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Leo VI, Emperor of the East, 866-912.
[Tactica. English & Greek]
The Taktika of Leo VI I text, translation,
and commentary by George Dennis.
1st ed.
p. em. - (Dumbarton Oaks texts; 12)
Greek text and English translation on facing pages;
notes and commentary in English.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 978-o-88402-359-3 (hardcover: alk. paper)
1. Military art and science-Early works to 1800.
2. Tactics-Early works to 18oo.
3. Military art and science-Byzantine Empire.
4. Byzantine Empire-History, Military-527-1081.
I. Dennis, George T. II. Title.
Ul01.L42313 2010

In accordance with the rules adopted by the

International Commission
for the Edition of Sources of Byzantine History,
the text and translation of this volume have been verified
by John Duffy, John Haldan, and Alice-Mary Talbot.



About Tactics and the General

Constitution 2: About the Qualities Required

in the General



Constitution 3: About How It Is Necessary to

Make Plans
Constitution 4: About the Division of the Army and
the Appointment of Officers


Constitutions: About Weapons


Constitution 6: About Armament for the Cavalry

and the Infantry


Constitution 7: About Training for the Cavalry

and the Infantry


Constitution 8: About Military Punishments


Constitution 9: About Marches


Constitution 10: About the Baggage Train


Constitution 11: About Camps




About Advance Preparation for Battle



Constitution 13: About the Day before Battle
Constitution 14: About the Day of Battle


Constitution 15: About Besieging a City


Constitution 16: About Matters after the War


Constitution 17: About Surprise Attacks


Constitution 18: About the Practices of Various Peoples

and of the Romans in Their Battle Formations


Constitution 19: About Naval Warfare


Constitution 20: About Various Concise Sayings






Byzantine Measurements




Persons Mentioned



Greek proper names


Greek terms









My dissertation director, Raymond-J. Loenertz, OP, once told me that, in old

age, one should not undertake a critical edition of a Greek text. Perhaps I should
have followed his advice. When I began work on the present edition, however,
old age was off in the distant future and I could still distinguish an acute accent from a grave. But, owing to unforeseen circumstances, the work took much
longer than I had anticipated and I came to realize the pertinence of Fr. Loenertz's cautionary advice. Despite our best efforts, there surely remain imperfections and mistakes. That they are not too numerous is due largely to the careful,
time-consuming work of John Duffy in reading and correcting my typescript.
To him I express my heartfelt thanks. My thanks also to John Haldon for his
helpful suggestions and, among other things, his corrections of the equine terminology. My sincere thanks go to Alice-Mary Talbot, ofDumbarton Oaks, for
her kind and constant support and for expediting the production of this book.
My thanks, as well, to Joel Kalvesmaki, a former student, who so efficiently presided over the editorial process, and to Lionel Yaceczko who moved that process
along carefully and professionally.
I must, as any scholar must, acknowledge the gracious, professional assistance of the librarians at Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana, Biblioteca Apostolica
Vaticana, Biblioteca de El Escorial, Biblioteca Ambrosiana, as well as those at
Dumbarton Oaks, The Catholic University of America, and Santa Clara University.

Los Gatos, California

September, 2009

George T. Dennis, S./.


Although he probably never set foot on a battlefield, the Byzantine emperor

Leo VI (r. 886-912) appears to have had a lively interest in military matters and
the conduct of war. He was after all the supreme commander of the Byzantine
or, as he would prefer, Roman armed forces. Successor to Caesar Augustus, Trajan, Constantine, and Justinian, he was expected to be victorious in war and to
subject barbarian peoples to the authority of Rome. He soon realized that he
could not do this without a solid knowledge of military equipment and practice. This is precisely what Leo set about to acquire. The Byzantines had inherited a voluminous series of military treatises from antiquity: diagrams of battle
formations and instructions for improving one's archery, for besieging or defending a city, and for nearly every aspect of warfare. Leo went through all this,
summarized it, and presented what he considered to be an elementary handbook for his officers on how to prepare soldiers for war and how to move them
about on campaign and on the battlefield. The Tactical Constitutions, or Taktika, were the result.
Preceded by a prologue and concluding with an epilogue, the twenty Constitutions, or chapters, offer little that is original. But the Byzantines were not
interested in original compositions; they revered the authority of the ancients.
Apart, then, from sections devoted to the Saracens and to naval warfare, the
Taktika consist largely of adaptations and paraphrases of previous authors, the
most obvious of which are Onasander (first century A.D.), Aelian (second century A.D.), and Maurice (ca. A.D. 6oo). Leo must have compiled the Taktika
during his reign as emperor, for he refers to his father, Basil I, as deceased. As
with any work attributed to an emperor, it is not clear how much was written by
Leo himself (although there are some very personal remarks) and how much by
his secretaries or research assistants. At any rate, copies were made and, sometime before the death of his son, Constantine VII, in 959, it was incorporated


into a large volume of Greek military treatises, a sort of military encyclopedia,

and deposited in the imperial library. This, or a copy of it, is the mid-tenthcentury codex Mediceo-Laurentianus graecus, 55, 4 (M).
This manuscript, written by one hand on good parchment, has been the
subject of several detailed studies.' Alphonse Dain claims that it exemplifies the
first manuscript family, which he designates as the authentic tradition. In its
present state, it is made up of 404 folios, mostly quaternions, although some
folios are now missing, as will be noted suo loco. Each page measures 32.5 x 26
em., 32 lines to a page. The script is a clear and somewhat elegant minuscule,
with the titles in semi-uncial. The ink is dark brown, fading in places, with red
ink used for the titles, which are preceded by ornamental bands.
It seems that not many copies were made of M, and much of its subsequent history is not clear. Early in the fifteenth century, it was owned by a highranking army officer in the service of Emperor Manuel II Palaiologos, De-metrios Laskaris Leontares, who made use of blank spaces to record births and
deaths in his family from 1408 to 1439. His grandson, also named Demetrios,
made further notations for the years 1448 to 1450.2 After the fall of Constantinople, in 1453, the volume found its way to Thessaly, where it was purchased in
1491 by Janus Laskaris and brought to Florence.
The Tactical Constitutions, beginning on folio 281, originally consisted of
sixteen constitutions, which were followed by an assortment of maxims; an epilogue; and three treatises on surprise attacks, siege warfare, and naval warfare.
These three treatises, as well as a collection of concise sayings, were soon incorporated into the main body of the work, as can be seen in the codex Vindobonensis phil. graecus 275 (W), resulting in the following order for the final sections: Constitution XIV, The Day of Battle; XV, Siege Warfare; XVI, The
Day after Battle; XVII, Surprise Attacks; XVIII, Customs of Different Nations;
XIX, Naval Warfare; XX, Concise Sayings; Epilogue. This is the plan, perhaps
the original plan, given in the prologue (lin. 103-19). One should also note that,
in the manuscripts, Constitutions III and IV are in reverse order.
In addition to the above changes in the order of the chapters, W made a few
other changes, mostly minor ones, indicated below. It is, in essence, an expand-



Nl copy of M, a sort of second edition. Although mutilated in the beginning and

at the end, and missing several folios, it must be consulted to establish the authentic text of the Taktika. W is a small (octavo) parchment volume consisting
presently of 249 folios. The script is clear, 24 lines to a page, although the ink has
faded in several places. Especially in the earlier chapters, there are numerous
brief, crudely written marginal notations, perhaps by a later hand, often without
diacritical marks (reproduced as such in this edition), meant to clarify certain
terms in the text. When W was written is not clear, probably early in the second
half of the tenth century.
A thorough study of the two manuscripts indicates that W may have been
copied directly from M or, at least, from a manuscript very closely linked to it.
The differences between the two are minimal, and a survey of the first fourteen
chapters reveals some 220 common errors, such as KOUTou~epvtv and T6A.oov
(seep. xiii below). And, of course, each manuscript has some unique errors, with
W having a few more than M, including some omissions. Both seem to regard
indicative and subjunctive as interchangeable, o <-->- w, et <-->- '1 M tends to present numerals as such, whereas W tends to spell them out, e.g., tW versus
6wOeKa. Both prefer o to w in words such as KoupmiTope<;. In a few instances, W
has the correct reading whereas M does not, but these are usually due to simple
scribal corrections of mistakes in M. W generally adds final v before a word beginning with Kor T.
The second family of manuscripts, as identified by scholars, is headed by codex Ambrosianus B 119 sup. (139) (A), a parchment manuscript consisting of 347
folios, mostly quaternions, 29.5 x 22.5 em, with 31 lines to a page. 3 The Taktika
of Leo begins on folio 189. The manuscript has been dated to early in the second
half of the tenth century. 4 The text, however, is not the same as that found in M
and W, but is a paraphrase, with words often transposed. One cannot therefore
speak of common or unique errors in A with any precision. While it cannot be
ignored, it is, for the most part, not very helpful in reconstituting the original
text; on occasion, when M is faulty or lacking, A provides the correct reading.
A glance at the apparatus of this edition, however, makes it obvious that A has

A. M. Bandini, Catalogus codicum manuscriptorum graecorum Bibliothecae Laurentianae (Florence, 1768), 1:218-38; Dain, "Strategistes," 382-85, with bibliography; also his

3. A. Martini and D. Bassi, Catalogus codicum graecorum Bibliothecae Ambrosianae

(Milan, 1906), 1:157-60. See now B. Leoni, La Parafrasi Ambrosiana della Strategicon di Maurizio: l'arte della guerra a Bisanzio (Milan, 2003).

Histoire, 183-85.
2. P. Schreiner, Die byzantinischen Kleinchroniken, 3 vols. (Vienna, 1975), 1:641-49.

4 C. Mazzuchi, "Dagli anni di Basilio Parakimomenos (Cod. Ambros. B 119 sup.),"

Aevum 52 (1978): 267-318.





much more in common with the third manuscript family than with the first, although it is difficult to be more exact about their relationship. Whether it is a
paraphrase based directly on M or on a common ancestor, or on perhaps a sibling, is not clear.
The third family includes the largest number of manuscripts, but only three
are relevant to our study of the text. Codex Vaticanus graecus 1164 (V) is a
parchment manuscript, 23 x 31 em, with 33 lines to a page, composed of quaternions, and written in a careful, regular minuscule. Only 281 of its original 392
folios remain. Consisting of ancient and medieval military treatises, its copy of
the Taktika begins only at the end of Constitution V. This manuscript is very
closely related to Parisinus graecus 2442 (P) and Neapolitanus graecus 284 (N).
All three were produced in the same scriptorium, that ofEphrem, in Constantinople, at about the same time, probably around 1020. 5
P and the codex Barberinianus graecus II 97 (276) (B) originally formed one
manuscript, but the separation was poorly done and several quaternions were
mixed up in both.6 It is written in a careful minuscule, "Perlschrift," on parchment, 125 folios in P and 240 in B, quaternions, 34 x 26 em, with 36 lines to a
page. It was produced perhaps a bit later than V. The Tactical Constitutions of
Leo begin in B at folio 130.
The third manuscript from the same scriptorium, also divided in two, is
formed by Nand the codex Scorialensis graecus Y-III-11 (E). It is a parchment
manuscript, consisting of quaternions, 22.5 x 14 em, with 38 lines to a page. In
their present states, N consists of 101 folios that do not include the Taktika, and
E of 308, with the Taktika beginning on folio 160. The derivation of this manuscript has been disputed, but there are reasons to think that N E was copied
from V.
Other manuscripts containing complete or partial texts of the Taktika
continued to be produced through the sixteenth century-Vari counted 88 of
them? They are, however, of no use in reconstituting the original text.
The Taktika has been wholly or partially edited before this. A few pages of

J. Irigoin, "Pour une etude des centres de copies byzantins," Scriptorium 12 (1958): 208-

27; 13 (1959): 177-209.

6. Ibid. See also H. A. Omont, Inventaire sommaire des manuscrits grecs de Ia Bibliotheque nationale et des autres bibliotheques de Paris et des Departements, vol. 2, Ancien fonds
grec: Droit, histoire, sciences (Paris, 1888), 262.
7. R. Vari, Leonis imperatoris Tactica, 2 vols. (Budapest, 1917-1922) (= Va), 1:xv-xxix.


:o11stitution IV, as found in codex Monacensis graecus 244, were printed in

in 1552. The entire work, as found in three secondary manuscripts, was
!ll'Nl published by Joannes Meurs (Leyden, 1612). After some mistakes were corand the text compared with M, it was again published by J. Lami (Flor1745). This edition, in turn, was incorporated by J.-P. Migne into his Palrulogia graeca, vol. 107, cols. 672-1094 (= PG). Finally, a critical edition of
prologue and Constitutions I-XIV (to line 228) was published by Vari (see
n, At the top of each page are printed the sources utilized by the author, and
Itt the bottom the paraphrase of Nikephoros Ouranos under the title recensio
~:onstr:mtiniana. He also published Constitution XVIII, together with a Hungartranslation.8

lt is clear that any scholarly edition of the Taktika must be based on M,

with what is found in W. And such is the rationale of the present edition.
although a paraphrase, sometimes provides the correct reading or helps to
clarify the terminology of M. It has therefore been included in the apparatus.
the same reasons, the readings of V B E, although of less help, have also
included. We have indicated the folio numbers of M in the margin and,
where that is missing, those of W or A. In general, we have retained its arrangement of paragraphs and its orthography, including some inconsistencies, such
ns nicppo<; +-> Tpacpo<;. There are some exceptions, such as the sequence of the
hooks, noted above, and the spelling of some words. For example, instead of
l\OUTou~pvtv of MW, we have preferred KOVTOu~pvtv (-10v) of the other manuscripts (a better reflection of the Latin original contubernium), and TouA.oov
rather than the incorrect ToA.oov of MW. There are very few other changes and
the reasons for them should be clear from the apparatus.

Byzantine military writers, just like their modern counterparts, made no efto write in an imaginative or sophisticated manner. In fact, they explicitly
tell us that they have made no pretense of fine writing, of producing literary masterpieces. Leo's Taktika is no exception (cf. Epilogue, 70). Intended for
practical use, it is written in a straightforward and generally uncomplicated
Greek. We have tried to render this in the same kind of English. A very literal,

8. "Boles Leo Hadi Taktikajanak XVIII Fejezete" in A Magyar Honfoglalds Kutfoi, edited
by G. Pauler and S. Szilagyi (Budapest, 1900) (= Va,Hung.).



word-for-word translation may have some advantages, but it would not be readable. Sometimes, therefore, we have altered sentence structure, omitted several
Greek particles (yap, f.lEV, 8), and added a few words in < >, all in an effort to
make the text easier to read and to understand. We believe that the present translation, while not perfect, is nonetheless an accurate, idiomatic rendition of the
Greek original.
Words that have no exact equivalent in English would be awkward if translated literally and so have been left in transliterated Greek, e.g., bandon, tagma,
pentarch, dekarch, merarch. This has special relevance to the names given to
the units and officers of the Byzantine army. Company and regiment are not the
same as tagma or meros; a merarch is not really a colonel. One exception is the
plural of meros: "divisions" seems preferable to mere or meroses. In the manuscripts some numbers are written as numerals and others are spelled out. These
have been regularized in the translation: round numbers and numbers up to
one hundred are spelled out (e.g., tW becomes "twelve"); all others are rendered
in Arabic numerals.
In an effort to clarify some terms and to identify some citations or references, we have appended a few brief notes to the translation. An extended commentary by John Haldon is in preparation at Dumbarton Oaks.





Aelianus' Theorie der Taktik. In Griechische Kriegsschriftsteller.

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Anonymous. "Campaign Organization and Tactics." In Three

Byzantine Military Treatises. Edited and translated by G. Dennis.
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Anonymous. "Chapitres peu connus de !'Apparatus bellicus." Edited
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Anonymous. "De arcus usu." In Griechische Kriegsschriftsteller.
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"Tactics." In Aeneas Tacticus, Onasander, Asclepiodotus. Edited and

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Constantine Porphyrogenitus. De administrando imperio. Vol. 1,

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Constantine Porphyrogenitus. Three Treatises on Imperial Military

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For bibliographical abbreviations see above, Select Bibliography.


Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies




Byzantinische Forschungen


Byzantinische Zeitschrift


Corpus Fontium Historiae Byzantinae


Dumbarton Oaks Papers


Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies


]ahrbuch der Osterreichischen Byzantinistik


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Migne 161 vols. (Paris, 1855-67)


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Travaux et Memoires



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Codex Vindobonensis phil. graecus 275.

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Codex Vaticanus graecus 1164.

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Codex Scorialensis graecus Y-III-11.


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In A Magyar Honfoglalas Kutfoi, edited by G. Pauler
and S. Szilagyi (Budapest, 1900). (= Const. XVIII; see


Patrologiae cursus completus, Series graeca, edited by J.-P.

Migne, 161 vols. (Paris, 1857-66), 107:672-1094.


G. Dennis.


J. Duffy.


suppleta ab editore.













in margine.


omisit, omiserunt.




transposuit, transposuerunt.




1. 'Ev

OVO!lUTl TOU TiaTpoc; KQL TOU Ylou Kal TOU Ay[ou TiveullaToc;, T~c; ayiac;

Kal 611ooucriou Kal rrpocrKUVfJT~c; Tpt0.8oc;, Tou voc; Kal 116vou C:tA.fJ8tvou E>eou
5 ~11wv, Awv, 6 eipfJVLKoc; f.v Xptm(i> aU-roKpaTwp, mcrT6c;, evae~~c;, aetae~aaToc;,
2. Ou ~aatALK~ 8opu<pop[a KQL f.~oucr(a, ou T~c; f.~oucr[ac; 8uvameia Kal
rreptoucr(a, ou T~c; rreptoucr(ac; f.rr[8et~Lc; Kal arr6\.auatc;, OUOEV oaa TWV f.v av8pwrrotc; f.<pTWV Kal Tl!llWV T~V ~llTpav oihwc; U<ppa(Vl ~aatA.dav



10 UTrf]KOWV eip~Vf] Kal Uf]llPla Kal TWV TrOALTLKWV rrpawaTWV ~ 8t' auTWV f.rrl TO

KptTTOV KaTaaTacr[c; T KQL f.rrav6p8watc;. warrep TO f.vaVTLOV ou8f:v OtlTW T~V

~!lWV Kap8(av avt9. Kal AUTrl


~ TWV urro Xetpa 8ucrrrpay(a Kal TWV rrepl

aU-roue; aya8wv ~ 8t' Ct!lAiac; f.Ao.nwatc; Kal KaTarrTWatc;. ei yap evoc; av8poc;
T~c; ~!lWV ~~lW!lEVOU rrpovo(ac; ~ !lEV f.rrl TO KpLTTOV avaveuatc; a<paTOV ~IllY
15 eu<ppocrUVf]V f.pya(e-rat, ~

8' f.rrl TO xeipov arr6veumc; aAyf]OOVa \j!UX~c; avurrp~Af]TOV, Tl OUK av rra80L!lV TOGOUTWV !1Upta8wv T~c; ~!lWV !leTa Eleov ~pTf]!lE
VWV rrpovoiac;


T~v <ppovTi8a Kal f.mllAetav xpewcrToiJvTec;, VUKTwp !lEV

f.rraypurrvoiJ!lV, ~11pac; 8 8ta!lATW!1V rrO.crf]c; !lEV Ctf]8(ac; Kal ~Aa~f]c; i:.A.eu8pouc; 8taTf]picr8at, TrUGf]c; 8t xapac; Kal Uf]llPtac; rrpOGf]KOVTWc; f.rrarroA.auetv;

3 AHa TWV !lEV aAA.wv rrepl T~V TrOALTdav rrpawaTWV lllKpav nva 8e~a!1EVWV '(awe; f.Ao.nwmv ou TocraUTf]V Ka-ravoou11ev T~v ~Aa~f]V, T~c; 8 mpaTf]ytK~c; 11e868ou 8tarrecroucrf]c; TocrouTq> Ka-r6mv Ta 'Pw11aiwv cruvfJA.0.8fJ rrpawa-

Ta, ocrov ~ rreipa TOU vuv XPOVOU rraatv arravm KaT' 6cp8aA!10Uc; 6pw11eva rrap(25



aTf]at rrp68f]Aa.
4. "E8et !lEV yap av8pwrrouc; arravmc;, eLKOVl Eleou Kal Aoyq> TTl!lfJ!1EVOUc;
T~V eip~Vf]V acrrra(ecr8at Kal T~V etc; CtAA~AOUc; rrept8aATrLV ayartf]V KUL 11~

1. In the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, the holy,
tJ!msubstantial, and worshipful Trinity, our one and only true God, Leo, peaceful
l;lUtokrator in Christ, faithful, pious, ever revered Augustus.
2. It is not the imperial pageantry and authority, not the power and extent of
thttt authority, not the display and enjoyment of all that. It is not any of those
things sought after and esteemed by men that brings such joy to Our Majesty as
does the peace and prosperity of our subjects and the setting aright and the
~c:tmstant improvement in those matters that affect our citizens. On the contrary,
nothing so grieves and pains our heart as the misfortunes of our subjects and
1my decrease or failure <in their attaining> the good things due them, because
<someone's> negligence. Now, if an improvement in the condition of just one
person who has been entrusted to our care causes us ineffable happiness and the
worsening of his condition brings us unsurpassed grief of soul, what would we
not suffer with so many tens of thousands depending, after God, on our
providence? Mindful of our obligation to take thought and to be concerned
about them, we stay up at night, and during the day we deliberate on how to
preserve them free of all unpleasantness and harm and on how they may enjoy
all the happiness and prosperity that are rightfully theirs. 1
3 When other matters affecting the state deteriorate to some small degree,
we do not consider the damage to be excessive. But everyone can clearly see,
with his own eyes, how the collapse of strategic knowledge has cast all the affairs
of the Romans down to such a degree as we experience at this very moment.
4 For honored by the image and word of God, all men ought to embrace
peace and foster love for one another instead of taking up murderous weapons

M W (mut.) ABE Va PG 107:672

1-6 A.eovroc; ... auyouaToc; M om. ABE

9 t<pETWV M em8Uf!TJTWV ABE 11 TE Kal

mi8Wf!EV ABE 16-17 ~PTTJf!EVWV M i:KKpEf!Uf!evwv ABE 17 Kal MA Kal T~v BE I
vuKTwp M vuKToc; ABE 22 oaouw MA oaouTov BE 1 KaTomv ... auvTJMSTJ MA a
tnav6p8watc; MA om. BE

15 {j' M Of ABE

pwf!a[wv UUVTJAUSTJ KaT6mv BE

23 viiv MA om. BE

1. Leo and other emperors employ similar words to articulate t~eir overwhelming
concern, "night and day: for the welfare of their subjects. See H. Hunger, P~ooimion: Elemente
der byzantinischen Kaiseridee in den Arengen der Urkunden (Vienna, 1964), 97-99.








Xdpa<; <pov[ou<; KaLa TWV 6f.!OYVWV Ka8on\.[(nv. nw5~ 0 6 em' apx~<; av8pwnoKT6vo<; Ota~o\.o<; Kat Tou yvou<; ~f.!WV ex8po<; Ota T~<; <'tf.!apTta<; taxuaa<; Kma
T~<; [O[a<; (jlUCYeW<; avnaTpaTUW8at TOU<; av8pwnou<; napWKUaCYV, micra a!
vayKf] Tal<; alJTOU ytVOf.!fVat<; Ota TWV av8pwnwv flllxavat<; av8pwnou<; avnmpaTUW8at Kat tot<; 8\.oum noA.f.!OU<; 8vt:m fl~ UXtpwtou<; Ka8[aTaa8at.
ana Tat<; mpaTfJYLKat<; f.!e860ot<; t~V CYWTf]p[av nop[(w8at Kat Ot' aUTWV
<pu\.anw8at f.!EV uno TWV empxOf.!fVWV nOAefllWV, Opiiv 6 KaT' aUTWV oaa
na8etV eKdVot av dev i:i~tOL w<; av eKKonvto<; TOU Ota TWV nOVf]pWv eyxetpOUf.lfYOU KaKOU Kat naVtWV T~V OlKelaV CYWTf]plaV aana(Of.!fVWV ~ ip~Vf] napa niiat
CYTepx8df] Kat no\.muotTO.
s."Ew<; f.!EV yap, w<; EOLK, TaKaTa noAtf.!OU<;'Pwf.!a[ot<; ev eUTa~l\l OVTa etuyxav, T~<; T en' OUK 6\.[you<; xpovou<; 8da<; an\.au ~Of]8eta<; to KpaTO<; Kat Tft
eUTa~l\l KtpVWfleVO<; TWV aptmwv 6 novo<;, TO Aaflnpov T~<; VLKf]<; ent nAtov
eTatVLOUTO. vuv 6 T~<; TaKTLK~<; T Kat mpaTf]YLK~<; KaTaCYTUCYeW<; en' OUK
6\.[you<; XPOVOU<; afleAOUf.!fVf]<;, [va fl~ Ayw Kat d<; navTeA~ nt:pte\.8ouCYf]<;
A.~8f]V, W<; flf]OE auTa Ta npoxetpa TOU<; CYTpaTfjydv eyxetpouvm<; en[maa8at,
nona Ouaxep~ Ota<p6pw<; 6pWf.!V CYUfl~a[vovm. T~<; yap no\.Awv aya8wv
npo~vou bnaT~flf]<; OtanWOUCYf]<;, oawv Ot' auT~<; ~ 'Pwf.!a[wv noAtTda
eUf.!Olpf]CY, TOUvavt[ov 6pWflV T~V 8t:[av anouaav Uf.lfVLav Kat T~V auv~8f]
T~<; 'Pwfla[wv noAtTta<; VlKf]V TWV aywvt(Of.!fVWV a<ptTITaflfVf]V. KaTa fllKpov yap
afleAOUf.!fVf]<; T~<; KaTa noA.flOU<; t:uTa~[a<; Kat yuflvaa[a<; <JUVf]flA~8f], w<; iiotK,
Kat TWV aptmwv ~ U'!JUXla. dm noT flEV ayUf.!VU<Jtav ~ avavop[av ahtWf.!e8a
<JTpanWTWV, nOT 8 ant:tp[av ~ on\.[av KaTaflefl(jlOfle8a CYTpaTf]YWV, ev[oT 6
<Ot'> a<Ja<petav T~<; TWV apxa[wv TaKTLKWV Otayvw<JeW<; af.!eAOUfleV. TaUTf]V ouv
44 ab eSt' aut~~ inc.
27-28 loan. 8:44.

40-78 Strat., praef.10-35.

27 xTpac; <pov[ouc; M <pOVlKU<; xTpa~ ABE 28 Ota~OAO~ ABE cSta~OAlKO~ M I icrxucrac; MA

icrxupac; BE 33 opav M rrpanetv ABE 34 rra8lv ... dev M KeTvot rra8eTv eicriv ABE
35 rraat M TIUVTWV ABE 36 crtepx8d!] M ayarrlje~ ABE 37-38 wc; ... huyxave M oi
PWf.!a"LKol TIOAf!Ol tv Uta~[a tyivovto (tyevovto BE) ABE 38 T ... xpovouc; M om. ABE I
cmeA.aue MAB cmeA.a~e E 38-40 Kal. .. -rmvtoiho M om. ABE 39 aptatewv Va
aptcrtdwv codd. 40 n: M om. ABE 40-41 err' ... xpovouc; M trrl xpovouc; OUK oA.iyouc;
ABE 42 ta ABE om. M 45 ei>f!oip!]cr MABE ei>f!oip!]crev W I touvavtiov MW to
tvavtiov ABE 47 we; eotK MW om. ABE 48 ayuf!vacriav ... aitu.Of!e8a MW aittwf!8a
ayuf!Vacr[av ~ avavopiav ABE 49 tviot MW TIOAAUKl<; ABE 50 <'it' ci. Du om. codd. I
acra<petav ... Ctf!AOUf!V MW t~V TWV apxaiwv taKtlKWV <'itayvwatv we; acra<p~ Kal OUOKOAOV
rrapopWf!V ABE I taKttKWV W ABE om. M

In their hands to use against their own people. But since the devil, the killer of

1mn from the beginning, 2 the enemy of our race, has made use of sin to bring

men to the point of waging war against their own kind, it becomes entirely
llt~eessary for men to wage war making use of contrivances of the devil,
tlt'Veloped through men and, without flinching, to take their stand against those
nntions that want war. They must then make provision for their security by
military means, employing them to defend themselves against the onslaughts of
enemy, to take action against them, and to make them suffer what they may
wdl deserve. In this way, the evil brought about by those wicked people will be
t!Kdsed. With everyone embracing his own safety, peace will be cherished by all
tmd will become a way of life.
5. For, so it seems, as long as the armed forces of the Romans were in good
order, the state enjoyed divine assistance for not a few years, and the toil of the
most valorous was mingled with discipline and, for the most part, was crowned
with the splendor of victory. But, for many years now, the pursuit of tactics and
11trategy has been neglected, not to say fallen so completely into oblivion that
those assuming the command of an army do not understand even the most
t>bvious matters. 3 We may observe that this leads to quite a number of different
problems. For with the disappearance of this knowledge, productive of so many
good things, and by means of which the commonwealth of the Romans
flourished of old, we behold the opposite; divine favor is absent and the
accustomed triumph of the Roman commonwealth has flown away from its
fighting men. For, along with the gradual neglect of military discipline and
training, the courage of our brave warriors, so it would seem, has also declined.
Sometimes we attribute the cause to the lack of training and the cowardice of
the soldiers; sometimes we place the blame on the inexperience and timidity of
their commanders; and sometimes we neglect the clear teaching of the ancient
tacticians because of its obscurity. Wishing, therefore, with God's help, to restore


John 8:44.

3 See Strat., Preface 10-35.

6 Prologue

Prologue 7

avaawaaaeat (JUV 8e{i> Kal olav anwcr8eicrav EK

T~<; 'Pwlla'[K~<; ~!lWV TIOALTe(a<; avaKaAcracr8at ~OUAO!leVOl, OUK WKV~Ga!leV
crnouofi TOGauTn avaM~acrem !li::V ioiw<; n6vov, KOlV~V oi:: TOt<; UTIT]KOOl<; xap(cracrem T~V W<pfAetaV.
6. Tat<; yap apxatat<; Kat 0~ Kat Tal<; VeWTfpat<; GTpaTTJYLKat<; Te Kat TaKnKat<;
E!l<ptAoxwp~cravTe<; !le86oot<; Kal -rai<; O.Hat<; KmaJ.oya<'ifJv vTux6vT<; imopim<;, Kal e'( Tl KaTCt xeipa<; oo~e XP~OlflOV TWV v TIOAE!lOl<; avayKa(wv, EKetElev
avaAe~U!leVOl Kal oiov pavwa!leVOl, oaa Kal Ola !leTPta<; ndpa<; nl TWV pywv
auTwv av~::llaeo!lev T(il KaEl' ~!lii<; Katp{i> Kal Tfi vuv Kmamacret np6crcpopa T Kai
6o ap!lOOla, TQUTQ U!llV KaTCt TO ouvaTov (JUVTOflOV Te Kai I ClTIA~V T~V wcp;\nav nl
TWV npawa-rwv xov-ra w<; O.Hov npoxnpov VOflOV napaOtOOa!leV, v npa~eOl
!liiAAOV ~ Af~e(Jl TO GeflVOV Kai xpnwOe<; napeXOfleVOl, olov dcraywy~v nva
TaKTlK~V TOL<; ~lle-rpot<; unompa-r~yot<; Kai TU<; TIOAe!llKU<; f!lTI11l(JTD!lfVOl<;
xpeia<;, <'it' Ui-!WV unayopeUOVTe<; w<; eUKOAOV EVTeUElev elvm TOt<; ~OUAOflfVOL<;
65 Kal nl TU fleL<w TWV rraAatwv EKelVWV TaKTLKWV Kai apxaiwv <EleWPTJ!lUTWV>
Ta~n nvl Kal ~aElfl{i> npo'lvm, <ppacrew<; fli::V aKpt~ou<; ~ KO!lnou PfJflUTWV
OUOefllUV TIOlf]GUflVOl <ppovTIOa, npUYflUTWV oe !liiAAOV Kal O"U<pf]Veta<; A6you
KQL Af~eW<; ClTIA~<; Tie<ppOVTlKOTe<;. o8ev TQUTU<; naAatU<; T~<; TQKTLK~<; TIOAAUKL<;
'EAAT]VLKU<; fll::v EO"U<pf]VlO'UfleV Af~et<;, 'PWflU.lKU<; oi:: 0LP!lfJVeUO'afleV, Kat TLO'LV
70 hpm<; aTpanwnKft auvf]Eleiq. AeAeYf.lfVat<; EXPTJO"U!le8a ;\~wtv eveKev T~<;
aacpov<; KUTaA~\jfeW<; TWV EvTuyxav6vTWV, flOVOV TWV OUK avayKa(wv OtaTa~eWV
e~nPTJflEVWV Ota T TO nepmov KUL ~v axpfJGTLQV Kat ~v TWV auyypafl!lUTWV

51 OVT)OLf.lWTU<T)V MW wcpeALf.lWT<iTT)V ABE I anwcr8dcrav MW <'mootwx8ETcrav ABE 55 Kal

o~ MW om. ABE 56 Ef.lq>LAoxwp~crav<e~ MW <ptAon6vw~ tnuxov<e~ ABE 56-57 Tat~ ...
icr<opiat~ MW TU~ iiHa~ icr<opia~ avepeuv~crOVTE~ AB TU~ iiHa~ KUTUAoy<'toT)V EVTUXOVTE~ E
1 scr. mg. apptavou ml>.iavou JtAono~ 6vT)cr<'tvopou f.lT)VO. nol>.ua(vou cruptavou nl>.ou<apxou W
57 l n WBE eh MA I KUla xETpa~ MW om. ABE I EOO~ XP~Olf.lOV MW trsp. ABE
58 6.vaA~Uf.lVOl MWA tmAe~Uf.lEVOl BE I Kail ... tpavtCfUf.lEVOl MW om. ABE I ocra Kal MW
trsp. ABE I OlU f.lETpta~ MW ot' OAlYT)~ ABE 6o CfUVTOf.lOV ABE CfUVTOf.lW~ MW 61 w~ ...
VOf!OV ABE npoxeipou <a~tv v6f.1ou MW 62 dcraywy~v MW etcrooov ABE 63 noAEf.lLKa~
MW noAmKa~ ABE 65 f!Ei~w MW f.ld~ova ABE I 8ewpT)f.lUTwv ci. Va om. codd.
66 npottvat MW npoxwpe1v ABE I cppacrew~ ... pT)f!Ct<wv MW Kal>.Aou~ f!Ev A6you ABE
67 notT)OCtf!EVot cppovtioa MW trsp. ABE 67-68 cracpT)vda~ ... taum~ MW(o8ev Kal)
cruvt6f!OU Kal UK6Aou ot!]y~crew~ cppon(cravte~ Stu touto ABE 68 tii~ ... noHaKt~ MW
At~et~ <ii~ <aKttKii~ ABE 69-71 KaL .. tvtuyxav6vtwv MW Kal ttepat~ At~emv
txp1Jcraf!E8a tv crtpa-rtwnKii cruv118eia l>.eyof.lEVat~ npo~ to EiiKoAov dvm -r~v ot~yl]crtv toT~
evtuyxavoucrtv ABE 71-78 f!Ovov ... ta~tv MW om. ABE

!his most profitable knowledge and, after it had been almost driven out of our

Roman commonwealth, to call it back into being, we have not hesitated, with
seriousness, to take up this task ourselves and, in this way, to graciously
bestow a common benefit upon our subjects.
6. After devotedly giving our attention to the ancient, as well as to the more
recent, strategic and tactical methods, and having read about further details in
other accounts, if we came across anything in those sources that seemed useful
ft)r the needs of war, we have, as it were, gathered it up and collected it.4 Those
things, moreover, that we have learned from our own limited experience of
11ctive duty and that are applicable and serviceable in our day and in the present
situation, we now pass on to you as best we can. We offer them as a modest
tlSSistance in these matters, succinctly, as another Procheiros nomos, presenting
In practice rather than in words what is useful and worthy of respect. It is a sort
of introductory book on tactics for our subcommanders and those who have
been entrusted with the responsibilities of combat. 5 We assure you that this
should make it easier for those who wish to advance in an orderly manner and
by degrees to a better knowledge of those old tactical authors and ancient
theories. We have paid no heed to the strictures of good diction or fine-sounding words. Our concern, rather, has been with practicality, clarity of expression,
and simplicity of style. With this in mind, we have frequently clarified the
ancient Greek tactical terms and we have translated the Latin ones into their
Greek equivalents. We have also employed certain other expressions in common
military usage to make it easier for the reader to understand them. The only
thing we have done away with are formations that are no longer needed because
they are superfluous, useless, and their description is not clear. Thus, those who
desire to command troops may have ready access to a great store of experience
concerning the requirements for combat and military campaigns. This manual


4 In the margin of W, someone (perhaps the scribe) has written the names of Arrian,
Aelian, Pelops, Onasander, Menas, Polyaenus, Syrianus, Plutarch.
5 Subcommander: hypostrategos, also lieutenant general (see 4.8-9). At one time all
generals were called lieutenant generals, the emperor being considered the one supreme
general, with the others as his delegates. In Leo's time, the term was applied to the senior



JtOAE!lOU<; Kat EK0Tpan:[ac; avayKa[wv T~V n:dpav, ou A.6yq> !lOVOV TO XP~<Jl!lOV

7; exouaav, aA.A.a 0~ Kat auTolc; pyote; n:apa
axptc; ~!lWV, ei Kat ll~ pyote; auTolc; ole;


rraA.mwv yyullvaa81aav Kat

Ta 'Pwlla[wv

ET!t llya ~p8Tj OUVCt!lfW<;,

rrapam:!l<p8daav, aAA.' ouv Tole; A.6yOLc; Ot' dJv avaA.a!l~CtVETaL Kal ava!lt!lV~(JKf
TaL Ta A.~ en rrapaT!f!l<p8vm Kat eic; T~V apxaiav T!CtAtV UT!OKa8[ama8at TCt~LV.
7 AAA.' <p' OCJ(jl !lEV v Tole; pT]8Tj00!1EVOL<; TO DXPTJ0TOV avaoetx8fi, xaptc;

Ttp T!CtVTWV aya8wv OOT~pt Xpt0Ttp, Ttp ~aCJLAfL TOU rraVToc; Kat ee(il ~llWV, Ttp
Kat TOte; ~!lETEpOLc; A.6yotc; 0WpT]0a!lEV(jl T~V xaptv. ei o nc; Kat npoc; Ot' aUT~c;
T~c; ET!l!lfAflac; Kat m[pac; KpeLTTova T01JTWV <peupn, xaptc; Kat oihwc; Ttp rrava-

ya8q> ee(il, auyyvW!lTJ o ~IlLY T~c; rrpo8u!l[ac; EVfKfV.

8. IT<ivTwc;

0 xp~, ehe ET!t T!AEOV ehe err' A.anov, muc; ~OUA0!1EVOU<; mpa-

TTjydv Talc; TaKTLKalc; Tf Kat cnpmTjytKalc; evOtaTpl~flV !lfAETatc;. oM yap, we;

TtVf<; TWV arre[pwv exoum, Ota T!A~8ouc; avopwv Kat 8paaouc; ol T!OAf!lOt Kp[vovTaL, aAA.a Ot' fU!lfVeLac; ewu Kat 0TpaTT]yiac; Kat T<i~ewc;, ~c; !lCtAAOV ET!l!lfAT]TEOV
~ au:\Aoy~c; T!A~8ouc; aKa[pou ~ !lEV yap Kat aCJ<pUAftav Kat w<p:\aav ayet Tole;

KaA.wc; auTfi KfXPTJ!lEVOL<;, ~ 0 Kat auvTpt~~v Kat m(~!lt0V oan:CtVTJV.


9. 'Dan:ep yap ouK aTtv 6:\Kaoa rreA<iyTJ Otarrop811euw8m Ku~epVTJTLK~c;

ET!LCJT~!lTJ<; I xwp[c;, oihwc; ouo T!OAf!llOU<; Kamywvi(w8m T<i~ewc; Kat mpaTTjyiac; KT6c;, ot' ~c; ou 116vov Tou iaopporrouvToc; rrA.~8ouc; Twv rroA.e11iwv rreptyeva8m auv 8e(il OuvaTOV ECJTLV, aHa Kat TOU T!OAAtp T!AEOV Ttp apt8!l4J dmep>~UAAOVTO<;. warrep ouv O.Hov TtVa rrpoxapov VO!lOV DilLY,

we; e'lpT]TaL, mpaTTj-

95 ytKov T~v rrapouaav rrpay!laTeiav urrayopeuovTec; rrpoaexwc; T Kal mrr6vwc;

aKouav ~11wv n:apaKAfUO!l8a.

10. Xpeov Toivuv rrp6Tepov 11v imoyp<i\jiat T~v v rroA.11mc; TaKTtK~v, Kat Ti
an 0TpaTTjy6c;, eha Tiva Kat OT!OLOV TOY mpaTTJYOV elVaL Oe'i Kat orrwc; Mov

~ouA.euw8at, ~~c; o T~V eic; apxovTac; Kat apxollvouc; TOU 0TpaTOU Ota8lvat

Ota[pemv, T~v Tf aAAT]V arroaKeu~v Kal TWV orrA.wv KaTaaKeu~v Kat T~v eK<iCJTou
90-96 Strat., 7.A.1.

