Impact of a Century of Climate Change on

Small-Mammal Communities in Yosemite National
Park, USA
Craig Moritz, et al.
Science 322, 261 (2008);
DOI: 10.1126/science.1163428
This copy is for your personal, non-commercial use only.

If you wish to distribute this article to others, you can order high-quality copies for your
colleagues, clients, or customers by clicking here.
Permission to republish or repurpose articles or portions of articles can be obtained by
following the guidelines here.

Updated information and services, including high-resolution figures, can be found in the online
version of this article at:
Supporting Online Material can be found at:
A list of selected additional articles on the Science Web sites related to this article can be
found at:
This article cites 24 articles, 2 of which can be accessed for free:
This article has been cited by 7 article(s) on the ISI Web of Science.
This article has been cited by 8 articles hosted by HighWire Press; see:
This article appears in the following subject collections:

Science (print ISSN 0036-8075; online ISSN 1095-9203) is published weekly, except the last week in December, by the
American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1200 New York Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20005. Copyright
2008 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science; all rights reserved. The title Science is a
registered trademark of AAAS.

Downloaded from on May 5, 2010

The following resources related to this article are available online at
(this information is current as of May 5, 2010 ):

J. Ecol. 2005). CA 94720. Kluge. M. Eds. Darling. Ecol. R. U. A. Dunn.C. and the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (BR 2280/1-1: G. by repeating Grinnell’s early–20th century survey across a 3000-meter-elevation gradient that spans Yosemite National Park. in Climate Change and Biodiversity. London B Biol. Sci. Colorado State University. Research Fellowship and Dissertation Improvement Grant: C. F. Feeley. K. Williams. S. Walther et al. 14288 (2006). Bush. Lett. University of Connecticut (R. University of California. CO 80523. L. H. 2005).). From daily trapping records. Their work documented the diversity and distribution of terrestrial vertebrates in California to establish a benchmark for future comparison (20). T. Y. Biogeogr.1. Kluge. J. M. W. J. although at low to midelevations there has been localized vegetation change relating to seral dynamics. 707 (1985). with notable increases from 1910 to 1945 and from 1970 to the present (15. 104. L. D. Joseph Wright. Marquet. A. in Tropical Rainforest Responses to Climatic SCIENCE VOL 322 29. Solomon et al. Shugart. Tropical Nature and Other Essays (Macmillan.3 Steven R. D. 103. C. B. Proc. Glob. Sci. Gegout. J. Natl. 13.1 Juan L. Materials and methods are available as supporting material on Science Online. R. B.S. Glob. T. J. 10 OCTOBER 2008 261 . CA 94720. B. 6..T. U. G. 5. Syst. Proc. L. Fort Collins. 19. Supporting Online Material www. Biogeogr. 15. Fox. Phillips. (Yale Univ. B. S1 and S2 References 30 June 2008. R. and our peer reviewers for comments. E. R. E. 359. and allowed us to examine long-term responses to climate change without confounding effects of land-use change. 847–940. 1768 (2008). W. field notes (>3000 pages). 