To f!EV oAov Toii mpaToii KaAouv TAdav <paAayya. aDTT] 0 ~
585 <paAay~ rrap' UUTOL<; el<; Mo Otatpellat flEPT] OtXOTOflOUf!EVT] ~ '(crou arro TOU
flETWTtOU -rfJ<; <paAayyo<; ~Tot -rfJ<; rrapa-ra~W<; flEXPt -rfJ<; oupii<; Ota TOU ~a8ou<;,
~TOt TOU rraxou<; -rfJ<; TOflfJ<; OtepXOflEVT]<;. Kal TO f!EV ~flt<JU f!Epo<; Oe~tOV KUA1Tat
Kepa<; KUL Ke<pUA~, v 4> ,T]pew avOpe<; dvat opi(ov-rm TO {j hepov ~flt<JU f!Epo<;
apt<Ylepov Aeynm KEpa<; KUL oupa, v 4> Kal KUTU TO L<JOV flETpov TOU
59 o Oe~wu -ranovmt Ofloiw<; oK-raKt<; xiA.wt eKaTov vv~Kov-ra Mo. ~ o Ota flcrou
ytvOf!EVT] OtXOTOflLU, ~youv 6 Kvo<; T6rro<;, Ofl<pUAO<; KaAdmt Kal crT6fla TfJ<;
<paAayyo<;, v <9 KUL ~ TOU <JTpUTT]you yivemt <JTa<Jt<;, rrpo<; TO m~AETtV Ta EV
T(\l rroAEf!<.p rrpun6f1Va, Kal OtaKu~epviiv, w<; voxnat. aDTT] o ~ rriicru rrapaTU~t<; orr:\1-rm KaAouvmt, Ota T <JKOUTapiwv TAdwv Kal KovTapiwv Kal crrra8[wv
595 KULTWV aAAWV OTtAWV rtepme<ppayflEVOt, ~apuTpuv exovT<; ortAt<JtV TOU OAOU


87.'Dmcr8ev o TUUTT]<; TfJ<; OmAfJ<; TWV OTtAtTWV rrapaTa~W<; TU(J(JTat ~ TWV
\jltAwv Aeyof1vwv mpanw-rwv Aa<ppmpav orrAtmv x6vTwv -rfJ<; rrpwTT]<;
rrapaTa~W<;, Ota TO DXPW<; evea ~OUAOVTat TPEXtV, v Ol<; ei<Jt KUL UKOVTt<JTUL
6oo KUL TO~OTUt KUL <J<peVOOVt<JTaL TOUTWV o ~ rrapam~t<; dvat 6<pdAt ~fll<Jeta TOY
apt8f!OV -rfJ<; rtpWTT]<; rrapma~W<; ~youv ,f]pew. E<pe~fJ<; {j TUUTT]<; omcr8v ~ TWV
KU~aHap[wv rrapam~t<; TU(J(JTat Ka8wrtAt<Jf!EVWV KUL TOUTWV {j 0 apt8f!O<;

about the punishments decreed for soldiers who commit offenses during combal. When the troops have been informed about these matters, then proceed to
form your line.
85. It may not be useless, 0 general, to present to you, in summary fashion,
the regulations laid down by the ancient tactical authors concerning infantry
and mixed armies, especially when they had the advantage of a large army.
86. They numbered the entire infantry army at 16,384 men because this
number is based on a consensus of the numbers given in many tactical books
!lfld is sufficient for a complete battle line. 16 It can be divided and apportioned in
equal numbers from such a large multitude down to a single man. The ancients
teferred to the entirety of the army as a perfect phalanx. This phalanx was
divided by them into two sections and was split into two equal parts from the
front of the phalanx, that is, the battle line, down to the rear end according to
the depth or the thickness of the cut going through it. One half of the division
was called the right horn and the head, in which regulations called for 8,192
men. The other half of the division was called the left horn and the tail, in which
the same number of men is stationed as in the right division, 8,192. The area of
this split down the middle, the empty space, is called the navel and the mouth of
the phalanx. This is where the general takes his stand so that he may oversee
what is taking place in the battle and manage things as best he can. This entire
battle line is <sometimes> referred to as the hoplites because they are armed
with full-sized shields, lances, swords, and other weapons, the heaviest arms in
the whole army.
87. Behind this double battle line of heavy-armed soldiers is formed that of
the troops called light armed, who have lighter armament than those in the first
battle line, because their purpose is to move about there rapidly and easily.
Among these are javelin hurlers, archers, and slingers. This battle line ought to
comprise half the number of the first line, that is, 8,192. Right behind this line