79 e<p' ... avaonxe~ MW d !lfV XP~<H!lU TCt rrap' ~!lWV p!]6!]00!lVU <pUVW(Jl ABE 82 Kal
rrdpa~ MWA om. BE I e<pup!] MWA om. BE I oihw~ MWA oihw BE 83 Of: MWA om. BE
86 TLV~ ... xouat MW TWV a7!dpwv {mOAU!l~UVOU(Jl nv~ A {JTIOAU!l~avoum nv~ TWV
arrdpwv BE 87 ot' U!lVia~ MW OlCt <ptAav6pw1![a~ ABE I ETil!lA!]TEOV MW E1ll!lAicr6at
XP~ ABE 88 iiyn MWBE EXl A 90 6\Kaoa MW rr\o1ov ABE I 8ta7!op6!lU06at MW
OLUTIpiiv ABE 90-91 KU~pV!]TLK~~XWPl~ MW xwpl~ KU~pV!]TlK~~ emcrT~!ll]~ ABE
92 icropporroiiVTo~ W icropporrowiivTo~ M 'lcrou ABE 93-94 rr\eov ... ~O.HovTo~ MW
1!Aiovo~ ABE urrp suppl. Lami (PG) 94 v6!lov ABE om. MW 95 11pocrqw~ ABE v61lov
rrpocrxw~ MW

97 XP<'>v MW xpda ABE 98 Tov MW A om. BE

thrives its usefulness not only from what has been written down but also from
!he fact that it has been put into practice by ancient authorities and has been
transmitted down to our own day. Even if it had not been accompanied by those
at~tions that had raised the situation of the Romans to great power, at least the
words that had been consigned to oblivion have been brought back to life,
remembered, and again restored to their ancient position.
7 To the extent that something useful may be discovered in what we are
~:~bout to say, thanks be to Christ, the giver of all good things, the king of all and
our God, who has bestowed his favor upon our words. If anyone else, through
his own diligence and experience, should improve upon these words, likewise,
thwks be to the all-good God, and may we be pardoned for being so
8. It is absolutely essential, to a greater or less degree, that men who intend
to command troops should spend their time in tactical and strategic exercises.
For it is not true, as some inexperienced persons may hold, that wars are
decided by a multitude of men wd courage, but by the favor of God and by
generalship and discipline; one must be concerned about this rather than assembling an unreasonable multitude. For the former brings safety and advwtage to
those who make good use of it, while the latter brings trouble wd harmful
9. Just as it is not possible to sail a ship over the sea without knowledge of
navigation, neither is it possible to overcome the enemy without discipline wd
generalship. 6 Whereas, with these, and with God's help, not only is it possible to
prevail over an enemy force of equal strength but also over one which greatly
outnumbers yours. We submit the present treatise on generalship, as we have
said, like another Procheiros nomos and we earnestly advise you to listen to us
attentively and very seriously.
10. First, it is necessary to outline the tactics employed in warfare. Then,
what is a general? Who and what sort of person should he be? How should he
make his plans? After that, explain the division of the army into officers wd the
troops they command, as well as their equipment, the weapons provided them,

6. Cf. Strat. 7.A.L




TWV f.WXOflEVWV OTIAL<HV, itpO<; T01JTOL<; T~V itpo TWV CtATj0LVWV aywvwv TOU
a-rpaTOU YUflVU<J(av, emma o Kal TCt KlflVa imavayvwae~vm tmTLfllU. ha
itpt ooomop(a<; dTIlV Tfj<; T tv Tfi tOL<;l Kat Tfj<; tv Tfi it0Afll<;l, itp( T TOU
AYOflEVOU TouA.oou Kal o~ Kal itpl CtTIALKTWV Tf]<; T itpOKata<JKU~<; Kal Tiapay105 yAta<;. Kat Tl Oct ycva0m itpO Tfj<; TOU itOAtflOU ~flpa<; Kat oaa tv Tfi TOU

TIOAtflOU ~flp<;t tTiocpdA.nm; Kal ETL itpl TIOALopKia<;, ha Kal Ta flETCt TOV
itOAflOV 6<pLA0flVa Kal TCt<; ot' tvtopwv CtOOK~TOU<; tcp6oou<; TWV T ~flTEpwv
Kal TWV TIOAflLWV. Kal tTil TOUTOL<; otacp6pwv TiapaT6.~wv flAEta<; t0vLKWV T
Kal 'Pwfla"iKWV. dm itpo<; TOt<; dpT]flEVOL<; Kal itpl vauflax[a<; otaT6.~m flTptw<;.

Kal brl TouToL<; <litam yvc.ilfla<; Ttv<':t<; TaKTLK6.<; T Kal a-rpatT]YLKa<; io[w<; tv tK0<JL auvayaylv, oaa<; OT]AOVOTL KaTCt xwpav tvT6.~m TO U<JUVOTITOV Kal itpOXLpov TWV OlaTCt~WV ou auyxwpl, acp' wv 6pf1WflVOV aocpov OVTa Kal 6~uv Tfi
otavo(<;t Tov mpmT]yov ao<pWTpov ycvtaem tA.Tii(of1V.

Kal itpWTOV flEV apKTEOV tvTU0V.

the armament of each one of the fighting men. In addition, the training of
lht: army before actual combat. Then, the official reading of the penalties in
There follows a discussion about the army on the march, both in our own
in hostile territory, and about the so-called baggage train and, of course,
about preparation and instructions regarding encampments. What must be
done the day before battle and what has to be done on the day of battle? Further,
about siege warfare. Then, what is to be done after battle? What about unexpectattacks and ambushes both of our own troops and of the enemy? In addition
t(l these, training in various battle formations, foreign and Roman. Our compilation is then followed by a limited exposition of naval warfare. Concluding all
this, certain tactical and strategic maxims have been collected and set forth
Individually, those, that is, that the summary, handbook nature of the chapters
does not permit to insert in their place. We hope that the study of these will lead
the wise and sharp-witted commander to become even wiser.?
11. We must first begin here.


ad yevcr8m des. W I inter ff. 2 et 3 remanet fol. pars exigua, in qua }egitur: recto: rrpo
E<V> ... E7IO<p<iATUL> ... <TrOAl>OpKLU~ ... rr6A. <qwv> ... 8t' e<vellpwv> ... TWV .. .
WV ... rr ... T. verso: <<JT>pctTTlYOU ... TrOAEf.llKWV ... 1tOA!.llKct\. .. <a[> I) I; KUTU ... <<JTpUTI]Yl>K~ .. .


T~<~> .. .oaa

KUL Kl <V~<JEWV> ... aya <BWV> ... <f.!EA>ETI] ... <<JTpUTI]Yl]f.l<lT>WV.


Prov. 1:5.

Twv' MWAB om. E lrrpo Twv MWA rrpo~ Tov BE 102 crTpaToii Va crTpm!]you codd.
rroAEf.!LU MWAB rroAf.!LU y~ E 104 Kal 6~ MW om. ABE 106 rrocpLA.nm W
imocpLA.nm MABE I Ta MA om. BE 107 v6pwv M eyKpUf.!f.!UTWV ABE I MoK~TOu~ M
arrpocrlloK~TOU~ A arrpocrlloK~TW~ BE 108 f.IEAETU~ MBE f.IEAETUL~ A 109 rrpo~ M errl
ABE I Kal rrepl ABE om. M I OtaTa~m f.!ETpiw~ M Elrrdv ABE 110 cmam M om. ABE



110-112 tlliw~ ... cruyxwpe1



7 Proverbs 1:5.




About Tactics and the General

Ilepl -raKnK~~ Kal mpaTJwou


TaKTLK~ E<HLV ETtl<H~flT] TtOAefllKWV KlV~ereWV KLV~erw; o TtOAeflLKal

oma(, a[ flEV KaTa y~v, a[ 0 KUTU eaA.aererav.

2. TaKnK~ eerTt TXV'l mpat'lYLK~ rcapaTa~t:wv Kal 6rcA.terfl<Dv Kal Ktv~ert:wv
3 LTpaTTJYLK~ o ern erTpaT'lYWV aya9wv eruvaerKf]CYL<; ~youv fleATT] Kal
yuflvaer(a flETCt mpaTTJY'lflCtTWV ~TOL Tporca(wv eruva9poterf.16<;.
4 LKOTCO<; Tfl TaKTLKfl OLU TWV EVOXOflVWV empoA.wv Kal rcpa~eWV VLK~erat



Tou<; rcoAefllou<;.
s. Xp~CYLflOV 0 ern Tfl TaKTLKfl TOot' ellTCtKTOU <em>9erew<; erUflTtAKw9at
TOi<; TtOAeflLOL<;.
6. TA.o<; Tfl mKnKfl KaTa vOx6fleVov O.vt:mA.~mw<; otata~m To erTpaTeufla.
7 A[ 0 ei<; wu<; rcoAflOU<; TALat rcapTOLflaer(m ouo t:ier(v ~ flEV KaTa y~v
Tte(LK~, ~ oe KaTCt 96.A.aererav vaunK~. rtepl flEV oi>v T~<; vaunK~<; i\erTepov pouflV. TWV o KaTCt y~v ercl rcoAflOU<; 0.9pot(OflVWV O.vopwv TO TtA~9o<;, TO flV
ern flCtXLflOV ~youv TtOAefllKOV, TO o OLU TU<; TOUTOU xpda<; eruvepx6fleVOV
<'iflaxov. Kal rcoAeflLKov flEV -ro rcapaTaerer6flevov rcpo<; -rou<; rcoAefllou<; mpanwnK6v Uflaxov o TO AOLTCOV, oiov iaTpwv, OOUAWV, EflTCOpwv, Kal <'iAA.wv, oerOL OL<l
Ta<; Urtf]pw(a<; ercaKoAou9oumv. TOU o flaXLflOU flpou<; ~youv TtOAefllKOU erTpaTOU TO flV eerTL Tte(LKOV, TO o KapaAA.aptKOV. Kal TO flEV io(w<; Tte(LKOV TO ercl y~<;
LaTCtfleVOV, TO o KapaAA.aptKOV TO ercl TWV LTCTCWV OXOUfleVOV. ~v 0 TCOT Kal ercl
apflCtTWV arcA.wv KUL apflCtTWV opercav'lc:p6pwv Kal ercl EAe<pCtVTWV rcupyou<;

Tactics is the science of movement in warfare. Movements in warfare are

twofold, those on land and those on sea. 1
2. Tactics is the military skill <that is concerned with> battle formations,
1\rmament, and troop movements.
3 Strategy is how good commanders put their military training into practice, their drilling with stratagems, and putting together ways of defeating <the
enemy>. 2
4 The aim of tactics is to defeat the enemy by all possible means of assaults
and actions.
s. The usefulness of tactics lies in engaging the enemy in combat by means
of a well disciplined attack.
6. The purpose of tactics is, inasmuch as possible, to draw up the army in an
unassailable formation.
7. Complete preparation for warfare is twofold: infantry on land and naval
forces at sea. About naval warfare we will discourse later. Of the mass of men
mobilized for warfare on land, one part consists of fighting men or warriors, the
other of non-combatants who are to see to their needs. The fighting men are
drawn up as an army confronting the enemy. The rest are noncombatants such
as doctors, slaves, merchants, and others, all those who follow along to provide
services. Of the fighting units, that is, the army in the field, some are infantry
and some cavalry. The infantry, specifically, take their stand on the ground, the
cavalry are mounted on horses. There was a time when war involved plain
chariots and chariots armed with scythes, as well as elephants carrying towers

M A B E Va PG 107:68o

3-25 Aeliani Tact. 7heoria, 2.1.

TIOAEfllKWV TiapaaKeuwv MA om. BE I a' MB 11pw-r!] AE 4 Olna[ M Mo ABE 5 ea-rt
MA eanv BE 9 VlK~OUl De KlVTJOUl codd. 11 eon MA eanv BE I emSeaew<; De etaew<;
codd. 13 avemA~mw<; M Ctf!Ef!mW<; ABE 14 TIOAEf!OU<; A TIOAef![ou<; MBE 19 oiov MA
olot BE 1 ia-rpwv ... iiUwv De ia-rpwv oouAwv Ef!Tidpwv Kal iiAAwv M ia-rpol oouAot Ef!7tOpot
Kal iiUot A ia-rpol oouAOL Ef!1!dpot Kal iiAAOL BE 20 ETIUKOAouSoiiatv M eJtaKoAouSoiiat
ABE 21 Ka~aUaptK6v ABE Ka~aAMptov M 23 Kall M Kal eJtl ABE



Much of this chapter is derived from Aelian, Tactical Theory,

AnonStrat, 4-5.


See also AnonStrat, 14.




filled with men. But we will not discuss these now because such armament is no

axpfJaTlUV KUL T~V 1tUVTA~ apyiav TWV TOlOlrtWV Jtapa<JKUWV.

8. T~c; oDv mKTlK~~ !1Tpiw~ rrwc; oihw~ unoypa<pd<Jf]~ 6[ KUL TOV <JTpUTf]-

longer employed and has gone completely out of use.

f:~ouaiav xwv 11na Tov ~amA.a.

10. ITpaTfJYO~ E<JTlV 6 TOU uno xLpa mpaTtWTlKOD e!1UTO~ Kopu<pato~

apxwv, I EK ~a<JlAEW~ !lfV rrpoxapt~0!1VO~, TOU~ o urr' auTOV apxovm~ TOU~ !lfV
'\f~<p<.p Tfi auTOU, EK ~(l<JlAEW~ 6 KUmlt!11t0!1EVOtJ~, TOU~ o f:~ouaiq ioiq

ll."Iotov 6 <JTPUTfJYOD TO Kpdnova dvat TICtVTWV TWV UltO xLpa <ppov~<Jl

35 Kal avopiq Kal OtK(llO<JUVn Kal aw<ppoauvn, TO d~ auTOV ava<ppwem T~~ KaT'
QUTOV f:napxia~ TCt~ OlOlK~<Jl~, O<Jat T mpaTtWTtKal Kal O<J(ll iOtWTtKal Kal
Of]!lO<JlOl, TO napaA.a~6vTa aTpa-rov amKTOV EKTCt~at 00VTW~ KUTU T~V ap!16~ouaav n:p Katp(i> mKnK~v Otam~tv.


<pp6VTWV 1tA~pt~ avopwv, ana TOlrtWV oUOlc; ~!llV A.6yo~ vuv Ota T T~V

yov avaoaxe~vat. Tl TE E<Jll Kal Tl~ 6 T~~ TOlUUTf]~ yxap~<JW~ a~tO~;

9 ITpUTfJYO~ TOtVtJV E<JTLV 6 T~~ urr' UUTOV CtltCt<Jf]~ f:napxia~ lld~ova JtCtVTWV

Tactics and the General

12. LKOTIO~ 6 mpaTfJYli> TO !lfV urr' UUTOV ee!la au~~(Jat Kal a~Aa~~ an6 T
1tOA!1lWV Kal TWV UAAWV CtOlKf]!lCtTWV Kal 0~ Kal QT(l~lWV Kal <JTCt<JWV Ota<pUACt~at, TOU~ 6 noA!1iou~ rravTl Tp6n<.p, ~ JtOAE!l<.f) ~ <p60ot~ CtOoK~Tot~, mrrtvwaat, Kal arrp 1t0l~<Jl KUTU TWV exepwv, mum <puA<i~aaem, 11~ rraedv em'

13. TA.o~ T(i> OlpaTfJYli> T(i> U00Kl!l~<J(lVTl Ota JtCtVTWV T~~ T eda~ Kal
45 ~(l<JlAlK~~ QJtOAUUlV UVOta~ ~ KUTOAtywp~aavn TWV np1tOVTWV KUL apllo~6v
npo-runw0d<Jf]~ ElKOVO~ 01 Ka0anp Ota XPW!lCtTWV ~!lii~ ava~wypa<p~<Jat T~V
TouTou rrot6TT]m Kal &i~m <pavpw~ Ti~ Kal nomno~ lvm 6<piAL Kal 6noio~

LVat 6 T~~ TOtaUTT]~ f:~ouaia~ npoXlpt~0!1VO~ apxwv.

I rrw~ ME om. AB I oihw~ ABE oihw M 27 tan MA tanv

BE 1 T~~ BE om. MA 28 o ABE om. M 1 trrapxia~ ABE urrapxia~ M 30 aTpm!]yo~ tanv
ABE tan M 31 apxovm~ De apxovT~ codd. 32 i:aUTOU M aUTOU ABE I KamT!Ef.lT!Of.lEVOU~ ABE KaTartf1TtOf1VO~ M 33 rrpo~aAAOf.LEVou~ De rrpo~aAAOf1Vo~ codd.
34 TO Kpdnova MA Tw Kpdnw BE I dvm rravTwv MA trsp. BE 40 a8tK!]f1UTWV Kal Mom.
ABE 44 TW UOOKlf1~aavn BE To EUOOKlf.l~am Ta M TO EUOOKlf.l~aavm A
45 KaTOAtywp~aavn Va KaToA.tywp~aavTa codd. 46 TU~aElm wu tvavT[ou Va TU~aa8m
wu vavTiou M TU vavT[a rra8Tv ABE I oihw M oihw~ ABE 47 XPWf.lUTWV BE XP!]f16.Twv
MA 48 Kal rroTarro~ dvm ABE om. M 48-49 Kal orro1o~ clvm M om. ABE 49 o MA 6

26 ouv mKTlK~~ M trsp. ABE

d~ BE I T~~ TOlaUT!]~ ~oua[a~ M T~V TotaUT!]V ~oua[av ABE

8. After this more or less brief outline of tactics, it is necessary to present the
What is he? Who is fit for such an undertaking?
9 The general is the person who, after the emperor, has greater authority
than anyone else over the entire province subject to him.
10. The general is the chief officer of the military theme under his command.
He is appointed by the emperor; as far as the officers under him are concerned,
tome are promoted by his decision, although sent to him by the emperor, and
tlthers directly on his own authority.
11. It is characteristic of the general that he be superior to all under his command in practical wisdom, bravery, righteousness, and discretion, reserving to
himself the administration of the province assigned to him, including military,
private, and public matters. Having received an undisciplined army, he must
dutifully dispose it for battle according to the tactical formation suited to the
12. The goal of the general is to strengthen the theme under his command
and to preserve it free from harm caused by enemies and from other wrongdoing, especially from disorder and mutiny. He is to bring down the enemy by
every means, whether by battle or by unexpected attacks. Whatever action he
will take against the enemy, he must be on his guard so that he does not suffer
the same thing from them.
13. The ultimate objective of the highly esteemed general is to enjoy in all
things the divine and the imperial favor rather than, by paying little account to
fitting and suitable matters, to arrive at the opposite. So then, having made this
preliminary sketch of the general, we must now paint his qualities as though it
were a portrait in color. We must demonstrate clearly who and what sort of
person he ought to be and what should characterize the officer who has been
entrusted with such authority.

Tirpl TOU oiov dvm


o1 TOV a-rpanwov

About the Qualities Required in the General

1. KAUOf.1V TOLVUV dvm TOV mpa-rfjyov aw<ppova rrt:pl TO OWflU, rrt:pl T~V
OlaLTav tyKpaT~, Vfj<j)CtAlOV Kal typ~yopov, AlTOV Kal cmpmov Ttepl -rae; XPiac;,
5 <pt:prrovov rrt:pl -roue; tmK6rrouc; KailaTouc;, VO~flOVa Kal <pp6vt11ov, flLOouvTa
<ptf..apyup[av, EVOO~OV Ttepl T~V <j)~flfjV, fl~T VfOV fl~T ypovTa, LKUVOV 0 KUL
rrpoc; TO A.yLv arro OTOilaToc; tv f.lfO<.p A.aou, av -ruxn 0, Kal rra-rpa rraiowv, fl~
tflTtOpdac; <ptAOUVTa ~ Tl TOlOUTOV, flfjOE fllKpO\I'DXOV, we; Kal TWV O!llKpwv
rrpawa-rwv tm9Uf.1tV, Kal cmAwc; t:uyt:v~ Tft \I'DXft, i ouvaT6v, Kal TtP OWflUTl Kal
10 tv iirram ilfYUAO\I'DXOV.
2. Iw<ppova flEV Yva I fl~ Tate; T~c; <pUCiwc; KaTaaup6f.1VOc; ~oovatc; arro.\drrn
T~V Ttepl TWV avayKaiwv <ppov-rioa Kal tmf.1fAlaV.
3 'EyKpaT~ 0 trrt0~ TfjAtKaUTfjc; apx~c; f.1fAAl TDYXCtVlV. a[ yap CtKpan:tc;
Kal CtKOAUCiTOl 6pf.1Ul, o-r' ilv rrpooAa~wm OUVafllV KaT' t~ouoiav TOU rrotdv a
1 5 ~OUAOVTat, CtKpCtTfjTOl yiVOVTal rrpoc; Tac; tm9uf.1[ac;.
4 Nfj<pCtAlOV 0 Kal typ~yopov orrwc; trraypurrvft tv Tate; f.1YlOTatc; rrpa~WlV.
tv VUKTi yap, o-r' ilv ~ \I'DX~ ~P1-lft flCtALOTa, TtOAAaKtc; ~ TOU OTpaTfjyou yvWilTJ
Kal arreu9uvTat Kal TAlOUTat.
s. AtTOV o Kal arrptTTOV rrt:pl -rae; xpdac; Kal yap Ka-raoarravwmv a[ TtOAU20 TAdc; Kal 1tOAAal 9t:parrdat Kai XPOVOV anpaKTOV Kat avayKa[ac; t~ooouc; de;
T~V TWV apxovTWV TpD<p~V.

M W (mut.) ABE




We insist that the general should be discreet in bodily matters and

self-control in his mode of life. He should be sober and vigilant, frugal
'nd unpretentious when it comes to necessities, bearing up under the toil of
heavy labor. He should be endowed with intelligence and practical wisdom, a
man who hates avarice and is of excellent repute, neither a youth nor an old
man. He should be capable of speaking extemporaneously in the midst of his
troops. Let him also be, when it so turns out, a father of children. He should not
be overly fond of commerce or anything of that sort, nor should he be niggardly,
iS if setting his heart on petty matters. 1 Quite simply, he should be noble in soul
and, if possible, in body and, in every respect, greathearted.
2. Let him be discreet and not so dragged down by physical pleasures that he
neglects to attend to necessary matters and shows no concern about them.
3. As a man entrusted with such great authority, he will exercise self-control.
Unrestrained and licentious impulses, when combined with the power and
ability to do whatever one wants, become uncontrollable in seeking gratification.
4 Let him be sober and vigilant so that he may remain alert when dealing
with truly important projects. It is often at night, when the soul is more at rest,
that the plans of the general assume their final, definitive shape.
s. Let him be frugal and unpretentious regarding his needs. Very costly and
continual attendance upon the luxurious tastes of commanders wastes time
without accomplishing anything and eats away at necessary expenses.



PG 107:681

3-70 Onas. 1.1-14.



oeuntpa A

4 VT]<jlCtALOV M VT]<jlUAEOV ABE I Kal amtprrrov M om. ABE

5 <pEptltovov M UTIOj.Htvov-ra ABE ITiepl ... KUj.!CtTOU<; M Tou<; TI6vou<; ABE

6 TIEpl. .. <p~j.!T]V

M om. ABE

8 Ej.lTIOpda<; M 1lpUYf.laTELa<; ABE I <jllAOUVTa M ayamiJVTU ABE I Gj.llKpwv M

f.lLKpwv ABE

9 T~ \jlux~ M T~v \jlux~v ABE I Tw crwj.laTL M To ABE


14 Mvaj.!LV MA OUVCtj.l<E>t<; BE I KaT' ... TIOLELV M trsp. ABE

VT]cpaAtov ABE

19 Kal amtptnov Mom. ABE


TIEpl MA om.

16 VT]<jlCtAtov M

For this chapter cf. Onasander, 1.1-14.



Qualities Required in the General

6. cDrpbtovov 0 tVa f.l~ np<ino<; TlDV 0TpaTUOf1EVWV Ta<; avaJtaUOfL<; m(tFft, O.A.\a yivnm mho1<; f.!i'L\.f.ov riKwv npo<; To yrvva[w<; imo<pprtv -rou<;
7. No~f.lova 8 Kal <pp6vtf.!OV 6~uv yap dvm 8r1 -rov mpmf]y6v, nav-raxou
nrpw-rpE<jlOVTCt TOY OKOJtOV 8La -raxu-r~Tet \jiDX~<;. JtOAAC1Kl<; yap QVUJtOVOT]TOL
Tapaxalnpoanwouam naprveu TO GUf.l<jlEpov mvo1v avayK6.(oumv.
8. 1\<ptAo.pyupov 8. Kal yap ~ U<jlLAapyup[a TOU a-rpaTT]yOu 8oKLf16.(nm, o-r'
UV 6.8wpo8oK~TW<; Kat f.leyaAO<jlpOVW<; npo"fOTaTCtl TWV npaYf.lCtTWV Kat 8t' ap30 T~V f.!OVT]V 8wprav npo~CtAAT]TaL Ta<; apxa<; TOU im' a{nov 0Ef1aTO<;. JtOAAOL yap,
KQV av8p1o[ rim Tft \jiDXft Kal PWf.laAEOl T0 OWf.laTl KaTa TWV xOpwv, O.A.\' o-r'
av avn~AE\jiW0l npo<; xpua6v, Uf.laupouvTm Kal OKOTt(OVTCtl. 8rtvov yap OJtAOV
KaTa a-rpaTT]yOu <~> <jlLAapyup[a Kat 8paa-r~pLOv rl<; TO VLK~Om TOUTOV Kat

6. Let him endure toil and not be the first among the soldiers to seek rest.
Hnther, let him be a model to them in nobly bearing up under hard labor.
7 Let him be intelligent and wise. The general must be sharp-witted, fastthinking, with his gaze turned in every direction. Unsuspected disorders fre\jUently arise and force him, on the spur of the moment, to come up with a way
In remedy the situation.

8. Let him be free of avarice. In particular, the commander's freedom from

avarice is tested and proven whenever he presides over affairs in an incorruptible and magnanimous manner and makes appointments to positions of command in his theme freely and on the basis of virtue alone. Many men, even
though courageous in spirit and strong of body in facing the foe, find that, when
they gaze upon gold, their sight is darkened and they become blind. Avarice is a
terrible weapon when used against the general and very effective in defeating
and overthrowing him.


9. Ou-rr 0 vov dvm ouT ypovw, 1m8~ 6 f.!EV vo<; limmov EXL Kal
fUKAOVT]TOV TO <ppOVT] 8ta T~V VfOTT]TCt, 6 8 ypwv aaerv~<; an T0 OWf.laTL,
Kai oU8-repo<; mhwv aa<paA~<;. 6 f.!EV [va f.l~ Ttmaion 8ta -r~v aA6yta-rov -r6A.f1av wanrp Opaau<;, 6 8 ypwv Iva f.l~ 8ta T~V <jlDOLK~V aa0evLav Udnn ri<; Ta
Movta -rwv npaYf16.Twv. KpaTtatT] 8 EKAOY~ -rou f.!Eaou, f.l~T vou ov-ro<; f.l~T
40 yepov-ro<;. Kai yap -ro 8uva-rov Kai pwf.laAeov tv T0 f.lEO<p yryT]paK6n, -ro 8
<pp6vLf.lOV Kai awOfJpov v -r0 f.l~ vra(ovTL. oYnvr<; yap ~ toxuv awf.!ato<;
livw <ppov~arw<; \jiDXLK~<; ~ \jiDX~V <pp6VLf.lOV livw OWf.laTLK~<;
8vVCtflW<;, ouoev EVOT]Oav I nepa<; aya06v. Kai yap ~ UOTep~aaoa 8UVCtf1E.W<;
<pp6Vf]OL<; oMv 8trvo~OT] Kpr1nov ~ Udnouaa <ppov~arw<; Mvaf.!L<; oMv
45 -rrf.dwaev.

3 7 ad 6u1 de novo inc. W

I scr. mg. arrpoaxw W

22 cpeperrovov 6e M urrofltvovra mu.:; n6vou.:; ABE 23 yive-rat M ytvT]mt A yivT]mt BE

25 6E MAB om. E 26 m:ptatpe<poVTa M rrept<pepovta ABE I avunov6TJ<Ot ABE
UVUTIOVOT]tat M 27 avayKa~ouatv M avaKU~OUat ABE 28 toU ABE om. M 31 Kiiv MA
Kal BE 33 ~ ci. Va om. codd. I 6paat~ptov M evepyeatmov ABE 35 exet MAB exetv E
36 euKAOVT]tov M iiamtov ABE 37 oMtnpo.:; Va ouod.:; codd. I n MAE om. B
39 Kpatia<TJ MW KaAA.ia<TJ ABE 40 pwflaA.tov MW taxupov ABE 41 am8TJpov MWBE
crta8epov A I vea~ovn ABE vea~oVTt Kal flVTot MW I yap ABE om. MW 43 m'pa.:; MW
teA.o.:; ABE I ~ MW ~ <pp6Vf]<Jl<; ABE 44 oMev OlVo~e'l MW oMev w<pEAT]GV ABE I
tAA.dnouaa ... OUVUfll<; MW OUVUfll<; atepf]8taa <ppov~aew.:; ABE 45 eteA.eiwaev MWA


9 He should not be a young man or an old man. A young man's mind lacks
confidence and is easily confused because of his youth, whereas the old man's
body is feeble. Neither of them offers security. The young man is impulsive and
may err by reckless daring. The old man is weak physically and may neglect
something that has to be done. The ideal choice is between the two, neither
young nor old. Vigor and strength characterize the man who has not yet grown
old, while wisdom and stability mark the man who is not too young. There are
those who marvel at physical strength that exists without mental discretion or,
on the other hand, who are impressed by a wise mind but one lacking in bodily
strength. In their reasoning these people have not reached a correct conclusion.
A mind deficient in physical strength has never conceived anything worthwhile;
neither has strength deprived of intelligence ever accomplished anything.


Constitution 2

Kat <pLAOlJflVOV 8 napa n:Vv DTITJK6wv Tov aTpaTT]yov u8oKLf1(1JTpov

'laf1V yivw8m Kat yap fly6..\.a TOU~ apxof.!EVOU~ W<pA~aLv. OVTLVa yap
liv8pw7tOL <pLAOUaL, TOtmp mTCtTTOVTL f.!EV TaXU ni8ovTaL, .\.yovn 8 Kat
auvn8f1EV<.p OUK amaTOUaL, KLV8UVUOVTL 8 auvaywv[(ovTaL. TOLOUTOV yap ~

ay6.JtTj, TO n8vm T~V '!JUX~V unp TOU <pLAOUflEVOU.

11. Timpa 8 nai8wv npoKptVOf1V f.!&.AA.ov ~ linm8a, oM Tov livw nai8wv
napatTOUflVOL av aya86~ an Kat yap 6 na18a~ exwv aTpaTTJYO~, i f.!Ev VT]JtLou~, 8pflOTpO~ yivTUL 7tpt T~V anou8~v T<DV v ~[<.p npaYf.!CtTWV UJtEp T~~ TWV
nai8wv <pLAta~ Kat U7tpayia~ aywvL(Of1VO~. d 8 TEALOL fiat T~V ~ALKiav,
55 aufl~ou.\.OL Kat auaTp6.TTJYOL Kat mmot DTITJPETat yv6f1VOL auyKaTop8oum T<.}J
JtaTpt Ta flTaXLpt(6f1Va unp KOLV~~ aWTT]pia~ np6.YflaTa 8t' wv fl&.AAOV 8oK1
Tou linm8o~ 6 nai8a~ xwv nponf16Tpo~ dvm.
12. AyLV 8 Kat 8T]flTJYOp1v iKav6v ~yol>f.!at yap Ta flytaTa w<p.\.dv 8tu
TouTo To aTp6.TUfla, 6.v T yap napm6.aanm npo~ f.!CtXTJV mpaTT]y6~, 8ta T~<;
60 TOU .\.6you napaKAUaw~, TWV f.!EV yap 8LVWV JtOAACtKL<; Kat auTOU eav6.TOU
notd KaTa<ppovdv, Twv 8 Ka.\.wv Kat ~8wv m8uf11v. oux ouTw<; yap v11xouaa
a6..\.my~ aKoa1<; ~yipn '!Juxac; fie; KtVT]aLV f.!CtXTJ<; w<; A6yo<; flTa <ppov~aw<;
AYOflVO~ npoTpnnm i<; apn~v Kat vaywv[ou<; Jt0ll TOU<; CtKOUOVTa<; Kal
~avtaT(t npo~ Ta 8tva T~v 8t6.vOLav. uv 8 TL aufl~ii ma1afla npt To mpaT665 n8ov, ~ Tou .\.6you napT]yopia Ta<; '!Juxac; avappwvvun. Kat no.\.u 8~ XPTJGLf.lWTp6<; tan mpmT]you A6yo<; 8uvaTo<; waT napaflue~aaaem mpaTon8ou
auf1<pop6.c;, fli'i.\.Aov Twv mf1AOuf1vwv Ta TpauflaTa impwv. oi f.!EV yap eKFivouc; flOVOU<; TOU<; TpaUflaTLa<; 8pa7tUOUGL Tal<; iaTptaL~ Kat 8ta xp6vou Taxa
n.\.dovoc;, 6 8 napweu Kal Tou<; novouvTa<; Kat TOu~ KCtflVOVTa~ u8uf1oTpou<;
70 JtOLfl, Kat TOU<; eppWflEVOU<; CtVLaT(t npo<; av8piav Kal fU'!Juxiav.


59 cum crtpatTJ des. W (fol. desideratur)


Qualities Required in the General

l.o. We know that a general who is loved by his subjects will be more highly
N~t~l'<:tea and be very helpful to the men under his command. When men love
itli'U~one, they are quick to obey his commands, they do not distrust his words
promises and, when he is in danger, they will fight along with him. For love
Uk~ this: to lay down one's life on behalf of the person one loves. 2
u. We prefer a man who is a father of children rather than a childless one,
~t.hough I would not turn away a childless one if he is a good man. The general
has children, if they are infants, becomes more enthused and serious about
concerns as he struggles out of love for his children and their welfare. If
""'". "'''"" are adults, on the other hand, they become advisors and colleagues in
~-~~~ {l!~;>tn.m~mct and faithful servants; they help in bringing to a successful conclusion
tasks on behalf of our common salvation entrusted to their father. For these
t:tasons, it seems better that a man who has children is to be preferred to him
who has none.
12. He should be capable of speaking and exhorting in public. I think that
.this ability is of the greatest benefit to the army. If the general, when he is
drawing up his troops for battle, should encourage them by his words, he will
t"iten induce them to despise the terrors, even death itself. At the same time, he
n1akes them eager to obtain the good and pleasant rewards. A trumpet blast
<!choing in one's ears does not stir the soul to move into battle as effectively as a
11peech, delivered in high spirits, urges one to valor, instills a martial spirit in its
hearers, and arouses them to face terrible dangers. Moreover, if some calamity
should befall the army, an encouraging speech will give new strength to the
men's spirits. A skillful address by the general is far more useful in providing
consolation for a defeated army than the care of the doctors for the wounded.
For the physicians provide medical treatment only for the wounded, and it
might take a long time, whereas the speech immediately raises the morale of the
weary and disabled and arouses bravery and courage in the healthy.

Ioan. 15:13.

46 <plAO\JflEVOV MW ayam.Df.!EVOV ABE 47 L<Jf.!EV MW OLOUf.!eV ABE I Kal. .. W<pA~<JlV

MW om. ABE 48 <ptA.oiicrt MBE <ptA.oiicrtv W A 49 cruvtt6f.!EVW MW imtcrxvouf.!EVW ABE
51 ~ iinmoa MW om. ABE I iiveu naiowv MW fl~ exovta naToa~ ABE 52 aya66~ E<Jtl M
aya66~ E<JTlV w trsp. ABE 53 tv MWAB EV tW E 55 YVOflVOl MW YlVOf.!EVOl ABE
57 iinmoo~ MW naToa<; fl~ exov-ro<; ABE 59 napatacrcretat MW napatacrcrfJtal ABE
6o yap MBE om. A I autoii M autoii TOU ABE 61 ~OEWV Va ~6wv M yA.uKEWV ABE
62 UKOUL<; ... f.!UXTJ<; M taT<; UKOUL<; eydpel '!JUXU~ ei~ f.!UXTJV ABE 64 tl MA om. BE 65 0~
M om. ABE 67 tpauf.!ata MA npayf.!ata BE 68 tpauflatia<; M tpauflattcr6vta<; ABE
70 ppwf.1vou<; Va ppouflvou<; M icrxupou<; ABE



John 15:13.



Qualities Required in the General

13. "Evoo~ov 8, Ert10~ CtT]Ot(ETat Kat aaxa!..Aet

nA.~eoc; {moTaTT<)flEVOV. oMdc; yap


tv TOLe;

a86~otc; TO

tett..wv UJtoflEV1 TOY xdpova KUptOV au-rou

ava8Exwem Kat ~YEflOVa. OOKEL OE flOL on niiaa avayKT] TOY TOLOUTOV euptaK6flEVOV I a-rpmT]y6v, wa-r EXELV apnac; -roaau-rac; oaac; e'ipf]Ka a-rpaTT]you Kat
v8o~ov dvat. ~ yap -roaaUTT] apET~ ctaT]flOV avepwnov OLaflEVELV tmnoA.u ou

14. <t><iflEV Oi:: Kat fl~T n!..oumov, tav fl~ xn -rae; TOU a-rpmT]you apnac;,
npoxetpl(w9m a-rpmT]yov Ota Ta XP~flaTa, fl~T TOY TrEVT]Ta, tav aya96c; tan,
napam1a9at Ota T~V nev(av Kat EVOELaV. ou fl~V oi:: TOY TrAOU(JLOV anoOOKlflUSo (OflEV on TrAOU(JLO<;, a!..A' tav -rae; np <JTpaTTJYc.iJ npenouaac; fl~ KEKTT]Tat apnac;
oMi:: TOY TrEVT]Ta aipOUfleea on TrEVf]<;, aA.A' OTt a-rpaTT]YLK~V T Kat yevva(av
EX1 \j!UX~V. OUOETepov yap Ota T~V TUXTJV anoOOKlflU(OflEV, aA.Aa flCtAAOV Ota TOY
-rp6nov Ctfl<pOTEpouc; npo~aAOUfl9a. oMi:: nA.oumoc; aya9oc; wv -roaounp
8tacpepet mu yevvalou nEVT]Toc; oaov ai tnapyupot Kat Kmaxpuaot navonA.Iat
85 TWV Ka-raxaAKWV Kat atOT]pWv a[ fli::V yap -rc.p Aaflnpc.iJ KOafl<p TrAEOVEKTOU(JLV, a[
oi:: tv au-rc.p -rc.p opaaTT]pl<p Otaywv((ovTat. TrEVT]Ta 8E <pf]fll yevva1ov tav fl~
XPllflana-r~c; tan Kat owpoA~TrTT]<; TOY yap XPTJflaTL<JT~V ouo' av nA.oumuna-roc;
WV TUXn aUfl<pEpet TrOTi:: npoxLpt(w9at <JTpaTT]y6v. a!..Aa flf]Oi:: fllKpoA6yov nva
Kai 6~oA.oA6yov nepl -ra KEpOT] ~ EflTropov ~ napanA.~m6v n -rmou-rov rrpa-r-


13. We call for a man of good reputation. 3 An army becomes disgusted and
when placed under the command of a man who is not respected. Nobody
willing to submit to or accept a master or a leader who is a worse man than
Ulll::~>'t:u. It is absolutely necessary, in my opinion, that the general be recognized
Ill such a man and that he should possess all those character traits of a general
)hat I have listed, and be of good repute. Truly great virtue does not permit a
ft'lan to remain unnoticed for long.
14. We say that a wealthy man must not be appointed general because of his
fiches unless he possesses the virtuous qualities of a general. Neither should a
poor man, if he is a good man, be excluded because of his poverty and need.
Indeed, we do not reject a rich man because he is rich, but only if he lacks the
good qualities befitting a general. Neither do we select a poor man because he is
poor, but because he has the noble soul expected of a general. We do not reject
either one because of his fortune in life, but we promote both because of their
manner of life. A wealthy general who is good differs from a poor but noble one
only to the degree that armor inlaid with gold and silver differs from that of
bronze and iron. The former has the advantage of brilliant ornamentation, the
latter proves superior in action. We consider a poor man to be noble if he is not
a dealer in money and greedy for gain. It is better never to promote a financier
to the rank of general, even though he be the richest man around. Neither
should he be a miserly man or one making a profit with petty cash or a

So ab Tat apna<; de novo inc. W

71-113 Onas. 1.17-25.

I Uf)Ol(ETUL ... EV M ayavaKTEl ABE' 71-72 TOt<; ... nA.ijSo<; M

ULJTOU ABE 74 etpf)KU GTpUTf)YOU M eip~KUflEV AVa 75 iiGf)flOY M acpaYij KUL iiyYWGTOY
BE 81 OTL 1 MW EGTL ABE 82 OUOETEpOY MW OUOfYU ABE I UT000KlflU(OflEY MW ABE scr. mg. UOOKLflOY Kai ano~Af)TOY A.oyt(6fleea W 82-83 TOY Tp6noY
MW T~Y ABE 83 npo~aA.ou11eea Va npocrKUAOUflESa MWA npoKaAOUflESa BE I
o\JO M 6 oe WABE 1 TOcrouTw MW TocrouToY ABE ss GLOflpWY ABE GLOflpEwY MW I aP
MW AE om. B 1 ad TIAWYEKTOUGLY scr. mg. um:pxouGLY W 86 ad opacrTf)piw scr. mg. TW


OUYUflEYW EYEpy<EIY> w I Cj>f)fll MW A.tyw ABE 87-88 XPflflUTLGT~<; ... TUXTl MW EGTLY
87 ad XPflflUTLGT~<; scr. mg. XPflflUTWY ETL<flEAOUflEYO<;> W I ad XPflflUTLGT~Y scr. mg.
oiKelOU A.aou KUL nepi Ta KEpOf) crnouoa(OYTU UYUYKI] yap TOY TOLOUTOY fllKpOq>WYOY (TOU<;
TOLOUTOU<; fllKpOq>WYU<; B TOY TOlOUTOY fllKpOCj>WYU E) elYm KUL nepl TO KEpOo<; crnouoa(ovm
Kal nepl T~Y cruAA.oy~y TWY XPI]flUTWY O.yaSoY ETLT!]Oeuecrem ABE 88 ad flLKpoA6yoy scr.
mg. aliquid nunc evanidum W 89 TOLOUTOY M TOY auTOY W


3 Cf. Onasander 1.17-25.


Qualities Required in the General

Constitution 2

TovTa. avayKfl yap Tou<; TOLouTou<; fHKp6cppova<; dvm Kal m:pl To Kpoo<;
btLOflflEVou<; Kal flflplf.1VflflEVou<; 1Tpl T~v ouHoy~v Twv XPll!l<'mvv Kal flflOEV
xovm<; Twv KaAwv 7TLTf10Wf.1Cilwv.
lS.'Eav o npoy6vwv ECJTL AUf.11tpwv KUL1Tpt06~wv cm6yovo<; ayamiv flEV od
TOUTO, ou !l~V 0 TI<lVTW<; E1Tl~flTLV T~V TOlQUTflV uyvtav anouoav oM oui
wonp yap Ta ~4Ja ano Twv iolwv npa~wv Kal ~ewv ~na~o!lv uyv~ f) ouoyv~, oihw XP~ CJK01TELV Kal T~V TWV avepwnwv uyvLav, OUK ano TWV npoy6vwv, aU' aTIO TWV io[wv npa~WV Kal Kmop8Wf.1UTWV. Kal TIW<; yap OUK
anpTI<; Kal ana(OEUTOV TOU<; flEV AlTOU<; mpanwm<; Ol<X Ta<; io(a<; aptoTla<; Kal
100 TOU<; aywva<; Tl!lUV, ou TOU<; EK npoy6vwv AUf.11tpou<;, aHa TOU<; QUTOXlpt<;t Tl
AUf.11tpov pyov 1T1TOlflKOTa<;, TOU<; o CJTpUTflYOU<; Ota LOU<; npoy6vou<; mAyaem, KUV iCJLV axpf10TOl, aHa fl~ Ota T~V iolav auTWV apT~V, KCtV fl~ ano TOU
yvou<; AUf.11TpuVmt; npoo6vTwv 11v o~ TOUTq> Kalnpoy6vwv Aa!lnpwv UTUX~<;
6 OTpUTflYO<;, aTIOVTWV o TWV apnwv, KCtV napfi Taum, anpaKTO<;.
16. Taxa o Tl<; EA1TLCJl I Kal Kplnova<; oCJ8at CJTPUTflYOU<; LOU<; OUK xovm<; ano TWV npoy6vwv CJf.1VUVCJ8at. ol flEV yap E1TL yovUCJl oo~a~OflVOL Kal
T~V an' EKlvwv xovT<; i)KAlaV 1TOAAaKl<; pa8Uf.10Tpov Kal aflAECJTpov
OlOlKOUCJlV ol o !lflOEflLUV 06~av npoy6vwv xovT<;, OUTOl T~V EK 1TaTpwv
EAaHWCJlV 8:\ovT<; avaTIAflpWCJat Tfi [O[<;t npo8Uf.1l\t Cj>lAOKlVOUVOTpov E1TL Ta<;
uo npa~t<; KtvouvTm. Kal Ka8anp olnvmpot mnov<.i>Tpov flUAAov Twv U(To9o

96-102 Cf. Arist. Pol., 1.6.1255b.