28. Gutierrez. M. U. Proc. Dunn.. permitting the unbiased estimation of species’ “absences” from elevational bands in both periods (23). R. R. 21. and reorganized communities (11. Bush. 31. Berkeley. K. 33. Biogeogr. 34.L. F. Bolitho. V. M. J. R. 38. documented (7–10). and led to the concept of the ecological niche. 15. Bioscience 50. J. N. 14). in Climate Change 2007: Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. without confounding effects of land-use change. 1878).S. and Steven Vavra Plant Systematics Fund (A.A. Evol. Dobzhansky. E-mail: craigm@berkeley. Furthermore. Formerly low-elevation species expanded their ranges and high-elevation species contracted theirs. 22. T.L.G. S.G. California. H.. we estimated detectability of species in historical as well as current surveys. Natl. (Springer Praxis. contractions of species’ ranges are less well A 1 Museum of Vertebrate Zoology. Philos. Peters. C. Bush. R.S.A. we show substantial (~500 meters on average) upward changes in elevational limits for half of 28 species monitored. Ecol. Jackson. New Haven. Soc. Hanna. S1). L. Kassim. M. 11. Natl. Silman. Sci. 20. on May 5. University of California. Silman. Trans. high global extinction rates. 7. Pounds. 1887 (2003). 30. Explorer’s Club. pp. 5852 (2003). Acad. V.T. R. L. Glob. S.REPORTS References and Notes 1. Bush. 6668 (2008). Biogeogr. The transect spans YNP. Most studies of species’ responses span only a few decades—typically from the 1960 or 1970s.C. D. Press. Nur Supardi. 32. Gosling. R. B. 12. Huey. A. Beissinger1. 13.1. Wilson. Gutierrez. E. the Tropical Ecology Assessment and Monitoring (TEAM) project of Conservation International. Tewksbury. pp. Ghalambor. H. Trans. Press. R. Soc. 23. A. accepted 2 September 2008 10. R. de Ruffray.1162547 We quantified the impact of nearly a century of climate change on the small-mammal community of Yosemite National Park (YNP) in California. J. J. Lovejoy. UCLA (A. Clark.S. 177 (1998). Philos. S. Bush. R. D. Lewis.A. L. Patton. USA. C. in Climate Change and Biodiversity.K. Science 303. R. Hooghiemstra. 16. Watkins.. R. 1). Monserrat. Pearson. C. London B. Eds. 37. Sci.K. J. 539 (2004). J. climate Materials and Methods Figs. 2007).C.B. A. Cowling et al. a protected landscape since 1890. Flenley. and Conservation Biology. Natl. 94. Bioscience 35. B. D. E. J. Williams. Rangel. Malhi. Wang. 979 (2000).1126/science. T. P. M. D. and C. 2007). Finally. Colwell. 19. M. the importance of temperature as determinant of range boundaries. the “Yosemite Transect” was densely sampled across elevations (Fig. H. CT. 22) (fig. J. 1795 (2008). 351–366. S. Cardelús. Berkeley. leading to changed community composition at mid.C. R. Brehm. 461 (2007). P. L. Keeling. USA.and high elevations. 463 (2002). to the present.4 We provide a century-scale view of small-mammal responses to global warming. Bush. 4. Press. and the notion that species respond uniquely to environmental changes (21). S. M. 2. M. NSF (DEB-0072702: R. Biogeogr. Betts. Bush. 389 (2002). M. D. Wildlife. Sci. 359. L. Ecol. 18. McMichael.sciencemag. J. 25. 11. Silman. 4 Department of Environmental Science. Ecol. S. Elevational replacement among congeners changed because species’ responses were idiosyncratic. 27. H. 16). R. pp. R. G. Glob. L. U. R. Sci. Deutsch et al.). Christensen et al.-R. C. Conroy. M. O. Biol. 637 (2006). T. Cambridge. or both (24). 