575 twv MW twv KELJ.Utvwv AVBE I KEtflevwv MW om. AVBE 577 tmtOflW MW cruvtOflW
AVBE 584 tou AVBE om. MW 585 autot<; MW autoii AVBE 588 ,l"}p6W De .~p6W
M XtAuioe<; 6Ktw Kal EKatov tvev~Kovta ouo WA 590 6KtaKt<; ... ouo M 6KtaKt<; XLALOL
eKatov evev~Kovm ouo WA 5 91 6 ... t67to<; MW to &axwptafla AVBE 595 oA.ou MW
aHou AVBE 599 euxepw<; MW EUKOAW<; AVBE I tpexetv MW Otatpexetv AVBE
6oo crcpevoovtata[ MW crcpevoov~tat AVBE 6oo-6o1 dvm ... 7tpWtl"}<; MW tov ~flLOl"}
apt6f16v exetv ocpdht t~<; 7tpotepa<; AVBE 6o1 ,11 pew De xtA.ta6e<; ll~ew M xtA.taoe<; oKtw
Kal evev~Kovta MoW A



Cf. Asclepiodotus 2.10; Aelian, 8.3. Much of this section is taken from Aelian.


Constitution 14


mi\tv EXL


Twv AYO!levwv \jlt\wv

The Day of Battle

napma~wc;, ~TOL







88. Kat Touc; f!EV n(ouc; ic; Teaaapa f!EPTJ no[ouv auvTaaaovTc; &f!a Kat
Touc; 6n\[mc; Kat Touc; \j!LAOUc;, we; liv ~ xpLa an!lTL, 'iT napa Ta n\Ctyta TWV
6n\milv Touc; \j!LAOUc; de; Mo eTepac; napaTCt~Lc; 'iT Ef!npoa9v I ~ we; liv OOKL
T(il mpaTTJY'P XP~OLf!OV.
89. Touc; o Ka~a\Aap[ouc; de; ouo OLf!ept(ov, v9v KCtKl9v ~ ent VWTOU
TWV n(Wv ~youv oma9V ~ ic; Ta n\Ctyta ~ we; liv ~ xpLa an!lTL. 6 yap OTpaTT]yoc; OUX we; ~OUATaL, a\Aa f!UAAOV we; avayKa(nm, o1.\Twc; Kat TCt<J<JL TO 0TpaTUf!a. npoc; yap To avnnoA.ef!tov Ka~a\AaptK6v, Kat To 'ioLOv aT~aL Yva upuxwpiav EXOVTc; !l~ f!noo[(wvTaL npaTTLV oaa olnOLLV Touc; Ka~a\Aap[ouc; de;
T~V TWV n(Wv ~o~9Lav, 'iT KaTa npoawnov 'iT K n\ay[ou 'iT 01tl<J9V KaTa
90. KpLnov 0 not~aL nc; av Twv \yof!vwv \jlt\wv T~v napaTa~Lv
npWTTJV Ta~n T* TWV 6nALTWV napma~wc;, ~ xpLac; oihw Ka\ouanc; eK n\ay[WV. d yap f!EOOL mywmv CtVvepyT]Ta auTWV Ta on\a yfvTaL oi yap CtKOVTt(ovT<; ~ TO~UOVTc; ~ a<pVOOVOUVTc; avayKa(oVTQL de; U\j!Oc; nef!nLV Kat f!UAAOV
Touc; iofouc; ~\amoumv ~ Touc; vavTfouc;. Kat yap Ta ~e\11 Kma K<pa\~c;
vx9~<JOVTQL TWV Ef!npoa9V. oi o <J<pVOOVOUVTc; f!nOOL<J9~<JOVTQL Tac;
xLpac; aUTWV !l~ OUVUf!VOL T~V <J<pVOOVT]V \[aaLV.
91. 'Eav o oi noAEf!LOL n\eov xwm \j!LAOUc; imp Touc; ~f!Tepouc;, TOT Touc;
6n\[mc; ~youv Touc; npWTO<JTaTac;, Ef!npoa9v 01 niaawem exovmc; <JKOUTapta f!ya\a mf!~KT], anp Myoum eupwuc;, W<JT <JKenLV o\a Ta OWf!aTa,
avopoc; EXOVTa f!~Koc;. oi o f!Ta TOUTOUc; oma9v Ta<JOOf!VOL Kat f!EXPL TWV
on'(aw imp K<pa\~c; apavTc; Touc; eupwuc; OUTWc; npoapxeaewaav, we; liv
eVToc; yevwVTQL TWV pL1tTOf!EVWV aayLTTWV ~ pLKTap[wv. OUTWc; yap we; inLV
Kpaj1w9evTc; ouov na9wm KaKOV ano TWV pmTOjlfVWV napa TWV noAjllWV

63o ~\wv.


