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Is the primary of all managerial functions as it involves deciding of future course of
action. Thus, planning logically precedes the execution of all managerial functions.
Is the process of deciding in advance what is to be done, where, how and by whom it is
to be done and it involves anticipation of future course of events and deciding the best
course of action. Thus, it is basically a process of “thinking before doing”.

Nature of Planning
A. Planning is a mental activity. Planning is an intellectual exercise and involves thinking
and forethought on the part of the manager.
B. Planning is goal-oriented. Every plan specifies the goals to be attained in the future
and the steps necessary to reach them.
C. Planning is forward looking. Planning is in keeping with the adage, “look before you
leap”. Thus planning means looking ahead. It is futuristic in nature since it is performed
to accomplish some objectives in future
D. Planning pervades all managerial activity. Planning is the basic function of managers
at all levels, although the nature and scope of planning will vary at each level.
E. Planning is the primary function. Planning logically precedes the execution of all other
managerial functions, since managerial activities in organizing, staffing, directing and
controlling are designed to support the attainment of organizational goals. Thus,
management is a circular process beginning with planning and returning to planning for
revision and adjustment.
F. Planning is based on facts. Planning is a conscious determination and projection of a
course of action for the future. It is based on objectives, facts and considered forecasts.
Thus, planning is not a guess work.
G. Planning is flexible. Planning is a dynamic process capable of adjustments in
accordance with the needs and requirements of the situations. Thus, planning has to be
flexible and cannot be rigid.
H. Planning is essentially decision making. Planning is a choice activity as the planning
process involves finding the alternatives and the selection of the best. Thus, decision
making is the cardinal part of planning.
Objectives and Goals
Goals and objectives provide the foundation for measurement. Goals are outcome
statements that define what an organization is trying to accomplish, both programmatically and
organizationally. Objectives are very precise, time-based, measurable actions that support the
completion of a goal.

Mission and Vision
A vision is a dream or a picture to be achieved ultimately. It forms mental image of future
to which people can align. Describes something possible not necessarily predictable. While
Mission states the business reason for the organization's existence. It provides basis for
decisions on resource allocation and appropriate objectives.
The set of basic principles and associated guidelines, formulated and enforced by the
governing body of an organization, to direct and limit its actions in pursuit of long-term goals.
A procedure is a series of steps, taken together, to achieve a desired result. It is a
particular way of accomplishing something as in a repetitive approach, process or cycle to
accomplish an end result.
Authoritative statement of what to do or not to do in a specific situation, issued by an
appropriate person or body. It clarifies, demarcates, or interprets a law or policy.
An estimate of costs, revenues, and resources over a specified period, reflecting a
reading of future financial conditions and goals.
A method or plan chosen to bring about a desired future, such as achievement of a goal
or solution to a problem.

1. Division of Work. This principle tells us that as far as possible the whole work should
be divided into different parts and each individual should be assigned only one part of
the work according to his ability and taste.
2. Authority and Responsibility. In this principle, authority and responsibility should go
hand in hand. It means that when a particular individual is given a particular work and he
is made responsible for the results, this can be possible only when if he is given
sufficient authority to discharge his responsibility.
3. Discipline. This means obedience, respect for authority, and observance of established
4. Unity of command. An individual employee should receive orders only from one
superior at a time and that employee should be answerable only to that superior.
5. Unity of direction.