5 (2006). 2Department of Integrative Biology. CT. 8. E. B. Flenley. D. USA. 70–74.. London B Biol. Saatchi. D.. J. M. range shifts are uncertain when confounded by false absences due to limited historic sampling and inability to control for changes in detectability between sampling periods (17. Hannah. Though some high-elevation species are threatened. Sci. USA. Change 39. Sci. by resampling a broad elevational transect (60 to 3300 m above sea level) that Joseph Grinnell and colleagues surveyed from 1914 to 1920 (19) (Fig. Glob. O. lthough human-driven global warming (1) has changed phenology of species and contributed to range expansions (2–6). Am. Fogden. Sci. Parmesan. Nature 416. Downloaded from www. where range-shift gaps will develop early for the great numbers of narrow-ranged species. 317–332. 10. In contrast to most early– 20th century records. R. Colwell. Acad. G. R. M. 125–137. Soc. 17. Proc.). Rahbek. DEB-0640015: J. Martin. Integr. R. H. C. S. 24. 270. 9. (Yale Univ. Quat. University of California. raising the possibility of substantial attrition in species richness in the tropical lowlands. 363. Ecol. K. pp. Annu. 827 (2004). 16. J. protection of elevation gradients allows other species to respond via migration. T. White.2 Chris J. 1) and is amply documented by specimens (n = 4354). R. 26.sciencemag. 100. P. 2010 pear unlikely. 13. Mayle. 361 (2003). Silman. 105. Baker. Hannah. www. Eds. Such results can be confounded by decadal-scale climate oscillations (15) and landscape modification (8. A. 499 (2004). Bush. Miles. 205 (2007). Acad. Glob. Ecol. Bush.).L. K. K.7°C over the past 100 years..C.sciencemag. Impact of a Century of Climate Change on Small-Mammal Communities in Yosemite National Park. A. enabling precise identification of both species and sampling sites. *To whom correspondence should be addressed. 209 (1950). Trans.K. Philos. E. consistent with the observed ~3°C increase in minimum temperatures. Proc. B.L. 553 (2004). Eds. London. London B Biol. A. analyses of regional weather records pointed to substantial increase of the average minimum monthly temperature of 3. P.C. 10. Change Biol.S. 46. pp. The lowland tropics lack a source pool of species adapted to higher temperatures to replace those driven upslope by warming. Soc. R. Sci. Brisse.. Davies. Kuhn. J.2 Gary C. (Springer Praxis. 2007).1. M. J. Grainger. USA Craig Moritz. J. S. Eds. 3.. and photographs (~700) (22). (Cambridge Univ. 14. Kessler. B. DEB-0639979: R. 677 (2004). Chazdon. Science 320. G. B. 12). Lovejoy. Clark. S. but model outcomes are also highly uncertain (13. 144 (2006). T. Hansen et al. New Haven. Dawson. Biol. Parra. Lenoir. Berkeley. J. CA 94720. putting the focus on elevational gradients.). U. E. P.C. J... Supported by the Organization for Tropical Studies.A. C. G. Comp. and J. 12. Phillips. M. L. Ecol. Sigma Phi.. Flenley. Kutzbach. Policy and Management. Beerling. Models of future climatechange scenarios predict large range shifts. which was a relatively cool period. Piper. D. USA. Ackerly et al. Using occupancy modeling to control for variation in detectability. 1873 (2007). We thank M. S. Masters. Urrego. in Tropical Rainforest Responses to Climatic Change. C. Clim. L. 18).2* James L. R. 358 (2006). 3 Department of Fish. A.B. D. M. L. Clark. Acad. USA. 5738 (2007).