604 evev~Kovm e~ De evEV'lKOvm~

WA VBE TeaaapaKovm ~ M 607 Tou~ IJ!tA.ou~ M Tou~ rre~ou~ W om. AVBE I ouo MW
ouo eTepa~ AVBE I rrapma~et~ MW rrapma~et~ otmpouvTe~ auTOu~ AVBE 609 errl vwTou
MW oma6ev AVBE 610 ~youv oma6ev MW om. AVBE 612 avnrroA.fLtOV MW
rroA.efLLOV AVBE 617 oihw MW om. AVBE 619 ~ o<pevoovouvTe~ MW om. AVBE
623 rrA.eov MW rrA.eiova~ AVBE 624 ~youv ... rrpwTo<JTaTa~ MW om. AVBE
625 wau ... <JWflaTU MW om. AVBE 626 fl~Ko~ MW fl~Ko~ w<JTE <JKerretv oA.ov To OW fLU
AVBE 628 evTo~ MW aw6ev AVBE I pmTOfLEVwv MW ~aAAOfLEVWV AVBE I ptKTapiwv
MW pmmpiwv AVBE


the cavalry units, well armed, take their position. The number of these is again
half of that of the line of so-called light -armed troops, that is, 4,096.
88. The ancients divided the foot soldiers into four divisions, drawing up
heavy-armed and light-armed troops together, either arranging the light-armed
troops in two other battle lines along the flanks of the heavy-armed, as the
situation requires, or else in front or wherever the commander thinks is most
89. They also divided the cavalry in two, here and there, to the rear of the
infantry, that is, behind them or on the flanks or as need may demand. The
general organizes his army, not as he wishes, but as he is compelled to do. When
confronted by an enemy cavalry force, he will station his own cavalry so they
cover a wide area and will not encounter obstacles in doing what they have to do
in support of the infantry, either in front or on the flank or behind to the rear.
90. A person will do better if he positions the so-called light-armed troops
for battle in front of the battle line of the heavy-armed troops or, if need calls for
it, on their flanks. If they are drawn up in the middle, their weapons are
completely ineffective. When hurling javelins or shooting arrows or using their
slings, they are forced to shoot on high and are more likely to injure their own
men rather than the enemy. Their missiles will land on the heads of the men in
front of them, whereas the slingers will not have room for their hands and will
be unable to whirl their slings about.
91. If the enemy have more light-armed troops than we do, then you must
position the heavy-armed ones, that is, the protostatai, in the front ranks. They
should have large, oblong shields, called thyreoi, which cover the entire body,
being as tall as a man. The men stationed behind these down to the rear lines
should raise these oblong shields over their heads and in this very manner
march forward until they come within range of the arrows or other missiles
being fired. For with this kind of a roof, so to speak, they will suffer no harm
from the missiles fired by the enemy.


Constitution 14

92. If the light-armed troops provide support here and there, then, before

rrpwtot, rrplv ~ yv'lTUL ~ aull~o\~, Kal aayhm<; Kal ptKtapta phvwm Kata twv

contact is made, these go first and fire arrows and short spears against the
enemy. After the enemy have been engaged, moreover, they continue their
attack against the enemy's battle line from the flank, firing their missiles against
them. Under attack also from the sides, the foe will be confused and less
effective against the men in front of them. If there is some kind of fortification
nearby, it will be to the advantage of the light-armed troops. They shoot their
missiles against the enemy and, without any fear, race right up to the obstacle,
whether it be a precipitous place or the banks of a river or a mountain rising up
tlbove them or some other obstacle.
93. There must be a distance between the battle lines. If it happens that the
light-armed troops have discharged all their missiles and the enemy has not yet
been engaged but is still moving forward, then the light-armed troops should
turn about in good order and pass undisturbed through the middle of the
phalanx to a secure place in the rear. It is not safe for them to circle about
outside the main force and so to pass through, for they may be caught in the
middle by the advancing enemy and be killed. Then too, the very large number
of men in the middle may be so tightly packed together and under such pressure
that they may fall upon their own weapons. Have the other formations armed
nnd ready so that, when the light-armed troops have discharged their weapons,
then these may march out in their place and perform the task assigned to them.
94 Since the thickness of the battle line, when it is expanded to meet certain
contingencies, is reduced and made thinner along its length, it is necessary not
to extend it, because of fear of encirclement, to such a degree as to make it
extremely weak and without depth, that is, in thickness. It may happen that the
enemy will quickly cut through it, making a sort of passageway. They will then
put the encirclement into action, not only from the front but also by advancing
through the middle and, reaching the rear, they will cause a great deal of damage. The general must not only be on his guard against suffering this but he must
;tlso seek ways in which he can do the same sort of thing to the enemy.

rrapata~ew<; nm8vte<; TIf11tEtwcrav tO. ~EA'l Kata al>Twv, Yva auve\auvo11evot

Kal ano TWV n\ay(wv eopu~OUVTUL, Kal \anouvtatnpo<; TOU<; Ef11tpoa8ev. i::av
Oi:: napaKmat oxupwfla, toiho f1<1AAOV TOU<; '\fLAOU<; ~o'l8~cret ~UAAOVT<; yap
tO. ~EA'l Kata TWV 1tOAfllWV Kal ei<; a\JTO Katatpxovte<; acpo~wtepOL y(voVTUL.
oiov ehe KPTJflVWOTJ<; TOTIO<; ehe 1tOTUf10U oxell ~ Kal ~ovvo<; imepavxwv ~ Kal


Tepov anv oxupwfla.