90 fHKp6cppovm; M fUKp6cpovo~
om. ABE


merchant or man engaged in any business of that kind. Men such as these are
bound to have petty minds; they are excited by the prospect of gain and anxious
ibout collecting money, and they are without any noble habits.
15. If the man is descended from illustrious and highly regarded ancestors,
then this must be in his favor but, if this is lacking, we should certainly not
require such noble birth. Neither should we use this as a criterion to judge a
t'tlan unworthy of being general if he clearly possesses the ability to assume that
l'IOsition. For just as we evaluate the good or bad pedigrees of animals by their
individual performance and disposition, so we must also view the noble lineage
of men, not from the perspective of their forefathers, but from that of their own
performance and accomplishments. 4 Is it not improper, even stupid, on the one
hand to honor simple soldiers for their individual valor in combat who are not
from illustrious families but who have performed a brilliant deed by their own
effort, and, on the other hand, to select a general because of his ancestry, even
though he is incompetent, and not because of his individual virtue, even if he
does not come from an illustrious family? Of course, if a general has a brilliant
lineage in addition to these other qualities, he is fortunate. Still, even if he is of
good birth, without the virtuous qualities he is useless.
16. Perhaps one might expect that those who cannot take pride in their
ancestors would become even better generals, for men who glory in their forefathers and appropriate their good reputation to themselves often prove to be
careless and negligent administrators, whereas those who have no ancestral
renown desire to make up for the obscurity of their lineage by their own enthusiasm and are moved to undertake more dangerous activities. Just as poor men

93 7tEpt06~wv MW evM~wv ABE 6.n6yovo~ MW

93-94 Oel1'0trro MW Kai 1'0U1'0V ABE

94 fl~V ... miv1'W~ MW 1t(lV1'W~ oe ABE

6.nouaav MW eav fl~ np6awnv ABE scr. mg. fl~ ouaav

a~tov W ava~tov Kpivetv ABE I KEK1'T]1'Ul MW A KEXPil'm BE


96 Kal ~ewv MW om. ABE

I 1wv2 BE om. MWA

98 uno MW tK ABE 100 aywva~ MW 1'U 6.vopaya8~flU1'U ABE I ou MW Kai fl~ ABE I
AUfl7tpou~ MW AUflnpwv ABE I auoxetp[a MW om. ABE I scr. mg. Ota 1wv tOLWV XEtpwv W

96-97 ouayev~ ABE ouaxep~ MW

97 oihw MW AB oihw~ E

100-101 n ... epyov MW ipyov n Aaflnpov ABE

101 oe MWA

0 fl~ BE

npoa6V1'wv scr. mg. T]youv exovm~ <Y1'pU1'T]you Kat npoyovou~ AUfl7tp<ou~> W

103 ad

104 ad Kiiv

scr. mg. Kiiv euyev~ unapx11 W I ad iinpaK1'0~ scr. mg. aOoKLflO~ W 105 ad 101>~ scr. mg.
1'0U~ flll OUVUflEVOU~ eyKauxaaem et~ euytvetav w 106 ad yoveum scr. mg. oi eappouvT~
eyKUUXWflEV<Ol> d~ 1'0 yevo~ w 107 ad Ei)KAElUV scr. mg. Oo~av w 108 OlOLKOU<JlV MW
OtaKElVTUl ABE 108-109 1'~V ... eJ..anwmv MW 1'~V 1'WV nmepwv O.Oo~[av ABE
109 t8tJ..oV1'~ 6.va7tAT]p<i>am MW 6.va7tAT]p<i>am ABE

epxovml ABE Kai MW A om. BE lnVE<J1'Ep0l MWA 7tEVT]1'~ BE


110 Ktvounat MW
4. Cf. Aristotle, Politics 1.6.1255b.




Qualities Required in the General

pw-rpwv tnl T~V -roD ~[ou KTJlGlV 6pf1WVTat, TO t\.Aelnov CtVTCtVCtTtAT]pGlaat -rf}c;
n>x c; anouM(ov-rec;, oihwc; oi fl~ tK nmpwv KAT]pOVOfl~aav-rec; M~av 8La -rwv
i8iwv npa~ewv cmouM(oumv oiKeLwaaaem M~av.
17. L'ua mD-ra ouv npoxapL(a9w f.!EV a-rpetTT])'O<:; aya96c;, euyev~c;, n/..oumoc;, fl~ ano80Klf1Ct(eaew 8 T(fVTj<:; fleTCt apnf}c;, d Ketl fl~ ano ACtf11tpWV Ketl tv86~wv npoy6vwv KCtTayn -ro yvoc;.



8. Ke< 8 dnelv, XP~ -rov a-rpet<T]y6v, ei 8uvmov e'LT], Kal -ro aGlfla

eunpmii Ketl PWflCtAeOV Ketl qJLAOTtOVOV Ketl O~UTCtTOV Ketl T~V )'VWflT]V av8pelov
KCtt qJLAOTlflOV Kett (JT(OUOCtLOV Kett qJLAOKtVOUVOV Kett flCtALGTCt TOD 9e[ou Kett nepl
TCt eela npCtYflaTCt tmf1AeGTCtTOV, ~oovwv o TWV flEV -roD GWflCtTO<:; tyKpet-rf},
TWV () -rf}c; )'VWflTj<:; aTtAT]GTOV T Kett aK6pea-rov tnl Ttp tnaivc.p TWV aya9wv
npa~ewv, (JUVLOeLV 0 TO oeov en tv Ttp acpavel, av 0LVOV T Ketl 6~uv, tK TWV
6nA.iam Ketl KOGflTJGCtl ffl1tLpov, AO)'Ol<:; oi:: CtVlaTUV TCt T(1tTWKOTCt cppoV~flaTCt
-roD a-rpmoD Ketl tA.niowv tf111AJlGCtl ayaewv Ketl ETOlj.lOU<:; npoc; KLVOUVOU<:;
napaaKUCt(JCtl 8uva-r6v, Ketl TCt auvn9flEVCt 8 ~ Of10AO)'OUf1VCt qJUACt~Ctl
~~m6-repov, j.l~ 6./..wvm 8 napa TWV tv AO)'Ol<:; ouva-rwv, ole; tKetVOl napAKlV
-roD Ket9~KOVTO<:; teA.oumv. elvm 8l aacpaA.f], XPllflCtTWV Oi:: etc; flEV ~8ovac; -rae;


:j:Cf. Onas. 1.1.


will endure more than rich men in their quest to obtain a living and in their eagerness to supply what fortune has not provided, so men who have not inherited
~ncestral glory strive to achieve glory on their own by their own deeds.
17. For the above reasons, then, that man is to be appointed as general who
is good, well born, and wealthy, although a qualified poor man is not to be
rejected even if he is not descended from illustrious and renowned ancestors.s
18. To sum it up, the general must, inasmuch as possible, be physically impressive, strong and hardworking, very quick in action, courageous, respected,
serious, and ready to face danger. 6 He should especially be most attentive to
divine matters and his relationship to God. When it comes to bodily pleasures,
he should exercise self-control. But in matters of the mind he is insatiable and
never satisfied in his efforts to bring about successful actions. While the situation is still unclear, he realizes what has to be done. Clever and quick witted, he
is always right on target in estimating what is hidden from what is visible. He is
experienced in arming and drawing up an army in battle array. His words are
able to resurrect the morale of the army when it is low, fill it with fine expectations, and prepare it to confront dangers. He should be very strict in observing
agreements or promises, not swayed by clever speakers who want to drag him
away from his duty. He must be steadfast, parsimonious in expenditures on his

:j:Onas. 2.1.

ad i:Jrl scr. mg. em TO KT!]OLV eunoptav W I avmvanA.!]p<ilam MW avanA.!]p<ilam ABE

ouTw<; MWAB ouTw E 11 3 lolwv MWA olKdwv BE 114 ouv ... J.lV MW J.lEV ouv
npoxupt(eaew ABE 115 MW ano~aA.A.taew ABE scr. mg. ano~A!]TO<; Kat
aOOKlJ.lO<; A.oyt(ecr8w w 117 e'l!] MW EOTlV ABE 118 pwJ.laA.tov MW avopeTov ABE
8avopeTov ... qnA6TlJ.lOV MW yevvaTov ABE scr. mg. TOV <ptA.ouvm et alia evanida W
119 TOU 8iou MW eeoae~f] ABE 120 TWV J.lEV MW A om. BE
121 TWV ... Tf]<; ABE Tf]<;
o MW 121 _ 122 iinA.!]at6v ... npa~ewv ABE na[vou aA.!]8ou<; nl npa~ecrtv aya8aT<;


anA.l]aT6v TE Kal aK6pecrTov MW 122 auvtoeTv MW 8tavo~aaa8m ABE scr. mg. rrpovo!]OUl
OUJ.l<pEpov TOU Katpou w I av MW 0 BE om. A I scr. mg. OUVUTOV w I 6~uv wABE o~u M
aoxa(ecr8m mnxammv MW uaoxw<; aoxa(6J.levov ABE la~m 0 MW liJ.lnupov
o TCt~Ul ABE 124 Ejlnetpov MW om. ABE I A.6yot<; ... UVlOTUV MW OUVUTOV o Oul A6ywv
&eydpm ABE la BE om. MWA 125 Toii ABE om. MW I npo<; MW npo<; Tou<; ABE
6 ad 6J.loA.oyouJ.leva scr. mg. T~v Kupw8eTaav ~ouA.~v W
127 6.A.wvm MW napaaupecr8m
ABE scr. mg. ~youv J.l~ U...Taaem napa ouvaJ.lEWV et alia evanida W I napa MW uno ABE I
ol<; MW o1' wv ABE 1 napeA.Ketv MW naptA.Ketv auTov ABE 128 Ka8~KovTo<; MW
npoa~KOVTO<; ABE I 8tA.ouatV MW etA.ouatv aAA.' ABE 128-129 ~oova<; ... EaUTOU MW
Ta<; auToii ~oova<; ABE


5. Cf. Onasander 2.1.

6. Cf. Onasander 1.1.

Qualities Required in the General



auToiJ cpiowA.6v T Ka't




de; of cn)f!nvowv TWV nA.fla[ov Kal f!CtAt<JTa

T~c; imfp TOU KOlVOU oanUVflt; acp8ov6v T Kal ~nAWf!EVOV.


19. TOlOUTOV TOLVUV ovm TOV npoxLpt<6f!EVOV mpaTf1y6v, olov 6 A6yoc;

unypmjiV Tft T <pU<J1 KaL TOle; ~8CJ[ T Kat f11lTf10EUfla<Jl, OEL T~c; upx~c; nlAflflf!EVOV iht KUL XPfl<JTClV dvat, eunpocr~yopov, ihOLf!OV, UTapaxov, fl.~ ODTWc;
mLK~ T Kal npaov wcrT KaTa<ppovLcr8at, f!~T f!~V ouTw I cpo~epov wme
!.U<JEL<J8at, '(va fl~T OlCt f!ElAtxtat; EKAU<Jn TO <JTpm6neoov Kal navm TOV uno


xelpa A.a6v, fl~T OlCt TOV cp6~ov Tfjc; auTOU uyanllc; a.A.Amptwcrn.
20. TO. o' iiA.Aa ocra XP~ TOUTOV E11lTf10EUlV v Tate; ad KaTCt f!Epoc; Ef111l11TOU(Jalc; emKatpOlc; OlOlK~O"E<Jl Kal
napacpuA.anw8at, vuv fJ.fV OlCt TO nA.~8oc;
cruvwTdAaf!EV, v Of T(ij nA.aT1 T~c; nap' ~f!WV f:KTt8f!EVflc; TaKTLK~c; Ka8'



Kama f!Vfl f!OVEUO"Of!EV, O<Jfl OUVUfllc;.

21. TOlOUTOV Of ovm Kal OUTW OtUTflpODf!EVOV TOV napa T~c; ~amA.eiac; ~f!WV
npOXELPl<Of!EVOV mpaTf1y6v, t:A.n[<Of!EV auTOV Kal T~c; TOU E>wu <'moA.aulV
EUf!EVELac; Kal T~c; ~f!ETpac; euvo[ac; Kal T~c; TOU KOlVOU O"WTflp[ac; KUL Tfjc; napa.
11UVTWV EU<pflf!Lac; KUL T~c; KaTCt TOV ~[ov \Jflf!Ep[ac; v XpuJT{i) T{ij f!OV<.p TWV
oA.wv aiwv[<.p Kal O.Otaoox<.p ~amA.el. a.H' ouTw !lfV T~v ToiJ mpaTflyou KaTacrTacrtv (mapT[O"aVTEc;, cpp TOUTOV OLOVEL KaT' ocp8aAf!OUc; T~c; ~f!ETpac; napacrTflO"Ct!iEVOl ~amA.lac;-TCt dKOTU Kat np6acpopa Tft <JTpUTflYlKft T Kat TaKTLKft

mcrT~f!n-otu T~c; e<pE~~c; ~f!WV napaKADO"Wc; napatVEO"Wf!EV.

131-136 Onas. 2.2.

129 cpdowA.ov n: MW cpelOOflEVOV ABE

I OAlyapK~

MW EV 6A.iy0lc; apKOUflEVOV ABE

OUfl7lVOlUV ... 7!A!]OLOV MW TO euepyneTv Touc; im' UUTOV ABE

oaml.V!]<; MW oamlV!]V ABE



132-133 e7letAT]flflEVOV


XPIJOTov MW aya8ov ABE scr. mg. <flevo>v ev Tal<; lOlal<; W

MWBE fl~ o A I fl~V MW om. ABE I oihw MW o{\Twc; ABE

T~v O.fleA.dav


MW om. ABE

w I T~<; apx~c; MW ei<; T~V apx~v ABE scr. mg. ~youv Ta


afleA.eiac; MW ola

pleasures, and satisfied with very little. He must be ungrudging and

~tratghtforward in working together with his neighbor, especially in expenditures for the common good.
19. The man to be appointed as general, therefore, should be such as this
trac~ate has sketched regarding his nature, his character, and his way of life.?
HaVIng assumed command, he must in addition be trustworthy, approachable,
<always> prepared, and unperturbed; he should not be so lenient and gentle as
to be despised or so severe as to be hated. Otherwise, his kindness might loosen
t~e discipline of the army and all the troops under his command, and fear of
h1m might turn the army away from loving him.
2o. All the other things that he must put into practice in his timely management o~ the details :hat always devolve upon him, as well as the things he must
be on h1s guard agamst, on account of their great number, we have here summari_zed. In particular sections of this compilation of ours we will, as best we can,
discuss them in greater detail.
21. We hope that the general promoted by Our Majesty will indeed be such a
man and that he will remain such. We hope that he will enjoy the favor of God
and our own goodwill, that he will share in our common salvation and will be
hi~~y regru:ded by everyone, as well as find happiness in his life. May he find all
thts m Chnst, the only eternal and unchanging emperor of all things. Having
thus brought to an end our discussion of the condition of the general, let us now
advise him and offer the following recommendations-placing him as it were in
front of Our Majesty-in those matters that are applicable and relevant to
strategic and tactical science.

T~<; MW
eic; T~V ABE I

132 imypa1jleV MWA U7!ypa1jle BE






134 Te MW om. ABE

135 OlU flElAlXLa<; Va Ol'

I aTpm67!eoov MW aTpaTeufla Kal etc; KaTacppov!]OlV

-1 6 Kal...A.a6v MW om. ABE 136 T~c; ... a\AoTplwaiJ MW flWeTv

35 3
aUTOV 7!apaaKEUUOI] ABE 137 o' MW o ABE I XP~ MW 7!pOO~KEl ABE lael. .. flEpO<; MW

ayayl] ABE
om. ABE

138 div MW oaa ABE

147 eiKoTa MW 7!pE7!0VTa ABE

137-138 Efl7ll7!TOU0al<; MW 7!apef17ll7!T01J0Ul<; ABE

MW 7!apacpuA.anea8m XP~ ABE 141 oiJTw MW oiJTW<; ABE

144-145 T<i>V oA.wv MW om. ABE 145 oiJTw MW oiJTw<; ABE I flEV M flEV Kal WABE
146 a7!apTiaavTe<; MW TEAElWOUVTE<; ABE scr. mg. TEAElWOa<vTe<;> w I olovd MW wa7!ep



I KaT'

ocp8aAflOU<; MW 7!p0 ocp8aAf1WV ABE

7!p6acpopa MW


apflO~OVTa ABE scr. mg. TU apfla~o<vm> w I TE MW om. ABE

7 Cf. Onasander 2.2.



Qualities Required in the General

wCHpaTf]y, rrpWTf]V (JOl TalHf]V rrapaKEA-

22. Before everything else, 0 general, we propose this to you as our very first

8eoqHAria~ Kat OlKatO<JDVf]~ mf1Ad<J8m Kat oiov 6piiv Olf]VfKW~ rrpo 6<p8aAf1WV Tov E>rov Kat <po~da8m mhov Kat
ayarriiv ~ OAf]~ T~~ Kapoia~ <JOU Kat ~ OAf]~ T~~ \lfUX~~ <JOU Kat f.ld EKelVOV
rwa~, Kat n':t~ a"lnou EKTAdv vToAa~ Kat T~v Krivou ruf1vrwv vTru8rv
rrpo<JAaf.l~avw8m 'lva-ei Kat T0Af.lf]POTpov e'irrw-v Kmp{il mpl<JTQ<JfW~ w~
<plAO~ <plAlp T{il KOlV{il owrroTn 8appwv ITfJ10l80TW~ rrpO<JfDXn Kat T~~ <JWTf]pta~

subject of exhortation and advice: 8 be concerned about the love of God and
r_ighte~usness in such manner that you constantly have God before your eyes.
h~ar him. Love him with all your heart and all your soul and, after him, us!
Keep his commandments and, in turn, you will receive his favor, so that-if I
may speak rather boldly-in difficult situations you may with confidence and
trust pray to our common Lord as a friend to a friend and you may request the
salvation you hope for from him as from a friend. That one is not a liar who
said: The Lord will do the will of those who fear him and he will hear their
prayer and save them. 10

22. ITpo f.lEV TWV ii:\Awv amivTWV,

U<JlV Tf Kat rrapaivrmv ITOlODf18a, wme


Ta~ Arrioa~

xwv TaDTf]V nap' auTou

<ptAiw~ ~arrmTft~. a\lfeu8~~

yap anv 6

firrwv 8Af] Twv <po~ouf1vwv auTov rrot~<Jfl KDpto~ Kat T~~ oe~aew~ auTwv
ei<JaKODfTat Kat <JW<Jfl aUTOD~.
23."Ia8l yap on 8eia~ Uf1Vela~









KaAW~ KaTop8w8~vm ~ourrrptyrva8m, KUV ao8rvd~

EKelVOl VOf.ll(WVTaL, Ola TO J1QVTa EV Tft rrpovoi<;t TOU ewu Kft<J8m Kat auTa Ta
A.aXt<JTa ooKouvm T~V auTou rrp6vmav OlOlKft<J8m.
24. "Oarrrp yap KU~fPV~Tll~ TIAOLOU, KUV navu apt<JTO~ E<JTl, TWV UVEf.lWV

ai<J(W~ f.l~ TIVfOVTWV anpaKTOV EXfl T~V TEXVf]V. av o TODTOU~ npo<JAa~llTal Kal


"t~V "tfXVf]V EXfl <JUf.lTipUHOU<JaV, OlTIAOUV "tOY op6f10V 1-rou TIAOLOU <JUV a<J<paAel<;l TIOlfLTQl oihw Kat aptmo~ mpaTf]YO~, av "t~V Uf1EVflaV "tOU E>rou vou0f]1"Ul Kal -rn -ra~fl Kat Tft aTpa-rf]yi<;t auv aypunvi<;t Kal mf1rAd<;t XP~<JllTm
- 2 Strat., praef.36-69. 152 Deut. 6:5; Matt. 22:37.
149 19
161-162 Matt. 6:25-28; Luc. 12:22-26.

bring any plan to a successful conclusion, however intelligent you may seem to
be; it is not possible to overcome the enemy, however weak they may be
thought. Everything lies in the providence of God, that providence that takes
care of even those things that appear to be the least.u
24. Aboard ship, now, a helmsman, even the best, finds that his skill is
useless when the winds are not blowing favorably, but when he has them with
him and also puts his skill to use, he has no difficulty in doubling the ship's run.
So it is with the best general. He will be dad with the favor of God and, ever
alert and diligent, he will make good use of his tactical and strategic skills. He

157-158 Ps. 144 (145): 19.

rrpo ... rrowufleea MW rrapaKeA.eu6fleea oilv aot w a-rpanw rrp<,lrr11v -rau-r11v

149 150
rrapaKeA.euO"Lv Kal rrapalveO"Lv ABE 150 Seoq>tA.ela<; MW rrpo -rwv iiA.Awv amiv-rwv
eeoae~ela<; ABE 151 olov ... Seov MW -rov Seov EXELV rrpo oq>SaAflWV ABE
KaP ... ~fli'i<; MW om. ABE 153 tv-reiiSev MW EK -rou-rou ABE 154 ei. .. drrw
152 153
MW om. ABE 155 cplA.w MW cplA.w el Kal-roAfl'1Pov ABE lrrmot66-rw<; MW om. ABE
156 exwv ... t~arram'j<; MW d<; au-rov exwv T~V au-roii ~o~6laV EJtlO"JtUO"ll ABE 157 KUplO<;
MWA om. BE 159 laSt MW ylvwaKE ABE scr. mg. <y>tvwaKE W I on WABE n M I
Sela<; ... EKTO<; MW om. ABE I EO"Tl MABE EO"TlV w 159-160 ~OUA~V MW ~OUA~V xwpl<;
-rfJ<; Sela<; q>tA.avSpwrr[a<; -re Kal XP!10"LOT!1to<; ABE 160 ean MABE eanv W
161 rrpovo[a ... KetaSm MW TOU eeou KetaSm rrpovo[a ABE 161-162 au-ra ... rrp6votav
MW rrap' au-roii OlOlKetO"Sal Kal atJLCt -ra A.axta-ra ABE 162 OtOlKelO"Sat ABE OlOlKElV MW
6 rrA.olou MW om. ABE 164 aia[w<; W ai-r[w<; M KaAw<; ABE scr. mg. EltlT!10EtW<; W
1 3
164-165 Kal. .. EXEl MW EXEl o Kal T~V TBXVI1V ABE 165 O"Uf11tpanouaav MW
auvepyouaav au-rw ABE 166 oihw MW oihw<; oilv ABE I EUflBVElaV ... eeou MW TOU Seoii
q>tA.avSpwrr[av ABE 166-167 voua11Tat MW EXEl Kal -r~v ~o~Setav ABE 167 Kal'
mpa-rlly[a MW TU~ll o KUAW<; TO a-rpaTEUflU Kal ABE I EltlflEAEla MW Eltlf!EAE[a Tfj
a-rpa-r11yla ABE

23. For you must realize that, apart from God's favor, it is not possible to

8. Cf. Strat., Preface 36-69.

9 Deuteronomy 6:5; Matthew 22:37.
10. Psalms 144 (145): 19.
11. Matthew 6:25-28; Luke 12:22-26.



Qualities Required in the General

KUAW<;, KULTOV maTUOflVOV m>T4J a-rpaTOV aa<paAW<; OtOlK~Gl Kai Tft reotKLAn
yvwfl.n TWV x8pwv avna-rpaLUW8at MvaTat. ~ yap TOU

ewu rep6vota Ta


repo<; TO GUfl<pEpov, Ta o repo<; aya8ov repa<; areoTAEGl. TOlOUTO<;

TOLVUV, UG~~<; fl.EV repi T~V re(a-rtv, OLKULO<; o repi Ta<; repa~l<; 1mapxwv,

warep 8flAl4J aya84J Kai aaaAtl1'4J reotKOOOfJ.t Kai Ta aAAa aya8a.

Will safely manage the army entrusted to him and will be able to counter the
Vltrious machinations of the enemy. The providence of God will teach him those
things that are beneficial and will bring them to a successful conclusion. He
!ihould be the kind of man who is orthodox in his faith and just in his deeds. As
t1t1 a .firm and unshakable foundation he will build the other good qualities. 12

25. Tipao<; YVOU Kai aTapaxo<; TOt<; EVTuyxavoum TO yap ayptov TOU ~Sou<;
fl.WTJTOv Kat <pUKT6v. ALTO<; T Kat cmAoi.i<; replT~v oimTav Kai TO evoufla ~ yap
175 reoAUTEAta Kai reOLKlALa TWV ~pWfJ.CtTWV Kat EVOUfJ.CtTWV Ta<; avayKa(a<; oareava<;

i<; fl.CtTatOV e~avTA1. aypurevw<; o Kai E1HflAW<; TOt<; avayKatot<; repawamv

m~aUwv, Kai fl.~ pa8uf!w<; Kat aflAw<; ~ yap mfJ.EAta Kat ~ mfl.OV~ KaiTa

reavu OUGXP~ TWV repUYfl.UTWV pqoiw<; Kmop8ot Kai 6 KaTa<ppovwv repUYfJ.UTO<;

KaTU<ppOVTJ8~aTat tJTC'



26. 'Erei OE TOt<; fl.EYUAOl<; Kat avayKatot<; TWV repaYfl.CtTWV flfJOEV xwpi<; ~ouAi)<;
Otarepanou. d Taxa 0 Kai ~pa0w<; ~OUAucrn, aUa TO ~OUAU8v auvTOfJ.W<;
Kai acr<paAW<;, w<; OuvaTOV, ETClTEAl, &arep rei TWV VOGTJfl.CtTWV o[ iaTpoL
27. AHa Kai TOt<; apxofl.EVOl<; '(aw<; repocr<ppou, fl.TJOEV KaLa repoawreOATJ'VLUV
pya~OflVO<;, ana reamv '(aw<; KaLa T~V TOU OlKa(ou <puatv ure~PX0flVO<;.


28. MTJOE xauvw<; Kai pa8Uf!W<; 0tUKlGO rei TOt<; area KUKLa<; ~ aflAia<;
CtfJ.UpTaVOUfl.EVOl<; Ola TO OOKELV dvat KaMv. ouo yap KaA6v EGTl TO auvpydv
KUKL<;t Kai pa8Uf!L<;t, fl.CtAlGTa rei TWV Katp[wv Kai avayKa[wv repayf!UTWV. fl.TJOE
reaAlV 6t' EV0l~lV aUaTTJpia<; reporeTw<; Kai aOtaKptTW<; Ta<; re~AUGl<; reotoi.i.
EKtVO fl.EV yap rept<pp6VfJaLV Kai arei8tav <ppn, TOUTO o fllGO<; d)Aoyov Kai
172 Cf. Matt. 7:24.

178-179 Prov. 13:13.

169 yvli>fl!] ... tx6pwv MW trsp. ABE I MvaTat MW &uv~anat

AE &uv~O!]Tal B 170 nepac; MW TEAoc; ABE 172 ETIOlKOOOf!EL .. ayaea MW Kat TU iiAA.a
ayaea ETIOlKOOOflel ABE 173 EVTuyxavouat MABE eVTuyxavouatv w 174 fllOI]TOV ...
<pEUKTOV MW Kai fllOEiTat Kat anoaTpe<pETal ABE I OlatTUV ... EVOUf!U MW Tpo<p~V Kat T~V
v&umv ABE I ad OlatTav scr. mg. Tpo<p~v W I ad v&uf1a scr. mg. TI]V ev&uatv W 175 ad
noA.uTeAeta scr. mg. <bv Tate; Tpu<paLc; Kat <Tat>c; ev&Uaem noA.ue<iO>ov W I Kat ev&uf!aTwv
ABE om. MW 176 t~aVTAet Va t~avTAa MW KaTavaA.1aKet ABE 177 m~aAA.wv MW
yxetpwv ABE 178 ad &uaxepfi scr. mg. <O>uaKoA.a WI pa&1wc; MW euK6A.wc; ABE quod
etiam scr. mg. w 180 tni ... fll]OEV MW fl!]OEv 0 TWV f1YUAWV Kat avayKalWV TIPUYflUTWV
ABE 181 ~ouA.eueev MWA ~ouA.eu6v Kai M~av eivat OUfl<pepov BE I auvTOf!WC: MWA
OUVTOflWC: E1tlTAel BE 182 &anep ... iaTpo1 MW om. ABE 183 apxof!EVotc; MW
imoxetp(otc; ABE 1 tawc; MW tawc; niicn A niicnv tn1a!]c; BE 184 Tou MW A om. BE
185 TOLe; MW TOLe; Ctf!apT~flUOt mic; ABE 186 KaMv 1 MW KaA.oc; ABE 187 KUKla ...
pa6uf11a MW Tij pa6uf11a Kat Tij KUKla ABE I Katp1wv W Katpwv M fleyaA.wv ABE 188 ad
tne~eA.euaetc; scr. mg. Tac; Tlf!Wptac; W 189-190 KaP ... KpeiTTov MW om. ABE
168 KaA.wc; MW om. ABE


25. You should be gentle and untroubled to those you encounter, for a savage

temperament is hateful and to be avoided. You should be plain and simple in

matters of food and clothing. Extravagance and ostentation in food and raiment
llt}Uander the funds for necessary items to no purpose. The general should be
tireless and painstaking in attending to necessary matters, not slack or careless;
care and persistence will easily carry him through the most difficult situations.
If he shows no concern for a problem, that problem will show no concern for
him. 13
26. You should take no action regarding serious, unavoidable problems without deliberation. You may perhaps be slow in coming to a decision, but once you
have made your decision, carry it out quickly and safely, as far as possible, just as
physicians do in treating illness.


~ou should appear even tempered to those under your command, doing
nothmg m respect of persons, but going out to meet everyone on an equal basis,
as expected of a just man.
28. You should not be lackadaisical and too easygoing in dealing with those

who have committed offenses out of wickedness or carelessness in order to give

the impression of being a good commander, for it is not good to cooperate with
wicked and careless men, especially in emergencies and perilous situations. On
the other hand, you should not punish hastily and without due investigation in
order to show how strict you are. The first leads to contempt and disobedience,


Cf. Matthew 7:24.

13. Proverbs 13:13.

34 Constitution

Qualities Required in the General

the second to well-deserved hatred with its consequences. The better course is

TOU~ ~ auTOU Kaprrou~. Kpt:1HOV yap 6 jlt:Ta OlKatOCYUVT]~ <p6~o~ Kat ~ jleTa T~V
yuj.tvwmv T~~ ah[a~ d.\A.oyo~ ne~D.. eum~, ~Tt~ ou aAA.a aw<

t11 Join fear with justice; after proof of guilt, impose a fitting punishment. Rea-

TOl~ t:u<ppOVOUCYl f..oy[(nat.

29. Tipo miVTWV oi:: ntnOAEj.tOU~


6nA.t(6j.tVO~ anoaK6net OtKa[av elvm T~V

apx~v TOU TOlOUTOU noAEj.tOU Kat j.t~ X1pa~ aO[KOU~ n[~aA noT KaTa noAt:j.tlwv d !l~ np6Tepov EKlVOl Ota T~~ auv~eou~ auTWV aae~da~ KmpaTUlV
anap~Ctj.tV0l T~V ~j.tnpav KataOpCtj.tWCYLV. I
30. 'Hj.tWV yap ad T~V eip~VfjV Kat npo~ TOU~ unfjKOOU~ Kat npo~ TOU~
~ap~apou~ Ota XptaTOV TOY Kae' OAOU ~amAta Kat eeov aana(Oj.tEVWV, Uiv Kat
Ta 8vfj TOUTO <ptAOUCYl T01~ [O[Ol~ yxaALVOUj.tVa opot~ Kat j.tfjOEV aOtKelV




auTO~ au Kat' auTWV Ta~ xLpa~ CYUCYTlAOV Kat alj.taCYl T~V

y~v j.t~T' Ej.t<pUALOl~ j.t~T ~ap~aptKOl~ KaTUXpatv. Ct yap yKaAECYl~ T01~ x8po1~
~youv !l~ anapxwem xnpwv aO[KWV oMi::v uno aoii UOlKOUj.tEVOU~, TaiiTa apa
Kat aU-ro[, j.tfjOi::v vavT(ov opwvT~ KaTa TWV unfjKOWV T~~ ~j.tWV ~amA.da~, aAA.'
ipfjVUOVT~ yKaAaoua( CYOl. 01 yap ~jlii~ ad TOU~, d OuvaTOV TO ~ ~jlWV, naVTWV av8pwnwv dpfjVt:UOVTa~, TOt~ eipfjVUlV ~OUAOj.tEVOl~ 8veat Kat
j.tfjOEV aOtKelV TOD~ unoxetp(ou~ ~j.tWV, W~ T~V dp~VT]V aet TWV UAAWV npOTlj.tWV- Kat

TU~ cmaVTWV, auvetpT]VUlV EKlVOl~ KalnoAEj.tWV antxwem.

31. Ei o ye il~ aw<ppov1 TO avT(naA.ov, aAA.' aU-rol T~~ UOlKta~ anap~OVTat

T~V ~j.teTEpav KaTaTpxovT~ y~v,


TOT apa

OtKa(w~ ah(a~ npoKetj.ttVT]~ w~ Kal

eapaaAtw~ Kat CYUV npoeu-

UOtKOU nOAEj.tOU napa TWV vavT[wv anapxoj.tEVOU,

190-192 Strat., praef.6s-68

1 o yap 6 M ouv 6 W 6 yap ABE 190-191 -r~v yu11vwmv MW cpavepwmv ABE

191 brE~EAEUCH<; ABE imE~EAEUOl<; MW 192 eucppovoiim MW KOAW<; cppovoiim ABE

t!Otlable men regard this not as chastisement but as correction.t4

29. Above all, when mobilizing for war, make sure that the cause of this war
just and never take up arms against the enemy unjustly unless they, because of
their accustomed impiety, have first initiated hostilities and are invading our
30. We must always embrace peace for our own subjects, as well as for the
barbarians, because of Christ, the emperor and God of all. If the nations also
thare these sentiments and stay within their own boundaries and promise that
they will not take unjust action against us, then you too refrain from taking up
arms against them. Do not stain the ground with the blood of your own people
or that of the barbarians. For while you are making accusations against the enemy, saying that they who have not been injured by you should not begin to take
up arms unjustly, they may bring the same charges against you, claiming that
they have not engaged in any hostile act against the subjects of Our Majesty but
have been living in peace with them. We must always, if it is possible on our
part, be at peace with all men, especially with those nations who desire to live in
peace and who do nothing unjust to our subjects. We must always prefer peace
above all else and we should be at peace with those nations and refrain from
31. But if our adversary should act unwisely, initiate unjust hostilities, and
invade our territory, then you do indeed have a just cause, inasmuch as an
unjust war has been begun by the enemy. With confidence and enthusiasm take

arro~AEJtE A arre~A.erre BE 194 err[~aA. MW err[~aAAE ABE

~!lETEpav MW ~!1Hepav xwpav ABE I Ka-raopa!lWOlV MABE Ka-raopa!loiiv-raL w

193 curocrK6rrEL MW



Eip~VI]V acrrra~0!1EVWV


198 Ka8' OAOU MW TWV oA.wv ABE

acrrra~O!lEVWV MW om. ABE 199 TOUTO <pLAOUOl M TOUTO ayarriilm




~-rE ABE


opOL<; MW opoL<; E!1!1EVOVTa ABE scr. mg.

1 KataxpmvE

eyKaAE<JEl<; cru ABE


MW Ka-ra116A.uvE ABE scr. mg.

~youv ... UOLKWV MW

om. ABE


w TOUTI]V ayarrwm
wp<aiov> w 201 f.L~t'

f.L6A.uvE W I eyKaAtcrEL<; MW

I ad

arrapxecr8m scr. mg.


w I ouof:v ... UOLKOU!lEVOU<:; MW UOLKOU<Jl !l!]OEV aOLKO!lEVOL<:; urro

<JOU ABE I iipa MW om. ABE 203 opiiJVTE<:; MW JtOLOUVTE<; ABE idem scr. mg. w I ad
Ult!]KOWV scr. mg. uno TWV urr6 XEipa w I ~!1WV ~amA.da<:; MW trsp. ABE I aU' MW om. ABE
204 eyKaAe<JOU<JL MABE eyKaAe<JOUOlV w I Ei ... ~!1WV MW om. ABE 205 8vEcrt MBE

rrpw-ro<; rrp6<; JtOAE!lOV 6p!lii

8vEcrtV W A

208 ye ... av-rirraA.ov MW ol evav-r[OL 11~ awcppovoiimv ABE scr. mg. l]youv OL

rroAE!lLOL W

209 Ka-ra-rpexov-rE<:; yijv MW yijv Ka-ra~A.amov-rE<:; ABE scr. mg. KoupaeuovtE<:;

W 1 iipa cSLKaiw.:; MW euA.oyou Kal 0LKaia.:; ABE I Kal MW om. ABE scr. mg. v8apawc; W

14. Strat., Preface 65-68.



Qualities Required in the General

!ll\l TOU KaT' alJTWV yxlpl TtOAe!lOU, U.H:; EKeLVWV TCt<; ah[a<; n:apa<JXO!lEYWV KaL

~!liV apa!lvwv Kal 8appl TOT w<; Kal TOY

E~l<; ~Of]8ov, Kal 1"0U<; un:i::p CtOA<pWV avaOXO!lYO<;

<':t<SLKOU<; xeipa<; KaTCt TWV UTtOTAWV


OtKatO<JUVT]<; E>eov

aywva<; n:avaTpan(/.





OlCt TOUTO ouv n:poTpTtO!l8a

T~V (J~V

OlCt n:avTWV QT(O(JKOTtdV OtKa[a<; Ttoti<J8at TCt<; apxa<; TOU TtOAe!lOU,

Kal TOT TCt<; xdpa<; (m:\[(lV KaTCt TWV CtOlKOUVTWV.

32. 6.t<':t n:avTWV oi:: Kal v iin:a0l Kpdnova (JWU1"0V TWV un:oxLp[wv avaod-

~at otaywv[(ou

Kal KaT'


d<; T


i<; 00V Ttl<JTlV Kal

Kal TCt<; AOtn:Ct<; apna<;. TOi<; yap TWV apxovTWV


8w8at TO apxo!lVOV,


T~V U<JE~laV

<plAi n:w<; (JUVOla1"[-

w<; av KaTCt T~V n:apOl!llaV !l~ EAa<pOl AOV1"WV apxou0lV

ana A.ov1"<; tM<pwv.

33 Kal TaUTa !lEY (JOl,

wmpaTT]y, w<;

v (JUVO\jll

T~<; ~a0lAlK~<; ~!lWY

owTa~ew<; n:apayy:\1-la-ra, iin:ep TO T~<; auvTo!l[a<; XPLWO<; n:l n:Atov TEW<; ouK
e(/. n:apKTlvw8at.


o (JOl Tai<; 1" n:ap'


EK1"8l!lEYat<; lo[q. yvW!lal<;

ev npo T4J <JUVTUY!lan Kal n:poan -rai<; Ka1"Ct n::\am<; <JUVlAY!lEYat<; ~!liY EV 1"ft

n:apaAA~A<.p TWV TaKTlKWV !l0YO~t~A4J T~V i::K18V 1"WV (T]TOU!lEYWV TtAiova Kat

apKOU<Jav n:oplaaa8at W<pEAtav. I

34 ToMwv ouv EXO!lYO<; au~lV Kal n:poan8vat mi<; aya8oi<; epym<;



n:po8u!l~8T]n, 'iva n:oA.Aan::\a0la(wv Tfl an:ouoalq. yvw!ln TCt KeA.euo!lva, n:pw-ra

!li::v E>eov e~n<; en:atVETT]V TWV n:pa~WV, n:ma oi:: Kal1"0 ~!lETpov Kpa1"0<;, ypa
TWV n:ovwv en:a~ta Ot' Ct!l<flolV KO!ll(O!lYO<;.

up nrms against them. It is they who have provided the cause by unjustly raising
!htir hands against those subject to us. Take courage then. You will have the
{!nd of justice on your side. Taking up the struggle on behalf of your brothers,
you and your whole force will be victorious. For this reason, therefore, we call
upon Your Excellency always to make sure that the causes of war are just. Only
then take up arms against men who act unjustly.
32. At all times and in all circumstances you should work hard to show
yourself superior to those under your command, especially in your faith in God,
your reverent worship, and the other virtues. Subjects somehow tend to be
11tlected by the resolute spirit of their leaders. As the proverb has it: Deer ought
not to rule over lions, but lions over deer.1s
33 And so, 0 general, we present you in summary form with these instructions of our imperial constitution, about which the practical form of a summary
does not, at this time, permit further elaboration. For questions <that may
ttrlse> you can obtain for yourself further and sufficient help both from the
precepts that we have set out individually in the present compilation and from
those that we have collected in greater detail in the corresponding single volume
of the Tactics.I6
34 Holding fast to these precepts, then, be eager to add to your successes, so

that, by your seriousness of purpose and by building upon these ordinances of

ours, you might first have God praising your deeds and then our own authority
1md, from both, you will receive the rewards merited by your labors.