boylii. Lower range limits contracted in 50% of the high-elevation species but in only 262 10% of low-elevation species. −9%). Species richness was reduced within each life zone. 2C). There were fewer sites on the east side in both time periods (9 for Grinnell. both shrews. In contrast. with similar numbers of upward (n = 4.9) for the whole on May 5. a pattern expected with increased temperature. Only one lowland species contracted—the kangaroo rat (Dipodomys heermanni) showed a modest increase in lower limit and a larger decrease in upper limit since Grinnell’s time.. Species richness averaged across five estimators (26) that account for nonobserved species (Fig. ornatus).4 species.8. but it now also occupies montane conifer habitats on the west slope 800 to 1400 m higher after its east slope population expanded upward by ~1000 m to cross the Sierra crest. Given marked regional warming over the past century. S3). and this occurred more frequently for lower than upper limits (c2 = 4. and altered community composition within elevational bands (9).to mid-elevation species. upward shift of the entire range or expansion of the upper limit for low. The best detection model in a set of 36 (table S3) was used to calculate the probability of a false absence (Pfa) across trapping sites. High-elevation species contracting (Table 1 and Fig. 2B). table S2). upper limits changed significantly in only seven instances. both upper and lower limits increased by ~500 m. beldingi (fig. 10 OCTOBER 2008 VOL 322 SCIENCE www. but overall effort and elevational range (~50 to 3300 m) were comparable (22). 10). S3). mean = −309 m). and pika (Ochotona princeps). df = high-elevation species. 4%). Elevation limits shifted mostly upward (Table 1 and Fig. and table S4) declined from the Grinnell era to the present (repeated measures analysis of variance.sciencemag. P = 0. For example. In most cases where the Pfa test indicated an elevation shift. Closely related species responded idiosyncratically to climate change (Table 1).004). To test for elevational shifts. truei). 2010 REPORTS . df = 2. where a species was not observed in one sampling period but was in the other (Table 1). mean = +501 m) and downward shifts (n = 3. californicus). 1). we trapped small mammals at 121 sites compared to 56 in Grinnell’s time (table S1). senex) (Fig. Conservatively. whereas 50% of low-elevation species expanded their upper range compared to none of the high-elevation species (Fig. Range shifts were significant if Pfa ≤ 0. This should manifest as upward contraction of the lower range limit for mid. 3). Belding’s ground squirrel (Spermophilus beldingi). S3). For each species we evaluated eight hypothesized relationships of occupancy. the pinyon mouse (Peromyscus truei) translocated upward (Fig.sciencemag. some species of Peromyscus mice showed elevation range shifts (P. F = 32.7 df = 1. 2A) included the alpine chipmunk (Tamais alpinus). Richness estimators suggest a slight decrease across the whole transect (currenthistoric mean estimates = −4. Elevational range shifts resulted in modest changes in species richness and composition at varying spatial scales. Community similarity between Grinnell’s period and the present was high (mean similarity. fig. Elevational ranges of species and their habitats differed markedly between the gradual western and steep eastern slopes of the transect (19) (Fig. Map of surveyed sites in Grinnell (Historic) and Current surveys relative to the Yosemite National Park boundary and life zones (upper panel).3 species. of which 10 increased (mean = +475 m) and two. and elevation (fig.039). 3A). whereas low-elevation species expanded their ranges upward (c2 = 8. 3C. and to an averaged elevational profile (lower panel). and most life zones. High-elevation species typically experienced range contractions.26. 1. S2) using the 14 best detection models (table S3) to create model-averaged occupancy-elevation profiles (Fig. P = 0. Our analyses of richness and turnover focused on species detectable by standardized trapping (37 species) or by observation (6 species. we applied occupancy modeling (22. The same is Fig.Future warming is predicted to cause substantial turnover of species within North American National Parks. water shrew (Sorex palustris). records from ad hoc collecting) were included in Pfa tests but not in occupancy models. but why species vary in response is not clear. S4. 3B). maniculatus). we predicted that species ranges should have shifted upward (5. P = 0. and the harvest mouse (Reithrodontomys megalotis)] or expanded lower limits (two shrews: Sorex monticola and S. 12 for resurveys) because of limited extent (Fig. cinerea and S. Range collapse—increased lower limits and decreased upper limits—was observed in two high-elevation species: the bushy-tailed woodrat (Neotoma cinerea) and the shadow chipmunk (T.. era. insufficient data) or detected changes in occupancy at elevations other than range Downloaded from www. P. decreased (mean = −744 m). 2 and fig. including Yosemite (25). occupancy models agreed (Table 1 and fig. Finally. the park alone. whereas others did not (P. we excluded shifts that were statistically significant but biologically trivial (Fig. S > 0.e. with the largest change in the Lower and Upper Sonoran zones west of YNP.e. or when nonstandard data (i. Exceptions occurred when occupancy models were weak (i. 1). On the west slope. Range contractions due to increases in lowerelevation limits were also observed for two species formerly at mid. Species composition was least similar for the Transition and Hudsonian-Arctic zones.012). the California vole (M. but not within YNP (+1. as expected given the upward expansions of formerly Sonoran zone taxa and the range shifts of high-elevation species (Table 1). 2). Twelve of 28 (43%) west slope species showed significant shifts in lower high elevations [the golden-mantled ground squirrel (Spermophilus lateralis) and the long-tailed vole (Microtus longicaudus)] (Table 1). Range expansions resulted from either expanded upper limits [the pocket mouse (Chaetodippus californicus). 23) to the 23 west slope taxa with sufficient trapping records to estimate detectability in both periods (tables S1 and S2 and Fig.05. Parallel trends were observed on the east slope of the Sierra for N.