93 'Ocpe(\et oi:: dvat ota<JTTJ!la ei<; ta<; napata~et<; Yva i::av oihw avll~ii Kal oi
'\fLAol i::KKevwawmv ta ~\11 aiJTwv, Kal ounw yveto ~ av11~o\~ O.H' en
npoayouatv o[ 1tOAEf1LOL, TOT i::mcrtpE'\fWaLV o[ '\flAOLflTU euta~(a<;, Kal 8te\8ovT<; flEOTJV T~V cpa\ayya ampaxw<; i::nl tO. omcr8ev Otacrw8watv. ou yap E<JTLV

aacpa\1::<; KUKAULV al>Tou<; ~w8ev TO crtp<itUf1U KUL oihw Otpxw8at, Yva ll~

napa TWV x8pwv pxof1EVWV flE<JOl yeVOf1VOl Otancrwatv OUT oi:: TIUALV ei<; tO.
on\a 11aov<; 1 Ef1TILTITtv, nenvKVWflEVTJ<; oucrTJ<; t~<; ta~ew<;, Kal oihw ~ta(w8at.
hpa<; 0 ta~et<; xetv i::von\ov<; Kal ETOLflOV<; Yva otav oi '\fLAOL tO. on\a KVWcrwat, TOT EKelVOL avtetcr\8watv KUL T~V xpe(av EKelVWV TAE<JWatV.

94 'EnetO~ Oi:: TO naxo<; T~<; napaTa~ew<; npo<; ta<; xpe(a<; EKTLVOf1EVTJ<; aUT~<;

i::nl fl~KO<; <JU<JTEAAeTUl Kal A1tTUVTUL, oov EaTLV ll~ EKTLVLV T~V napata~LV
tO<JOUTOV, W<JT naaav aaeev~ KUL xwpl<; ~aeou<; 1t0l~<JUL, ~yovv KUTQ TO naxo<;,

q>0~0UflVOV Ta<; KUKAW<Jl<;. <JVfl~ULVet yap TOU<; 1tOAfll01><; mxu OLUKO'\fUL

aut~V Kal O[ooov 1t0l~<JUL, Kal llTJKETl ano Ef11tpocr8ev flOVOV i::vepyetv T~V
KUKAWaLV, Kal Ota TOU f1E<J01) 0LA80VTU<; ano omcr8ev eupe8~vat, Kal oihw


92. Ei 0 Kal v8ev KUK18ev ~ rrapa twv '\fLAWV ~o~8eta mipwnv, outot
1tOAflLWV, ~ Kal fleTU T~V <JUfl~OA~V T~<; flUX'l<; EK n\ay(wv T~<; TWV x8pwv

The Day of Battle

1t0l~<JUL T~V ~Aa~TJV. TOUTO oi:: 01 TOV atpaTTJYOV ll~ flOVOV q>VAUTTW8at Yva ll~

I phJ!W<H MW phJ!ou<n AVBE 633 1loAEfliwv MW

I GUfl~OA~V MW GUfl1lAOK~V AVBE 634 tm-rt9vu:~ De E1llTE9EVTE~ MW
emnecr6v-rwv AVBE I KUTU MW Ka-r' AVBE 635 9opu~oiivmt MW 9opu~WVLat AVBE I

632 {nK-rapta MW j'mnapta AVBE

evav-r[wv AVBE

MW eAanwvmt AVBE 636 -rou~ IJ!tAoi>~ MW -roi~ IJ!tAoi~ AVBE

EKKEVWGWcrt AVBE 643 ampaxw~ A VBE -rapaxw~ MW 644 OUTW MW OUTW~ AVBE
646 OUTW
648 TEAE<JW<JlV MW 1lAllPW<JWcrtV A VBE 649 EKTElVOflEVll~ au-r~<; MW trsp. AVBE
651 KUTU TO MW exoucrav AVBE 653 o[ooov MW 1!Ctpooov AVBE 656 TOlOUTOV MW


639 hep6v MW e-rep6v Ll AVBE


The Day of Battle

Constitution 14


95 8 fl~ oihw<; TIUKVWCYat T~V rrapaTa~LV de; rraxoc;, WCH fUKOAW<;