220-221 Plut. Mor., 3.187.3; cf. Theognis Eleg., 1.949; 2.1278c.

211 tyxipe1 MW cmapxou ABE I -rae; ahiac; MWA -rate; ai-rtat<; BE 212 tJ7!0"tAWV ~f!lV
MW imoxe1plWV ~f!WV ABE I eapp1 MW eapcr1 ABE 214 aywvac; MABE aywvoc; w I
navcr-rpa-r 1a MW -ri]v cr-rpanav ABE I -r~v 1 ~1<; MW v1K~<J1<; ABE 218 lc; ABE om.
ad -rotc; scr. mg. <~>youv oloc; 6 apxwv <i>crt1 <p1A.oum Kat ol <ap>xof!EVOl
Ofl0lOU<J8a1 w I <p1Al MW O.el ABE 219-220 (JUV01atl8ecr8at MW cruvbtml8etat ABE
iipxoucr1v MW iipxwmv ABE 222 cro1 MWPE -ro1 A I ~amA.1Kfj<; MW om. ABE
ouK til MW ou cruyxwp1 ABE 224 Kt8If!EVat<; ... yvwf!at<; MW ioia tK-r8lcra1
223 224
yvwf!a1c; ABE 22 5 auv1Aeyf!evatc; MW cruv118po1crflevatc; A cruvTjOpo1crflevatc; BE
nopicracr8at MW cruvayayetv ABE 228 tx6f!evoc; MWA EXOfleva BE 229 tva ABE
we; iiv MW I noA.A.anA.amO.(wv MW tnau~avwv ABE I crnouoa[a MW crnouoaia crou ABE
yepa ... tna~1a MW nf!a<; tna~iac; -rwv novwv ABE scr. mg. af!01~ac; Kat ttf!a<; W
230 231
231 bt' b.fl<potv MW t~ b.fl<po-repwv ABE

15. Cf. Plutarch, Mor. 3.187.3; Theognis, Elegies 1.949; 2.1278c.

16. Undoubtedly refers to the Sylloge tacticorum.





Tiepl-rou rrw<; XP~ pouAeuw8m


About How It Is Necessary to Make Plans

'Em:to~ of: rrpo T((XGTJ<; rrpa~EW<; ~OUA~V ~yeicr0at XPEOV-OLOLKTJGL<; yap

artpo~oUAWto<; OUK Ctcr<paA~<;, KCtV EK TOU rtapaxp~flCt TL<; auxft TtOAACtKL<; KUTOp-

0wcra[ Tl W<; Uf!U Kal ~OUAEDGCtf!EVO<; Kal rtpa~a<;, an' ou VOflO<; TO GTtCtVLOV-,
OL<l TOUTO KUL rtpo TWV a:\Awv rtapaKEAEDOfleea
Kai flCtAta-ra rtOAEf!LK~<; ~ou:\euw0a[


TtCtOTJ<; rtpa~EW<; avayKa[a<;

ae rtp6Tepov f!ET<l -rwv OOKOlJVTWV crot

LKUVWV rtepl TUUTTJV apxovTWV, OLOV TOUpf!apxwv Kal TWV f<jlE~~<;, trtav of: TO
OOKOUV trtl ~E~a[ou Myou OTft, TOTE TO epyov 0!' Ortep t~OUAEUOW, crrtouoft Kal

ETtlflEAeL<(l flETUXELPLOCtf!EVO<; et<; rtpa<; ayayEiv, dye flTJOEV CtTtUVT~OOl tvaVTLOV,

w<; Ta rto:\Aa e'lwee,

rtpoeu 11 ~e 11 Tt. T~<;

KaTopewcret<; TUUTTJV acrcpaAW<; ~OTJ



~ou:\~<; To doo<; -ri T tcr-rtv Kal



2. Bou:\~ ta-rt otacrKE'!'t<; rtepl Toil rtpCi~a( Tt ~ fl~ rtpCi~at. Kal El f!EV 11~ rtpCi~at, 29~
aty~ TO fVTEU0Ev. Ei of: rtpCi~at, TtW<; rtpCi~at ~youv TOY -rp6rtov T~<; rtpa~EW<;, TtOU

rtpCi~at ~youv Tov -r6rtov -r~<; rtpa~ew<;, rt6Te rtpCi~at ~youv -rov Katpov T~<; rtpa-

~ew<;, Tt rtpCi~at ~youv TO rtpuwa -ro rtpaTTOflEVov, T(<; rtpCi~at ~youv TO rtp6crw-

rtov TO flEAAOV ~v ~OUA~V Ei<; rtpa<; rtpa~EW<; ayayeiv, Ota Tl rtpa~at ~youv T~V
aiT[av 0!' ~v ~ rtpCi~t<; o<petAEt yevaem.

Va PG 107:695

Constitutionem tertiam constitutio quarta in codd. antecedit. edd. praevios secutus
transposui et ego. I TIOAEfHKWV napaoKeuwv MA om. WBE I y' Va PG O' codd.. 3 xpe6v W
xpewv M XP~ ABE scr. mg. xp~oq.tov cmarroi:iv W 3-4 OLOiKl)Ot<:; ... anpo~ouft.wro~ MW ~
yap npo~ouft.wro~ (cmpo~ouft.wro~ A) OLOiKT)at~ ABE 4-5 K ... n MW Kauxw-r6 (Kauxa-rai
A) -rt~ auVT6f.!W~ n KatopSwam ABE 6 npa~ew~ avayKaia~ MW trsp. ABE 8 nepl...
apxov-rwv MW tv tal~ ~OUAUl~ elvat ABE I E<pE~fJ~ enav MW AOlTIWV ETIElOUV ABE scr. mg.
~youv o-rav ~ ~OUA~ KupwSfJ w 9 OOKOUV MW KlVOUf.!EVOV ABE I ETil... a-rfj MW ~E~atwSfJ
w~ aUf.!<pEpov ea-r\ ABE I -ro ... ~ouft.euaw MW om. ABE 9-10 anou&fJ ... ETilf.!EAEia MW
f.lE"tU anou&fj~ Kai emf.!EAda~ ABE 10 f.!EtaXEtptaaf.!evo~ MW om. ABE I nepa~ MW -reft.o~
A n\ayo~ BE scr. mg. El~ tEAO~ w I ayaydv MW ayetv auto ABE 10-11 elye ...
rcpoSuf.!~Sl)n (w~ W wa-re M) MW om. ABE scr. mg. w~ noft.A<iKt~ auf.l~a(vet W 13 npa~ai
MW A npa~at nw~ BE I f.l~ 2 MW A om. BE 14 ~youv ... npa~ew~ MW A om. BE
16-17 -ro3 .. f.!EAAov MWA -ro f.!EAAov rcp6awnov BE 17 rcepa~ MW -reft.o~ ABE scr. mg. Et~
-reft.o~ W I npa~ew~ MW om. ABE

Before every action it is necessary to consider a plan. It is not safe to carry

t1Ut anything that has not been planned ahead of time, even if some individual
!1\lght claim to ha~e straightened things out several times on the spot, making
plans and puttmg them into action at the same time.' But what happens
r!lrely is not a law. For these reasons, above all else, we strongly recommend to
you that before every necessary action, especially a military one, you deliberate
!lbout it with those officers whom you consider qualified, such as tourmarchs
~U1d those next in rank. When your opinions result in a firm decision, then
!leriously and carefully take in hand the action that you have been deliberating
about and, if you should encounter no obstacle, which is usually the case, exert
yourself to bring it to fulfillment. But now I shall set before you the nature of
deliberation, what it is and how you can bring it to a successful conclusion.
.2. Deliberation is an investigation about whether to do something or not to
do tt. If the decision is not to do it, there is no further discussion. If to do it,
the~ how to do it or the manner of doing it, where to do it or the place in which
It will be done, when to do it or the time of doing it, what to do or the action to
be taken, who is to do it or the person who is to bring the planned action to its
conclusion, why do it or the reason for which the action ought to be taken.


Cf. infra, Const. 5, n. 7


3 '0

oe ~OUAUOflVO<; Kae' eam:ov ~ avayKTj<; rrpWTOV T~V OlCtVOlUV A.ue-

pav txTw TWV anwv cmavTWV, flCtAlGTU o TWV aVT]KOVTWV d<; TO rrpiiyfla 1tpl

~OUA\JTat, dT exepa<; ~ <plAta<; ~ nvo<; anou rraeou<;.

4 Eha flT]OE f.!OVOV TO d.\KOAOV OOKOUV EKAyou KUL TOUTO rrp6aX, ana

rrp6~A1t '(aw<; TWV rrpayfl6.TWV auTWV flTa T~V

vap~lV urro~anof.!EVWV KUL aA.Awv urro~aA.A6vTWV KUL aA.Ao n GUfl<pOpWTpov

rravTa Ta ouvaTa yvaeat




Constitution 3


orrp rrapA.m<;.
5 El o fl~ lo[w<;


rrapaA.a~LV rrpo<; T~V

OlCtGK\IIlV ~OUATJeElT]<;. (JUUTOV Of.!OlW<; ETOlfla<YOV arrae~. W<; dpT]TUl, W<J1tP d
KUL Kae' eauTOV ~oUAU<JW, TOU<; o <YUfl~OUAOU<; rrapaACtfl~UV Ef11tdpou<; TOU
rrpayflaTo<;, rrpoopanKou<; Kal. aToxamtKou<;, auflrraeci<; Kal. 6~ci<; d<; TO vo~aat
KUL aa<<;, OUT ao[, T{il ~OUAU<YOflEV<p, UT(ElKOVTU<; KUTa xaptv, OUT T{il
aA.Aa KUL Tpou<;

aAA~AOl<;, Atyovm<; o TO <patVOflVOV, aKpa[ou<; T

Ta<; yvWf.!U<; KUL arrpoaKAlVL<; KUL f1TjOfllUV tm~OA~V ~ eauTWV rrapxovm<;,

Kup[<p TOU rrp6.Yf1UTO<; OUT

ana Tfi auTfi wpq. TO <YUfl<pOpWTpov OOKlflCt<YUVTU<;.

6. Eial. yap TlV<; tauTOL<; n tvopwvT<; '(otov <YUfl<pEpov
35 mv

~ tTpot<; ou<; ayarrw-

~ K~oovTat Kal maKorrouvTat T~V Kp[mv wu rrp6.yflaTo<; KalrroA.A.6.Kt<; ouK

EVOLOOVT<; rrapaTpE1tOU<Yl T~V yvWflfJV i<; 0 ~OUAOVTat.

7. 'Errl o TWV arropp~TWV KUL KpU1tLWV rrpayflCtTWV Kal m<YTOU<;
V KUL tyKpaTl<; KUL flU<YTT]p[wv <pUAUKU<; Kal



T~V Tpwv ~oua[av

D.w8epav scr. mg. ~youv \eu8epav txb:w ano x8pa<; ~ <pLAta~ W 20 niiv .
anavrwv MW 1!UVTWV TWV iiAA.wv ABE 21 TLVO~ iiAAOU MW trsp. ABE 22 TO ... OOKOUV
MW TO ooKoiJv euKoAov ABE I TouTo MW TOUTW A TOUTWV BE 23 Yaw~ MWAE om. B I
mhwv MWAE TWV B 24 imo~aAAOflEVWV ... ii\Awv ABE om. MW I ii\Ao TL MW ii\Aa nva
ABE I GUflq>Op<impov Va GUflq>Ep<impov MW GUflq>Epovm ABE 25 onep MW iinep ABE
26 ~ou\eucraa8at MWE ~ou\euaaa8at 8e\e1~ AB 27 ~ou\118d11~ aeauTov MW aeauTov
f!EV ABE 1 ad ana8fj scr. mg. 'lva fll1ov nm~a11~ &' x8pav ~ <pt\iav W I wanep MWA Ka8w~
BE 30 ~ou\wcroflevw MWE ~ou\eucraf!evw A ~ouAWOflEVW B 31 Te MWBE om. A
a poaKAtve1~ MW fl~ npoana8ouvm~ ABE scr. mg. fl~ penovra~ np6~ Ttva~ fll'\OE
npoana8ouvTa~ W 1 m~o\~v ... naptxovm~ (m~ou\~v A) MW A ~ ainwv napexovTa~
em~o\~v BE 33 GUfl<pop<inepov Va crufl<pep<impov MWA GUflq>Ep6Tepov BE
34 EUUTOl~ ... OUflq>Epov MW ~ LOLOV eaUTOL<; GUflq>Epov npoopwVTE<; ABE 34-35 ayanwmv
MWA ayanwat BE 35 ~ ... npO.yflaTo~ MW om. ABE 36 ev0t06vTe~ WABE evlhoouvTe~
M I yVWfll'\V MW ~OUA~V ABE 37 cmopp~TWV ... Kpumwv MW Kpumwv Kal flUGTlKWV ABE




38 T~V MW om. ABE

. 3 The person responsible for devising the plan must necessarily begin by
fi'<:Cing his mind of everything else, especially whatever may be connected with
action that he is deliberating about, whether of enmity or friendship or any
feeling he might have.
4 You should not limit your choice to what seems easy and concentrate on
tbllt, but consider all the possibilities. After getting under way, perhaps the
t'Ourse of action itself will give rise to suggestions. Others too may make suggestit>ns about some other more suitable procedure that you may have neglected.
5 If you do not make plans by yourself but wish to include others in your
dtliberations, you must still keep yourself indifferent, as was said, as though you
Wtre devising the plans by yourself. To assist in planning, employ men who have
jome experience of the matter, men who can look ahead and form a good
tJstimate, who interact well, and who are quick-witted and trustworthy. They
sbould not give in to you as you go about your deliberations or to the one in
charge of the action or to one another simply to curry favor. But they should
t!!Xpress their opinions and be objective in their views, not inclined one way or
t.he other, not presenting any proposals of their own but, at the same time,
giving their approval to what is more beneficial.
6. There are some who look at what is beneficial only for themselves or for
others whom they love or care about, and they make this the deciding factor in
considering the proposal. Frequently, unwilling to give in, they alter the plan to
what they want.
7 In the case of secret and covert projects, invite men who are trustworthy,
possessed of self-control, and who can keep secrets. They should not be under

Planning 43

Constitution 3


ovmc;, a:\.Awc; n: flf10E T~c; xpriac; TaUTflc; nA.~8ouc; 00f1EYf1c; OlCt TO iJUOTlK(tJT40

8. Kal

~OUAfUOU f1EY ~paowc;, i il~ nc; xpfia TO nixoc; cmaml. Ta o ~ou-

A.ru8vm OOl, i f1f10Ev !':iJnooi(rt, mxewc; m-rA.n.

9 Kmpov 0, we; dpf1TUl, KaL -r6nov OflOLWc; EKAyou Kal KaTaOKUa( TlV
npayiJaTl oiKLOV, nA.~v il~ !':ni OOl f10Y4J I ava<pep T~V nrpl TOUTWV Kpiatv, aH'
45 !':nl nav-rac; -roue; KOlVWYOUVTac; Ufla ooL KaL Tl flEY oov Of np<i~at OKEJ1TOU Kal
f1WX nA.n6vwv ~OUAUOU, a o np<i~at ~ouhuon ouv 6A.iyOLc;. T~V o KaA.Aiova
yvWf1f1Y mA.r~af1Yoc; KUTX napa awu-r4J, Yva il~ TOLe; !':vav-riOLc; Kam<pav~c;


Kal; yvf1Tal.

10. Tao npayiJaTa nA.dovac; XOPflYOUOl -roue; OKOTIOuc; '(owe; Ttc; nrpiommc;
so EK navTWV TWV flepwv <pavrpa yrv~oTat TOLe; ouyKKAflf1EVOlc; !':v Tft ~ouA.ft,
0Ufl~aAAOf1EYf1 Tft yvWflTI T~c; OUfl~OUA~c;.
11. ITavmc; 0 XP~ pl':rrav KaL OUVTPEXflV de; <ptA.aA.~8rt Kal anae~ ou(~TflOlY

Kal Kf10f10Y[av Kal rrp6vOLav -rou ouyKaA.aavmc;.

12. TA.oc; o T~c; ~OUA~c; eaTW OOl TO rupr8~vat i Tl rrpa~ac; Kat rrwc; rtpa~ac;
55 Kal rrou Kal n6-rr, d 0 il~ npa~ac;, Kal ota -ri apa ou npa~etc;.
13. 'Ev ole; o ~ouA.euon Kal !':v TOLe; EiJnimouat Tft ~ouA.ft OKOnoLc; auv-rpxav
o1 Ctfla Kat TO ouvaTOV Kat TO OUfl<pl':pov TOUTWY yap dvm il~ ouvaiJEYWY
ao8ev~c; ~ ~OUA~ Kal !lamia au-r68ev ouoa KaTavoeiTm Kat wanep !':v O'Jfl ~

au-r~c; aA.oy(a ~Atrrnm.

14. Ei yap il~ OUfl<pEpH

OOl orrep av ~ouA.euon, ou flOYOV OUK W<pA~Oflc;

aHa iJUAAOV Kat ~ACt'JfLc;. i o' au TIUAlV ou ouvaom Ta ~ouA.eu8vm npu~m,
41-42 Strat., 8.1.5.

43-48 Strat., 8.2.23.

a:>..Aw~ ... JlUGTlKOJTpov bis scr. MW JtA~V OUOE ~ xpeia UU1'fl JtAElG1'0U~ Bexnat 6ta 1'0
ua-rtKW1'epav dvm ABE scr. mg. ~youv on ouoh GUJlcpBpet noUou~ dvat Bta -ro
cpuMnw6at -ro ua-r~ptOv W 41 d MW av ABE !-ro ... cmam1 MW Ka-rmdyfl cruv-r6Jlw~
~OUAEUGaa6at ABE 43-44 1'W npayJlUTl MWAE 1'WV npUYJlCt1'WV B 44 Jl~ ... avacpepe
MW om. ABE I Kpimv MW Kpimv Jl~ Eltl GOt JlOVW avacpepe ABE 47 Ka-racpav~~ MW
cpavepa ABE 4 8 Kal... yevfl1'at MW yevfl-rat Kal euK6A.w~ tltt~ouA.eu6~ ABE
49 xop!]yovm ... GKOJtOU~ MW trsp. ABE I '(aw~ MW Kal -raxa ABE 50 cpavepCt MW A
cpavepa GUJl~UAAOJlEV!] -r~ ~ouA.~ BE I yev~crnat MABE yevfl1'at W I cruyKeKAflJlBVOt~ .. .
~ouA.~ MW v -r~ ~ouA.~ (cruJl~OUA!] B) cruyKaAOUJlEVOt~ ABE 51 O'UJl~UAAOJlEV!] .. .
GUJl~OUA~c; MW om. ABE 52 nav-ra~ MWAE JtCtV1'U B I penetv ... cru~~l]O'IV MW Kal
cruv-rpexetV de; cmae~ Kal UAfl6~ (aA!]6~ Kal anae~ A) O'U~~1'flGIV pEJtEIV ABE
53 K!]6EJlOVlUV MW d~ cppov-r[6a ABE 54 1'0 eupe6~vat MWA om. BE I d w d~ M d OAW<;
ABE 55 d M ~ WABE \Be MW om. ABE 57 dvat MW olJlat ABE 61 6' au MW BE




!hr authority of others, and there should not be many of them, the better to
matters secret.
H. Take your time in making your plans, unless some necessity requires
Immediate action. 2 But once you have decided on something, unless there is an
11h~tacle, carry it out quickly.
9 In like manner, as was said, select the time and place and make preparations appropriate to the action.' Still, do not refer the decision about these
!hlngs to yourself alone, but to all who are privy to the action together with
yourself. Investigate and deliberate with a large number about what it is
necessary for you to do, but make your plans about what you are actually going
ttl do with only a few. Once you have opted for the better proposal, keep it to
yourselflest it become manifest and exposed to counteraction by the enemy.
10. The affairs themselves furnish many points of view. Perhaps some
circumstance from all the parts will clarify matters for those called together for
the consultation, contributing to the resolution of the discussion.
11. It is necessary for everyone to be favorably inclined to take an active part
In the truth-loving and unbiased inquiry, as well as the concern and foresight of
the one who has called them together.
12. Let the purpose of the deliberation be for you to discover if you will do
something, how you will do it, and where and when, but if you will not do it,
then for what reason will you not do it.
13. In the matters on which you are deliberating and in the objectives that
form part of your deliberation, it is necessary for the possible and the beneficial
to concur. A deliberation about things that are not possible has no strength and,
for that very reason, is rejected as useless, and its irrationality is seen at a glance.
14. If whatever you may be deliberating about is not beneficial for you, not
only will you not be helpful; rather, you will cause harm. Again, if you are not


Cf. Strat. 8.1.5.

3. Cf. Strat. 8.2.23.


Planning 45

Constitution 3

!lala[a ~ ouiaK\jil<; d<; av6vrrrov TEAO<; OtCt T~V CtOUVU!llUV KUTUVTWaa. !lCtAlGTU
o XP~ <puAa.nwem Ta<; Ttpoxdpw<; !l<ppo!lva<; tv To1<; 11pawam ~A.a~a<;. Kal
yap oi 11oAA.ol Tm!lo[ dm -ra1<; !lEV <ppovT[mv u<ppa[vtv t:auTou<;, TO o E!1Tt[6s

mov T~<; ~ACt~!"]<; 11~ 11po~ATtnv.

1 . Xpl"]at!lwT6.TT"] ouv anv v-rauea ~ Ttav-raxoev TIEptaK\jit<; Kal TtavTwv

TWV yveaem OUVUTWV 6 11pl T~V aKE\jilV avaA.oyta!-16<;. ou yap Ttpoowan<;

awuTov 11poTITtQ. Tu<pA.ft ouo Ta1<; tmeu!l[m<; Twv 11p6.~wv yA.tx6!lvo<; i<;
11poo~A.ou<; Ktvouvou<; E!lTttan<;.


16. I16.AlV OE TO 0lAOV TOU ea.paou<; xwpl<; OUK aTlV Ct~AU~E<; <p0~0D!lVO<;
yap Ta aA.oya TtapaTITW!lUTU KUL Ta vavT[a am OOKOUVTU TtapaA6yw<; 1tpay!laTUO!lVO<; TtoA.A.aKL<; TWV au!l<pp6vTwv aot 11pay116.Twv KUTT"]!lEAT"]aa<; Kal T~<;
auTwv cmeaTT"]<; 11pa~W<;.
17. Oihw !lEv ouv am ota ~paxtwv,


a-rpaTT"]y, TIEpl ~ouA* Ot~A.e6vT<;

~~<; KUL T~<; TWV TtOAE!llKWV pywv T KUtTtpa~W<; TUKTLK~<; Ct11Up~W!lea.

!!hit to turn your plans into action, deliberating about them serves no purpose
because of the impossibility, ends up accomplishing nothing. It is particunecessary to guard against the damages that readily occur in taking action.
are prepared to find happiness in their thoughts but not to foresee the
uu~et of harm.
15. In these matters, then, the examination of every aspect is absolutely
fll~ential, as well as a reconsideration regarding the examination of everything
can possibly occur. For <in that way> you will not give yourself up to blind
headlong haste, nor in your great eagerness for action will you fall into
obvious dangers.
16. Again, fear without courage is not without harm. By fearing irrational
*"Makes and unreasonably busying yourself with matters that you think are
l,:Uiltrary to your interests, frequently you will have neglected matters which are
f~ally in your best interests and you will have turned away from putting them
17. So then, 0 general, we have briefly gone through the subject of delibera-

tion, and we will begin next about the tactics of military works and action.

62 av6v'l-rov MW avw<peA.e<; ABE idem scr. mg. W

63 Ejl<pt:pOjlEVa<; MW Ejl<patVOjlEVa<;

67 yevea6m ouva-rwv MW trsp. ABE 68 aeau-rov ABE eau-rov MW 1-ru<pA.~ MW

-ru<pA.~ Kal aneptaKemw ABE I yA.tX6ilevo<; MW om. ABE 70 -rou W Kal MABE
70-75 xwpl.; ... anap~wjle6a MABE om. sed scr. mg. i)youv <po~oujlt:Vo<; Ctjle-rpw<; -ro 11~








71-72 npawa-reu611evo<; MA npawa-reu611eva BE

73 CtTIEO"T'l<; MAB cmaT'l<; E


71 aA.oya



72 KUT'ljlEA'laa<; MA KUTUjlEA'lO"L<; BE

75 -re M om. ABE

anap~wjlt:6a M anap~6jlt:6a A



Tiepl Olatpaew<; mpatou KUL Kataaniaew<; apxovtwv

About the Division of the Army and the Appointment of Officers

KAUOf.1V to(vuv tfi afi voo~6t'lll Kata t~V livw9v Kat ~ upx~c; auv~9t:tav touc; atpanwmc; Kal touc; apxovmc; a\.mov mA.~aaem, ouc; iiv OOKlf.iUOnc;
LKavouc; dvm rrpoc; t~V tOU TCOAEf.iOU xpLav. EKAE~n ot atpanwmc; cmo rravtoc;
tOU UTCO 0 9f.1atOc;, fl~T rraioac; fl~T ypovmc;, uA:\a uvopiouc;, UpW<rtouc;,
u'f!uxouc;, t:urr6pouc;, &at autouc; v t(j) ~rroin!l ~youv v tfi auvaywyfi tou
<poaaatou de; t~V [o(av atpatdav UOXOAOUf.iEVOUc; XLV v tote; io(otc; o'iKotc;
tpouc;, touc; yt:wpyouvtac; Kal ta rrpoc; arraptlOf.iOV Kai ~6rr:\tmv tOU atpatLWtou xoP'lYIv ouvaf.1vouc;, Of]A.ov6n A.cu9pouc; -roue; o'iKouc; xovtac; twv
liAA.wv cmaawv tOU 0'lf.100lOU OOUALWV. ou yap ~OUAOf.19a tOV ~f.1Etpov
auatpatLWTf]V-Othw yap yw KUAW tOV uptatULV flEAAOVta urrp t t~c; ~f.iWV
~amA.dac; Kal t~c; <ptA.oxpiatou -rwv 'Pwf.iaiwv rroA.miac; v toic; Kata rr6Af.10V
pyotc;-rrA.~v f.iOVOV tOU Of]f.iOOlOU tA.ouc; tp<;t tJTCOKda9m olq.o~rrot oouA.dq..
2. t.tmpia9w toivuv 6 mic; im6 a atpatoc; t:ic; tayf.iata ~youv ta A.t:y6f.1Va
~avoa ota<popa Kal ht urrootmpia9w t:ic; 0Kapxiac;, Kal KataatT]<r<itwaav de;
ta AYOf.1Va KOVtou~pvta. mum 8t ytvaewaav Kai urro TCEVt TCOAAUKtc; Kal
arro OEKU uvopwv ~youv Kata 0Kapxiav ~ ev KOVtoU~pvtv ~ Mo.
3 Kal 6 f.1V atpatoc; oA.oc; Otatpt:iaew outwc; ic; tUYf.iUta Kal de; OcKapxiac;.
mat~tWOUV Of: autotc; apxovtc; KUta ~avoa KUL Opouyyouc; Kai tOUpf.iU<; KUL
tac;; owuaac; upxac; oi LKUVWtatoL ~youv 0001 Kai matol Kal UYVWf.10Vc;
<pa(vovtat tfi 'Pwf.ia"iKfi ~flWV TCOALttq., f.1Uptupouvtm 8t KUL uvopt:t6tpOL. ouotv
ot KWAU1 Kal UTCopwtatouc; au-roue; LVUL Kai UyvIc; KUta t tO yvoc; Kai t~V

We order Your Excellency, in keeping with the custom going way back to
beginning, to select the soldiers and their officers whom you judge qualified
1t1eet the requirements of warfare. Select soldiers from the entire theme under
command, neither boys nor old men, but men who are brave, vigorous,
and financially well off. While these men are occupied with their
IW11 military service on the campaign or, rather, the assembling of the army,
must have others in their households who do the farm work and who are
to provide the required items for the complete equipping and arming of a
This means that the heads of those households should be free from all
services owed the state. For we do not wish our fellow soldier-thus I call
man who goes forth to strive valiantly in warlike deeds on behalf of Our
M~tJesty and the Christ-loving commonwealth of the Romans-with the sole
tl~::eption of the public tax, 1 to be subject to any imposition whatsoever.
l. Let the entire army under your command be divided into various tagma~\lso called banda. Let it be further divided into dekarchies. Then let the so!,'ldled squads be set up. These may often be composed of five men, as well as of
tim, so that each dekarchy will have one or two squads.





M W A B E Va

J. In this manner, let the entire army be divided into tagmata and into
t!ekarchies. 2 Let officers be put in charge of them according to banda, droungoi,
~t!id tourmai, and the other appropriate units. They should all be extremely comlldent, faithful, and loyal to our Roman state; they should also give evidence of
bravery that is above average. There is nothing to prevent their being very

PG 107:697

19-29 Onas. 2. 3-5.

1 noA.q.ttKWV ... otc:'tta~u; y' (tpLTTJ A) MWA otaTU~l~ y' 7tEpl TrOAEfllKWV napacrKeuwv BE (nepl
om. E) I o' Va PG y' codd. 6 eupwcrtou~ MW tcrxupou~ ABE 7 ad EU\jluxou~ scr. mg.
npo6uf.!OU~ tOAf.lTJpou~ W. 10 OTJAov6n A.w6epou~ bis scr. MW trsp. ABE 11 anacrwv
MW nacrwv ABE 12 oi.\tw MW oi.\tw~ ABE 16 KataUTTJcrc:'ttwcrav MW Katacrt~twcrav
ABE 17 Kovtou~epvta MABE KOutou~epvta W 18 Kov-rou~epvtv M Kou-rou~epvtv W
Kovtou~epvwv AE Kouvtou~epvwv B 20 Kal toupf.!a~ MW om. ABE 22 ~f.!WV noA.m(a
MWA 7t0AlTELa Uf.!WV B 7tOAlTELU ~f.lWV E 23 autou~ dvat MW AE trsp. B



See "demosion;' ODB.

Onasander 2.3-5.


Division of the Army and Appointment of Officers

Constitution 4

l~~ \j!UX~~ ape-r~v T~V j.lEv euyvLav EXflV, tva eiol np6xLp0l tv O~UH]Tl Katpou

nepl-ra~ KfAfUOj.lEVW:; au-roT~ npa~L~, T~V 8 eunopiav, tva OUVWVTat -roT~ mpal
nw-rm~ K nepLOuoia~ noHaKt~, ei 8e~oOL, xopT]yeTv. Kal yap Kal 6f.iyT] -raxa
xopTjyta an6 TWV ~YOUj.lEVWV apx6v-rwv np6~ TOU~ UTIOTaHOj.lEVOU~ ytVOj.lEVT]
euvouma-ra Kal <piAta npo~ au-rou~ napaoKeua<L -ra nf.~ell Kal ouvaywvi<wem

-Kal j.lEXPl KaLTEAOU~-tv -roT~, w~ elKO~, fj.l11l11lOUOl KlVOUVOl~.

4 Ol 8 j.let<ove~ au-rwv Kal vnj.16-ra-rot Kal ouve8peuooum -r4> o-rpmT]y4J, o'i

8 Kalnapoov-rat Kal j.19E~OUOl ouv au-r4J 11Ct0T]~ ~OUA~~ Kal KOlVWV~OOUOl 110U
Kal yvWj.lT]~, ei TUXOl, Kal anopp~-rou Kal Kpum~~- Kal yap Tl~ -raxa Kal aptOTO~
wv vvoeT j.lEV n XP~Otj.lOV, ~e~a[w~ 8 -ra au-rou j.l6vo~ ouK olKetou-rat. yvWj.lT]
yap ~ ~OUA~ EKCtOTT], ~ j.lEV a~o~9T]TO~ ouaa nepl T~V l8iav eupwtv j.lOVT]V
35 Q110~AE11fl, ~ 8 uno Kal aAAWV 110AAWV mj.1ap-rupTj9e1oa 11lOTOUTUl Kal ava<pa[VHUl j.1Tj8v xouoa o<paAep6v.
5 Tipnov ouv fOTlV dvatTOV o-rpa-rTjy6v-tva KaLTICtAlV 00l11pl-rwv au-rwv


napatVEOWj.lfV-j.l~Tf oihw~ ao-ra-rov T~V 8tavotav tva aUTO~ au-r4J naVTfAW~

amo-rft, j.l~Tf OUTW~ au9a8Tj Kat j.lOVWTaTOV W~ jl~ ~OUAW9at nap' -rpwv KCtAAlOV Tl VOTj9v aVaj.la9eTv. avayKT] yap aU-rov ~ T((lOl -roT~ aAAOl~ KULa navm
npoaexovm Kal Ka-ra j.1Tj8v au-r4J mo-reuov-ra nOAACtKl~ nona Kal UOUj.l<j>Opa
npCtHLV, ~ j.1Tj8v 6Aiywv QKOUOVTU nav-ra o au-r4J KaTU11l0TfUOVTa, noAAa

30-36 Onas. 3 1-5.

24 ei0l MWA

MW 0~01

wm BE



MW om. ABE


w I to1<; WABE om. M

26 OE~00l

Wt:althy or noble as far as their birth and virtue of soul is concerned. If they
11hould be of noble birth, at crucial moments they will be quick to put into
1\t:tion what they have been ordered to do; if they should be wealthy, then, when
called for, from their abundance they will often be able to devote some funds to
soldiers. Even a small expenditure made by a commanding officer for the
benefit of his troops renders the rank and file much better disposed and friendly
lt)Ward him and ready to fight along with him, even to the end, in the dangers
likely to confront them.
4 The higher-ranking and most respected officers should sit in council with
the general; they should be at hand and participate with him in every deliberation and somehow share in his decision, even if it might be kept hidden and
*ecret. 3 For an individual, the very best perhaps, may think of something benefichtl, but one man alone should certainly not limit himself to his own opinions.
livery decision or deliberation that is unsupported looks only at its author's
Ingenuity, but the decision that has the additional testimony of many others is
reliable and may be presented without any uncertainty.
5. It is, therefore, fitting for the general to be-we are still giving you advice
~tbout the same matters-neither so indecisive in mind that he has absolutely no
confidence in himself nor so opinionated and self-centered that he is unwilling
t.o learn from others anything that has been better thought out. The man who
always pays attention to everyone else and never relies on himself will surely
make many and frequent errors in practice, whereas the one who never listens,

26-27 nixa xop!]y[a MW 0001<; ABE

I {momTTOJlEVOU<; MW unoxe1p[ou<; ABE

28 UVOU0TUTU ...

n\~81] MW UVOLUV Kai ayani]V TOU n\~8ou<; O.nepya~Tat ABE scr. mg. ayani]T1KU

w I Kai TEAOU<; MW eavatou ABE I W<; ... K1VOUV01<; MW



napa0Kua~1 ABE 30 0uveopeu0oum MW 0uyKa8eopo1 0ovtm ABE

29 Kai' MABE om.

31 napE00VTUl ... 0UV MW

K01VWV~00U0l scr.



<~>youv 'lva Wat

Kai autoi

autw MW AB

0UJl~OUA01 Kai

autwv E

ei<; tu<; KpU<jHWtEpa<;



3 2 Kai tuxo1 MW om. ABE 1 Kai Kpum~<; MW JlU0TlK~<; t KaianoKpucpou ABE I
Kai4 Kais MW KUV ABE 33 wv ... XP~01JlOV MW wv & 0tpatl]yO<; vvod JlEV n Kai

~OUAUTU1 XP~0lJlOV ABE I ~e~a[w<; ... olKlOUTUl MW T~V o io[av ~ou\~v ~~atW0Ul ou
ouvatat ABE 34 ~ ... eKa0tl] MW om. ABE 34-35 nepl. ..\en1 MW 0cpa\Anm

T~V io[av Up01V ABE 35 uno Kai MW Kai uno AE Kai B 37-38 dvat ... nap-

atVE0WJleV MW om. ABE

38 o1avmav MW o1avotav dvat tov 0tpm!]yov ABE

JlOVwtmov Va Kai JlOVwtato<; MW om. ABE

MW A om. BE

39 Kal

41 npo0txovm MW A npo0txovt1 BE I Jl!]&v

m0tuovta MW A m0tuovn BE

42 npaTT1V MW A npanea8a1 BE

no\AaK1<; MWBE om. A

I Jl!]&V M




o AB



I eautw
3. Onasander 3.1-5.


Division of the Army and Appointment of Officers

Constitution 4

TIOAACtKl<; Kat flYUAa Otaflap-ravav. TOUTWV o oihw<; x6v-rwv np6-repov flEv

E~OVOflUO"OflEV O"Ol cmA.w<; TOU<; Ka8LO"TaflEVOU<; apxov-ra<;, ele' oihw<; Kal Ta
45 yvwp[aflaTa a1nwv w<; v auvT6fl4J einelv OLOpta6fle8a.

6. TipWTf] Ke<paA~ 6 a-rpaTf]y6<;, Kat fle-r' aUTOV oi flepapxm Kat oi TOUpflapXUl, eha opouyyaptol, eha oi KOflf]Te<;, ~youv oi TWV A.eyOflEVWV ~avowv apxovTe<;, eha oi Kev-rapxOL, <pe~~<; oi OEKapxot, ~youv oi npw-rot -rwv A.eyoflvwv
aKtwv, el-ra oi nev-rapxm Kal <pe~~<; oi -re-rpapxm, ohtve<; Kal ota -ro axa-rou<;
so TOU a-rlxou TOU KaTa TO ~aeo<; ~TOl TO naxo<; T~<; napa-ra~ew<; -raaawem aU-roil<;
Kal oupayol EKaAOUVTO. 6 yap eaxa-ro<; TOU OAOU a-r[xou ~youv T~<; UK[a<; W<; nl
TTJ<; oupa<; aUTf]<; oihw<; 'iaTUTUl.
7 Kal at-rat flEv ai OVOflaO"Lal TWV apx6v-rwv. eial o Kat i!TepOl Ka8' i!KaO"TOV
-rawa ~Tot ~avoov Otwptaflvot, olov ~avoo<p6pot, aaA.myK-ral ~Tot ~ouKtva55

TOpe<;, eepaneu-ral ~ ia-rpol oi Kal OenOTUTOl, Kal flaVOUTWpe<; Kat napaKA~Tope<;,

oi Ota A.6ywv Oteye[povTE<; TOV a-rpa-rov npo<; TOU<; aywva<;, OU<; oi npo ~flWV,
VEWTEpOl o TWV aA.A.wv, TUKTlKOL 'Pwfla"ia-rl KaVTUTWpE<;


Kat hepo[

TlVE<; npo<; Ta<; avaKumouaa<; xpda<; a<pwplO"flEVOl, oiov O"Kpt~WVE<; Kal oi AOlnoL nav-ra yap Tfi vuv T[OALTEL<;l yvwpl(e-rat Ta OVOflaTa TWV naA.mwv atyf]8v6o

TWV, linep KUTU xwpav UTIOflV~O"OflEV.

8. L-rpa-rf]y6<; mlvuv npoaayopeue-rm 6 -rou nav-ro<; a-rpa-rou Kopu<pa16<; -re
Kal ~YEflWV, unoa-rpUTf]yO<; o 6 T~V oeu-rpav TOUT(JJ TU~lV EKTIAf]pWV. OLflal o

w<; oi naA.m6-repOL ~flWV unoa-rpa-r~you<; flEV KaA.ouv mu<; a-rpa-rf]you<; Ota -ro
a-rpaTf]yov cmav-rwv Kuplw<; elvm TOV ~aatA.ea, EK npoawnou 0 au-rou elvm

Kae' i!KaO"TOV etfla TOV a-rpaTf]y6v, Kal Ola T~V TOlaUTf]V ai-r[av 6 OTpaTfJYO<;
unoa-rpUTfJYO<; EKaAeLTO, a-rpaTf]yO<; o KUptw<; Atye-ro 6 EK npoawnou TOU
~aatA.ew<; nav-rwv KE<paA.~ UTIOO"TEAAOflEVO<;, exwv unoa-rpa-r~you<; TOU<; TWV

8Ef1UTWV o-rpaTfJYOU<;, onep EO"TLV aptaTOV.

9 Nuv o imoaTpUTf]yO<; ou yvwpi(ETal, ei fl~ Tl 6 KaAOUflEVO<; flEPUPXfJ<;.

10. Kal -roupflUPXfJ<; a-rlv

o noTE KaAOUflEVO<; flEPUPXfJ<; ~TOL 6 -rou flEpou<;

-r~v apx~v flnemmeuf1vo<;.

61-122 Strat., 1.3-5.