95 Again, do not tighten up the thickness of the battle line so that it will

KUKAWCYfl<; rra8iiv rrapa TWV TIOAf!.llWV, ai\Aa fl&.AAOV Kat TOU<; EK rrA.ay[wv Kai

easily suffer encirclement by the enemy but rather arm the soldiers on the flanks
and those stationed in the rear in the same way as those in the front ranks.
'Ihese men will be able to deal with any enemy encirclement.
96. It is the mark of a wise and prudent general, if he is to attain his goals, to
form his battle lines in such places in which encirclements or anything of that
sort cannot be set up, as we have made clear above. In time of war, the prudent
discretion of the general is able to discover many things that are beneficial. I call
this a gift of the intervention and good disposition of God above and I know
that he bestows it upon those whom he deems worthy because of their virtue.
97 Once, during a battle in which the enemy held the advantage, a person
made use of falsehood. He cried out: "The enemy general is dead:' This cry was
made at a critical moment and did not allow everyone to think quickly about
what they had to do. Some of the enemy were at a distance from their own
general and some of them despaired, whereas those with the general who had
shouted the cry took up courage again, <believing> the rumor to be true, and
they continued the struggle in excellent spirits. Thus, the man shouted and
11chieved victory on the strength of a fabricated rumor. By shrewdly taking
timely advantage of the situation, a stratagem has frequently out-generaled the
98. More recent authorities advise not letting your battle line appear shiny to
the enemy but, according to the tradition prevailing among foreign peoples, you
should hide the shining of the weapons until you come to close quarters. But
Onasander himself, in compiling his book on strategy, does not appear to say
thisY Rather, he prescribes that the battle line should appear shining in
~~omparison to that of the enemy. But it seems to me that, either he was unaware
of such a statement in his day, since it was really of more recent origin, or else
<his advice> was to put aside <the shining> of the armament before the battle
hut, when it comes to the actual battle, he joins the more recent authors, and
ourselves as well, in declaring that you should show the weapons in their

TOU<; de; TO omcr8V ECYTWTa<; mpaTLWTa<; KaTa TO '(aov 6rrA.[crat TWV rrpwTOCYTa660

TWV. oiiTot yap Kat MvavTat Ta<; KUKAWCYfl<; fl&.AAOV arravTaV TWV TIOAf1LWV.
96. Locpou 8 Kat cppov[flou crTpanwou To de; Toto{nouc; T6rrouc; rrapaTacr~

awem, av lipa Kat mTuxn Tou crKorrou, v ole; ouT KuKA.wcr~::t<; ouT liAA.o Tt
TOLOUTOV MvaTat y[vw8at, w<; avwTtpw ~flLV 88~AWTal. rroi\Aa yap icrxun
cpp6vT]at<; mpmT]you v Katp<iJ rroA.f10U cpcup[crKoucra Ta CYUfl<ppov-ra orr~::p T~<;

livw8V TOU Ekou porr~<; Kal Uf1Vda<; 8wpov yw KaAW Kal rr[CYTaflaL TOt<;
a~[ot<; TOU E>wu 8ta T~V auTWV apn~v rrapX0f1VOV.

97 Ka[ nOT n<; v Katp<P flCtXT]<; TWV rroAflLWV rrpm~::pcu6vTwv \jlu8o<;

<p~f1LCY ~o~cra<; "T8vT]KV 6 TWV rroAf1LWV mpaTT]y6c;." TaDTT]<; 8 T~<; cpwv~c;

8o8dCYT]<;, ETt8~ 6 Katpo<; 6~u<; wv OUK 8[8ou Taxtw<; TO Otov rraat voiiv, o[ fltV

TIOAffllOl rr6ppw TOU i8[ou OVT<; mpaTT]YOU, oi flEV arryvwcrav, oi 8 TOU <pT]fll
cravTo<; crTpaTT]you 8apcro<; avaA.a~6VT<;, w<; aA.T]8ou<; T~<; <p~flT]<;, U\j!UXOTpot

~ywv[(ovTo. Kat oihw T~<; crwocptcrf1VT]<; <p~flT]<; KancrxucracrT]<; T~v v[KT]V 6

<pT]flLCYa<; ~paTO. oihw<; ayx[vota mKa[pw<; TWV rrpaYf1CtTWV mA.af1~aVOflfVfl
TIOAACtKl<; KaTWTpaT~YT]CYf cro<ptCYaflfVT] TOU<; avnrraA.ouc;.
6 75


98. E'ipT]TaL T To1c; vwTpot<; rr~::pl Tou fl~ A.aflrrpav cpa[vw8at To1<; rroAflLOt<;

T~V (j~V rrapa-ra~LV, ana Kpumav TWV OTIAWV T~V CYTLA\jflV ewe; aU-rfJ<; T~<; 8ta
Xtpwv crufl~oA.~c;, 8ta T~v f:mKpaToucrav To1c; 8vwt <p~flT]V. 'Ov~crav8poc; 8 Kal
aUTO<; mpaTT]YLKOV CYUVTCt~a<; A6yov oux oihw Atyav 8oK1, ana fl&.AAOV
A.aflrrpav KAuL T~v rrapa-ra~tv cpa[vw8at rrpoc; T~v Twv rroAflLWV rrapa-ra~tv.