46-47 Kal2 . TOUpJ.uipXat MW om. ABE 49 ad ctKLwv scr. mg. -rwv opcSivwv W I TO MWAE
-rou B 54 cStwpt<JflEVOL MW AE cStwpt<YflEVOV B I craA.myKml MWAB craA1lT]YIJTUl E I ~Tot2
MWAE ~youv A 55 ~ MWA om. BE I cSmo-rit-rot MW cSmo-rit-rat AE cSamo-rit-rot B
56-57 ouc; ... eKitA.ouv MW om. ABE 6o iim::p ... U1lOflV~crow::v MW om. ABE 62 -rou-rw
-rit~tv MWAE trsp. B I OLflUL MW ABE 64-65 dvat2 i:'Kacr-rov MWAE trsp.
B 69 n MW om. ABE I flepitpXIJ<; MW AB flVCtpXIJ<; E 70 Kal ... flepitpXIJ<; MW om. ABE
71 -r~v apx~v MWA -rijc; apxiic; BE


to a few others, but trusts only himself is likewise bound to make many
mistakes. This is how these matters stand. Now, we will first simply give
the titles of the officers to be appointed; then we will define, in summary
fl!~h!on, their characteristics.
6. At the very top is the general and, after him, the merarchs and the tourtllt\rchs, then the droungarioi, then the counts, that is, the officers of the sobanda, then the kentarchs and, in order, the dekarchs, that is, the first of
so-called files, then the pentarchs and, after them, the tetrarchs who, because
are lined up last in the row, according to the depth or the thickness of the
line, are also called ouragoi, for the last man of the whole row or file is
'nl!itioned as though at its tail.
7 These, then, are the titles of the officers, but there are also other men astlgtled to each tagma or bandon. Such are the standard-bearers, tile trumpeters
~~r buglers, the medical attendants or doctors who are also called deputies, the
h~ralds and the exhorters whose task it is to exhort and arouse the army for
t<)mbat, whom those before us, the more recent tactical writers, called by the
ttttin term cantatores. 4 Other men are assigned to various needs as tlley occur.
Such are the skribones and the rest.' These names, about which the ancient
uuthors are silent, are those recognized by the modern state and which we will
discuss in due order.
8. First, the head and leader of the whole army is called the general.6 The
man who ranks second after him is the lieutenant general. I am aware that our
predecessors used the term lieutenant general for general since the general who
.:ommands everyone is specifically the emperor, and the general for each theme
Is his delegate. For this reason the general was called lieutenant general. General
then became the title for that man who was exclusively designated as the delegate of the emperor, the head of all the troops, and the generals of the themes
became his lieutenant generals, all of which is excellent.
9 But, at present, the term lieutenant general is not acknowledged except for
the one called merarch.
10. The tourmarch is the officer formerly referred to as merarch, that is, the
one entrusted with the command of a meros.


4 See Strat. 2.19.

5 Also called skribantes, cf. infra, n. 7

6. Strat. 1.3-5.

Division of the Army and Appointment of Officers

Constitution 4


11. t.pouyyapto<; 0 A.eyTat 6 f.Llii<; f.LO[pa<; apxwv, ~ll<; uno 1'0 f1Ep0<; TOU
coupf.Lapxou Tannm. f1po<; yap anv


Toupf.La, To K cptwv f!Otpwv ~youv

~TOl 8pouyyo<; 1'0 fK mwa~tOl apt0f1WV ~ ~av8wv TWV A)'0f1EVWV KOfl~TWV auyKdf1VOV nA.f]0o<;.

8pouyywv auyKlf1VOV a.epotOf.LU, f!Otpa 0 anv

75 TWV

12. K6f1Tj<; 8 eaTlV 6 TOU vo<; TCtYflaLO<; ~TOl ~av8ou Ct<pTJYOUf1VO<;.

13. Kvmpxoc; 8 faLlV 6 EKUTOV av8pwv apxwv ~TOl EKUTOVTCtPXTJ<;, oan<;
14. t.EKCtPXTJ<; 8 eanv 6 TWV 8Ka npwco<;, wanp KUL nVTCtPXTJ<; 6 TWV
So nevL, oan<; KUL f.LEOO<; '(ataTat Tf]<; aK[a<;.

15. TnpapxTJ<; 0 anv 6 KUL <pUAU~, 6 AYOf1VO<; oupayo<; KUL1'AUlat0<;

[atCtf1VO<; Tf]<; CtKlU<;. 6 yap nuKV01'pO<; TWV apxovTWV 8tUf1plOf10<; KUL nA.dova<; 8tKVUt Tou<; yvva[ou<; Kal av8plou<; mpaTtwta<;, Kal DXPW<; unaK01JlV

KUL fK1'AlV notci Ta KAU0f1VU.

16. Kal ~av8o<p6po<; f.LEV anv 6To OTJfldov ToiJ ~av8ou ~ama(wv.
17. LlTjnOTCttOl 8 npoaTjyopUOV1'0 oi vuv A)'0f1VOl aKpt~WV<;,
ohtv<; napaKoA.ou0ouvT<; Tfl napaTa~t Toi.J<; v Tfl f!CtXn cpauf.LaT[a<; yvof1EVOU<; O.vaAUf.L~CtVOVLal w<; lacpol KUL npl1tOlOUVLal.
18. MavMcwp<; 8 latv oi Ta f1UV0Ct1'U uno TWV apxovTWV npo<; LOU<;


acpanwm<; 6~w<; <'itaKOf.Lt(ovT<;. I

19. Aoxayo<; 8 A.ynm 6 npwco<; ToiJ m[xou

~youv ToiJ 6p8[vou Kata TO

~aeoc; 6 aMo<; 8 A.ynat Kal nptf.LO<; Kal npwcoataTTJ<;.

20. LKOiJv8o<; 8 A.yTat 6 8U1'po<; Tf]<; CtKlU<;, 6 AYOf1VO<; maTCt1'Tj<;.
21. Oupayo<; 8 A.eyTat 6 6n[aw TOU OAOU OTLXOU ~youv Tf]<; oupii<; TOU

6p8[vou ian'tf1VO<;.
22. Koupawp<; 8 HyovTat ~youv np6f1axot oi npocpexovT<; Tf]<; napa-

Ta~w<; v Tfl OUfl~OAfl TOU noAEf.LOU KUL TOt<; <pUyoumv x0pot<; 6~w<; nm0f1VOl ov<; KUAOUOL npoKACtOta<;.
23. Llt<pevawp<; 8 oi TouTou<; f.LEV naKoA.ou0ouvT<;, fl~ KcpxovT<; 8 Kal

AUOVT<; t~V TCt~lV, O.AA.a OUVTLUYf1EVW<; npl1taLOUV1'<; npo<; K8tKT]aLV TWV

72 1:0 f!EpO~ MWA TOU f!Epou~ BE 73 -ranemt MW -raaaemt ABE 75 apt8f!WV ...
~av6wv Va av6pwv codd. 77 EKUTOVTOPX'l~ MW A EKUT6vmpxo<; BE 79 6eKapm<; MW A
6Kapxo<; BE 1 Kal MWA om. BE I rrEv-rapX'l<; MW AB rrtv-rapxo<; E So aKia<; MW AB
aKUKlU<; E 86 6rpto-ra-rot MW 6amo-ra-rot B 6mo-ra-rot AE I rraAUl MW 1:0 JTUAatOV ABE
87 -rpaUf!UTia<; MW -rpaUf!UTL~OflEVOU<; ABE 87-88 yevof!EVOU<; WBE ytVOflEVOU<; M om.
1 6. AB om. MWE 92 rrpw-roa-raT!j<; ABE ema-ra-rlj<; MW 93 ad -r~<; aKia<; scr. mg.
-rou 6p6ivou W 94 6e BE om. MWA I Atye-rat MWA om. BE 100 rrpo<; eK6iKljatv MABE
rrpoae6[K!jOLV W


Droungarios is the term for the commander of one moira, that takes its
below the meros of the tourmarch. Meros is the tourma that is comof a grouping of three moirai or droungoi. A moira or droungos is the
unit made up of tagmata, arithmoi, or banda, <whose commanders> are
1 2. The count is commander of one tagma or bandon.
13. Kentarch is the officer over a hundred men, also called hekatontarch, and
nmked just below the count.
14. Dekarch is the first over ten men, just as the pentarch is over five and
his position in the middle of the file.
15. Tetrarch, also known as the guard, is called ouragos and stands last in the
'Ibis rather detailed division of officers results in a larger number of noble
brave soldiers and readily makes for obedience and the implementation of
16. The standard-bearer is the one who carries the standard of the bandon.
17. The term deputy was previously used for those now called skribones.7
'I hey follow behind the battle line and, like doctors, recover and look after those
wounded in battle.
18. Heralds are the men who quickly convey the commands of the officers to
19. Group leader is the term for the first man in the row or the line accordto its depth; he is also referred to as primos and protostates.
20. Sekoundos is the term for the second man of the file, also called
21. Ouragos is the term for the man behind the whole row, whose position is
ill the end of the line.
22. Assault troops, also called promachoi, are those who move out ahead of
the line when battle is joined and swiftly bear down upon the retreating enemy;
they are also called proklastai.
23. Defenders are those who follow after them, not charging out or breaking
1 1.


7 Medical corpsmen, cf. Strat. 2.9. Deputy (Lat. deputatus). Greek transliteration varies:
1\uro-ra-ro<;, 6!jrr-, 6m-, 6am-. Skribon, skribas (kribas), is from Lat. scriba, a scribe. Cf. Sylloge
tacticorum, 35.1; LBG, s.v. (forthcoming). The Suda (L 696) claims that the Latins use the term
tor "foremost among the bodyguards:'

Division of the Army and Appointment of Officers


KOupawpwv, e'(ru::p a.trt01J<;,

w<; lKO<;, tpa.n~va.t <JUfl~O.LT), oi.\anep OlKO.LWc; av nc;

24- M[vawp<; o Hyovta.L oi ta UTIALKtO.



Constitution 4

~tOl ta cpoacrata. f1Etpouvt<; Ka.l

Ka.8LatWVt<; ou<; fllV<JOpatwpa.<; VUV KO.AOU<JLV.

25. AvtLKEV<Jwpa.c; Ot aA.A.ou<; nva<; A.eyov oi na.A.a.tol 'PWflO.LOl oi.\c;, we; OLfla.l,
vuv toic; f1Lvaop6.twpm auvtaaaovtec; io[wc; ouK 6vof1<'t(oumv. outm 0 dmv oi
npoA.a.f1~6.vovte<; tv ta.i<; 60omop[mc; Ka.l tac; tnLTTJOE[a.c; Moue; Ka.l-rou<; -r6nou<;
avepwv&vtec; tv ole; ta UTIALKta. y[vwem 6cpdA.ou<JL KO.L ta.\Jta.<;, 6no1a.[ dm,

but marching in good order to provide support for the assault troops in
they should happen to fall back; one might justly call them avengers.
24. Surveyors is the term for those who measure and set up the camps or the
lttcampments and whom they now call minsoratores.
25. The ancient Romans called certain other men antikensores, who, as I am
~ware, are now lined up with the minsoratores and are not given a special name.
Wllen the army is on the march, they go ahead to assess the condition of the
toads and to search for ones that are suitable and for places in which to pitch


26. LKOUA.KCttWp<; o oi Ka.ta<JKOTIOl A.yovta.t OltlVc; f10.v86.vovt<; -ra tWV
txepwv ana.yyA.Aoumv.
2 . TIA.a.ywcp\JA.a.K<; 0 dmv oi npoc; cpuA.a.KfJv -rwv nA.a.yiwv t~<; npwtT)<;
t6.~ewc; -ra.tt6f1VOL.
28. 'YnepKt:pa.ata.l o oi npoc; tO nepLAO.~ElV to tWV TIOAf1LWV Kpa.<; ta.tt6-




. "Eveopm 8 oi npo<; tyKpVflfla.ta. Ka.ta t~c;<; -rwv txepwv
30. Nwtoq>UAO.K<; o oi OTIL<JW tfjc;; na<JTj<; ta.<J<JOflEVOl 11plna.t1V.
31. Ka.l-rouA.o6v t<JtlV ~ CtTIO<JKEUTJ KO.L xpda. niiaa. tWV <Jtpa.tLWtWV, tout'
E<JtlV na.Toec; t Ka.l imo(\JyLa. KO.L ta A.oma (q>a., KO.L '( tl etepov npiiy!la. npo<;
unT)pw[a.v -rou cpoacratou tmaupna.t.
32."E<Jtl o KO.L ~ tOU atpa.tfjyou npoi\.eu<JL<; i(c; nva.<; apxovta.<; OLa.lpOUflEVT), oiov t6v t KOflT)ta. -r~c; K6ptfJ<; a.U-rou Ka.l-rov -rou<; OOflE<JtLKOV Ka.[,
anA.&c; dndv, d<; toi>c; A.omouc; t~ 8ouc; tfJ<; npoei\.e\Jaewc; a.utoii U11Tjpta.c;, ouc;
neptttov ~youf1t:8a. Ka.ta.A.ynv.


W cruf!~a[vf] M cruf!~~ ABE 102 Ka\tcrot MW KUAE<JEL ABE 103 oi. ..

MW om. ABE 104 f!lVGOp6:rwpa<; A f.llVGopcnopa<; MW f!lVGapcrrwpa<; BE
na\atol MWA mi\m BE 1 w<; MWA om. BE I olf!al MW \mo\af!~avw ABE
108 o<petAOU<Jl MABE o<pdAOU<JlV w 111 anayyt\Aoumv WA cmayyt\Aou<Jl M
cmayye\oum BE
mn6f!EVOL MW -racrcr6f!EVOL ABE 114 nept\a~eiv MWAE \a~eiv
B scr. mg. KUKAwcrm w 11 4 -115 mn6f!evot W -racrcr6f!evot ABE 116 npo<; MW npo<; -ra
-rou-r' ecrnv M -rou-recr-rtv WAE -rou-recr-rt B 121 ad naioe<; scr. mg. oou\ot
120 121
w I ad \mo~uyta scr. mg. a\oya crawapta w 122 UTIT]pecr[av WA unepecriav MBE 125 ei<;
MW AB et E 1 un pt-ra<; MABE i>nT]pe-rou<; W 126 nepmov MW neptcrcrov ABE I
Ka-raAtyetv MW Ka-rapt6f!eiv ABE



Spies are called skoulkatores; they learn what is going on with the enemy
!lnd mform us.
27. Flank guards are the troops assigned to guard the flanks of the first line.
28. Outflankers are the troops assigned to envelop the enemy's wings.
29. Ambushers are the troops prepared to set up ambushes against the battle
line of the enemy.
30. Rear guard designates the troops assigned to march behind the entire
battle line.
31. The baggage train consists of the supplies and everything else needed for
the soldiers, that is, servants, pack animals, and the other beasts, as well as
anything else that is brought along for the service of the army.
32. The entourage of the general is composed of certain officers, such as the
count of his tent, the domestic of the theme and, to put it succinctly, the rest of
the assistants ordinarily in his entourage, but we believe it is superfluous to list




Division of the Army and Appointment of Officers

Constitution 4

33 '0 yap npWTOVOTCtplOc; TOU 8jlaTOc; Kctl6 xapTouA.Ctpwc;, npoaeTl 8 Kctl6

npa[Twp ~youv 6 Toii 8jlctToc; 8tKctGT~c;-6 jlEV Tf\c; noA.mKf\c; an 8totK~aewc;
apxwv, 6 8 npoc; T~V TOU aTpctTOU Kctlct)'pct<p~V I Te Kctl uva<~n]atV, 6 8 Tac;
8lKctc; nov 8tKct<OjlEVWV 8tctADet-OUc; ei KcttT<jl mpanw<Jl v TlatV unoTanea8ctl
XP~ uH' ouv Toile; A6youc; nov i8tKWV ctlJT<.DV 8tOlK~m:wv npoc; T~V paatAeLctV
~jlWV u<popav, Wale 8t' ctlHWV jlctV8CtVelV TCtc; Te n:iJv noA.tnKWV KcttTWV mpanwllKWV npct)'jlCtTWV KctlctGTCtGetc; Kctt8lOlK~Getc; UG<pctAEaTepov ~)'0Djle8ct.
. Tov tv ouv aTpctTov oA.ov, wmpctTfly, 8tmp~cretc; eic; 8ta<popa TCt)'llctTct
Kctt maT~aetc; ctlJTOtc;, we; e'ipflTctl, apxovTctc; <ppOVLjlOUc; Kctt uv8pelouc; Kctt
npoa<p6pouc; mho1c;.
. 1\no 8 Toii TCt)'llctToc; ~Tot ~av8ou Toile; eKmovTapxac; <ppovl35
11ouc; Kctl yevva[ouc; eic; uv8pelctv, ehct Toile; 8eKapxac; Kctl aMoilc; yevva[ouc; Kctl
a\noxnpac;, ei 8uvaTov 8 Kctl To~euetv eiMmc; Kctl 1-1na Toile; OeKapxac; Kctl
nevTapxac; Kctl Tnpapxac; 61-1olwc; KctlT6Te Toile; <puA.aKctc; Twv uKtwv ~youv Twv
KctTCt TO naxoc; Tf\c; napctTCt~ewc; 6p8lvwv, o'i Kctl 8eKapxlm KctAOUVTctl, ouo uno
fKCtGTflc; UKlctc;, we; ylvea8ctt Toile; ETilAEKTOuc; fKCtaTflc; UKtctc; av8pctc; nevTe Kctl
Toile; unOjlEVOVTctc; 6p8tVeUGctl eic; TCtc; UKlctc;, TtctActlODc; Te Kctl vouc;, UVctjlLKTOUc;,



OGOl av eiat KUTU TO jlETpov TOU nA.~8ouc; TOU mpctTOU.

36. LT~aac; 8 KcttTODTOUc; Toile; UTtOjlEVOVTctc; TOTe wile; ETilAEKTOUc; mpaAetc; KctTCt 8tct<popav npoc; T~V fKCtGTOU TtOlOTfllct ~youv <pUatV Kctl ODVctjllV, wile;
jlEV Kpelnovac; Ejl1tpocr8ev, wile; 8 A.omouc; uvaA.6ywc; oma8v Te Kctl8t0. jlEGOU.
37 ~DO 8 jlctVOCtTwpac; uypunvouc; Kctl <ppOVLjlOUc; ETilAe)'f\Vctl Mov Kctl ouo
pav8o<p6pouc; uno eKCtaTOU TCt)'llctTOc;, T~V 8 TOlctDTflV ETilAO)'~V KctL op8tVetctV
note1a8at v Tote; KOVToupepvlotc;, TOUT' anv v Tcttc; uKlmc;.

127-136 Strat., 1.4.

137-154 Strat., 1.5.

8 rrpah:wp ~youv MW A rrpah:w pl)youv BE

flfV tan B 129 apxwv MWA 6 apxwv BE
MWAB cr-rpa-rl)you E


I ad OtKacr-r~~ scr. mg. Kpi-rl)~ W I flEV MW AE

I 61 ava~~l:l)O'LV MWAE om. B I cr-rpa-rou

1 3 0 urro-ranw9at MW urro-racrcrcr9at ABE

&otK1 W

131 ad iotKWV scr. mg.

132-133 KaL .. cr-rpanwnKwv MWA om. BE



Ctpf16~ov-ra~ ABE 137 arr6 ... -rawa-ro~ MWA om. BE I ~avoou MWA om. BE I
i:Ka-rov-rapxa~ MWA i:K-rapxo~ BE 138 Ka\ 1 MWA om. BE I d~ avopciav MWA om. BE I
OEKapxa~ ABE OEKapxou~ MW 139 au-roxetpa~ MW icrxupou~ ABE scr. mg. EUTOAflOU~ w I
OEKapxa~ ABE OEKapxou~ MW 140 Ka\2 M -rou~ wABE 144 Eicrt MBE dmv W A






em~aA.t MW erri~aA.ov BE om. A 147 avaA.6yw~ MWA aA6yw~

apf16~ov w 150 KOVTOU~EpVtOl~ MWAE KOUVLOU~pVl0l~ B

148 ad otov scr. mg.


33 Then there is the protonotary of the theme and the chartoularios and, in
addition, the praetor, who is the chief legal officer of the theme. The first is an
official in the civil administration; the second sees to the registration and
inspection of the army; the third adjudicates the penalties of those who are
accused. Even if they must necessarily be subject to the general in some things,
nonetheless they are obliged to give an account of their own administration to
Our Majesty. We believe that through them we will more surely learn about the
condition and administration of civil and military affairs.
34 You will divide the entire army, 0 general, into various units and over
them, as was said, you will appoint intelligent, brave, and competent officers.
35 From the tagma or bandon select hekatontarchs, men of sound judgment, courageous, and brave, then the dekarchs, courageous and good at handto-hand fighting and, if possible, good shots with the bow. After the dekarchs, in
like manner, the pentarchs and tetrarchs. Then the guards for the files or of the
rows, that are called dekarchies, according to the thickness of the battle line.
There should be two of these for each file, resulting in five specially rated men in
each file. The rest of them, veterans and recruits together, that is, all the men,
should be assigned places in the files, depending on the size of the assembled
36. After placing these men in their positions, assign the specially rated
troops, keeping in mind the different qualities of each man, that is, his nature
and ability. The better men should be in front and then the rest in relative order
behind and in the middle.
37 Two alert and intelligent men must be selected as heralds and two as
standard-bearers from each tagma. Selection and assignment of this sort ought
to be made in the squads, that is, in the files.


Division of the Army and Appointment of Officers

Constitution 4
38. Kat vEla,



TCtHWElm KaLTIO<JQl Kal T!OtaL apl<JTepq au-ro\J.

40. Ta~elc; of:: Kal TU KOVTOD~Epvta ~ KaTU TIEVT, we; e'lpf]TaL, ~ OEKa avopac; ~
KaTU TE<J<Japac; ~ OKTW ~ oeKaE~, we; av YLVW<JKnc; TO KaTa Kmpov XP~<Jlf10V, Iva
Tft <JDVf]Elelq Oe<Jf10Uf1VOL KUL imp UAA~AWV tv Tate; f1CtXaLc; aywvL(Of1VOl
XPfJ<Jlf1WTPOl npoc; avopdav yvwv-rm. I EXLV o au-roue; KOLV~V Kal T~V xpe[av
Ka9' fKa<JTOV KOVTOD~EpVlOV, we; ~Of] 7tpOOlWpl<JGf19a.
41. <I>poVlfl(tJTepov o 1t0l~<Jetc; tav Ta~nc;, ei TUXOL, aoeA.<pouc; f.leTU aoeA<pWV
Kal <plA.ouc; f1TU <p[A.wv, f1GAl<JTa tv Tate; T~c; f!CtXf]c; napa-ra~WlV. o-r' av yap t<JTl
<0 KlVODVUOVTl 6 JtATj<JlOV npoo<ptAE<JTaToc;, avayKf] TOY ayanwvm <ptAOKLVouv6-repov {mp TOU JtAf]<JlOV Kal <ptAODf.lEVOD aywv[(w9m. Kal 0~ nc; aioouf1VO<; !l~ anooouvm xaplv <0 <p[A<.p
7tE1tOV8e <ptALKWV, ai<JXUVeTat KaTaAl1telV


TOY euepye-r~oavTa Kalnpw-roc; au-roc; ap~aoem <puy~c;.

42. Ta 0 KOVTOD~Epvta, we; ~Of] e'l7tOf1V, OlU TOUTO ano naA.mwv Kal VEWV
o-rpaTLWTWV oe1 yivwem, Iva flf]OE oi naA.mol Ka9' au-roue; Ta<J<JOf1VOl ao9eve1c; ei<JL Kal aouvaTOl, f.lf]OE oi ve<.inepol UTQKTOl eupe9w<JLV we; anelpa<JTOL. ol
f!EV yap, ei Kal YTJPULOl ana 7te7ttpaf1EVOl, oi o ei Kal vea(ov-rec; Kal avopdot


UAAU a7tetpo[ el<JlV.

43 Ou-rwc; ouv -rwv mwa-rwv ~youv ~avowv otmpouf1vwv t<p' au-ra, XP~
tmo-rf]vm au-ro1c; apxovmc; -roue; AYOf1EVOUc; KOflf]Tac;, auv[maoem o fKa<JTOV
-rawa uno avopwv TptaKO<JlWV KaTU TOY f1E<JOV TOTIOV. fl~Te 0 JtAEOV -re-rpa-

155-167 Onas. 24.

168-172 Strat., 2.7.

152 ~ MWA de; E ~ i B


38. Then, in the likely event that no servants are present, the poorer soldiers

we; eiK6c;, Jtatoec; OUK eio[, -roue; imo8eempovc; TWV mpanw-

n"ilv de; TU oayf!Ctpla Ct<popi(etv, TOUT' onv eic; -rp[a ~ TE<J<Japa oawapla avopa
va, Kal Tep6v nva -rwv tHoy[f!WV t~ al>Twv mpaTLw-rwv XP~<JLflOV f.leTU
mweiov, 4JnvL TO oA.ov -rouA.oov ~youv -ra oawapta aKoA.ou8dv 6<pelA.oumv.
39 'Opioetc; o Kal -rae; UKiac;, JtQ(JQl Kal JtOtQl 6<petAOD<Jl Oe~LQ. TOU ~avoou


should be detailed to the pack animals, that is, one man to three or four animals.
Another man from among the soldiers, highly regarded and able to carry the
standard, should be chosen, whom the whole baggage train or the pack animals
must follow.
39 The commander must then determine how many and which files are to
form on the right of the standard and how many and which on the left.s
40. Arrange the squads, as was said, by five men, by ten, by four, by eight, or
by sixteen, however you think useful at the time. As a result, bound by close ties
and struggling in battle on behalf of one another, they will prove more efficient
and valiant. They should have common duties in each squad, as we have already
41. You will act very wisely if you line up, depending on the situation,
brothers with brothers and friends with friends, especially in combat formations. For whenever the very close friend is near his friend who is in danger, he
will feel compelled to embrace danger himself to fight on behalf of his friend
next to him. Indeed, a man is ashamed not to return a favor to his friend for
those he has received out of friendship, and he is ashamed to abandon his
benefactor and be the first to take flight.
42. The squads, as we have already said, should be made up of old and young
soldiers so that the old men in formation by themselves may not be weak and
powerless, and the younger men may not turn out to be inexperienced and
disorganized. 9 The former, even if they are old, have a good deal of experience,
while the latter, even if young and brave, still have no real experience.
43 Once the various tagmata or banda have been properly lined up, it is
necessary to appoint officers, called counts, over them.1o Each tagma should
consist, on the average, of three hundred men. You should insist that the tagma

173-209 Strat., 1.4.

154 ~youv ... crawapta MW om. ABE

156 Tanw8m MW Tacrm:cr8m ABE


155 116crm ABE 11ot~crat

KOVTou~pvta MA KouTou~pvta W

KOUVTOU~Epvta B KOVTOii ~pvta E 159 KUL ABE om. MW 160 auTOuc; WABE auTolc; M
KovTou~pvtov MWAE KOUVTou~pvtov B I 11po0twptaaf.!E6a MWAE 11poc5twptcr6f.!E6a B


165 ad cS~ Ttc; scr. mg. l]youv EVTpE110f.lEVO<; TI]V ayaTI!]V I]V EXEt
11poc; auTov 6 c:ptA.oc; auToii W 165-166 aicSouf.!EVOc; MW aicrxuv6f.!Evoc; ABE 166 c:ptAtKwv
MWA c:ptA.wv BE 167 auToc; Va auToii MW om. ABE I iip~acr6m c:puy~c; MW c:puyelv ABE

162 i n!xot MWE om. AB


KOVTou~pvta MAE KOUTOu~pvta W KOUVTOU~pvta B I ~cS!] MW om. ABE 170 eim

MWA wat BE

171 y!]palot MW ypovTec; ABE

175 TptaKocriwv MWA T' BE

173 ec:p' !':auTa MW om. ABE


8. Onasander 24.
9 Strat. 2.7.

10. Strat. 1.4.


Division of the Army and Appointment of Officers

Constitution 4

KOO'LWV avopwv TO niyfla exnv 6p[crn<;, KCtV n:oA.uv atpa-rov EXL<;, fl~n:


\moKaTw TWV otaKocr[wv, Kav ecrTtv 6A.lyo<; 6 crTpaT6<;.

44. Taura 0 Ta Tawa-ra auva~et<; ei<; xtA.tapx[a<; ~Tot flOipa<; Ta<; A.eyofltva<;
opouyyou<;, Kat ETtlO'T~O'et<; auTOL<; flOtpapxa<; XPflO'lflOU<; avopdq. Kal <ppov~cret
Kat eu-ra~[q., ei ouvaTOV, Kat euyevdq. Kat eun:op[q. TOU<; AYOflEVOU<; opouyyap[ou<; ou<; note xtA.tapxou<; K0.A.ouv oi n:aA.moL
4S Ta<; o flOtpa<; -raU-ra<; ~TOt TOU<; opouyyou<; O'UVCt~et<; ei<; flEPfl ~youv
Tol>pfla<; Kal mcrT~crovTm aU-roi<; yvwfln T~<; pamA.da<; ~flwv flepapxm, oi
A.ey6flevo[ n:oTe Kat O'TpaTfJACtTat, vuv o Tfi O'UVfJ8dq. KaAOUfleVot TOUpflO.pxm
Kat ToU-rou<; <ppoVLflOU<; Kal euTaKTOU<; elvm Kat vaptTou<; Kat Efln:e[pou<;, ei
ouvaTOV, ei06-ra<; Kat ypO.flflaTa, Kat flCtAlO'Ta TOV LOU flEO'OU flEpou<;, TOV A.ey6fleVOV un:ocrTpCtTfJYOV, 6<petAOVTa, ei xpda YEVfJTUl, EV n:aO'l TOV TOU O'TpaTfJYOU
T6n:ov avan:A.fJpouv.
46. TauTa o TU flEPfl Tp[a O'UO't~Vat, <p' ol<; Kal Tpet<; ETtlO'T~O'OVTat TOUpflCtPXat, el<; eKaO'TO<; io[ou flEpou<; lipxwv, wa-re elvat TOU n:aVTO<; O'TpaLOU T~V
CtVWTCtTfJV TOfl~V Tp[a icrO.pt8fla flEPfl ~youv TOUpfla<;, TOUT' EO'Tt I flEO'OV, aptcrTepov Kal oe~t6v TaUTa o n:otd T~V n:acrav tO.~tV T~V un:o T4J O'TpaTfJY4' Te-rawtVfJV.


47 Xpi) Ot, W<; e'lpfJTUl, fl~Te TCtYfla n:A.tov TWV TeTpaKOO'LWV avopwv y[vecr8at ~youv TO LOU KOflfJTO<; po.voov, fl~Te opouyyov n:A.tov TWV TptO'XtALWV fl~Te


TOUpflaV n:A.tov Twv ~aKtO'XtA[wv.

48. Ei o O'UflPft n:A.Eov TOU A.exStvTo<; flETpou elvat TOV O'TpaTOV, KCtAAtOV
EO'Tl e~weev TWV flepwv ~TOt TWV TOUpflapxtwv EV oeuTtpq. TCt~l Ka8[crTa0'8at,
~youv v Tft omcr8ev T~<; n:poflCtXOU Ta~ew<; n:apaTay~vat EV un:opofJ8dq. Kal ei<;
q>UAaKT)V tWV n:A.ay[wv flepwv Kat ei<; VWTO<pUAaKa<; Kat ei<; vtopa<; ~TOt yKpUflflaTa Kal ei<; KUKAwaet<; TWV n:oAefl[wv.
49 Kat fl~Te TU<; TOUpfla<; fl~Te toil<; opouyyou<; flel~OU<; n:otdv, '(va flil W<;
fleyO.A.a Kal mn:oA.u EKTetVOfleVa an:et8~ n:po<; TU n:apayytAflaTa Kat cruyKexu-


flEVa eupe8wcrtv.
so. 1\AA.a Kal -rep6v crot XP~O'lflOV n:apmvtcrw, waTe flil n:O.v-ra Ta TCtYflaTa
~TOt po.voa ETtlTfJOeUet<; n:avTW<; '(aa n:oteiv, Iva flil EK LOU apt8f10U TWV po.vowv
178 auva~w;

MWBE awra~EL<; A

auva~et<; BE auvTa~et<; MWA

npwT!]V Kal flEytaTIJV cSta[peatv ABE



198 TOUpflUPXL<ilv




180 etmop[a
189 ole; MWA

191 avwTaTIJV


I iaaptSfla flEPIJ MW trsp. ABE I TOUpfla<; PG ToupflaL

191-192 aptaTepov


202 fld<ouc; MW fld<ovac; ABE

MW eunop[a cSta<pepovTE<; ABE

w BE


199 napaTayfjvm



205 fl~ MW AB fl~ naVTW<; tva notelv E






not have more than four hundred men, even if you have a very large
!lrtny, and not below two hundred, even if your army is small.
44 You should bring these tagmata together into chiliarchies or moirai, also
t~~tlled droungoi, and place over them competent moirarchs, noted for bravery,
good judgment, discipline and, if possible, also noble birth and wealth. These,
whom the ancient authors called chiliarchs, are now called droungarioi.
4S You should bring these moirai or droungoi together into divisions or
tourmai and let merarchs be appointed over them, with the approval of Our
Majesty. These officers were formerly called stratelatai but now are usually called
tourmarchs. They should be men of good judgment, disciplined, virtuous, experienced and, if possible, able to read and write. This is particularly important for
the commander of the second meros, called lieutenant general, who has to, if it
becomes necessary, assume all the duties of the general.
46. There should be three of these divisions and over them three tourmarchs
should be appointed, each one the commander of his own division. As a result,
the topmost division of the whole army is that of three divisions or tourmai of
equal strength, that is, center, left, and right. These then make up the entire
formation that is lined up under the general.
47. It is necessary, as was said, that the tagma, the bandon of the count,
should not be more than four hundred men or the droungos more than three
thousand or the tourma more than six thousand.
48. But if the army should happen to exceed the aforesaid size, it is better to
station those men outside the divisions or tourmarchies in the second line, that
is, behind the main battle line as a support force and also to guard the divisions
on the flanks, and as rear guards and for ambushes or traps and for encircling
the enemy.
49. Do not make the tourmai or the droungoi too large. Otherwise, as they
become larger and much more extended, they may end up confused and inattentive to the commands.
so. Let me give you another useful bit of advice. Be sure that you do not
bring all the tagmata or banda up to the same strength. Otherwise, the enemy


Division of the Army and Appointment of Officers

Constitution 4

euapt8f1T]TO<; TOt<; tx8pot<; 6 OTpaTO<; YEVT]Tat, onep JTOAACtKt<; fley6.A.a<; npo~VEl

Ta<; pMpa<;. ana TOlJTO q>UAUTTLV, flT]Of TWV TTpaKOOLWV avopwv, W<; c'iTIOflV,


nA.tov flT]Of TWV OtaKOOLWV avopwv 6A.ty<.inepa yivw8m aUTCt.

51. L1t6 noAAaKt<; Kat Ka8' EKaOTOV TCtYfla tav ouo pavoa eUTpmi<n<; avaoiKVU<J8at

tv T(il Katp(il T~<; TOU

JTOAEflOU OUflPOA~<; OUK axpflOTOV i<; TO KaTa-

JTA~~at Toil<; noA.efliou<;.

52. Xp~ o acpopto8~vat ano EKCtOTOU pavoou Ei<; Ta<; avayKa[a<; xpLa<;, w<;

c'ipT]Tat, TOU<; flaVOCtTwpa<; aypunvou<; Kat OUVTOU<; Kal yopyou<; Kat eucpwvou<;,

i06ta<;, i ouvaT6v, Kal otacp6pot<; yA.woom<; A.aA.etv, Kal pouKtv6.Twpa<; ohtv<;


Katp(il Ta ouv~8T] oaATILOOUOL, OaflLCtTWpa<;, TO~OJTOLOU<;, oaytTTOJTOLOU<; Kat

TOU<; A.omou<; npo<; T~v t~ 8ou<; ota-runwmv.

53 ITpooa<pop[ot<; o Kat nva<; TOU<; 6cpdA.ovTa<; Ta eUptOKOflVa TWV


anoAADflEVWV ouvayetV Kat anoot06Vat TOL<; KDptot<; auTWV.

54 'Donep 0 tnl TOU TOUAOOU TWV KapaA.Aap[wv avayKatOV 6piom TOU<;
6<petAOVta<; tmo-r~vat apxovTa<;, oihw<; Kat tnl TOU TOUAOOU ~TOt TWV Ufla~tWV

T~<; ne<tK~<; TCt~eW<; acpop[01<; nva<;, oi<; 6cpetAOUOL nei8w8m o[ TOU AYOflEVOU
55 Kapayo<; yap A.tynm 6 Ota TWV

Ufla~wv Kal Tptp6A.wv Kat TWV aA.Awv fllll

xavwv ytVOfleVO<; 1teptoptaf10<; i<; aocpaAtUV TOU OTpaTOU.

56. Kal Ka8' EKaOTOV flEpo<; eva npwTOV TOV apxetV 6cpfA.ovTa Kat OT]flelOV,

w<; tnl TWV LTITIWV, tv-r8~vat d<; Ta<; pou<;, '(otov EKUOTOU apt8flOU Iva eiolv
eUOTJAOt Kal cpavepal Tot<; ioiot<;.
57 . KaA.w<; 01:: Kal T~<; n<tK~<; Ta~w<; tnf1V~08T]flV. 8et yap Kal TaUTTJ<; T~v

8taipeotV unoypa\jfat Kat TOU<;


auTfi TUTTOflEVOU<; apxovTa<; T Kat aA.Aou<;

can easily estimate the size of the army by counting standards, often resulting in
l!erious harm. However, carefully observe our prescription that they should not
~::onsist of more than four hundred men or fewer than two hundred.
51. If you arrange to have each tagma frequently display two standards at the
time when battle is about to be joined, it will be helpful in confusing the enemy.
52. In each bandon men must be set apart for necessary chores, as was said,
Including two heralds, alert and intelligent, with vigorous, pleasant voices and
who, if possible, know how to speak severallanguages. 11 Trumpeters who sound
the customary signals at the proper time, weapon makers, bow makers, arrow
makers, and the rest according to the customary regulations.
53 You should also assign certain men the duty of collecting whatever lost
articles have been found and returning them to their owners.
54 Just as in the cavalry baggage train it was necessary to decree that officers
had to be placed in charge, so for the baggage or wagon train of the infantry
formation you should designate certain officers whom the men in the baggage
train, also called karagos, must obey.
55 Karagos is the term for the barrier formed by the wagons, caltrops, and
other devices for the protection of the army.
56. In each division one man should be first in command. Just as with the
horses, a special mark should identify the oxen which belong to each arithmos
so the men can easily recognize them as their own.
57. It is well that we have kept the infantry in mind. For it is necessary to
describe its various units and to appoint the officers assigned to that arm as well
as the other leaders, both of higher and lower rank, and to make clear their

~Yfl6va<; flLKpou<; T Kal fley6.A.ou<; Kamm~vm Kal Ta<; aMwv OflAWom 6vofla213-312



toT~ tx6po1~ MW om. ABE 1 crtpato~ ABE crtpatl]yo~ MW 208 tetpaKocriwv MWA
u' BE 210-211 ava8eiKvucr6at MW ava<paivw6at ABE 212 noA.qtiou~ MABE
tvavtiou~ w 214 -21 5 yopyou~ ... ei86ta~ MW yp!]y6pou~ Kat KaAA.t<pwvou~ ytvwcrKOVta~
ABE 215 8ta<p6potc; yA.wcrcrat~ MW trsp. ABE 216 tv MW tv tw ABE I craA.nicroum MW 1 BE A 218 npocra<popicret~ MW a<popicrw; AE 6.<pop~crL~ B
221 outw~ MW outw ABE 1 ~tot. .. Ct!la~twv MW om. ABE 222 ol MW A 6 BE
Kapayoii MW Kapayou ~tot rwv alla~twv ABE 224 yap MWA 81: BE 227 'Lnnwv
MWA lnnwv BE 1 vte6ijvat AB vte8dvat MW vn6ijvat E 227-228 eicr\v ... Ka\ MW EK
tij~ xp6a~ TOU Gl]!lelOU AE EK tij~ xpeiac; TOU G!]!lelOU B 228 i8iot~ MW i8iot~ EKUGtal
yivwvtat AE ioiot~ EKUGTOL yivwvtat B 230 taTTO!lEVOU<; MW taGGO!lEVOU~ ABE I aAA.ouc;







Division of the Army and Appointment of Officers

64 Constitution 4





a[ar:,, OTrWC, T Trepl mh~c; fK TWV TraAatWV rrapAU~OflV TaKTlKWV Kal OTrWC, ol
V(inpot flxptc; ~flWV Thv a1nwv Km~[v T Kal KmaaTamv rraprrfl\lfUVTo.
s8. Ol flEV yap apxa10l TrOAUTrAT]8iac; lmopouvTC, '{awe; mpaTEUflUTWV TWV
TOU OVOflaTOC, Ola ThY ayav T~c; TaKTlK~c; flEAeTT]C, Kal rrpa~WC, CtflAdac; rrapa
fllKpov rrapa TrUVTWV ayvoOUflfVOU, muTa ouv Ta TUYflaTU TWV <JKOUTUTWV arro
OeKa~ CtKlWV trro[ouv, avopwv OlQKO<JlWV vr:,', TOUT' E<JTLV, EKU<JTT]V aK[av
avopwv tr:,' UT0 TTpaywv(JJ apt8fl4J. Upt<JKTat o tv fKdvmc; ~ cpaA.ay~ Tr(wv
avopwv ,09(,', ~v fKUAOUV <JTpaTT]yiav Kal TOY f<j>l<JTUflEVOV auTfi mpaTT]y6v.
59 Thv o TAiav rrapaTa~lV trro[ouv TUYflUTWV ~o', CtKlWV XlAlWV KO',
avopwv flUp[wv ,(,TT0', \lflAWV 0 TWV AYOflfVWV aaytTTmwpwv Kal CtKOVTl<JTWV
Kal <J<pV00~0Al<JTWV, avopwv rTJP9W ~youv ~fll<JlQV TWV \lflAWV dvm Thv TU~LV
lrrrrewv ~TOl <JUflfllKTWV Tfi TrE(tKfi TU~1 avopwv Ka~aAA.ap[wv ,09(,'. Kal TOUTWV
6 ~YOUflEVOC, Ayno mpaTT]y6c;.
6o. Kal muTa flEV Eflept(ov oihwc; T<l o TUYflaTU TWV <JKOUTUTWV Eflrrpoa8V de; rrp6flaxov TU~LV rrapemaaov KaTCt TWV tvavT[wv Kal TaUTT]V ic; o'
'iaa flfpT] fTrOlOUV, Oe~LOV, apt<JTp6v, flf<JOV aptan:p6v, flf<JOV 0~LOV.
61. Ta o TWV \lflAWV TUYflUTa io[q., Ota TO yopyouc; dvm Kal A.acppouc; ~
flrrpoa8v de; tmoiw~tv nvv tx8pwv mTTov ~ de; Ta n:A.ayta ~ trrl Tou vwTou
T~C, rrpWTT]C, rrapmay~c; ~ we;~ xpda ~n:a[m, Trpt WV KaTa xwpav p0UflV.
232 i'mw~ T MW w~ ABE

233 j.lEXPl~ ~j.lWV MW om. ABE

Ka-raa-ramv MW Ka-racr-ramv 11expt~ ~11wv ABE

urrorropoiiv-re~ taw~

MWBE -ri:t -ri:t A

ave;' ABE

MW om. ABE

tl!les. We have taken the material about this and about their deployment and
{'ormation from that which the ancient tactical authors and the more recent ones
to our own time have transmitted. 12
58. The ancients were fortunate enough to have large numbers of men in
their armies, especially those once called hoplites and now called skoutatoi.
Actually, nobody even knows those terms because of the grave neglect of the
ltUdy and practice of tactics. Those authorities formed the tagmata of heavy
btfantry from sixteen files, 256 men, that is, each file of sixteen men making up
i foursquare body of troops. Among those the phalanx of foot soldiers is numbered at 4,096; it was also called a strategia and was commanded by a general.
59 The ancient writers formed the complete battle line of 64 tagmata or
1,024 files, for a force of 16,384 men, in addition to 8,192 light-armed troops,
tmch as archers, javelin throwers, and slingers. They assigned half of the light
infantry to the formation of the heavy infantry, <once> called hoplites or
skoutatoi. The horsemen lined up in formation with them or mixed in with the
infantry formation came to 4,096 cavalry. The leader of these was called general.
6o. This is how they divided the units. They stationed the heavy infantry
companies in a forward position as a first line of battle against the enemy, and
they divided this into four equal divisions, right, left, right center, left center.
61. They stationed the light infantry companies off by themselves, because
they were lightly armed and fast, either out in front to pursue the enemy or on
the flanks or to the rear of the first battle line or wherever need dictated. We will
speak about these in the proper place.