68o Ef10t

8i:: 8oKii ~ ayvoiiv EKiiVOV TOT T~V TOtaUTT]V <p~flT]V

we; VWTpav y~::vo~

f.lfVT]V ~ TCt fli::V rrpo T~<; CYUfl~OA~<; acpiivat, KaT' aUT~V 0E T~V CYUfl~OA~V, Kal
aUTO<; cruv TOt<;

I VfWTfpOl<;

Kat ~fllV 6f10LW<; rrapayyAA.t Aaflrrpa Ta QT(A(t

8ftKVULV a8p6w<;. KaTCtTIAT]~l<; yap fl&.AAOV y[vnat, OUX OTaV flaKp68V pxo~
675-680 Onas. 28.
658 KUKAwcrn~


AVBE 659 d~ TO MW EK Twv AVBE 664 ta

667-668 Kai. .. ~o~aa~ MW noAA.aKt~ 0 npocr~KU

cruf.1cppovta MW TO cruf.1cppov AVBE

Kal '\feUOll 'Pllf.lL~etV on AVBE


668-67 4 taUTll~ ... avnna:\ou~ MW Toiho yap aKOUOf.lEvov

!lev ~f.letpot~ npo9uf.1iav vE1toi11crev Tot~ &1: noAef.lLOL~ Oet:\iav v~a:\ev To yap 6~u Tot\

Katpou ou oi&watv UUTOt~ aKpt~~ Tl f.1UV9avelV 1tepl TOU UUTWV crTpUTllYOU Kal OUTWl;

noUaKt~ cpp6v11at~ crTpaTllyou Tou~ vavTiou~ KaTeaTpat~Yllcrev AVBE 676 aTiA'\ftV MW

AUf.11tpOT11TU AVBE 677 xetpwv AVBE xetp6~ MW I 6v~aav&po~ MW 6v6crav&po~ AVB!'
678 cruvTa~a~ :\oyov MW trsp. AVBE I oihw MW oihw~ AVBE 679 napaTa~tv MW

681 Ct<j>elVUl MW KUTUAl1telV AVBE

17 Onasander 28.

The Day of Battle

Constitution 14


!lEVWV A.awcpwv TWV OltAlTWV ~ eea cruv~8f1<; YLVf1TUl, aAA.' OLaV ~ OOKOUCJa Kal
685 <patVO!lEVf1 muyv~ napam~L<; a8poov Kalnap' eu8u avaOLX8fi ~ anpocrOoK~
TWV A.allnpa. ToiJTo yap llaAA.ov Kat 8la<; ~of18e(a<; Gf1!l1ov Taxa imovo~croum
Ka8' auTWV o[ 1t0AE!ll0l. XP~Gl!lOV o CJOL, mpaTf1YE, Kat TO ll~ 1tpOTpov T~V
a~v napam~LV 0LKVULV TOt<; 1tOA!llOl<; ev ~!lepq. JtOAE!lOU, 1tptv av T~V EKelVWV

11a8n<; 1tW<; KatOJtOL<.p CJX~!laTL 1tapeta~TO.

99 L: o XP~ KaTa TOV Katpov T~<; !lCtXf1<; npovoe1v !lUAAOV TWV llaXO!lEVWV,
Ka8w<; CJOL Katnpocreev imeee!leea, ~ TOA!lf1POTpov aAA.w8at Kat Tat<; xepcrl
CJU!l11AEKW8at, OLaV ll~ avayKf1<; ecrtt Katp6<; !lUAAOV 0 TO JtaVTAW<; Ct11EXcr8at Ota XLpwv TOt<; 1tOA!lLOL<; CJU!l11AEKCJ8at, Kat av imp~Af1TOV avopdav
moL~n<;. ou TOCJOUTOV yap W<pA~CJL<; TO crtpCtTUila llaXO!lVO<;, oaov anoea695 vwv ~Aa\jl1<; aUTO, 01tp TOt<; CJU!l11AK0!1EVOL<; OUK anpocrOOKf1TOV ecrnv. d yap
Ota <p~!lf1<; !l0Vf1<; \jiUOOU<;, W<; npo !llKpou ~IllY e'lpf1TUl, on 1tETCTWKV 6 CJTPaTllyo<;, o[ TOU Eevou<; aUTOU amvAOVTO, JtOCJ<.p !lUAAOV, d Tfi CtAf18dq. yVf1TUl, TOUTO
!lYCtAf11tapaKoAou8~CJL ~ACt~f1 T<\> TOU JtWOVTO<; UAf18W<; mpaTf1YOU Gtpam)-



100. MaAA.ov o ev acr<paA[q. 6~w<; Kat ~Aelt Katnpan Ta oeovm. TOT

yap !lUAAOV 8au11a~Tat crtpaLf1YO<;, omv KaTa TO 6~u T~<; avayKf1<; Ta 1tpE1tOVta
OLOLK~CJn, OT ev aodq. wv Ta eLKOTa 1tpO~OUAUCJf1TaL.
101. Ei o XP~ TOT Kat Kala T~V aUT~V wpav A.oyot<; napa8appuVLV (J TOU<;
GTpanwTa<;, Kat nayyeA[at<; Tat<; CtltO T~<; ~aCJLAela<; ~!lWV TOt<; aptCJTUOUCJLV
705 Ct1tOKl!lEVat<;, Kat T~V altO Ekou ~o~8tav napoucrav. d o Tl JtAeLOV, Kat Gf1!lla
Ttva mvo1v, Kat OetKVULV Kat imm[8w8at <pavevm Kat T~v ~!lTpav Gf1!la(voVTa VLKf1V, Kat Tepa TLVa JtOlelV U1tp TO cruvmylla OUK moxnm vuv, tv oe
Tal<; CJUVf1Y!lEVat<; YVW!lal<; KaTa TO TEAO<; TOU CJUVTCtY!laTO<; eup[crKWV ava!la8ot<;, oaa a 01 Katnpo TOU JtOAE!lOU Kat tv T<\> 1tOAE!l4J Kat!lTa TOV 1tOA!lOV ~
710 A.eyLV ~ npanLV. Kat Ota TOUTWV Ka8unepTepov TWV 1tOA!lLWV avaOlKvua8aL
684 yivf)tat MW ytvf)tat AVBE 685 aval5etX9~ MW ava<pav~ AVBE 686 imovo~croum
MW imovo~croucrtv AVBE 689 orroiw MW rroiw AVBE I rrapeta~eto MW rrapeta~aro
AVBE 691 rrp6cr9t:v MW Ef111pocr9t:v AVBE 691-692 tOAf1flp6tt:pov ... cruf111AEKt:a9m
MW tOAfll)p<ii~ UUf111AEKt:a9at tat~ Xepcrlv AVBE 692 to MW om. A VBE 693-694 Kal, ..
tmoei~fl~ MW om. AVBE 695 orrt:p ... tcrnv MW om. AVBE 702 lltotK~Ufl ott: MW
OtOlK~ ~ OtaV AVBE 704 KUL MW Kal urrocrxtcreat Kal AVBE 705 d ... 11AelOV MW om,
AVBE 706 tmvoeiv ... llelKVUelV MW <pavtvm urrolletKVUelV AVBE I Kal 3 MW w~ A VI:W
706-707 GTJflaivovm viKTJV MW trsp. A VBE 707 to ... vuv MW Atyecrem vuv otH<
tvotxnm A VBE 708-709 cruvtawmo~ ... avaf1a9ot<; MW ~~~Aiou avaf1a9~crfl A VBE
710 Ka9urrtptepov MW tmKpatecrtepov AVBE I avaoeiKvucrem MW ava<paivecrem AVBE


brightness very suddenly. For the usual sight of the brilliant heavy-armed men
.tpproaching from a distance is not a cause for wonder, but what does cause
.1stonishment is when what appears to be a dull-looking battle line all of a
hUJden, straightaway, unexpectedly appears brilliantly shining. Perhaps the
enemy will look upon this rather as a sign of God's help. It is useful for you, 0
general, not to be first in showing your battle line to the enemy on the day of
battle, before you learn about theirs and how and in what manner they have
been organized.
99 At the time of battle you must devote special attention to the men doing
the fighting, as we explained to you earlier, rather than very rashly springing
mto action yourself and engaging in hand-to-hand combat when the situation is
not critical. It is better <for you> to refrain completely from close combat with
! he enemy, even if you could project the image of unlimited bravery. By engagIng in combat you will not benefit your army as much as you will harm it by
dying, something not unexpected in close combat. For, as we mentioned to you
~hortly before this, if merely by the false rumor that the general has fallen, the
~oldiers of that nation were destroyed, how much more, if it should prove to be
l rue, will it cause serious harm to the army of the general who has actually
100. Rather, in safety keenly observe and carry out your proper task. It is
then that the general is admired: when at the critical point of an emergency he
.trnmges for what should be done, when in full freedom he plans ahead for what
ik likely to happen.
101. If then, at that same time, it is necessary for you to address words of
tncouragement to your soldiers, <tell them of> the abiding help of God as well
the promised rewards of Our Majesty set aside for those who have distinii,Uished themselves. If anything more <is needed>, contrive certain signs and
point to them and suggest that they have appeared and portend victory for us.
And there are other things to do that this compilation cannot provide at this
!!me, but which you may find and study in the collected gnomic sayings at the
~lid of this composition, that is, all the things you must do and say before war,
.luring war, and after war, and that will enable you to prove that you are superior