234 rroA.urrA.118ia~ ... rcrw~ W rroA.urrA.118ia~

M rroA.U rrA.~8o~ xov-re~ ABE

aj.ltA.etav -r~~ mKnK~~ ABE


236 iiyav ... Uj.lEAda~ MW rrav-reA.~

237 rrapa MWA rrapi:t -roii BE

I mum MWA mii-r'


I -ra

238 oeKa~ MW tc;' ABE I aKtwv MW aKtwv ~youv A.oxwv ABE I vr;' MW

239 v MWA om. BE

239-240 rre(wv avopwv MW trsp. ABE

MWBE -re-rpaKtaXtA.iwv vev~Kovm A


I <ptaTUj.lVOv


240 ,OQc;'

MW mDHJ~ ~you11evov ABE

242 ,c;-rrro' MW E~UKlOXlAlWV -re-rpaKocr[wv oyoo~Kovm

-recrcrapwv A e~aKtaXlAlWV -re-rpaKOcr[wv rro' BE

243 cr<pevoo~OAlOTWV MW cr<pEVOOV~TWV A

cr<pevoovtcr-rwv BE I 11P9W MW 6KmKtaXtA.1wv i:Ka-rov vev~Kov-ra .SUo A 6KmKtcrxtA.1wv P9W

B OKTUKLOXLAtwv eKa-rov 9W E I -rwv ... dvm MWA trsp. BE

245 ,OQc;' MW -re-rpaKtcrxtA.1wv

I Atyno MW AE A.eyno 6 B 248 o'

MWBE -recrcrapa A 249 tcra j.lEPI"J MW trsp. ABE I 11tcrov aptcr-rep6v MW A om. BE
250 -rawam MWA -rawa-rwv BE 251 mnov MWA E-racrcrov BE I -ri:t MWA om. BE I
rrl ... vw-rou MW orr[crw ABE 252 rrapa-ray~~ MW rrapa-ra~ew~ ABE I ~rra[-ret Va ~rrem
MW U1l~Tel ABE I KUTU xwpav MW EV TW O.pj16(ovn T01!W ABE scr. mg. I"JYOUV El~ TOV T01!0V
vev~KOVTU ~ A OQc;' BE



246 6 MWA om. BE


Especially Aelian and Arrian.


Division of the Army and Appointment of Officers

Constitution 4
62. Toi.><; 01:: Ka~aUapiou<; ei<; ouo flEPfl 8u:A6vn:<; KaTa Ta rrAityta T~<; TWV

m:(wv rrapma~ew<; -ranov I ~o118oi.><; Kat 6~w<; mn6e11vou<; -rot<; vav-rim<;.


63."Iva ouv ll~ Ka6' Kamov A.eyw rrt A.em(ii -rwv -re Mxwv Kat -rwv -ra~ewv


62. They divided the cavalry into two groups and stationed them along the
tlinks of the infantry line to support it and to launch rapid attacks against the

Kat TWV Eq>taTaflEVWV au-rot<; TOT apxovTWV TU<; OVOflaaia<; 8ta T~V vuv mhwv

63. Now then, in order that I may not have to discuss in detail the nomen-

axpf!aTiav Kat napa mlm TOt<; a-rpaTEUOflEVOl<; axe86v rrou auTWV aaacpetav T

t:lature formerly in use for the files and the formations and the officers who were
pllced over them, because they are not in use today and practically nobody
l'rving in the armed forces has any clear understanding of them, and in order
not to waste time inopportunely, I will touch upon the other essential matters
clearly and succinctly. For, so it seems, those companies of cavalry and
infantry existed when the armies were large and the soldiers proved to be
numerous, noble, and brave.
64. But now, 0 general, if our units are small and not even equal in strength,
indeed much less, it is not easy to fix a definite number for a tagma, whether
among the cavalry or among the infantry-it could end up with a number of
men in excess of 2 56 having nothing to do or, if inappropriately assigned to
serve in other tagmata, they might turn out to be disoriented and useless.
65. It is better to form the companies for each unit in accord with the needs
of the army and the manpower at hand, depending, of course, on the capabilities
of the troops available at that time. Each unit should have its own standard and
officer or count, a noble man of sound judgment, brave, and good at hand-tohand fighting.
66. Make sure that the files of each infantry tagma are sixteen deep, with the
men organized according to their duties in combat. Form the battle line in
proportion to the numerical strength of the army as it is found there.

Kat UKaTaAf!'J!LaV, Kat '(va ll~ UKaipw<; 8arraVWflV TOV Katp6v, TWV avayKato-repwv w<; aacpw-repwv Kat auvTOflW<epwv mA.~'J!Oflat. Ketva flEV yap, w<;
260 eotKe, -ra

-re -rwv Ka~aUapiwv 8ta-rawma Kat -ra -rwv rre(wv, rrA.~eou<; ~v a-rpa-

na<;, wa-re Kat TOaOUTOU<; Kat yevva[ou<; KaT' av8petaV eup[aKW8at aTpaTtWTa<;.
64. Nuv 8,

wa-rpa<f!yE, euapt6fl~TWV

OVTWV Kat llf!8 '(aov x6v-rwv TO

flETpov, flUAAOV 8 Kat rroA.i.> :\anov, OUK eanv euxep<; 6piam TO flETpov TOU
-rawa-ro<; oihe v -rot<; Ka~aAA.apiot<; oihe v TOt<; rre(ot<;, tva fl~, w<; eiK6<;, ~ <oi>
265 rreptTTUOVT<; TOU rroaou TWV ave,' av8pwv apy~awmv ~ TIUAlV, av aKaipw<;
UAAOl<; TUyfla<Jl rrpoa-reewmv, W<; UTUKTOl avwcpeA.d<; eupeewmv.

6s. 1\A.A.a Ta flEV -rawa-ra TIOlelV ei<; EKaa-rov apt6flOV W<; arrav-r~aet ~ TOU
rrA.~eou<; xpeia Kat TO rroaov TWV rrpoa6VTWV av8pwv KaTa T~V OUVafllV TOU

KaTa TOV Katpov euptaKOflEVOU A.aou Kat ~av8ov exnv 'l8tov EKaaTOV aUTWV Kat
270 apxov-ra ~TOt KOflf!Ta yevvaiov Kat q>pOVlflOV Kat av8pdov Kat KaTa xe'ipa

11axwem 8uva11evov.
66. Ta<; flEVTOl aKia<; EKUaTOU TUYflaTo<; TWV ne(wv rrapacpuA.anetv arro

8eKa~ av8pwv 6p8tveueaem ei<; -rov <~<; flUXfl<; KaflaTov, -r~v 8 rrapa-ra~tv rrpo<;
TO flETpov TOU euptaKOflEVOU a-rpa-rou rrotdv.
253 OleA.6vte~ W tA6vTe~ M Olaxwpi~ov-re~ ABE 255 A.tyw ... A.emwABE A.tywv bnA.emw
MW I Mxwv ... TWV2 WABE Mxwv Te Kal M scr. mg. TWV opOlVWV w 255-256 Kal...
apxovTWV MWA om. BE 256 !':qncrTUflEVWV WABE Ct<plOTUflEVWV M 256-257 T~V ...
axpTJOT[av MW TO axpTJOTa elval ainu viiv ABE scr. mg. TO !::lVUl viiv avevtpyf]TOV w
257-259 rrapa ... !':mA.~'\'OflUl MW fl~ o rrapa nvo~ Twv crTpaTeUOflEvwv ylvwcrKecr9m Ta
avayKm6Tepa Kal cra<pecr-repa Kal OUVTOflWTepa AE~W ABE 257 ad acracpeuiv scr. mg. TJYOUV
Ola TO alilayvwa-rov W 259 ad cra<pecrTpwv scr. mg. T]youv eKelva w~ yvwplflwTepa A.eyelv
W 259-260 w~ eolKe MW om. ABE scr. mg. w~ <pa[ve-rm W 260-261 a-rpana~ BE
crTpaTelU~ MWA 261 KaT' MWAE KaTa B 262 euapl9fl~TWV MW oA.iywv ABE scr. mg.
OAlYWV w 263 flUAAOV ... Kal MW aAA.a Kal A aAA.a BE I euxep~ MW eUKOAOV ABE
264 ad eiK6~ scr. mg. w~ ecrnv !':voexoflevov W I oi ci. Va om. codd. 265 rreplneuovTe~ MW
rreplcrcreuovTe~ ABE I apy~crwcrtv MWAE apx~crwmv B I CtKaipw~ MW om. ABE 266 w~ ...
eupeewmv MW CtKaipw~ avw<peA.ei~ eupeewmv w~ ii-raKTOl ABE 268 TO rrocrov MW ~
7!000TT]~ ABE 269 TOV MWA om. BE 270 KaTa xeipa MW arro xelpO~ ABE
271 fl<'txeaem ouvaflevov MW trsp. ABE 272 rrapa<puA<'tnelv MW om. ABE 273 OeKa~
MW u;' ABE iopOlveuecr9m MW opOlveum ABE 274 flETpov MW flEpo~ ABE






Division of the Army and Appointment of Officers

Constitution 4

67. TaUTr]V o d~ Tooapa 'Loa flEPJl OlaVEfllV, t~ oowv cmavT~Ol TaYfl<iTWV

Kal CtKLWV, w~ dpf]Tal flOl Kai avw8V, Tofn' onv [~ 0~u)v ou apxl 6 Oc~lO~
flpapXJ1~ ~TOl mpatf]AaTf]~ ov TOUpflaPXJlV KaAOUflV, d~ aptmpov ou apXEl 6
lH.OVUflO~ TOUpflapxJl~, Kai d~ Ta hpa Mo flEOa flEPJl 6f1oiw~, tv oi~ 'ioTaTm
Kal To Tof> oTpaTJlyou ~avoov.
68. 6ov o tonv tK npl000U T~~ napaTa~W~ <pUAa1'TlV 6A.iyou~ Kal
OKOUTaTOU~ Kal 1JilAOU~ tv uno~Of]8i<:t Kai apxovta exlv 'LOtov ~ napa oou TOT
Ka8toTaflVOV 'iva, tav XPia yVf]Tal, d~ TU aKpa T~~ napa-ray~~ ~wev TWV
Ka~aAA.apiwv ~ d~ Ta~ Ctfla~a~ ~ i~ Tpou~ T6nou~ flTU TWV iOtKwv auTWV
69. Xp~ o, tav 0AlYWTp0~ tonv 6 OTpaTo~ TWV I KO' XlAlCtOWV n~WV, fl~
n0lLV 0' flEpf] T~V napata~lV, aAA.a y', tv T(i> flE<J<.p 0 f1Epl Taoow8m TO TOU
oTpa-r11you ~avoov, 4J Kal ndewem Ta A.oma ~avoa 6<piA.oumv.
70. I1p6Tcpov 0 xwpiol~ [~ 1JilAOU~ TOU~ L00Ta~ TO~U0al ~ Kal fla8LV
OUVaflEVOU~, Kal yopyou~ Kal VWTpou~, iKaVOU~ nf]Oi'iv onou ~OUAOVTal. tav
flEV unp Ta~ KO' XlAlaOa~ dol TO ~fllOU flEPO~, L o 6A.tywTPO~ TWV KO' XlAlaowv, TO TpLTOV flEPO~ tv EKaonp apl8fl4> Kai TOT 6pOlVU8~vm mhou~, w~ nov
Kal QVWTEpw dnOflV, L~ OEKapxia~ Kal tmoT~Val UlJTOl~ OEKapxa~ XPJlOlflOU~
Kal apxovTa eva, TOY AYOflVOV apxtoaytnaTwpa ~youv apxlTO~OTf]V.
71. To o flEVOV OtflOlpov flEpo~ ~ ~fllOU OlaVlflal d~ QKLU~ ano avopwv lf]',
naA.mwv 1' Kal vtwv. QKLal 0 AtyovTm, w~ flOl dpf]Tal, TCt AYOflVa KOVTOU~pvta. Kal Tou~ fll:v Mo auTwv, Tou~ uno0<JTpou~ ~Tot Tou~ nA.dova~ TWV t<;',
d~ TU~ Ctfla~a.::; Kal d~ ETEpa~, w~ ELKO~, xpda.::; aoxoAto8m, TOU~ 0Ka~ oi:
275 ei<; Tiaaapa MWAB o' E I OtaVEf1tv MW &axwpi<etv ABE scr. mg. Otafiept<etv W I
aTiavT~aet MW iiv aTiavT~O!] ABE 276 w<; ... iivw6ev MW Ka6w<; avwTEpw e'Lp!]Tat ABE
278 Mo flEOa MW flEOa MoAB flEOa WE 280 ad oov scr. mg. apflo<ov W I 6 MWA om.
BE 281 Kai2 MW om. ABE I xetv MW exoVTa ABE 282 Tiapamyfi<; MW TiapaTa~ew<;
ABE 283 iOtKwv MW ioiwv ABE 284 auvTpexovT<; ~o!]6wmv MWAB auVTpexovTo<;
~0!]6Wat E 285 eOTlV MWA imapx!] BE 286 {j' MW Teaaapa ABE I y' MWBE Tpia A
287 wMW wnvt ABE 288-290 7!p6Tepov ... flEpo<; MW eav flEV ouv imp TU<; KO' XlAtaOa<;
eiaiv (wmv BE) oi aTpaTEUOflEVOl TO iifltaU flEpo<; xwpiaet<; ei<; '\flAOU<; TOU<; ei06m<; TO~eiiaat ii
Kal f1U6lv ouvafit'vou<; yopyou<; Kal vewTepou<; iKavou<; 7!!]6i'iv oTiou ~ouAoVTat ABE
290-291 XtAta6wv MW XtAtaowv eialv A XtAtaowv eial BE 291-292 w<; ... e'lTIOfleV MW
om. ABE 293 apxovm MW A apxovm<; BE 294 flEVOV MW lJ1l0Alfl1lUVOf1VOV ABE I ii
ABE om. MW I Otaveiflat MW Otafiepiam ABE I aTii:J MWA om. BE 295 T ABE om. MW I
w<; ... e'ip!]Tal MW om. ABE 295-296 KOvTou~pvta MAE KOuTou~tpvta W KOUVTou~tpvta
B 296 Mo MW AB E I fiTot ... t~' MW eKaOTI]<; aKia<; ABE 297 w<; elKO<; MW om. ABE

I OeKa~ MWBE 6 tc;' A

297-298 6 aTfivm MW YaTaa6m ABE


67. Divide this line composed of all the tagmata and files present into four
Qqual units, as I mentioned above, that is, right under the command of the right
merarch or stratelates, whom we refer to as tourmarch, left under the command
of the left tourmarch, and likewise for the other two middle divisions, in which
the standard of the general is flown.
68. A few soldiers, both heavy and light infantry, not really needed in the
battle line, with their own officer or one to be designated by you at the time,
1hould be held in reserve so that, if it becomes necessary, together with their
own officers, they may hasten to the support of either of the flanks on the line
beyond the cavalry or the wagons or other places.
69. If the army consists of less than twenty-four thousand foot soldiers, you
must not form the battle line into four divisions but into three. In the center
meros raise the general's standard, which the others should use as a guide.
70. First, for the light-armed troops, you should select men who know how
to shoot with a bow or who are able to learn, young and vigorous men, capable
of leaping wherever they wish. If there are more than twenty-four thousand
men, the archers should be half in each company; if fewer than twenty-four
thousand, then a third. They should be organized, as we mentioned someplace
above, into dekarchies with competent dekarchs placed over them and one
commander known as the chief archer or chief bowman.
71. Divide the remaining half or two thirds into files of eighteen men, both
veterans and recruits. Files, as I have said, are also called squads. Two of those
men, somewhat less qualified, that is, in addition to the other sixteen, should be
assigned to the wagons or to other tasks as needed. Have the remaining sixteen


Division of the Army and Appointment of Officers

Constitution 4

m~vm v Tfi rcapa-ra~L Kal mm~vm auToi<; Tou<; -\oxayou<; Ayoflvou<;, yv-

va[ou<; Kal XPTJGlflOU<;.


72. 'EK TOUTWV o nov u:;' <TOU<;> XPTJGlflWTpou<; OKTW fflTCpoa8v ~ 6ma8v
T~<; aK[a<; ~TOL TOU Mxou KaTaaT~Vat-T~V yap TWV L<;' avopwv aK[av Mxov

KaAouv oi rca,\mo[-m~am 0 auTou<; d<; Tov rcpwTov T6rcov Kal d<; Tov
0uTpov Kal d<; Tov Tp[Tov Kal d<; TOV T-rapTov Kat d<; Tov ~Kat0Ka-rov Kal d<;
Tov TCVTKatOKaTov Kat i<; TOV TwaapLGKat0tKmov Kat d<; Tov TpLaKmoKa305 TOV, tVa Kat flEXPL TWaapwv avopwv flEpl(OflEVOU TOU ~a8ou<; ~TOL TOU rcaxou<;
T~<; aK[a<; v OUVUfll EGTt Kat ~ oupa auT~<; Kat TO flETWTCOV. TOU<; oi;: AOLTCOU<;,

TOU<; tJTCOOEWTpou<;, v T4> flEG4J auT~<; TU~at.

73 TouTOU<; oi;: TOU<; L<;' OVOflUGUL eva reap' eva arco rcptf.!WV Kal GKOUVOWV
~TOL rcpWTOO"TaTWV Kat ETClGTQTWV. TOU<; o DUO v aUTOl<; OLWVUflOU<; dvm, Kat

310 TOV flEV rcpwTOV KaAE"ia8m Aoxayov Kat rcpif.!OV ~youv rcpWTOaTUTT]V, TOV oi;:

OEUTpov OEKUPXTJV Kat O"Koflvoov ~youv maTUTT]V, Kat ~~<; OflOLw<; wau dvm
Tov 6,\ov aTixov K rcpwToamTwv Kal mma-rwv auyKdflVO<;.
74 "Iva oi;: Kal apxw8m UXPW<; DUVaVTUL Kal Ctpf.!OOLW<; GUVOLUYLV aU~
AOL<;, KaAAL6v aTL flCtAAov TOUTOU<; d<; DUO flOVa KOVTOu~pvLa yivw8m, [va o[
315 flEV TCplflOL ~youv oi rcpwTOGTUTat LGL flETU TOU Aoxayou, o[ oi;: GKOUVOOL ~youv

maTaTm flT<'t Tofl OKapxou oihw flEVTOL waT, Kav v Tfi 6Laywyfi I Ol!lPTJVTm,
aU' ouv v Tfi TU~l ~VWflEVOL OVT<;, oi OKae~ Tfi ~ou,\fi Kat yvwfln TOU AOX-


their place in the battle line and appoint courageous and competent men,
n\Ued group leaders, over them.
72. Of these sixteen, station the eight most competent in the front and in the
l'tt\r of the file or lochos-the ancients called the file of sixteen men a
h::lchos 13 -station them in positions one, two, three, four; and sixteen, fifteen,
t\'1urteen, thirteen. In this way, even if the depth or thickness of the file is
rttiuced to four, its front and rear will still be strong. Line up the remaining
f:fli:!n, the weaker ones, in the middle of the file.
73 Designate these sixteen men one by one as primoi or sekoundoi or
protostatai and epistatai. Two should bear a double designation, that is, call the
first one leader and primos or protostates, call the second dekarch and
1ekoundos or epistates. Likewise, in due order, the whole row will be made up of
protostatai or epistatai.
7 4 To make it easier to command them and get them to operate more
harmoniously with one another, it is really better to arrange them in two squads.
The primoi or protostatai go with the group leader and the sekoundoi or
!!pistatai with the dekarch. In this manner, even though they are separated by
this arrangement, still these sixteen soldiers are united in formation and are
subject to the decisions and will of the group leader. As a result, good order is
maintained and the men can be easily commanded.

ayou T(t80VTUL EVTU8v yap Kal ~ TU~l<; <pUAUTTTaL Kal UKOAW<; apxwem

300 t<;' MABE oeKa~ WI T01J~ ci. Va om. codd. 301 T~~ ~Tot MW om. ABE I ad A6xou
scr. mg. Tov opotvou W 302 auTou~ MABE auToi~ W 303 i:~KatOEKUTOV AE t<;' B
i:vKatOEKaTov MW 304 TwcraptcrKmoKaTov MW AE to' B 304-305 TptcrKmoKmov
MW AE ty' B 305 flEXPt MWAB flEXPt nilv E 306 eaTl Kal MA EOTLV Kal w innipxTJ BE
308 t<;' MWBE OeKUE~ A 309 QUO MWAB
E I OtWVUf!OU~ elvat MW uno ouo
xetv OVOflUTWV ABE 310 nptf!OV ~youv MW om. ABE 311 creKoiivoov ~youv MW om.
ABE I Kal 2 Of!OlW~ MW om. ABE 313 euxepw~ MW EUKOAW~ ABE I OUVUVTat MWA
OUVWVTat BE I Upf!OOlW~ MW Ctpf!O~OVTW~ ABE 314 ean MAB eanv WE I ouo f!OVU
315 npif!Ot. .. oP MW om. ABE I eial MW &at ABE I Tou MWAE om. B I creKoiivoot ~youv
MW om. ABE 316 ouTw ... waT MW om. ABE I Kilv MW Kilv yap ABE I ot~pf]VTat Va
&dpf]VTat MW Otl]pf]flEVOt eialv AB Otatpf]flEVOt eialv E scr. mg. f]youv Kav ev Tf]
auvavaaTpocp~ OtaKexwptOf!EVOt wcrtv W 317 TU~Et MW napaTa~a ABE I oeKa~ MAE t<;'
WB I Kal MWBE Kal T~ A 318 cpuMnTat MWA c:puMacrTat BE 319 ouvavmt MWA

13. "Lochos" originally meant an ambush, a group of bandits. Their chief, "lochagos;' is
here translated as group leader.


Division of the Army and Appointment of Officers

Constitution 4
75 Xp~m11ov 8 tanv, tav taTI ouvaT6v, !l~ 116vov KaTa nm6n]La ~youv

7 5. It is useful, when possible, to arrange the sixteen men in each file of

lJ\jtUXLUV 6p01VU1V 1'0U<; 1<;' Ka0' EKCtaLTjV aK[av 1'WV GKOU1'Ct1'WV, UAAU Kat KU1'U

heavy infantry not only according to their qualifications and good attitudes but
iUSo according to stature. By stationing the taller men in front, the whole battle
line will look much better ordered. But if it cannot be done according to stature
and bravery, then certainly it is necessary, as we have said, to station the more
motivated and valiant men of each file in the front and rear positions, with the
weaker ones in the middle, in the manner we have sketched.
76. For this reason, therefore, the ancients fixed the depth of the infantry
files or rows in combat at sixteen men. This provides an adequate number of
troops that should not be exceeded, and in emergencies it can be divided
quickly and in an orderly fashion and reduced to only one man. These,
therefore, are what we have determined concerning the division of the army and
the assignment of both higher and lower ranking officers to be lined up with it.

~AIK[av, '(va ol !laKp6Tepo1 !lnpoa0ev maa611evm U1'UK1'0Tpav T~V napaTa~lv

cmood~wmv. i OE !l~ anav1'Q. npoc; ~AIKLUV KUL avopdav, TtCtV1'Wc;, we; e'iTtO!lV,
Toil<; U'\fUX01'pouc; Kal yevvawTpouc; EKCtaLTj<; aK[a<; Otov taTlv de; Toile;

!lnpoa0ev Kal 6ma0ev Tonou<; Taaawem, Toile; of: imooeeaTpouc; de; To


auTWV, Ka0' ov ip~Ka!lV 1'p6nov.

76. 'Dme ouv OIU 1'0U1'0 Kal ol apxatOI ano u:;' avopwv 1t~WV 1'0 ~a0oc; 1'WV
UKIWV ~1'01 1'WV 6po[vwv wplaav tv m1c; !laxmc;, tTt10~ KUL 1'0 !1E1'pov apKOUV
taLIV, 01tp U1tp~a[vnv ou XP~ KUL tv Tate; xpLmc; ULQK1'Wc; KUL GUV1'0!1Wc;


!lPl~1'UI Kal A1t1'UV1'Ul !lEXPI<; tvoc; avop6c;. maaul'a !lEV ouv KUL1tpl1'~c; 1'0U
a1'pa1'0U 01atpaewc; 1' Kat KULaaLCtGWc; KUL1'WV tnl1'0ll1'WV 1'1'UY!lEVWV apx6v1'WV !l1Kpwv Te Kal 11eyaA.wv o1wp1aa!leea.

320 an ouvm6v MW votxnm ABE

scr. mg. eutOAf!LUV W

320-321 Jtot6np:a ... etnJJUXiav MW avop[av ABE

321 Ka8' ... crKoutatwv MW om. ABE I aK[av WABE aKtWV M

322 eutaKtotepav Va einaKtwtepav MW (corr. wino W) cpo~epwtepav AE cpo~epotepav B

323 arravta rrpo~ MW votxnat Kal Kata ABE I Kal avopdav MW Kal KUtCt avop[av

tOUtOU~ tacrcrea8at ABE 324 EU'JIUXOtipou~ MW rrpo8Uf!Otipou~ ABE I otov ecrtlv MW

om. ABE 325 tacrcrea8m MW om. ABE 326 eip~KUf!EV tp6rrov MW trsp. ABE
327 wcrte ... toiito MW OlCt toiito OE ABE It<;' MABE OEKUE~ w 327-328 tWV ... ~tOl MW
om. ABE 328 Wptcrav MW wp[cravto ABE I tv ... J.UlXUL~ MW om. ABE 329 imep~a[vetv
MWA ~a[vetv BE I eutaKtW~ MWBE GUf!f!Etpw<; A
331 toutwv M toutw WBE toiito A

I Kal GUVLOf!W~ MW om. ABE



ITepl onA.wv

About Weapons

K/..n)o 11Ev Toivuv Tft u11wv tvoo~6Tf]n Twv d<; Toil<; not..11ou<; auvTEtv6vTwv OTtAWV TE Kat Ct7to<JKEUWV TCE~lKft TE Kat Ka~a/../..aptKft mpan(t q:>pOVTl<Jat,
5 W<JTE Taum otallEVELV CtOL<lAT]TCTa Kal npo<; T~V KaTETCE[youaav T<P Katp<P xpdav
fTOLila, TOUTO oi; TCOLELV-TO lli::v OLCt (JOU aUTOU, TO oi; OlCt TWV un6 <JE apxovTWV
lllKpWV Kal llYCtAWV-Ei<; 011Al<JlV Kal DTCllPE<J[av TOU uno TO <JOV etlla llaXL!lOU

2. Oiov To~apta !lETa 9f]Kap[wv auTwv, aay[na<; !lETa KouKoupwv, ana9[a

~KOVT]f.U~Va Kal <JE<JallLW!lEVa, <JKOUTapta Kal ETEpa <JKOUT<ipta llYCtAa, anep

t..tyovTat eupw[, ETEpa <JKOUTapt<JKLa TWV T(~WV TQ TCOTE AY0!1EVa TCEATat,

ETEpa <JKOUTCtpta <JlOfjp<i, <JTpoyyu!..a, <JE<Ja!llWilEVa, KOVTCtpta lllKpa, OKTUTCT]Xa
-~aav 8 TCOTE 'Pwlla[ot<; Kal MaKEOO<Jl KOVTCtpta axpt 11f]XWV OEKai::~ anep ~
vuv xpda ou KaAd, TO yap KaTCt T~V EKCt<JTOU TWV !iETUXElpl~OilEVWV ouvallLV
5 ont..ov au1111ETP6v TE Kat xp~mllov-ptKTapta, T~tKoupta Kal eTepa T~tKoupta
Ct!l<pl<JTO!la, tq:>' v llEpo<; oiovel ana9[ov, tnl oi:: TO -repov oiov ~[q:>o<; Kovmp[ou,
!lETa 9f]Kap[wv auTwv OepllaT[vwv Kal ~amay[wv, napa11~pta, 11axaipa<; !leya-


!..a<; !lOVO<JTO!lOU<;.
3 Awp[Kta llEXPL <JTpaya!..ou, avaaup6!1EVa OlCt t..wp[wv Kal KplKEAAlWV, llETU
TWV 9TjKap[wv aUTWV OEpllaTLVWV Kat, d OUVaTOV, navm CtAU<JlOWTCt, d oi:: ll~YE,

nva aunilv Kal OlCt KEpaTlVTj<; UATj<; ~ ~ou~at..dwv KaTa~~pwv OEP!lCtTWV tm!..wptKCt i!laTta, KAt~avta m8f]pC:t ~ Kal t~ Tepa<; 1.\/..Tj<;, w<; dpf]Tat, Kaaa(oa<; Te!..da<;,
M W A V (mut.) BE Va
9-30 Cf. Strat., 1.2.

PG 107:717

Now then, we command Your Excellency to turn your attention to the

weapons you must employ in war, as well as to the equipment for the infantry
and the cavalry forces. 1 There should be a steady supply of them and they should
ready at hand for whatever pressing needs may arise. You are to see to the
armament and service of the combat troops from your theme, some of it by
yourself and some by your subordinate officers, higher and lower in rank.
2. Such are bows with their carrying cases, arrows with their quivers, swords
sharpened and brightly shining, regular shields as well as the larger ones called
thyreoi, other small shields, formerly called peltasts, for the foot soldiers, other
shields of iron, round and well polished. <They should have> small spears eight
pecheis long. At one time, though, the Romans and the Macedonians had spears
up to sixteen pecheis long, but those are not called for in the present circumstances.2 A weapon is appropriate and serviceable if it matches the strength of
the person who is to wield it. Also small throwing spears, regular axes as well as
double-bladed axes, like a sword on one side and like the point of a spear on the
other, together with their leather carrying cases and other packs. Daggers. Large,
single-bladed swords.
3. Body armor down to the ankles that can be caught up with straps and
rings, as well as leather carrying cases for them. If possible, the armor should be
made completely of chain mail, but if not, some of it may be of horn or dry
cowhide. Surcoats over the armor. Breastplates of iron or of some other material,
as mentioned. Full helmets, foot coverings, and gauntlets of iron or some other

12-15 Cf. Anon. Strat., 16.31-39.

rroAEf.lLKWV rrapacrKeuwv MWA om. BE I e' MWA om. BE 3 Uf.IWV MWAE ~f.IWV B
4 Kal2 MWBE Kal T~ A 5 Tw Kmpw MW Tou Kmpou ABE 6 ToiiTo MW AB Tou E
9 8'1Kapiwv MWAE e'lKUpta B 11 aKoumpicrKta MWA GKOUTUpla BE 13 ~aav MWAB
~ ~aav E I OEKUE~ M OEKU Kal ~ w L<;' ABE 14 ou KUAel MW OUK cmaml ABE 15
pLKrapta MW ptmapta ABE I Kal MWA om. BE 16 ev f.1po~ MWA voc; f.1pouc; BE I
arra8iov ABE arra8iou MW 17 f.IETU MWA f.IETU TWV BE 19 aTpayaA.ou MW
aaTpayaA.ou ABE 21 Kal. .. UA'l~ MW EK KEpUTWV ABE I ~ou~aA.Eiwv Va ~ou~aA.iwv MW

~ou~aALKWV ABE I KaTa~~pwv oepf.laTwv MW trsp. ABE

1. See also Strat. 1.2. On weapons and armament, see T. Kolias, Byzantinische Waffen
(Vienna, 1988).
2. Eight pecheis is about 374 m; sixteen comes to 7-48 m. Cf. also AnonStrat, 16.


Constitution 5

material. Let those who do not have neck pieces of iron chain mail be protected

1tptTpax~Ala QAUcrtOWTQ crLOT]pCt, EVOEOUiJEVa crw8ev cmo KVT01JKAOU Kai

by those made of quilted material on the inside and leather on the outside. Men

8 cmo fHVOU, veuptKQ TQ c':mo KVT01JKAWV Ol1tAWV YlVOf1Va Kai aUTO.

4. <DACtf.lOUAa f.ly6.;\a, <pAaiJou;\icma Twv KovTapiwv, ~avoa ota<p6pw<;

who do not have iron body armor should have in its place an outer garment
made of two layers of quilted material, broad quilting, that the soldier puts on
with his weapons. Also arrow guides with short arrows and their quivers.J Slings
as well, large saddlebags, flint and tinder, lasso with thong, hobble, crescentshaped iron horseshoes with their nails, small files and awls, armor for the heads
of the horses, breastplates of iron or quilting for the horses, and similar coverings for their necks.

~~aiJiJEVa, ~OUKLVa f.llKpa Kai f1YCtAa, op1tava, a~(va<;, <pahiota, 1tAeKta,

4 Large pennants, as well as smaller ones for the lances, flags in various

CtVTi AWplKLWV TOt<; il~ exoum crLOTjpii, KEVTOUKAa <papoea, vouovm TOY crTpanWTT]V f1Ta Twv cm;\wv, crWATJYCtpta iJETO. f.lLKpwv craytnwv Kai KouKm)pwv ainwv,
cr<pev86~o;\a, creA.Aoitouyyta f1y6.;\a, rrupeK~o;\a Kai taKa<;, ;\wp6croKKa, 7teOT]-

KAa crAT]va1a crtOT]pa iJETa Kap<p[wv mhwv, j'Hvia, crou~Aia, 7tpOf1Twma I t1t1twv,
30 OTTj86.pta l1t1tWV ~ crLOf]pU ~ arro KVTOUKAWV, 1tptTpax~Ala l1t1tWV OiJOLW<;.

OKE1tapva, Tpl~OAOU<; avaOeOf1Eva<; O<jlf]KWf.lacrL 0eOf1EVOl<; ei<; ~AOU<; TAiou<;.

5 AiJCt~a<; UOTUAel<;, <pepoucra<; ETOlf.lW<; T~V avayKaiav ei<; xpdav Ct1t00KU35 ~V, oiov TCt T ipf]f1EVa pya, Kai XLPOiJUAla Kal7tpt6vta Kal opuya<; Kal crcpupa<;,

mu6.pta, KO<ptVOU<;, KlALKla, Kai e'( Tl liA\o 1tpo<; < ~w8ev <jlUAaK~V Kai
7tpt~oA~v mvoTj8if] T(il crTpaTTJY'i> 8t' ;\a<ppoTpa<; UATJ<; iJEflTJXaVT]f.lEVOV.

6. 'ETpa<; Uf16.~a<; exoucra<; TO~O~OAtcrTpa<;, iJayyavtKU EKaTpw8ev

crTp<jl0f1Va, ~aAtcrTapiou<; Ef11tdpou<; ~TOl f.layyavapiou<; A1tToupyou<;, xah1<;
iJfTQ TWV epya;\dwv aUTWV, hpa<; Uf16.~a<; A6y<p Ctpf.laf.lEVTOU, Tepa<; Uf16.~a<;
TU<; <pepoucra<; 8tmpo<pa<; Kal TU EK 1tptcrcrou lipiJaTa, ocra ~ xpda KaA1, Kal ETl
l>1tO(uyta Kat l1t1tOU<;, craYf16.pta, OKUO<p6pa Kai auTa Kat TU liAAa 1tCtVTa opyava, ocra ~ cruv~8ta TOU <pocrcr6.TOU rrapaKAUTat.
7 Tipo<;


1t000\jiAAa, XLPO\jiAAa crL<STjpO. ~ Kai ~ hpa<; UAf]<;, OlQ TOU<; il~ exovm<;
25 ~w8ev



oe 1tOAlOpKta<; Kal fiayyavtKU Ol6.<popa Kal OKUAa<; ~VALVa<; OUOTA-

AOf.lEVa<; Kal Tepa illlxavtKa opyava, ocra emvo~crt<;.

colors, large and small trumpets, sickles, axes, scythes, hatchets, adzes, caltrops
tied together with cords and hardened into very sharp points.

s. Light wagons ready to transport the essential equipment that will be

needed, such as the items mentioned. Also hand mills, saws, picks, hammers,
shovels, baskets, goatskin matting, and whatever else the commander might
think of getting ready, using lighter materials, to protect the encampment and
its perimeter from the outside.
6. Other wagons carrying bow ballistai, windlass artillery called alakatia that
swivel in both directions, experienced artillery crews, that is, carpenters specialized in artillery, and metal workers with their equipment. Some wagons for the
field armory. Others will transport food as well as the extra weapons that might
be needed. Pack animals, moreover, and horses, other beasts of burden to bear
equipment and all the other implements that are usually required for an army
on campaign.
7. Diverse machines for siege warfare, wooden ladders ready for action, and
as many other mechanical devices as you will think of.

42 ad miv-ra inc. V

23 1t000\f'EAAU A 1t000\f'EAU MW ltOOO\f'EAAla BE I xapO\f'EAAU Va xetpO\f'EAU MW om. ABE

24 eaweev MW eaweev f.!EV ABE I KEVT01JKAOU ABE epiou MW 25 OE arro ABE om. MW I
f'>tvou De A.ivou codd. I KEVTOlJKAwv omA.wv ABE KEVOOlJKAWV MW 26 KEVTOuKA.a ABE
KEvOouKAa MW 28 rrupK~oA.a MA rrapK~oA.a BE I 'LcrKa~ MWA 'LcraKa~ BE 29 aou~A.ia
32 ltEAEKla MW AB ltEAEKU~ E 34 EUOTUAel~ MW EAa<ppa~ ABE scr. mg. eA.a<ppa~ EUKOAW~
cruvn9Ef.!EVU~ w 35 XElpOf.lUAlU MW XElpOf.!UAa ABE I opuya~ MW 6puyta ABE
37 E1tlVOT]9elT] MW E1tlVOT]9~ ABE 38 TO~O~OAlOTpa~ MW TO~o~aAA.icrTpa~ ABE I aA.aKUTlU MW ~AaK6.Tta ABE 39 ~aA.tcrTap[ou~ MW To~o~aAA.icrm~ ABE I ~Tot MW om. ABE
40 A6yw ABE A6you MW 42 ad imo<uyta scr. mg. f.!OUAtK6. W I crKeuocpopa MW A
OKEUO<popta BE 42-43 opyava MW pya AVBE

3 Wooden half-tubes (OWAT]V6.pta), through which small arrows were shot. It is difficult to
describe them more precisely. See Kolias, Waffen, 239-253; G. Dennis, "Flies, Mice, and the
Byzantine Crossbow;' BMGS 7 (1981): 1-5; D. Nishimura, "Crossbows, Arrow-guides, and the
Solenarion," Byzantion 58 (1988): 22-36.
4 See Dennis, "Byzantine Heavy Artillery:'


Constitution 5


8. Ei oe npoc; nOTa!lOUc; ~ AlllVac; Kal vauKEAALa ~youv nA.ola !llKpa ~ ano


KaTCJKUaCJ!1EVa ~ KaLa qn)mv <ppovTLCJLc; oe Kal ETOL!1UCJLc; Kal -rae;

AY0!1Evac; -rvmc; Kal cmy[ac; !lETa T~c; mhwv t~onA.iaewc;, tv aic; Kal UTWV Kal
KaU!lUTWV, em xpe[a, E~Lc; tA.eu8epiav.
9 Tole; oe vaU!lUXOLc; a-rpanwolc; Kal vauc; napaaKeua(Lv t~wnALG!lEVac;, -rae;
!lev llaXL!lOUc;, -rae; oe [nnaywyouc;, -rae; oe CJKUO<p6pouc;, Ulla Tfl nepl aU-rae;
anaan XPLWOl navonAL<;l Kal anoCJKeUfl napaKAUO!leea.
10. Twv oe CtnTjplellllllEVWV CJOL napaGKUWV avw-rpw, TWV Kal 6<pLAOVTWV
nvwv !lfV napa CJOU, TLVWV o napa TWV un6 (J apx6v-rwv Kal a-rpanw-rwv
55 nopi(wem, Ta !lev onA.a E~Lc; de; U!1UVav TWV noA!1LWV, Tao de; <pUAaK~V TWV
llaXO!lEVWV a-rpanw-rwv, Tao de; T~V UAAT]V xpLav au-rwv Kal unTjpW[av.
11. Kal !lclALCJTa TWV 1TOA!1LKWV 01TAWV tmllA~an, we; av 8La<pUAUTTWVTaL
nav-rme A.a11npa Kai -reellwtva npoc; -r~v Ka-ranA.T]~Lv -rwv noA.e11iwv. mum
navm I npoeu-rpe1tLCJLc;, Yva tv hOL!l4J eialv eic; xpdav TOte; unep ape-r~c; xcipac;
6o 6nA.i(oum Ka-ra -rwv noA11iwv, Kal 11~ -rov napa-ra~ewc; Kmpov napaaKeu~c;
Kmpov avayKa(n 1TOLLCJ8aL. mum o Kal ana oaa ~IlLY napaAEAelTtTaL Ola
A~8TjV ~ avayKT]c; 6<peLALc; napaaKeUa(elV. ei o n nAtov eic; onAWV napaGKU~v mvo~aLc; T{il E>e{il xapLc; Kal Tfl Gfl CtYXLVOL<;t.
12. IIpo o nav-rwv Kal !lETa nav-rwv <p6~ov eeou Kal OLUVOLav 6~ciav Kal
65 anouoa[av YVW!lT]V tv nav-rl EXLV Kmp{il Kal T01t4J Kal npayllan, Kal npoc;
anavm ETOL!lOV elvm napaKAUO!leea.



8. If you come to rivers or lakes, you will take care to get ready the skiffs or
small boats, constructed either of leather hides or of ordinary materials, as well
as what we call tents and shelters with their equipment in which, when necessary, you will find relief from rain and heat. 5
9. We command that those generals assigned to fighting at sea are to prepare
fully armed ships, some for combat, others to transport horses, and others to
transport equipment, together with all their required weaponry and equipment.6
10. Of all the preparatory tasks enumerated above some are to be carried out
directly by you and others by the officers and soldiers under your command.
You will see to weapons that ward off the enemy and others that protect the
troops in battle, as well as those that cover their other needs and services.
11. Devote particular attention to the weapons needed in battle. Make sure
that they are always maintained polished and sharpened, so as to terrify the
enemy. You will prepare all these things beforehand so they will be ready for use
by those who, because of their valor, engage the enemy in close combat. By so
doing, you will not be forced to turn the time of taking battle stations into a
time of preparation/ The other matters that we may have omitted, out of forgetfulness, must necessarily be your responsibility. And if you think of something
more regarding the preparation of weapons, thanks be to God and your own
12. We order you, above all and with all, to have the fear of God, a sharp
mind, and serious intent in every time, place, and affair, as well as to be ready
for every eventuality.

59-61 Cf. y'.3-5.

47 Ka-rwKeuaof.utva MW A Ka-raoKeuacrjlva VBE I ~ ... <puatv MWVBE om. A 48 -rvm~
MW -rvoa~ AVBE 1 tv ai~ MW aYnve~ AVBE I unwv MW ~poxa~ AVBE 49 KUUf.l<'tTwv ...
e\eu8epiav MW KUDj.IUm cmavT~OOUatV AVBE 50 ad VUUf.lUXOl~ scr. mg. Tal~ EV ITAOlOl~
f.lUXOf.leVOl~ W ad 50-51 TU~ j.IEV scr. mg. rrpo<; TO f.IUXW8at el1lTt]Oela<:; W 51 ad
imraywyou~ scr. mg. mrrou~ <pepouo<a~> W I ad oKeuo<p6pou~ scr. mg. -ra OKWt] Kat -ra~
xpna~ <pepouoa~ w 53 U11t]pt8jlt]jlfVWV MWA cmapt8jlt]jlfVWV VBE I O<pelAOVTWV MW
6<pet\ouowv AVBE 58 -re8t]Yf.!EVa MW ~KOVt]f.lEVa AVBE I -r~v MW om. AVBE 59 eiolv
MWA ti>atv VBE 59-60 TOt~ ... ITOAej.ILWV MW TWV KUTU TWV J10Aej.ILWV aywvt<Of.!EVWV
AVBE 6o-61 rrapa-ra~ew~ ... Katpov MW Katpov -r~<; rrapa-ra~ew~ Katpov i:Totf.laoia~ Kal
rrapaoKeu~~ A Katpov i:Totjlacria~ Kal rrapaoKeu~~ VBE 61 mum MWAVE mum~ B I
ii\Aa MW om. AVBE 61-62 rrapa\\emmt. .. A.~8t]v MW trsp. AVBE 63 ayxtvo[a MW
<ppov~cret AVBE scr. mg. o~UTt]Tl -r~~ otavata~ W 64 7Tav-rwv 1 MWVBE JTav-ra A jJTav-rwv2
MW JTUVTU AVBE I eeou MW eeou exelV AVBE 65 exm MW om. AVBE

5 Tent: generally written as -rv-ra in MW, and in modern Greek, instead of the variant
-rvoa. The Suda (T 307) defines it as oiK[a EK \ivwv, "a house [made] of linen:'
6. See Const. 19 on naval warfare.
7 Cf. Canst. 3, n. 1.



Constitution 5


wa-rpanw, Ka06aov ~!lTv

13. Therefore, 0 general, we have set before Your Excellency everything that

-rtw~ txwp~yT]aev ~ llY~IlTJ, imeetlleea -rft aft voo~6-rT]<t ~~~ 0 nepl llv
1t(LK~~ Kat <JD!l!llK1"0U -ra~ew~ iJa-repov epOD!lV. VUV 0 01tW~ 01tAt<Jn~ 1"0V
70 Ka0va avopa KapaAAaptov a-rpa-rL<b1"T]V ev -re -raT~ YDilVa<J(at~ Kal 1"0 1"EALOV tv
Katp4J 1tOAE!lOD, Kal onOLa Kanx 1"0 avayKaLOV e'LOT] <ppetv napa<JKUU<Jl~ ~OT]

our memory has provided for us about the preparation of weapons. Subsequently, we will treat of infantry and mixed formations. But for now we shall speak
about how you are to arm each mounted soldier, both for drill and, ultimately,
for time of battle, and the necessary equipment you should prepare for them to

13. ITepl 1-1v oDv ~~ -rwv onAwv napaaKeu~~'


67 cr-rpa<TJYE MW cr-rpa<TJYE inn:pe0f!e0a <~ cr~ voo~6<TJ<L AVBE 68 txwp~y11crev ...

f!V~flll MW trsp. AVBE I <fi ... voo~6<TJ1"l MW om. AVBE 69 ni~ew<; MWA napa-ra~ew<;
VBE 69-70 -rov Ka0tva MW eKacr<ov AVBE 70 -reA.ewv MAVBE -rtA.eov W
71-TJ. napacrKeuacret<; ... poi>f!EV MWA om. VBE




About Armament for the Cavalry and the Infantry

ilepl OITAL<JW<; Ka~aA:\aptWV KUL IT~WV


i1Et TOLYUY OTtAtCJ8~Yat TOU<; G-rpa-rtw-ra<; Ota TWY io[wy aUTWY apxoYTWY

Kal -ra m-r~OLa <eY> -r(il Katp(i'J ehe rrapaxeqwo[ou dn: q>oCJmi-rou rrapaGKU5 6.~wem, -ra rrpo<; <-ra<;> ayayKa[a<; xpe[a<; 1'~<; eKmpa-rda<;, Kal exetY <ainU>
TtCtYLU<; 6.YaA6yw<; apxoYTCt<; 1' Kal apxof!EYOU<;, rrpo<; T~Y EKCtCJTOU TtOL01'1']1'Ct 1'
Kal OUYaf!LY, Kal f!CtALCJTa -rou<; apxoYLa<; UlJLWY 6.rr6 1' 1'0Upf16.pxou Kal f!EXPL
Kt:Y-rapxou Kal-re-rpapxou Kal Ka-re~a[pe-roY CJwu-roY Kal-r~Y im6 CJe rrpoA.wmY.
2."ExetY oi:: au-roil<; Ot:tY TOY Ka8ya iiYOpa OTtALCJLY TOLUUTT]Y ~6.~a<; TEAeLa<;

f!EXPL TOU 6.G-rpay6.A.ou, QYaGUpOf!EYa<; oi:: Ota A.wp[wy Kal KptKt:AALWY, f!ETQ TWY
8T]Kap[wy auTWY. EXLY 01:: Kal KaCJ<J[Oa<; CJLOT]pii<;, (J1'LATtYCt<;, Ota rtaYTO<; exouCJa<;
(iyw8t:Y ei<; TU<; Kopuq>a<; TOU<p[a f!LKpa. TO~apta Oi:: EKaCJlOY KaTU T~Y iO[ay LCJXUY
Kal oux urri::p auT~Y, f!CtAAOY oi:: Kal cmaA.w-repa, exoY-ra 8T]KCtpta rrA.a-ra, [ya y
Katp(i'J OUYUTOY ECJTL THaf!EYa XWpt:tY TQ LO~Ctpta y au-rot<;. EXLY Oi:: KUL KOpOa<;


EK rreptCJ(JOU y TOt<; rrouyy[ot<; aUTWY, KOUKoupa f!HU CJaytnWY Kall CJKETtUCJf!UTWY aUTWY ETtlT~Ot:ta, XWPOUYTa CtrtO A' ~ f!' CJaytnWY. y 01:: TOt<; LO~O~WYLOL<;
ptY[a Kal CJOU~A[a. EXLY 01:: Kal KOY-rapta Ka~aAA.aptKQ f!lKpa, exoY-ra A.wp[a
Ka-ra -ro flECJOY, f!HCt q>Aaf!OUAWY. exetY 01:: Kal CJrta8[a arroKpt:f!Ctf!EYa -rwY Wf!WY
aUTWY Ka-ra T~Y 'Pwf!a'LK~Y 1'Ct~LY, Kal npa rtapaf!~pta ~1'01 !laxa[pa<; OLE~W<Jf!E-

zo YOU<;.

Now then, it is necessary for the soldiers to receive their armament from
their own officers. 1 While in winter quarters or in camp they are to be provided
with the proper equipment they will need on campaign. All the soldiers, both
officers and enlisted men, should have equipment corresponding to their rank
and strength, particularly the officers from tourmarch to kentarch and tetrarch,
with special attention to yourself and the troops marching along with you.
2. Each man should have the following armament. Full coats of mail reaching to their ankles, fastened with thongs and rings, along with their carrying
cases. They should also have iron helmets, polished and always with small
plumes on their crests. Each man should have a bow suited to his own strength
and not above it, more indeed on the weaker side, and cases broad enough so
that, when necessary, the strung bows can fit in them. They should also have
spare bow strings in their saddle bags, suitable quivers, too, with their covers,
holding about thirty or forty arrows. Small files and awls in their baldrics. They
should also have short cavalry lances with small thongs in the middle of the
shaft and with pennons. In addition, they should have swords hanging from
their shoulders, in the Roman manner, as well as daggers or large knives on
their belts.2


M W A VB E Va PG 107:721
1-95 Strat.,



8ta-ra~tc; MWA -ra~tc; VBE I MWVBE i:'Ktl) A 3 au-rwv MWVBE om. A 4 ev ci. Va
om. codd. 5 rae; ci. Va om. codd. I eKa-rpa-rdac; MWA eyKpa-rdac; VBE 5-6 auta rcavmc;
Va arravtac; codd. 9 aU-roue; MW om. AVBE I Ka9eva MW Kacrtov AVBE 10 8t MW
om. A VBE 11 cr-rtA.rrvac; MW Aaflrcpac; A Kal A.aflrcpac; VBE I 8ta rcav-roc; MW om. AVBE
14 EOTl MA EOTlV w ~ VBE I TeTUflEVU AVE teTUYflEVU MBW I au-ro1c; AVBE eauto1c; MW
16 mt~8eta MWA emtl)8dwv VBE I A.' MWVBE tptaKovta A I fl' MW tecrcrapaKovta
AVBE 17 crou~A.ia AVBE crouyA.ia MW I 8e MWA Te VBE I Ka~aAA.aptKa fllKpa MWA

trsp. VBE


Cf. Strat.


On weaponry, see Kolias, Byzantinische Waffen.

2. Kolias, 133-160. In the 'Roman manner' the soldier carried his sword on his left side.

84 Constitution 6
3. 'DaOL 8 fl~ o'(8aat TO~ULV VWTpOL, fXfTWCYUV KOVTCtpLa flETa CYKOUTUp[wv n:A.dwv i 8 Kal XLPOf1CtVLKU m8r]p&., a Hynm xnp6\jiAAU, TLVfc; KT~
'lmrwv Kal <pACtf.LOUAU flLKpa navw TWV ~a~wv KaTa TWV Wf.LWV. oaov yap faTLV
25 DCJXfJf10c; v Tfi 6nA.ian miTou 6 aTpanWTf]c;, ToaouTov Kal ainq> npoEluf.L[a
npoayivnm Kal Tote; xElpo1c; 8nA.ia.
4 Ei 8uvaTOV 8 Kal ElwpaKac; exnv, OLTLVc; KUAOUVTUL vuv KAL~CtVLa, Kal
aina anA.nva Kal AUf.LTrpa Kal nEpLKVf]flL8ac;, chtva Hynm vuv TI000\jiAAU, Kal
TITEpVLCJT~pac; fVLOT. EXELV 8 Kal mA.wpLKU, OT xpLa, nv8u6f1Va.
5. ITavTac; 8 Toile; VWTpouc; 'Pwf.La[ouc; axpl fl' fTWV avayKa~wElm, Eh
KUTa A6yov o'l8aat TO~EUCYUL, Eh KUL flETp[wc;, TOU TIUVTWc; TO~O<papnpa <popEtV.
T~c; yap TO~lac; TIUVTEAWc; Ctf.LEAT]Eldaf]c; Kai 8LaTICYOUCYf]c; v Tote; 'PWf.LULOLc; Ta
noAA.a vuv c'iwEl a<pUAflaTU y[vwElm.
6. "Exnv 8 Kal KOVTCtpLa Mo, 'lva TOU v6c;, we; iK6c;, amoxouvToc; exn TO
35 O.AA.o de; XP~aLV. Toile; 8 anLpOTpouc; cmaAWTEpa exnv TO~apta KUV yap OUK
o'l8am TO~ULV, Tq> xpovq> fTrlT'l8UOUal f.LUEldv, OTIP TWV avayKa[wv faTLV.
7 Ei 8 8uvaT6v, Kal CtKOVTLU ~TOL pLKTCtpLa EXLV we; Mo, 'lva v Kmpq> Kal
aKovT[aoL npoxdpwc; KaTa Tou noAEf.Liou, Kal Tov f.LEV inna mpanWTf]V oihwc;
8. Toile; 8 'lnnouc; Kal flUALaTU TWV apx6vTWV Kal TWV AOLTIWV fT(LAfKTWV
1tpOflTWma exnv Kal CYTf]ElCtpLa ~ at8f]p&. ~ ano KEVTOUKAWV, olov vcupLKCt. Kal
aKnwElat Ta aT~ElfJ Kal Toile; Tpax~A.ouc; a1nwv, Ei 8uvm6v, Kai Tac; KotA.iac; 8ta
flLKpwv CtTIOKPEflUCYf.LUTWV ano TWV AYOf.lfVWV a<pAfTpwv T~c; aHac;. f.LEYUAWV
yap mum KtvMvwv noA.A.aKLc; Toile; 'lnnouc; 8waw~oum, Kal 8t' ainwv Toile; n'

22 Aeynm MW A AeyovmL VBE 22-23 nvf:~ KT~<JWVTUL MW KT~<JOVTUl nva~ AB

KT~<JOVTUL nv~ VE 23 Aiav MW navu f:crTl A navu f:crTiv VBE I 6mcr8eAALVWV Va
OTil<JTeAAlVWV MW 6mcr8eAlVWV A omcreev AlVWV VBE 24 (a~wv MW AwplKlWV AVBE
25 eUOXTJflO~ MW eUOXTJflO~ Kai eucrTOAo~ A eU<YXTJflO~ Kai euonAo~ VBE 27 Kal' MW A
om. VBE I ewpaKa~ MW AB ewpaKO~ VE 29 TITepVl<JTijpa~ MW A UTITepVl<JTijpa~ B
unepvtcrTijpa~ VE I BVlOTe ... 6 MW TIOAAUKl~ 6 EXELV AVBE I em ... ETieV6U6f!EVU MW
f:nev6U6fleVU /he XPeLU A nev6UOfleVU OTe xpda YEVTJTUl VBE 30 fl' MW TWcrapaKOVTU
AVBE 31 KUTa Myov MWA KaT' 6Aiyov VBE 32 Ta MW om. AVBE 33 e'lw8e
MWVBE e'lw8ev A 34 Mo MWA WVBE 35 iiUo MWAB iiUov VE 37 ptKTapta W
pfJKTapta M ptmapta AVBE 1 Mo MW A WVBE 38 aKOVTicrm MW aKovTicrTJ AVBE I Toii
noAef!iou MW Twv noAefLiwv AVBE I crTpaTLWTfJV MWAB crTpanwv VE 41 KeVT01JKAwv
AVBE Kev6ouKAWV MW 43 fllKpwv MW A flUKpwv VBE I acpeAETpwv MWA acpeAETpa~
VBE 44 6Lacrw(oum MWVBE 6tacrw(oucrtv A

Armament for Cavalry and Infantry 85

3 All the recruits who do not know how to shoot should have lances and full
~hields. It will be very useful if some can afford iron gauntlets, called cheiropselThey should have small tassels on the hindquarters of the horses as well as
small pennons over the armor around their shoulders. For the more handsome
!.he soldier is in his armament, the more confidence he gains in himself and the
more fear he inspires in the foe.
4 If possible, they should wear breastplates, polished and shiny, that are now
called klibania. 3 Also greaves, now called podopsella, and sometimes spurs. Also
surcoats to put on when needed.
5 All the Roman recruits, up to the age of forty, must definitely be required
to carry bow and quiver, whether they be expert archers or just average. The fact
that archery has been completely neglected and fallen into disuse among the
Romans has caused a great deal of harm nowadays.
6. They should possess two lances so as to have a spare one at hand in case
the first one misses. Inexperienced men should employ lighter bows. With
enough time, even men who do not know how to shoot will manage to learn, for
it is an essential skill.
7. If possible, they should also have at least two javelins or throwing weapons so that, at the proper moment, they may readily hurl them against the
enemy. That is how you shall arm the cavalryman.
8. The horses, especially those of the officers and the other special troops,
should have protective armor of iron or of padding, such as cow hide, over their
heads and breasts. Their breasts and necks and, if possible, their abdomens will
be covered by small pieces of what is called quilting, hanging from the saddles.
These have often preserved the horses as well as those riding on them from great

3. Klibanion meant a baking oven and may well suggest how the soldier felt wearing such
armor. But the etymology is not certain: see Kolias, 44-50.


Constitution 6

Armament for Cavalry and Infantry 87

dangers. In particular, the men stationed in the front line of battle should have
these items.

aunilv OXOUflfVOU<:;. mum o EXlV Kal flUAla-ta -roue; n:poTa<J<JOflfVOU<:; fV Tft

9 Kal ai <JfAAat o exeTw<Jav fn:t<JfAAla oaaea Kal flYUAa, Kal Ta xaAtvapta
auTwv mT~0ta ea-rwaav Kal taxupa.
10. Etc; o Tac; aeUac; Tac; QUO <JlOTjpac; <JKUAac; I Kal Awp6<JOKKOV Kal n:8to
Kal <JAAon:ouyytv, v Katpou KaAouvToc; ouvm6v eaTt Kuv Tptwv ~
TW<Japwv ~flpwv OaiTUVTJV XWP~<Jat, Kal TOUcpta 0 l<:; Ta<:; On:t<J8AALVa<:; Tf<J<Japa, Kal Kopucpaotv Tou Yn:n:ou Toucplv Kal imo yevnov 6f1o[wc;.
11. Tiav-rwc; 0 exnv o1 TOV Ka~aAA<iptov <JTpanWTTJV Kal T~lKOUplV Ol<JTOflOV, TO ev <JTOfla Ta~tv an:a8[ou n:tf1T]K<:; Kal TO ETpov Ta~tv ~[cpouc; KOV55 Tapiou flaKpov Kal6~u, an:oKpflCtflVOV flTa 8fjKapiou OpflaTLVOU fV Tft <JfAA<;t.
12. Ta o LflUTla TWV <JTpaTtWTWV, 'iT AlVa dmv 'iT f~ p[ou h hepac;
UAfj<:;, n:AaTea Ot dvm, Iva fV Tip Ka~aAALKUlV fl~ EfliTOOL~WVTal, ana Kal
<JKfiTWVTat ot' aUTWV Ta y6vaTa aUTWV Kal U<JXT]f10l cpatVWVTat.
13. Xp~ o Kal KfVTOUKAa exnv n:AaTea n:avu, exov-ra flaVLKta n:AaTea, Iva fV
6o Tip OITAL<J8~vat au-roue; Kal cpopLV Tac; ~a~ac; Kat Ta TO~apta, av, we; iK6<:;,
<JUfl~ft ~pox~v YVf<J8at ~ uyp6Tpov TOV aepa fK T~c; op6aou, cpopOUVT<:; aUTa
n:avw -rwv ~a~wv Kal -rwv To~ap[wv cpu;\auwm To lipfla au-rwv Kal ouK Efln:oo[~wv-rm, LT Tote; To~aptOI<:; 'iT Tote; KovmptOI<:; auTwv ~OUAT]Swm XP~<Jaa8m.
E<JTl o Kal UAAW<:; n:wc; avayKata Ta KfVTOUKAa fV Tate; <JKOUAKat<:; ~youv Tate;
65 ~[y;\mc; ou OtacpatVOVTal yap fl~K08v Tote; ITOAf1LOL<:; ai ~a~at un:' aUTWV <JKIT6flVat, CtVTfXOU<Jl 0 Kat n:poc; -rae; ~OAa<:; TWV <JaytTTWV.
14. IJpo<JTCt<J<JOflV OE Ka8' EKa<JTOV KOVTOU~fpVlV Kat opn:ava Kat a~[vac;
EXlV au-roue; Ola TO avayKatOV T~c; XPLac;.
49 Mo MWA

W VBE I A.wp6croKKov

A.wpoaoKa VBE

9 Let the saddles have large and thick cloths, and let there be strong bridles
of good quality.

10. Two iron stirrups should be attached to the saddles along with a lasso
with thong, a hobble, a saddlebag large enough, when the situation so demands,
to hold three or four days' rations. There should be four tassels on the haunch
strap; likewise, one on the horse's brow and one under the chin.
11. By all means, the cavalry soldier must have a double-sided axe, one side
having the long form of a sword and the other the large and sharp form of the
point of a spear. 4 It should be hanging from the saddle in a leather case.
12. The clothing of the soldiers, whether of linen, wool, or other material,
should be loose fitting so they may not be impeded as they ride along; it should
cover their knees and give a neat appearance.
13. They should have a loose, padded mantle with very broad sleeves so that
in arming themselves and wearing the body armor with the bow if, perchance, it
should rain or the dew cause the air to become quite humid, then by wearing
these over their body armor and bow, they may both protect their armament
and not be impeded when they want to make use of the bow or the lance. These
padded mantles may also be necessary in another way on patrol or reconnaissance. When the body armor is covered by them its brightness will not be seen
far off by the enemy and they will also provide protection against being hit by
14. We also order that each squad should carry sickles and axes to meet their
unavoidable needs.

Meursis teste Va A.wp6croKov MW A.wpoawKov A

50 m:A.Aonouyytv M m:A.onouyytv W m:AA.onouyywv AVBE

I Katpou

AVBE Katpw MW I E<JTl MAVBE E<JTLV w I KCtV Va Kal codd. 51-52 TE<J<Japa MWA o'
VBE 52 Kopucpaotv MW Eic; TO Kopucpa0tov AVBE I TOU<plv MW TOU<jllOV AVBE I uno
ytvetov Va unoyevetOV MW eic; TO unoyEVElOV AVBE 53 T(tKouptv MW T<tKOUptov AVBE
54 TCt~tv 1 MW OLKflV AVBE I Ta~tv 2 MW OLKflV AVBE 56 dotv MWA om. VBE I ~ f:p(ou
VBE I f!UVLKta MW f!UVtaKta AVBE 6o (a~ac; Va (wvac; codd. 62 cpuA.Ctnwcrt MAVBE
cpuA.Ctnwcrtv W I Kal2 MWA om. VBE 63 Kovmpiotc; Va <JKoumpiOtc; codd. 64 E<JTt
65 Tote; ... <a~at MWA trsp. VBE I un' MWA VE an' B 66 CtVTEXOl.l<Jl MW ClTIUVTW<Jl AVBE
67 npocrTacrcrof!EV MW A npoTu<J<JOf!EV VBE I KovTou~epvtv M KouTou~epvtv W
KovTou~epvtov AVBE

4 See Kolias, 167-169.


Constitution 6

Armament for Cavalry and Infantry 89

15. Tou.:; 0 -rwv -rayfl<'t-rwv lipxov-ra.:; ~ cnpanw-ra.:; Kat -rwv 8ef1anKwv

15. The officers and enlisted men of the regular units as well as the more

7 o ~<iv8wv -roue; 8uva-rw-rpou.:; 6.vayK<i(eaem XP~ rraT8a.:; au-roT.:; 8ouA.ou.:; ~

aflluent soldiers in the thematic companies must be required to have their own
!lervants, slave or free. At the time of distributing pay and mustering, care must
be taken to register and inquire about the servants and weapons. Should they
pay no attention to the servants, then, in time of battle they might be forced to
detail some of the soldiers themselves to the baggage train, which means fewer
tnen fighting in the ranks. But if it should turn out that some of the men are
unable to afford servants, it is necessary for three or four of the lower-ranking
soldiers to provide for one servant who will be at their disposition. A similar
arrangement should be followed for the pack animals that are needed for their
body armor and their tents.

8pou.:; Kat ETILfleAw.:;


-rc.iJ Katpc.iJ -r~.:; -r p6ya.:; Kat -rou aovouf.t(ou Kat -roue;

rraT8ac; au-rwv Kat -co lipfla cmoyp<i<pea8at Kal KaLU(fj-reTaem, Iva fl~ rtept<ppovouv-rec; -rwv 8ouAeu6v-rwv EV Katpc.iJ TtOAEf!OU 6.vayK<i(wv-rm ~ au-rwv -rwv a-rpanw-rwv a<pop((eaem ei.:; -co -rouA.8ov Kat 6A.iym y[vov-rm oi Komwv-rec; EV -eft
75 flCtXn

ei 8 'CIV<;, we; eiK6.:;,

fl~ eurropoum K-r~aaaem rra18ac;, 6.vayKaT6v EaLIV ei.:;

-roue; Ka-cw-rpouc; a-rpanw-rac; -rpeTc; ~ -caaapa.:; eva rraT8a, -rov UrtfjpHeTv au-roT.:;
flEAAov-ra, mvolv. -rov OflOIOV 8 -rp6rrov TtOlelV Kal eic; -cO. aayfl<'tpta, wv xpe[a
Ka-ra -co avayKaTov 8t0. -rae; (<'t~a.:; Kat -rae; -rev-rae; au-rwv.
16. Tipoa-r<iaaof.teV 8 Kat -rae; Ke<paAO.c; -rwv ~<iv8wv eK<ia-rou -rawa-roc;
so 6f1oxp6ouc; y[veaem, I Kat -cO. q>Aaf.touA.a eK<ia-rllc; -roupf.ta.:; ~ 8pouyyou i8t6xpoa
dvm, Iva 8 Kat -co Ka8' Kaa-rov -cawa euK6Aw.:; mytvwaKn -co '(8wv ~av8ov.

81 -repa i8tK0. GfJfleTa rrpoan8vm -raT.:; Ke<paAaT.:; -rwv


yvwaf1va -roT.:;

a-rpa-rtw-rm.:;, WaLe EK -rou-rou mytVWGKW8at au-ra Kat Ka-ra -rae; -roupf.ta<; Kat

Ka-ra -roue; 8pouyyouc; Kat Ka-ra -cO. ~av8a. rr<iv-rw.:; 8 -cO. -rwv -roupf.t<'tpxwv <~<iv8a> EVfJAAUYf!EVa 81 dvm Kat rrp60f]Aa, Iva EK rroAA.ou 8taa-r~f1a-ro.:; mytvwaKwv-rm -col<; im' au-col<; 'CLaYf1EVOl<;.
17. KeAeVOfleV 8 am, wa-rpa-rf]y, Katlipfla m<ppea8m EK rreptaaou 8t0.
~aa-cay~c; Kat flCtAta-ra -ro~<'tpta Kal aayl-c-ra.:;, Iva -roi.:;,


eiK6.:;, 6.a-roxouatv

orrA.otc; ~ au-rwv av-reta<'tyfJ-rat.



8 -cwv

~otvwv 8TjKap(wv -rwv (a~wv EXLV -roue; a-rpanw-ra.:; cmo

Oepf!Ct'CWV 8f]KCtpta -repa eAa<pp<i, orrwc; ~ EV Katpc.iJ TtOAEflOU ~ EV Katpc.iJ KOUpaou omaeev -rwv 6ma8oKoup~[wv Ka-ra -rae; '!'Ua<; -rwv lrrrrwv ~aa-r<i(wv-rm, Kal



16. We also order that the fields of the flags of each unit should be of the
same color, and the streamers of each tourma or droungos should have their
own color, so that each individual unit may easily recognize its own standard.s
Other distinctive devices known to the soldiers should be imposed on the fields
of the flags; they will thus be recognized according to tourma and droungos and
bandon. The standards of the tourmarchs should be particularly distinctive and
conspicuous so that they may be recognized by their troops at a great distance.
17. We order you, 0 general, to have your supply train carry extra arms,
especially bows and arrows, to replace those weapons likely to be lost.
18. Apart from the leather cases for the body armor, the soldiers should have
other light ones of hide. During battle or on raids they may be carried behind
the cantle across the horse's hindquarters. If, as may well be the case, they
should suffer a reversal-may it not happen-and the men guarding the

we; TIOAACtKtc;-o fl~ yvm-ro--rpon~.:; ytVOflEVfj<;, rrp6.:; fllaV ~flpav

71 n: MW om. AVBE 72-73 rrept<ppovouvn:~ MWA Ka-ra<ppovouvT~ VBE

73 oouA.t::u6vTwv MW oouA.euetv Kal ilrr!]pndv auToi~ 6<petA6vTwv rra[owv AVBE I rroAtf!ou
AVBE rroAEf!WV MW 7 4 y[vov-rat MW KaTUAlf!JtCtvwvmt A KaTaAtf!ITCtvovmt VBE
74-75 KOJtlWVT~ ... f!CtXIJ MW rroAf!Oi!vn:~ AVBE 78 TEVTa~ MW Tevoa~ AVBE
So iotoxpoa MWA iOtoxpova VBE St Kal...eKaatov De Kal TO Ka8eKa<JTOV MW oe
Ka8eKU<JTOV A EKQ<JTOV VBE I lOtOV MWAVE hepov B S2 en:pa MWAVE hepa ~avoa B I
<11Jf!da MW AVE 01Jf!ULVt B I m1~ K<paA.a1~ MWAVE Ta~ KE<paA.a~ B S3 TOl)Tou MW
TouTwv AVBE 84-85 ~avoa2 ci. Va om. codd. 85 rrp60IJAa MW rrpoxetpa AVBE
86 im' auwic; M imaumu~ W \m' auTou~ AVE urr' aumu B 87 aot MWA om. VBE
90 ~otvwv MWVBE ~olwv A 93 we; MW om. AVBE I ytVOf!EVI]~ MW YV0f!EVI]~ AVBE

5 See R. Grosse, "Die Fahnen in der romisch-byzantinischen Armee des 4.-10. Jahrhundert;' BZ 24 (1924): 359-372; Dennis, "Byzantine Battle Flags"; Haldon, ImpEx, 270-274.


Constitution 6

Armament for Cavalry and Infantry 91

a<pavd<; yevtaem TOU<; T~V rrapaGKEU~V xovm<;, fl~ Eim YUflVat al (O.fat Kat
95 <p6e[pwv<m, fl~T Kat Korroum Tou<; mpanwm<; 6tf1VEKW<; mKELflEVat a1no1<;.
19. OM TOUTO 6 rrapaAEL\IIOflEV EV TftOE eft 6taLCt~l, tva ol apxovT<;
eKaawu <<'tyfla<o<; 6wyvwaet<; rrmwmv v


Katp(i> <ou rrapaxEtflaO[ou ~ v

hp(!l apy[a<; Katp(i>, WaLE, av fl~ eurropwmv oi mpanwmt KaTu T~V xwpav
ayopaaat TU EmT~Oeta, <pavepov y[vwem, rr6awv Yrmwv Kat rro[ou doou<; Kat
wo rro[ou lipfla<o<; Otovmt nilv a<panwnilv Kaa<o<;, tva rrapaaKeua(n<;,

GTpaLfjy, muTa v T(i> 6ovn Katp(i> EuTpErr[(w6at 1Ip0<; ayopaa[av auTOL<; arro
Ef1TI6pwv nvwv, Kat fl~T neu6ev ol v<6mot oiK~<ope<; fA.O.mwvTat, fl~T ol
mpanwTat TWV avayKa[wv Ei6wv Kat OJtAWV, Ei o\hw TUXOl, UaLEpOUflEVOl
arropwmv. EJtEl ouv TOV KafaHO.ptov mpaLt<DTfjV E~WJtA[GaflEV, ~~<; Kat orrw<;

XP~ ae Kal Twv rre(ft flaXOflEVWV mpanw<wv T~v Otouaav rrot~aaaem orrA.tmv
~6fj Ae~OflEV.
20. T~<; rre(tK~<;

w[vuv wu a<pa<ou <a~ew<; rraA.m flEv ei<; <pia 6tnPflflEVf1<;

napa TOL<; apxaiot<; TaKTlKOL<;, olov Ei<; OJtALLa<;, OU<; ol VEWTEpot GKOUTCtTOU<;
EKCtAwav, Ei<; \lllAOU<;, OU<; Kat vuv \lllAOU<; <4> auT(i> KaAOUGLV OVOflaLL, Kal Ei<;

rrA.La<;, wv ol Ka6' ~flU<; ou ytvwaKoum flEV T~v KA~mv, 6oK1 f.!Ol 6 Tol<; \jltAol<;

I auyKaTaAE~avTa<;

Mo flOVa<; TCt~El<; JtE(tKOU flVflflOVEUGQl GTpaLOU,

6rrA.t<wv T Kal \jltA.wv. rrept<ou<wv ouv ~fl1<; 6taA.af6vT<; Twv Ta~ewv 6topta6fl6a.
21. 'OrrA.[an<; flEV ouv Tov rre(ov aKou<a<ov, TOV rrO.A.m KaAOUflEvov 6rrA[Tf1V,

WGL EXElV arr0.6fjV, KOVTaptv, GKOUTCtptv, OT flEV xpe[a KaA1, EJtlflTJKE<;, f.!Eya, 0


t:'ttuipment should be missing for a day, the body armor will not be left out in
the open and ruined and the soldiers will not be worn out by the constant
weight of the armor.
19. In this constitution we will not omit the following. While in winter
quarters or at some other period of leisure, the officers of each unit should make
nn assessment, so that it becomes dear how many horses, what sort of
llit}Uipment, and what sort of armament is needed for each one of the soldiers
Md so that, in case the soldiers cannot easily purchase supplies in the region,
you, 0 general, at the requisite time might arrange for these things to be made
ivailable for sale to them by certain merchants. As a result, the local inhabitants
will not be harmed and, if this is done, the soldiers will not be left helpless,
deprived of necessary equipment and weapons. Therefore, now that we have
armed the cavalry soldier, our next topic will be about your obligation to see to
the proper armament of the soldiers who fight on foot.

The ancient tacticians long ago divided the infantry contingents of the
army in three. 6 <Heavy-armed troops or> hoplites, called skoutatoi by more recent tacticians; second, light-armed troops, whom they now call by that very
name. Then there were peltai, a term not recognized by our contemporaries. 7 I
believe that they classified them together with the light-armed troops, recording
only two divisions of the infantry army, <heavy-armed> hoplites and
light-armed troops. Having, therefore, made this distinction, we will now lay
down regulations affecting them.

21. You shall equip the infantry skoutatos, formerly called hoplite, with a

MW -rae; xpdac; AVBE scr. mg. arroaKeu~v w I dat MW A <batv B Wat

VE 95 fl~T De d-ra codd. I Korroiiat A aKerrwat M aKerroum W Korrwm VBE I -roue;
a-rpanwmc; MW AVE LOU a-rpaTlWTOU B I f:mKet[!EVUl MW A fTlKl[!EVOU VBE 96 ouoL.
8ta-ra~et MW om. AVBE lva MW tva 8 Kal AVBE 97 8tayvwaetc; MW Otayvwaetc; Kal
arroypa<pac; AVBE 98 eurropwatv MWA f:Krropwatv VBE 99 ayopaam MWA om. VBE
102 t':[!n6pwv MW rrpawa-reu-rwv AVBE 103 -rwv MW om. AVBE I oihw -ruxm MWVBE
oil-rwc; TUX!] A 104 arropwatv MW AVE O.nopoiiatv B I E~~c; MW E~~c; f:poii[!EV AVBE
105 oeouaav MW om. AVBE I T0l~aaa8m WA VBE TCOl~aac; M 106 ~0!] AE~O[!EV MW
om. AVBE scr. mg. sup. rrepl -r~c; -rwv rre(wv e~orrAtaewc; W 107 -rp[a MWA y' VBE I ad
Otl]p!][!EV!]<; scr. mg. OtaKEXWPLG[!EV!]<; W 109 oilc; ... 6v6[!UTL MW oilc; Kal vuv <ptAouc; A om.
VBE 110; MW rreA-raa-rac; AVBE 111 auyKaTaA~av-rac; MW auvKmaptS!l~aav-rec; A auyKamptS[!~aav-rec; VBE I Mo MW A WVBE I rre(tKoii MA VBE rre(tK~c; W
112 ouv MWA om. VBE I 8taJ.a~6vm; MW om. AVBE 114 cmAtT!]V MW 6rrALT!]V oihwc;
AVBE 115 ami8!]V MW arra81ov AVBE I Kov-raptv MW Kovoapwv AVBE I aKou-raptv
MW aKou-raptov AVE aKou-raptov Kov-raptov B

sword, a lance, and, when necessary, a shield of the kind called thyreos, large

94 T~V rrapaaKeu~v

6. See Strat., 12.B.


Kolias, 90.


Armament for Cavalry and Infantry 93

Constitution 6

KaA.ehm 9upe6<;, mivTw<; 8 <HpoyyuA.ov TAaov. Ta 8 aKouTapta 6f16xpoa

TCUVTWV ~ KaTU apt9f10V ~ KaTa TUYfla. EXELV 8 Kat Kaaai8a TOU<ptV flLKpov

w<; aTtaS'lv,
w<; Kovmpiou ~i<po<;,<6fleva fleTa 9'1Kapiwv 8epflaTivwv

xouaav O.vwSev, mpevM~oA.a, T<tKoupta 8iaTOfla, TO flEV v aTOfla

TO 8 Tepov

~ T<tKoupta Tepa, xovm TO flEV v GT6fla K6mov, TO 8 f:Tepov aTpoyyuA.ov ~

Tepa T<tKoupta 8iaTOfla -ra~tv TteAeKiwv, -roil<; 8 tmAK-rou<; -rfj<; aKia<; xav Kal
<a~a<; ~-rot A.wpiKta, ei flEV 8uvm6v, oA.ou<;, tTCei, Kliv ouo, -roil<; TipwTou<; Twv

UKLWV, Kan':t 8 TWV fl~AWV ~TOL TWV WflWV Tfj<; <a~a<; <pAaflOUAL<JKLa flLKpa. EXELV

8 Kal xetpOflUVLKa TU AEYOflEVa flaVLKfAALa ~ xap6\jleAAa, m8'lp<i ~ ~UAtva, Kal


1tEpLKVTJflL8a<; OflOlW<;,

a Hynm

TCOOO\jleAAa ~ xah6-rou~a, flUAL<JTa T~U<; tv

Tal<; KE<paAai<; Kat oupai<; TWV CtKLWV TETaYflfVOU<;.


Kal -roil<; flEV aKou-ra-rou<; oihw<; OTIAiaet<;,


e'lpfJTUL. -roil<; 8 A.eyo-

flvou<; \j!LAou<; -rov -rp61tov Tou-rov -ro~o<papeTpa tTil -rwv WflWV<o
flEVa, exovm KOUKOUpa flEYUAa, xwpouvm A' ~ fl' aaytnwv, <JWA'lVCtpta

3o ~uA.tva flETa fltKpwv aaytnwv Kal KouKoupwv flLKpwv, aTtep Kal tTtl TtoAu 8taaTTJfla ptTCTOVTat Ota TWV TO~ap(wv, Kat TOi<; tx9poi<; axp'lGTCt el<JL, ~'lpuna<;, a
A.ynm ptK-rapta, -rou<; aTteipw<; Ttpo<; -r~v -ro~e[av xovm<; ~ Kal A.emof1vou<;, w<;
eiK6<;, TO~WV. exetv 8 Kal (JKOUTapta fllKpa, mpoyyuA.a, a<pevM~oAa Kal T<LKOUpta, OflOLa TWV eipT)flfVWV,<OflEVa Kal au-ra ei<; STJKCtpta OEpflUTLVa. TU


8 LflUTLa TWV Tte<wv cmaVTWV emwaav KOVTU flfXPL TWV yovaTWV au-rwv. tav
OUVaTOV, aUTOU<; exnv Kal tmA.wptKa. TU 8 imoO~flaTa aV-rwv fl~ exnv 6~eia<;
<flUTa<;> Ef11tpoa9ev, avayKaiov ot Kal 6:\iyot<; fllKpoi<; ~AOL<; Ka9'1AOU<J9at au-ra
~youv Kapcpiot<;, Ttpo<; TtAeiova imoupyiav. XP~<JLfla yap mum Kal tv -rai<; Mot-

Tiop[m<; flUAL<JTa. Kal TU<; Koupa<; o auTWV KOVTU<; yivwem Kal fl~ a<peivm

oblong in shape but altogether completely curved. 8 All the shields in each
arithmos or tagma should be of the same color. The men should also have
helmets with small plumes on top, slings, double-bladed axes, one side shaped
like a sword, the other like the point of a spear, to be carried in leather cases.
Other axes with one blade for cutting and the other rounded, still other doublebladed axes shaped like the pelekus. 9 The picked men of the file should have
body armor or mail, all the men, if possible, but at least the first two of the file.
Across the plates or the shoulders of the body armor <attach> small pennons.
They should also have gauntlets, called manikellia or cheiropsella, made of iron
nr wood, and in like manner greaves, called podopsella or chalkotouba, especially the men stationed in the front and in the rear of the file.
22. You will arm all the skoutatoi in the aforesaid manner, but the so-called
light-armed troops as follows. They should carry bows on their shoulders with
large quivers holding up to thirty or forty arrows. Also grooved wooden tubes
with short arrows in small quivers, that can be fired a great distance with the
bows and which cannot be used by the enemy. 10 Small javelins, called riktaria,
for men inexperienced in archery or who do not happen to have bows. They
should also have small round shields, slings, and axes, similar to those mentioned, and those too carried in leather cases. Let the tunics of all the foot
soldiers be short, reaching to their knees. If possible, they should also have
surcoats. Their shoes should not have sharp points in front; but they must be
studded with a few small rivets or nails for greater durability. These are particularly suitable when marching.n Their hair should be cut short; it is better if it is
not allowed to grow long.

au-roi<; TEAeta<; -rpixa<; XP~<JlflOV ta-rtv.

133-139 Strat., 12.B.1.