The Day of Battle

Constitution 14

mtatrra Kal m:pl nov v airr(i> -r(i> n:ohtf!<.p n:pa~ewv

-rai)Ta f!EV OUV n:epl TWV TtOAEf!lKWV n:apaaKEUWV,
n:e(tKai, elp~aew ~11Tv


w<; v auvT6f!<.p ~f!TV etpT]Tat.

oaat TE Ka~a!..AaptKUL Kat oaat

w<; v auv6\jlet.l

-rotaiim ... e'Lprp:m MW om. AVBE

AVBE 713 Eip~a6w ~fiiV MW om. AVBE

712 TiapaaKeuwv MW TiapaaKEuwv Eip~aew


to the enemy. These and other topics dealing with activities during the war itself
are summarized by us. These matters, therefore, about military preparations,
both for cavalry and for infantry, have been set forth in summary fashion by us.




IIeplnoA.topKiac; n6A.ewv

About Besieging a City

'E~~<; o Kat m:ptTTOALOpK[ac; <JOL XPWV OlaTU~aoem,

w<JTpanw, anep EK

T naA.mwv Kat VEWV aveoA.oy~<Jaf.LeV, Kat ooa Oel npaHLV ~ TTOALOpKOUVTa

5 TTOAf.LlOU<;,

we; eLKO<;,


we; av Kat TOUTWV


TTetpav EXOL<;, Ot' ~<:; Ouv~on npo<J1TLVO~<Jat Aa~Of.LVO<; U<jJOpf.L~<; Kat O<Ja fl~
vmuea f.!EV e'lpllTat, ouvata 0 yevo8at, T~<; XPta<; KaTa T Katpouc; Kat TOTTOU<; OLOa<JKOU<Jll<; TCt EKa<JTa.
2. IToALOpK[a TOlVUV mpaTllYOU avopdav em~llTel Kat OLUVOLav O~e'lav Kat
10 <JTpaTllYLK~V Kat Efl<ppova KatnapTOLfla<J[ac; !lllXaVllf.LUTWV, aoc:paA.Lav o v T(\l

napaKae~oem ~ TTOAl ~ <ppoup[qJ ~ oxupwflaTL, Kat flETCt TTOAA~<; npooox~c;

TaUT!lV y[v<J8at T~V a<J<pUALaV.

3 Xp~ ouv <J, mpaTllYE, napaKa8e~6f.LeV6v nvL Twv LPllf.LEVWV v 4> TOTT4J

Ka8~n <pO<J<J<XTOV oxupov TTOlelV, ~TOL ~ TU<ppov ~a8lav ~ UTTO KTL<Jf.LUTWV ~

15 A.[8wv ~ nA.[v8wv ~ ~UAWV ~


mvo~<Jl<; 1tepl<ppa<J<JLV (JQUTOV QTCO TWV

TCOAfllWV, Kat ~[; TCOAACt<; Kat aKpl~el<; xnv, Kat f.LUAL<JTa de; TOU<; avunovo~
TOU<; T6nouc;, tva !l~ ol noA.wpKOUf.LeVOL ~ ol ~weev ovT<; TCOAEf.LLOL iic:pvw nepXOflVOL, ~ ev VUKTt ~ v ~f.LEP\l KLVOUVOU<; T(\l mpat(\l npooayoumv. 01tep yyov
noAA.aKL<; nt Twv noA.wpKOUf.LEvwv n6A.ewv. ol yap ~weev ouK o'loam Tt flATw2o

(JLV ol EVTO<; ol o ow8ev

ano TOU TelXOU<; ~AETCOU<JLV 01tep av npaTTLV f.LEAAnc;

KaT' aUTWV. OLO npnov <JOL TO 'lOLOV aoc:paA.[~wem mpaTUfla.


PG 107:885

Next, 0 general, we are obliged to give you instructions about siege wartitre that we have gathered together from ancient and recent authorities, what
you must do when you are besieging the enemy and, likely enough, when you
nre being besieged by them. Even if you have only moderate experience of such
mutters, this will provide you with a starting point that will enable you to devise
further <means>. You will be able to bring matters not mentioned here into
being. The needs of time and space will teach you the details.'
2. Siege warfare calls for a general who is brave and sharp witted, who has
military knowledge, common sense, and who can prepare war machines. He
nmst see to security in encamping about a city or for