116 navTwc:; MWAE navm VB

117 Kacrcrioa MWA Kacrcrioac:; VBE

n8 iivw6ev MW

I we:; crrra6!]V MW OlK!]V crrra6iou ETlf.l!]KE<:; AVBE 122 errd

T<i>v 1 ~TOt MW om. AVBE I TWV Wf.!WV MW Toile:; Wf.!OU<:; AVBE

iivw6ev TOUCj>lOV f.llKpov AVBE

MW el
124 ~~

oe j.l~ AVBE


AVBE 129 A.' .. f.l' MWVBE TptaKovTa ~ TecrcrapaKovm A

131 Kal... dcrt MW om. AVBE I ad axplJOTU scr. mg.
oil XPlJatf.!euOucrtv W 132 ptKTapta MW ptmapta AVBE 135 KovTa AVBE Kovoa MW
136 auToilc:; exetv MW trsp. AVBE 136-137 f.l~ ... 6A.iyotc:; MW avayKatov eaT\ A
avayKatov ecr-nv VBE 137 f.lUTac:; ci. Va om. codd. I ~Aotc:; MW Kapcpiotc:; AVBE
137-138 auTO. ... Kapcpiotc:; MW om. AVBE 139 KovTac:; MWA KOf.!ac:; VBE 140 n:A.eiac:;
MW f.lUKpac:; AVBE


130 KOUKOupwv MWVBE Koupwv A

8. Kolias, 91.
9. Kolias, 169-170.

Cf. Const. 5, n. 3.


Strat. 12.B.1.






Constitution 6

Armament for Cavalry and Infantry

23. AAA.' ou-rw flEV -roue; m:(ouc; a-rpanw-rac; v8Uaetc; Kal nept<ppO.~etc; Ot'
onA.wv. npoc; o -r~v umlPwiav aun'llv Kal <puA.aK~v I <'tf.!O.~ac; napaaKeuaaLc;
eva-raMie; ~youv A.a<ppac; Kal yopyac; KaTa 0Kapxiav ~TOt KOVTOU~pvtv, flLaV
Kal fl~ 11AEOV, '(va fl~ 110AAOL eic; au-ra uaxoAOUflVOl apy<ilatv. tx-rw 8 EKUGTll
TWV Ctfla~<ilv Xtp0f.!UALV, U~LVllV, 11AEKLV, GKE11apvov, npt6vtv, opuyac; ouo,
a<pupav, muO.pta ouo, K6<ptvov, KtAiKta, <paA.Kiotv, -r(tKoupta, ~apoouKta, flaT(ouKta-'iawc; KUV TOUTWV xpe(a YEVT]Tat Tote; a-rpaTLWTatc;--rpt~6A.ouc; ava00f.lEVac; Ota A.emwv a<pTJKWf.!O.-rwv Kal v ~A.q> atc5TJp4J anoKpa-rouflvac; Ota -ro
hoif.!wc; auvaywem au-rae; hpac; <'tf.!<'t~ac; txovaac; m~o~oA.ia-rpac; Kal aayinac;
au-r<ilv, Kal ~aA.ia-rpac; ~Tot flayyavtKa, -ra A.eyoflva aA.aKana, a-rpe<p6flVa
KUKA08v, Kal flayyavap(ouc;, Amoupyouc;, xa.AKlc;, Kal TOUTOtc; '(Otov apxov-ra
ma-r~aat. -rpac; Ctf.!Ct~ac; <pepouaac; TO Upflaf.!EVTOV EKCtaTOU apt8f.!OU TWV
a-rpanw-r<ilv hpac; Ctf.!Ct~ac;, we; OEKa ~ Kal dKOat, ~aa-ra(ovaac; n(a-rov Kal
na~af.!O.nv Kal aayinac; Kal -ro~apta EK neptaaou.
24. ''Innouc; aayflaTap(ouc; ~ uno(uyta, l flEV EVOEXTat, Ka8' EKUGTOV KOVTOU~pvtv, i 8 fl~y, de; TU Mo KOVTOU~pvta eva, tva, i YEVT]Tat Katpoc;
xwpta8~vat muc; 11(ouc; EK TWV Ctfla~wv Kal npoKa-raA.a~lV T0110V, ~aa-ra(etv
6K-rw ~ oKa ~flpwv oanav11v Kal UKoA.ou8e'lv flEXptc; ou m<p8aawmv al lif.!a~m
upy6-repov 11pma-rouaat.
25. OuK axpTJGTOV 8 f.!Ol 00Kl f.!VllflOVUGat, KUV tv fllKp4J, Kal T~c; apxaiac;
onA.iaewc; TWV 11(wv KUL TWV Ka~aAA.ap(wv, Ka8wc; AiA.tav6c; T Kal ol A.omol TWV
142-149 Strat., 12.B.6.



23. In this manner, then, you will clothe the foot soldiers and provide them
with armor and weapons. Then, for their service and protection, you will get
ready easily managed, that is, light and fast, wagons, one to each dekarchy or
!!quad, no more lest many of the men become so busy with them that they
neglect <other matters>. Let each of the wagons contain a hand mill, an axe, a
hatchet, an adze, a saw, two picks, a hammer, two shovels, a basket, some goathair matting, a scythe, other axes, maces and clubs, for the soldiers may have
need of these too. Also caltrops tied together with light cords attached to an iron
peg so they can be easily collected. 12 Other wagons carrying bow ballistai and
bolts for them, as well as ballistai or artillery pieces of the type called alakatia,
that revolve in all directions. 13 Also artillery crews, carpenters, metal workers, all
under their own commander. Other wagons bearing the armament for the
soldiers of each arithmos. Another ten or even twenty wagons to transport flour
and hardtack as well as extra bows and arrows. 14
24. Pack horses or asses, if it can be worked out, for each squad; if not, then
one for two squads. If the opportunity arises for the infantry to be separated
from the wagons to seize some position, these beasts may transport rations for
eight or ten days, accompanying the men until the wagons, moving more slowly,
should arrive.
25. I do not think it unprofitable to call to mind, even briefly, the ancient
armament of the infantry and the cavalry, as Aelian and the other authors on

160-168 Aelian., 2.1; Arrian., 4

141 oihw MW OUTW<; A VBE I Kal WAVBE om. M 143 EUOTUAl<; ~youv MW om. AVBE I
144 apywatV
MWA apywm VBE 145 Twv alla~wv MW lifla~a AVBE 1 XEtpofLUALv w XEtpofLuAtov M
XELPOfLUAov AVBE I npt6vtv Va npLWVLV MW np[ova AVBE I Mo MWA WVBE 146 Mo
MW A WVBE I KO<pLVOV AVBE KO<plv11v MW I <pah[Otv Va <pUAK[av MW <pah[Otov A
<pah[Oa VBE I ~apOOUKLU MW om. AVBE 147-148 avaOEOEfLEVU<; MWAVE
avaOEOEYfLEVU<; B 149 TO~O~OALOTpa<;
w TO~o~aAA[aTpa<; A TO~O~aA[aTpa<; VBE
150 ~a;\[aTpa<; ~TOL MW om. AVBE I aAaKcma MW ~AaKana AVBE
150-151 aTpE<pOfLEVa KUKA68Ev MW om. AVBE 151 TOUTOL<; MWAVE TouTou.:; B I
iipxoVTa MW AVE iipxovm.:; B 15 2 To itpfLUfLEVTov MWA To iipfla fLEV Tov VE Tw iipfLaTL
MWA WVBE I KovTou~tpvta MAVBE KouTou~tpvta W 158 oKTw ... ~fLEpwv MWA 11'
~fLEpwv ~ Kal OeKa B 11' ~fLEpwv ~ OEKU VE I em<pSacrwmv MWA em<pSacrouatv VBE scr. mg.
nEpl T~.:; apxala.:; e~on;\iaEw.:; Twv nE(wv w 16o ouK iixp11aTov MWA Euxr11crTov VBE 1
Kiiv ... fLLKpw MW npo.:; o;\[yov AVBE

12. Strat. 12.B.6.

13. Ballista is a term used primarily for torsion and tension weapons but often designated
any artillery piece. Toxobolistra was a torsion weapon that fired bolts or arrows. See Dennis,
"Byzantine Heavy Artillery," 99-101.
14. Hardtack: dry, twice-baked bread, O[nupo<; iipTo<; (Suda I1254). See A. Dalby, Flavours
of Byzantium (Totnes, Devon, 2003), 99-100.


Armament for Cavalry and Infantry

Constitution 6

ll1Tfjy6peuaaY. rrapa yap TOl~ apxaiOL~ T~Y flEY LJTJTLK~Y

T<l~LY d~ ouo 8ta<popa~ OTIALOWY eno[ouv oi aTpan]yol, fllUY flEY Kan't<ppaKTOY
A.eyoflYfjY Kal T~Y TpaY ou KaT<i<ppaKTOY.
16 5
26. 'DrrA.t(oY 8 TOY flEY KaT<i<ppaKTOY Ka~aA.A.apLOY naYTaX60eY auT6Y T
Kal TOY LTITIOY QUTOU. Kai TOY flEY aY8pa A.wpLKLOL~ Kai KAL~QYLOL~ ~ at8fjp0t~ ~ eK
Kep<iTWY mnmA.eyflYOL~ Kai napaflflPLOL~, Tou~ 8 'innou~ KaTe<ppanoY napanA.euptOiOL~ Kai rrpof1Twm8iOL~, ~youv Ta nA.eupa Kai Ta~ Ke<paA.a~, Kai Tou~
Tpax~A.ou~ TWY 'innwv 8ta KAL~ay[wy ~ A.wptKtwY ~ aAA.11~ u:\.11~ KaTaKTIOY.
27. TotJTWY 8 navTwY, TWY T KaTa<ppCtKTWY Ka~aAA.ap[wy Kai TWY fl~
Ka1'a<ppCtKTWY, oi flEV eLXOY KOYTCtpLa, oi 8 Ta AYOflYa YUV flYauA.a, anep oi
apxatOL A.oyxa~ I eKCtAOUY OLTLY~ Kai KaT<i<ppaKTOL OVT~ xeipa~ auy~aAAOY
TOt~ TtOAfllOL~, oi 8 f1UKp60Y ~aay CtKOYTL(OYT~, oi.\~ Kai EAYOY CtKpO~OAL
OTCt~. TWY 8 Ta KOVTCtpLa ~ Ta~ A.Oyxa~ exovTWY oi flY, w~ e'LpfjTUL, ~aay oi TOt~
175 JTOAfllOL~ OUflTtAKOflYOL Kal TIAfjOLOY 8ta TWY 8op<iTWY ~TOL TWY KOYTap[wv
flUXOflVOL. TOtlTWY Of TWY OUflTIAKOflYWY y Tft flCtXD oi flEY 0upeou~ eLXOY ~TOL
OKOUTCtpLa ITLfl~Kfj flYUAQ, OL 8 xwpi~ TtDY 0upWY flOYOL~ TOt~ KOVTap(oL~
flCtXOYTO. Kat oi flEY eKaAOUYTO 0upeo<p6pot, oi 8 i8iw~ 8opaTo<p6pOL 86pu
yap To KOYT<ipLY A.eyoY.
28. A.KpO~OALaTa~ 8 TWY Ka~aA.Aap(wy eKCtAOUY <TOU~ rr6ppw0Y CtKpO~OALOflOl~ 8wxpwf1You~> ~youY Tou~ flUKp60eY ~aAA.ovT<i~ 1' Kai flUXOflYou~.
TO"llTWY 8 oi flEV 8opaT(OL~ ~youY pLKTaplOL~ eKXPflV1'0, oi 8 TO~OL~ Kal oi flEY
QUTWY flUKp60eY ppL1tOY Ta ptKTCtpLa ~ en' eU0da~ epx6flYOL ~ KUKA(!) nepLTpxoY1'~, oi.\~ eKCtAOUY innaKOYTLOTCt~, oi 8 TOt~ TO~OL~ E~QAAOY oi.\~ eKCtAOUY
185 LTITIOTO~OTa~. TLYf~ 8 UUTWV A.a<ppot~ KOVTap(OL~ expwYTO Kal fllUY ~ 8UTp0Y


168-178 Aelian., 2.12.

178-189 Aelian., 2.13; Arrian., 2.7.

163 orrJ.iaewv




164 KaTa<ppaKTov MWA KaTa<ppLKTov VBE





l!lctics have described it. 15 Among the ancients, the commanders divided the


~.avalry force according to two different kinds of armament, the one called heavy
armed and the other not heavy armed.
26. They armed the heavy-armed cavalryman and his horse completely. The
men wore cuirasses and breastplates, either of iron or horn fitted together, as
well as thigh armor. They protected the horses with body and head armor, that
Ill, they covered the sides and heads and necks of the horses with lamellar armor
t:lf mail or some other material.
27. Of all these, then, the heavy-armed cavalry as well as the not
heavy-armed, the first carried lances, the others the weapons now called
menaula, which the ancients called spears.' 6 The ones with heavy armor engaged
In dose combat with the enemy; the others, whom they called akrobolistai,
hurled their weapons from a distance. Of the men who carried lances or spears,
l!ome, as mentioned, were fighting at close quarters, engaged directly against the
enemy with their spears and lances. Some of those engaged in close combat had
thyreoi or long, large shields. The soldiers without thyreoi fought with lances
tdone. The first were called thyreophoroi and the others specifically spearbearers, for they called the lance a spear.
28. The cavalrymen who employed missile weapons from a distance, that is,
the men shooting and fighting from far off, were called akrobolistai. Some of
them made use of small spears or javelins, others of arrows. Some hurled their
javelins from a great distance, either advancing in a straight line or else running
around in a circle. These they called hippakontistai; those who shot arrows they
called hippotoxotai. Some of them made use of light spears and, after first


167 mrrerrJ.eyt.tevot~ MWA mJ.eyoflltvot~

VBE 168 rrpoflETwmlliOL~ MW rrpOfleTWT!tOL~ AVBE 170 T MWVBE om. A

Kam<ppaKTwv MWA Kam<ppaKTwv Kal VBE 1 7 2 auve~anov MWA auvt~aJ.ov VBE
173 ~aav aKovTi(oVTe~ MW ~K6vTL<ov AVBE 174 Ta~ Myxa~ MW Ta flEvauJ.a AVBE
175 1!0AfllOL~ MWA T!OAEflOL~ VBE 176 OUfl1!AKOflEVWV MWAB OUfl1!AKOflUlWV VE I EV
AVBE om. MW 177-178 oi. .. llopaTo<p6pOL MW ol /li; llopaTo<p6pot A om. VBE
179 KovTaptv MW KovTapwv AVBE 180-181 Tou~ ... lltaxpwflltvou~ Va ex Arriano
181 T MW om. AVBE 182 llopaTtOL~ ~youv MW om. AVBE 182-183 pLKTaptOL~ ... Ta
MWA om. VBE 182 pLKTap[OL~ Va p!]KTaptoL~ MW ptmap[OL~ A 183 eppmov MW
eppmTov AVBE I ptKTapta Va p!]KTapta MW ptmapta AVBE 184 bmaKovTLaTa~ WAVBE
lrrrroKOVTtaTa~ M I KaAouv2 MW eJ.eyov AVBE
1 71

15. Aelian, 2; Arrian, 4

16. Menaulon was a heavy spear, a form of pike. See E. McGeer, "Menaulion-Menaulatoi;'
Diptycha 4 (1986-87): 53-57; M. Anastasiadis, "On Handling the Menavlion;' BMGS 18

(1994): 1-10.






Constitution 6

Armament for Cavalry and Infantry

npoe~aKOVTLaavn:<; TO AOLTIOV OUVTIAEKOVTO TOt<; noA.q.tiot<; ~ TOt<; oopaTLOt<; ol<;

eLXOV l>TIOAlTIOJ.lEVOl<; ~youv TOt<; EAaq>pol<; KOVTap(ot<; ~ TOt<; ana6iot<; auTWV
OtaxpWJ.lVOl Kal TODTOU<; EKUAOUV eA.acppou<;. TlVE<; o aUTWV KUL nAEKl<;
J.llKpou<; cpepov nav-raxoeev xov-ra<; aKwKa<; 6~la<; w<; 606v-ra<; ~KOVllJ.lEvou<;.
Kal T~V J.lEV KapaAA.aptK~V TCt~lV oihw<; wnA.t(ov, ocrov ev (
29. T~v o ne(tK~V napa T~V TWV apxaiwv TCt~lV OUTW<; eupOJ.lV. TPlXW<; J.lEV
yap auTfj<; 0lJ.lEpt(ov T~V onAtcrtV, W<; avwTepw 'ip11Tat ~J.llV. Kal T~V J.lEV EKUAouv 6nA.ha<;, T~V o neATama<;, T~V o '\'lAOlJ<;.
30. Kal T~V J.lEV TWV AYOJ.lEVWV 6nAtTWV papUTCtTllV napa nav-ra<; TOU<;
ne(ou<; noiouv KaTa Tov MaKeoovtKov Tponov ~youv Ka6' ov 1\A.e~avopo<;, 6
TWV MaKeOOvwv, exp~craTo. Kai yap <JKOUTCtpta enoiouv auTO!<; mpoyyuA.a,
!leyO.A.a, rrapaJ.l~Kll, a A.eyov 6upeou<; Kal J.laxaipa<; ~youv napaJ.l~pta, Kal
6wpaKa<; Kal Kpavll ~youv A.wpiKta Kal KAtPO.vta Kal Kaaaioa<; Kal J.laVtKAA.ta
Kal xaA.K6Toupa, anep ol naA.atolrreptKVllJ.lLOa<; EKUAOUV, Kal KOVTapta J.laKpoTepa. TOU<; !lEY ouv 6nA.ha<; AYOJ.lEVOU<; OUTW<; wrrA.t(ov.
31. Tou<; o '\'lAOU<; 1tUVTWV A.acppoTaTn wnA.t(ov Tft rrapacrKeuft. OUT yap
6wpaKa<; ~youv KAtiPO.vta ~ A.wpiKta ouT rreptKVllJ.lLOa<; ~youv nooo'\leAA.a ~
XaAKOToupa OUT 6upeou<; ~ aan(oa<; papla<; ~youv Ta J.lEYUAa <JKOUTapta,
ana Ota TWV !laKp66ev paAAOJ.lEVWV orrA.wv EJ.lUXOVTO, oiov ~ TO~UOVT<; ~
ptKTapta pimovT<; ~ A.i6ou<; po.novT<;, TOU<; J.lEV ota xetp6<;, TOU<; o Ota crcpevOOVll<;. <JTOAa<; o eixov a-repea<; Kai 1t11KTa<; CtVTi A.wptKLWV Kal KAtPav[wv Kal


Aelian., 2.7.


Aelian., 2.8.

186-187 oopUTlOl; ... elxov MW om. AVBE 187 lJ1lOALrrOf1EVOl; MWA UTIOAlflTIUVOflEVOl;
VBE I ~youv Tot<; MW om. AVBE I ona6iot<; MWAB na6iot<; VE 188 OtUXPWflEVOt MW
om. AVBE 189 exovm<; AVBE exouoa<; MW I CtKWKCt; Va UKOKU; MW om. AVBE scr. mg.
TO 6~uTmov Toii crtOrjpou W I 6~eia<; ... 606vm<; MW w<; 6c56vTa<; 6~e1<; AVBE 190 flEV
MWA om. VBE I ooov ooov MW w<; AVBE 192 Be MWA om. VBE I T~v MW om. AVBE
I TPlXiii<; MW el<; <pia A ei<; y' VBE 193 dpT]Tut ~fllV MW eip~KUflEV AVBE I T~v2 MWA T~
VBE 198-199 Ka\2 ... \wpiKta MW om. AVBE 200-201 f1UKp6Tepa MWA fllKp6Tepa
VBE 202 T~ napuaKEU~ MW OTIAl01 AVBE 203 ewpaKU; ~youv KAl~UVlU MW om.
AVBE I ~~ MWA ouT VBE I neptKVT]fllOa<; ~youv MW om. AVBE 204 XUAKOTou~a MW
xetp61f1AAU AVBE 204-206 aonioa<; ... ~UAAOVT; MW OKOUTapta ~apa aU' ~ eT6~euov
~ pmTapta eppmov ~ \i6ou<; e~a\Aov AVBE 206 ptKTUpta Va PTJKTUpta MW ptmapta
AVBE 2o 7 oTepea<; MW ioxupa<; AVBE


hurling one or two javelins, they engaged the enemy in close fighting. Others
made use of the spears they still had left or of their light spears or of their
llWords. They called these men light troops. Some of them also carried small
axes with points like sharpened teeth on all sides. To the extent that we can
tillmmarize it, that is how the ancients armed their cavalry forces.
29. We have found that the ancients ordered their infantry as follows. They
divided its armament into three parts, as we mentioned above: one force they
called hop lites, another peltastai, another light armed.
30. They made the men they called hop lites the most heavily armed of all the

foot soldiers, in the Macedonian manner, that which Alexander, who was <the
commander> of the Macedonians, employed. They made shields for them that
were large, rounded, oval in shape, that they called thyreoi. Also knives or
daggers, cuirasses and helmets, that is, body armor, breastplates, and helmets, as
well as gauntlets and greaves that the ancients called shin guards, and longer
spears. That is how they armed the troops they called hoplites.
31. They armed the light-armed troops with the lightest equipment of all.
For they did not have cuirasses or breastplates or body armor or leg coverings or
podopsella or greaves or thyreoi or heavy shields or large shields. But they
fought with weapons thrown from a great distance, loosing arrows, hurling
missiles, or throwing stones, some by hand, some with slings. In place of body
armor, breastplates, and the rest, they had clothing that was stiff and compacted.

1 oo

Constitution 6

Armament for Cavalry and Infantry

32. To 8 TWV lteATaaTWV A)'0f1EVWV dOo<;, on:ep ol VeWTepotTWV TUKllKWV


OUK EO~AW<JUV-OlflaL 0, W<; avw flOl e'lpllTaL, TOt<; 'l'lAOt<; a1no <JUflfll~UVT<;
Kai mho flEV eixev 6n:A.t<Jf10V A.a<pp6Tepov 8 Twv aAA.wv. dxe yap n:ATllv, 6 a-rt
<JKOUL<lptov fllKp6v, Kai Ta MpaTa QUTWV ~youv Ta KOVL<lpta JtOAU TWV AeyoflEVWV <Japt<JWV n:apa TOt<; n:aAatOt<; KOVTOTepa. a[ 0 aapt<Jat ~<JaY KOVTapta
flUKpa EW<; ltllXWV tO' Kai axpt 1tTJXWV u;'. mum 8 ~aav flUAt<Jm T~<; MaKeOOVl-


KfJ<; 6n:At<JW<;. EOOKel 0 ~ TWV JteATaaTWV OltAl<Jl<; flE<JllV exetv TU~lV TWV T
'!'tAwv Kai Twv lo[w<; A.eyof.lvwv 6n:AtTwv, papuTpa flEV oi'iaa Twv '!'tAwv, A.a<ppoTpa 8 Twv 6n:AtTwv.
33 HV 8 n:apa Tot<; 6n:::\.[mt<; Kai aan:i<; MaKeOOVlK~ xahfJ, ou A[av KOlAll,

~youv <JK01JTaptov mpoyyuA.ov, flEya, cmaA.wTpav exov T~V KOlAOTT]m, TO o


f.lETpov auTfJ<; ameaf.lWV Tptwv. ~v 0 Kai KOVTaptov ou fllKp6Tepov ltTJXWV ll', TO

8 flUKp6Tepov flEXPl TOU Mvaaem avopa KpaTOUVTQ Ktvdv auTO eUKOAW<;.

34 'H 8 MaK00VtK~ <paA.ay~ EKetVT] ~youv ~ n:apaTay~ 06Kel Tot<; n:oA.eflLot<; avun:6<JTaTO<; dvat Ota T~V EV Tal<; TU~e<Jl Kam<JKW~V. l<JTQTO yap 6 av~p
E~WltAl<JflEVO<; EV T<fl TOU aywvo<; TfJ<; <JUflPOAfJ<; Katp<fl Kamn:UKVOUflEVT]<; TfJ<;

n:apaTayfJ<; EV Tfi EKU<JTOU <JTU<Jel el<; n:~xet<; Mo, KaTEXWV T~V aaptaav ~youv TO
f.lUKpov KOVTaptOV, on:ep, W<; flEV nve<; e<paaav, 1tTJXWV E~Ka[OeKa, Kala 8 T~V
aA.~OetaV ltTJXWV 0Kale<J<Japwv. TOUTWV Oi:: TE<J<Jape<; flEV n:~xel<; a<patpet TO

f.leTa~u TWV xetpwv el<; TO 6n:[aw, ol o A.omoi OEKa n:~xel<; el<; TO Ef11tpoa0ev

eKTdvovTm n:po Twv awflaTwv.


Aelian., 12.1.


32. The class of those called peltasts has not been described by more recent
tactical writers, because, as I have already stated, it is my opinion that they
confused it with the light-armed troops. Its armament was indeed lighter than
the others. For it had a pelta, that is, a small shield. Its spears or lances were
much shorter than the so-called pikes used by the ancients. The pikes were long
~pears from fourteen to sixteen pecheis that were the specialties of the
Macedonian armamentY It seems that the armament of the peltasts held a
middle place between that of the light-armed troops and that of those specifically called hoplites, heavier than that of the light-armed but lighter than that
of the hoplites.
33. The hoplites also had a bronze, Macedonian shield, not too concave, or
else <they had> a round shield, large, with less curvature, and measuring three
spithamai. 18 The spear was not smaller than eight pecheis nor so large that a man
carrying it could not easily move it.t9
34. The Macedonian phalanx was a formation that appeared irresistible to
the enemy because of its system of lining up. 20 At the moment of close combat,
as the battle line became tighter, the heavily armored men took their stand, each
in his own place, two pecheis <apart>. They wielded the pike, or the large spear
that, according to some, measured sixteen pecheis, but was really fourteen. Four
of these pecheis covered the space from the man's hands to the space behind
him and the other ten pecheis stretched out in front of his body.

Aelian., 14.1.

olf.!at. .. e'lp!]TaL MW om. AV8E I mho MW mho we;!~avw AV8E

KovT6-repa AV8E Kov06Tepa MW 214 f.!UKpa MWA f.lLKpa V8E I til' MWAVE te' 8
214-215 TUUTa ... onA.[crewc; MWA om. V8E 216-217 ~apuTpa ... 6nA.nwv MWA om.
VBE 218 ad KOLA!] scr. mg. ~apna W 219 <JKOUTaptov MWA <JKOUTapwv TO VBE I
cmaA.wTpav Va anA.oTpav MW A arrA.wTpav VBE 220 Tptwv MA y' WV8E
221 f.!UKp6Tepov MW f.!UKp6mTov AVBE 222 llt f.!UKellovLK~ MA VBE trsp. W I <paA.ay~
WAVBE <paA.a~ M 223 ad avun6crmToc; scr. mg. avanavT!]TO<; W I 6 MWA om. VBE
22 4 Tou ... Kmpw Mw Kmpw T~c; Tou!ou cruf.!~oA.~c; AVBE 225 tKacrTou crTacret MW
<JTCt<JEl i:Ka<JTOU A <JTU<JEL EKU<JTOU avllpoc; VBE lllUo MW A VBE 226 onep we; MW A 0
npwTov 8 6 npwToc; VE I i!<pacrav MW A dnov V8E I i:~KailleKa MW t<;' AVBE
227 lleKmwcrapwv W til' MAVBE I Tecrcrapec; MW ll' A Tecrcrapac; VBE I f.!E:v MWA om.



17. 6.55 m to 7.84 m. Cf. Aelian, 14.

18. 73 em. Aelian, 12; Asclepiodotus, 5.1.
19.3-74 m.
20. The formation was sixteen deep. See Aelian, 14; AnonStrat, 16.



Armament for Cavalry and Infantry

Constitution 6


35 Toaau-ra flEV ouv Kal m::plT~~ Ka0' va avopa mpami>nJV 6n:\[aew~ fK

3 5. This much, then, about the armament of each individual soldier we have

1" TWV JIUAatWV KULTWV VWTpwv TUKLLKWV avaA~UflVOl 0LTa~Ufl0a 1" Kal

tcad in the ancient and more recent tacticians. We have organized it and defined

OtwptaUfl0a, Yva exwv mhwv T~V yvwatv EKAEYn TO XP~atflOV.

230 crtpawi>TTJV MW crtpanwtwv A om. VBE 230-231 onl\iaewc; ... vewttpwv MWA om.
VBE 2.31-232 avaAE~Ctf!EVot. .. &wptcralleea MW auvel\e~a11eea &wptaalleea te Kal
&em~alleea A auvel\e~alleea &wpicraf!EV te Kal &eta~alleea VBE 2.32. yvwmv MW

II so that, possessing this knowledge, you may choose what is beneficial.



flepl yuflvaa[ac; Ka~aA.AaptKf]c; Kal Tte(tKf]c;

About Training for the Cavalry and the Infantry

1. 'E~~c; o Kal m:pl T~c; atmiiv YUflVaa[ac; rrpo TWV JtOA!llKWV aywvwv O<plA0U(Jf]<; y[vw9at llnp[wc; aot Kal auv-r611wc; imayopeu<Jollev, <1 mpmf]y, 'lva
5 rrporrapa<JKeua(nc; al'nouc; 9[(w8at npoc; -roue; CtAT]9etc; Ktvouvouc; ota TWV tv
yullvaa[q KlVOUVWV. TO yap ayullvaaTOV JtaVTAW<; Ct!la9c; Kal TU<f>AOV rrpoc; -rae;
a9poac; Kat Ct!lAT~TOU<; tyxap~<Jetc; eupt<JKTal.
2."H yap tv Katp<f Xl!lWYOc; ~ tv ETEp<.p Katp<f, tv taTtY avox~ JtOAE!lOU ~
TlVWV tJtAU(JWV KaTa JtOA1lLac; y~c; avemc;, YU!lYa(etv (J XP~ Ta a-rpa-rorreoa
10 Kal Tt0lLV -roue; mpa-rtWTac; JtOA!llKOU<; Kat wanep <Juv-rpo<pouc; TWV TtOVWV Ota
TOU t8tG!lOU Kalil~ a<p[nc; au-roue; apye1v ll~T pa8u!lLV. Kal yap ~ apy[a !lUAUKa
KUL a<J9ev~ JtOlel -ra GW!laTU, ~ o pa9U!llU; Kat avavopouc; -rae; '!'UXac;
napa<JKeua(et. a[ yap ~ooval TO Ka9' ~11pav oe/..ea(ou<Jat Kal TOY UTOA!lOTaTOV Ota<p9lpoum. Kal o-r' iiv tnl llaKpov xpovov ave8v-rec; JtCtAlV trrl -roue;
15 novouc; !..8wmv, oih:e ~Otwc; t~[amv, oihe tmrro!..u Kap-rep~<JOU<JlV, at..A' eu9wc;
<peuyoumv, rrplv ~ Kal rre1pav AU~LV TWV TtOA!llKWV TtOVWV. et o Kal etc; rre1pav
trrl !llKpov A9W<JtV, Taxwc; CtJtOXWP~<JOVTUl, <ppetV TOU<; JtOVOU<; Kat KlVOUVOU<;
ou OUYCt!lYOl. Ol01tp Kal aya9ov tyw Kp[vw <JTpa-rf]y6v, o-r' iiv Ta XP~<Jllla TOT
<JKeua(n Kal ow-rann Kal pya Kal rrpay11ma o-re ou Kmerrdyoumv al -rwv
20 TtOA!llKWV TtOVWV avayKat.

1. Next, 0 commander, in a general, summary fashion, we propose for your

consideration the training of the men that ought to take place before they
engage the enemy. This will help you in preparing them to become accustomed
to actual danger by facing dangers in training. Untrained men turn out to be
totally ignorant and blind in the face of sudden and unexpected actions.
2. In winter or at other times when there is a respite from war or a halt in
expeditions into hostile territory, it is necessary for you to exercise the army and
to make the soldiers skilled in war by getting them used to it, as though they
were raised on hard labor. 1 Do not permit them to become idle or to relax.
Idleness makes the body soft and weak, while relaxation renders the soul
cowardly and unmanly. For daily pleasures entrap and corrupt even the most
courageous man. Whenever they have been at rest for a long time and then once
more return to their labors, they do not go willingly nor will they persevere very
long, but they will quickly take to flight before they have experienced the
hardships of war. Even if they do acquire a little experience, they swiftly retreat,
unable to bear the labor and the dangers. For this reason I judge that man to be
a good commander who prepares what will prove helpful and who organizes
work and activities during that period when the unavoidable labors of war are
not pressing.

M W A VB E Va PG 107'733

Onas. 9.2; 10.1.

TIOAeiJLKWV TiapaaKeuwv MW A. om. VBE I (' MWVBE i:~MiJ'l A 3-4 6c:petA.oua'l<; MW

6c:peLAOUO'l<; OOL AVBE 4 OOL MW om. AVBE 11 ac:p['l<; MW ac:p~<; AVBE I ad iJUAUKU
scr. mg. xauva W 13 to MWVE om. AB I 6eA.t:a(ouam MWA OeA.eit(oum VBE
14 15Lac:p8e[poum MAVBE 15Lac:p8e[pouatv w I aveeevte<; MW A aveeevta<; VBE scr. mg.
~youv EK tWV KOTIWV KUtTIOVWV apy'laavte<; w 15 i:~[amv Va E~OUOLV codd. 16 c:peuyouOLV MW c:peuyoum AVBE I ~ Kal MW om. AVBE I TIOVWV MWA VE TIOVWV avayKm B
17 newaLV MWA newm VBE I UTIOXWP~OOvtUL Va aTioxwp[(ovtm codd. 18 ta XP~Olf.IU
MW om. AVBE 19 OKeua('l MW 1tpOKUtaOKEUCt('l AVBE I OtE VBE ot' av MWA I
KatETit:[youmv MAB ou Katmdywmv W OUKETIEiyoumv VE 19-20 al. .. TIOAEflLKWV
MW AVE om. B 20 TI6vwv MW AVE KalOtaTI6vwv B


Cf. Onasander 9.2; 10.1.


3 fu!lva(e OE TOV aTpaTOV TOlOUTOl<; Tp6not<; Kal tmTT]OeU!laat npGnov !lEv

TOV Ka8va mpamiJTflV w<; tv !lAETn, TOU<; !lEV OTIALTU<; GKOUTCtTOU<; ne(fi ~youv
LOU<; <popouvTa<; T~v navon;\[av ei<; !lOVO!laxia<; !leTa aKoump[wv Kal ~epy[wv
aVTL<; CtAA~AWV, ei<; TO f'ii'\lat !l~Ko9ev ptKTUptv Kat !lapT(u~ap~oUAOV, 0 AEyTat

vuv aa;\[~a, Kal T(lKOUptv. TOU<; OE AYO!lEVOU<; '\llAOU<; oihw YU!lVUGL<; ei<;

TO~dav GUVTO!lOV KaTa KOVTap[ou U'\lflAOU ano OtaaT~!laTO<;, d<; TO ptmLV

!l~Ko9ev ptKTaptv Kal G<pVOO~OAOV, d<; Tif10~Gl<; Kal op6!lOU<; KaTU T O!laAWV
T6nwv Kal avw!laAwv.
4 Tou<; OE Ka~aUap[ou<; YU!lVUGL<; d<; TO TO~ULV GUVTO!lW<; ~ yap Taxu30

TT]<; Kal tKnvaaawem rrapaaKeua(n T~v aay[nav Kal iaxupw<; ~a;\;\w9m,

onep TWV I avayKa(wv tm[, Kal TOt<; trrl 'lnrrwv OXOU!lEVOl<; XP~at!lOV. Kal en d<;
TO TO~ULV ne(fi ano OtaaT~!laTO<; GUVTO!lW<;, dT KaTa Kovmp[ou dT KaTa
Tpou GT]!ldou. d<; TO To~eunv tnavw 'lrrrrou TpxovTo<; auvT6!lw<; !lnpoa9ev,
omaeev, Oe~LQ., aptmepQ. d<; TO rtT]MV t<p' 'lnnou<; d<; TO TO~ULV GUVTO!lW<;


navw '(rrnou TPEXOVTO<; !llaV ~ Kal 0UTpav aay[nav Kal anoTiewem TO TO~OV
TTa!lEVOV tv T'iJ 9T]Kap[q>, tav TIAUTU taTLV, ~ tv aAAq> ~!ll9T]Klq> trrl TOUTq>
ytvo11vq> euKa[pw<; Kat tm;\a!l~avwem Tou KovTap[ou tK Tou w11ou ~ama(o
!lvou. Kat ei<; TO xetv !lEV TO T6~ov TTa!lvov tv T'iJ 9f1Kap[q>, KpaTeiv 0 TO
KOVTaptv Kat GUVTO!lW<; Q1{0Ttewem aUTO tv T'iJ W!l4J, tmAa!l~avwecu OE TOU

40 TO~OU.

5 Ei<; TO tnpxwecu CtAA~AOl<; avopa<; Mo Kat unoxwpciv KatrtUAlV tneAaUVlV Kat t~e;\(aanv KaLa TOV TUrtOV TOU AYO!lEVOU napaKOVTUKlOU. nva<; OE
auTwv KaA6v tan Kat tv T'iJ Momopeiv Toil<; aTpanwm<; yu!lva(wem tv Tfi io[q.
xwpq. Kal tmTT]0UlV auTa tnavw TWV '(rrrrwv TIOletV. tK TOUTOU yap Kal ~ 000<;

Training for Cavalry and Infantry

Constitution 7


3 Train the army in the following ways and practices.' Begin by drilling the
individual soldier, the heavy-armed foot soldiers with their shields, that is, men
who are fully armed, in single combat with shields and staffs against one
~mother, in hurling from a long distance the short javelin and the lead-pointed
dart, now called the saliba, as well as the axe. You shall train the so-called
light-armed troops as follows. In rapid shooting with a bow, using a lance set up
a good distance away as a target. In throwing the small javelin a long distance
i.nd using the sling. In jumping and running on level as well as rough ground.
4 Train the cavalrymen to shoot rapidly. Speed is important in releasing the
arrow and discharging it with force. This is useful, even essential, for men
mounted on horses. They should, moreover, practice shooting rapidly on foot
from a distance, either against a spear or some other target. The trooper on
horseback should also shoot rapidly on the run, to the front, to the rear, to the
right, to the left. Leaping onto the horse. While racing on horseback he should
loose one or two arrows rapidly and put the strung bow away in its case, if it is
wide enough, or in another half-case specially designed for it. Then grab the
spear he has been carrying on his shoulder. While the strung bow is in its case,
he should grasp the spear and quickly replace it on his shoulder and grab hold
of the bow.
s. Two men should charge against one another and then withdraw; again,
ride forward and then wheel about, according to the model called parakontakiou.3 It is good for some of the soldiers to practice these drills, while marching along on horseback in their own country. For they can continue marching
without obstacle and the horses do not become worn out.

ave!lnoo[aTw<; tKTAetTat Kal oi 'lnrrot ou auvTp[~ovmt.

21-53 Strat.,


MWAVE yu[!vci~wem B I Tp6not~ AVBE n6vot~ MW 22 Tov Ka8eva MW

AVBE 23 f!OVOflUXia~ MW AB flOVaxia~ VE 24 avTl~ MW e~ evavTia~
AVBE scr. mg. arrvavn W I ptKTaptv Va p!]KTciptv W p!]KTciptov M pmTciptov AVBE I
flUPT~u~cip~ouA.ov A flUT~ucip~ouA.ov MW flUT~o~cip~ouA.ov VBE I o MW onEp AVBE
25 Kal MW ~ A ~ Kal VBE I T~tKouptv MW T~tKoupwv AVBE I oihw MW oihw~ AVBE
27 ptKTciptv M PlJKTCtptv w pmTaptOV AVBE 29 Ei~ TO MW om. AVBE 31 enl MW enl
TWV A ecp' VBE I i!n MWVBE i!crn A 32 KUTU 1 MWA om. VBE 34 i~l ... Ynnou~ MWA
om. VBE I GUVTOflW<; AVBE GUVTOVW~ MW 36 eav MW A i VBE I ecr-rtv wAVBE om. M
39 Kov-raptv MW Kov-rcipwv AVBE 41 aAA.~A.ot~ MW AVE aAA.~A.ou~ B I ouo MW A W
VBE 43 ecrTt MAVBE ecrTtV W 45 eKTAlmt MW TEAELTat AVBE

21 yu[!va~



Cf. Strat.


3 Parakontakiou may be a mistake for para kontariou (by the spear), as Lami suggested,

or a corruption of the Latin, per contrarium (by the opposite), as Vari thought.


Training for Cavalry and Infantry

Constitution 7
6. 'Eav 8 OU!l~ft Kal xpoviom TO o-rpaTEU!lU EV ~n8inp ~youv v8a ouvay-

6. If the expeditionary army should happen to be encamped for a long time

TaL KaTa TOV '(owv Katpov OAO<; 6 a-rpa-r6c;, !l~ apyou<; dvm TOV Ka8va, aAA.'

or the entire army should be assembled in one place at the same time, do not let
all the men take it easy but get them accustomed, as mentioned, to hard work.
At times, drill them hard in the way already mentioned, at other times, as
though lined up for battle against one another, at yet other times let them devote
themselves to working on their weapons. Leisure not only makes them sluggish
and cowardly, but prepares the way and misleads them into useless and seditious
thoughts. If they are exercised in tasks they are willing to do, they will easily
bear up under those they are unwilling to do, and they will become accusto;:ne._d
to obey the orders given to them.
7 Not only shall you drill them individually, but you will get them used to
recognizing in its entirety their own formations and to maintain them and to
become familiar with the faces and the names of one another. 4 Each soldier
<must know> which officer he is under and in what bandon and with how many
men he is stationed. He must know the exact commands given by the officers
about formations, such as open order, either according to the width of the battle
line or its depth. Also, in like manner, close order or the tightening up into close
order. Turning to the left and to the right. Re-forming the columns and the
distances in the positions of one man from another. Their partial closing up and
broadening. The passing and repassing of files through one another, both
advancing and retreating. Their divisions according to files or columns and their
distribution and arrangement.
8. Also, whenever, as mentioned, the phalanx or the entire battle formation
is drawn together in depth or when it is extended in length. And what is called
face-to-face battle or one on two fronts, when the men who are called the last of
the file or those behind the entire file turn toward those circling about and fight
facing forward as protostatai do, and behind them, in like fashion, half of the file

8i(w8m aumuc;, we; dpT]TaL, novEtV. Kalno-