00 NA NA Transition–Hudsonian (H) Transition–Canadian (H) Canadian–Hudsonian (H) Canadian–Hudsonian (H) Canadian–Arctic-Alpine (H) †These species were encountered by observation and/or specialized trapping and were not subject to occupancy analyses. 2010 true for chipmunks (Tamias).99 0.78 1. +65 U No change No change Era*(Elev + Elev2) Era*(Elev + Elev2) NA NA 25 26 27 28 * Similar trends are observed for east-side populations (see fig.36 0.sciencemag. expansion by C. Given are average detectability per site for Grinnell [P(G)] and current [P(C)] periods. –293 U Era*Elev +614 L Era + Elev + Elev2 +159 L. As examples. to species with mostly low. Even so.89 0.90 high-elevation ranges (>2000 m) in Grinnell’s time.83 0.19 0.78 0. Values in bold are further supported by occupancy models. The ~500-m average increase in elevation for affected species is also consistent with estimated warming of +3°C.98 0.95 1.16 0. less fecund counterparts (table S5 and fig. accords with the predicted impacts of climate warming (5. habitat change at higher elevations is limited (15) (fig. ground squirrels (Spermophilus). S4 for elevation plots and models of individual species.97 193–914 549–914 2212–3287 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Dipodomys heermanni Microtus longicaudus Zapus princeps Tamias senex Spermophilus lateralis Sorex palustris Neotoma cinerea* Spermophilus beldingi* Tamias alpinus Ochotona princeps† 0. S4).to mid-elevation ranges (<2000 m) and mid. maniculatus covered the entire transect.58 57–1160 models with those terms (w).39 0.92 NA 0. See fig. Original life zone (H.99 0. Beyond original elevation range (high versus low). 9).87 0.81 0. Because much of the transect spans a longprotected National Park.40 0. californicus and west slope P. confounding effects of land-use change are minimized.53 0.32 0.28 0.81 0.98 0. we provide an unbiased comparison of changes in species’ ranges at the centennial scale.88 0.48 0.98 0.95 NA 57–1025 623–3287 1291–3185 1402–2743 1646–3200 1658–3155 1798–3287 2286–3287 2307–3353 2377–3871 17 Peromyscus maniculatus* Thomomys bottae† Spermophilus beecheyi Neotoma macrotis Peromyscus boylii Sorex trowbridgii Microtus montanus* Tamiasciurus douglasi*† Tamias quadrimaculatus Tamias speciosus* Thomomys monticola† Marmota flaviventris† 0.89 0. the cumulative Akaike’s Information Criterion weight for all No.91 0. P. lowland species that are short-lived and lay more litters per year (so-called fast life-style species) were more likely to expand their range upward than were their long-lived.99 0. The preponderance of upward range shifts.97 0. S6).74 0. www. This was especially true for high-elevation species with upward contraction of their lower range limit. life history and ecological traits were weak predictors of which species exhibited upward shifts of their range limits (tables S5 and S6).90 0. assuming a change of temperature with elevation of ~6°C per km. and shrews (Sorex). and some have declined regionally (29). with ranching of introduced herbivores in Yosemite Valley and the high country recovering from historical overgrazing.99 NA 0. in part due to fire suppression (22). By applying occupancy modeling to a thoroughly documented historical record and the re- Elev Era*(Elev + Elev2) +800 U Era*(Elev + Elev2) −485 L Era *(Elev + Elev2) −1003 L Era + Elev + Elev2 Range contractions +63 L.23 0. monticola could reflect recovery of their preferred wet meadow habitats.56 NA Lower–Upper Sonoran (L) Transition–Hudsonian (H) Transition–Hudsonian (H) Canadian (H) Transition–Hudsonian (H) Canadian–Hudsonian (H) Canadian–Arctic-Alpine (H) Canadian–Arctic-Alpine (H) Hudsonian–Arctic-Alpine (H) Canadian–Arctic-Alpine (H) 0.REPORTS survey.36 Lower Sonoran–Arctic-Alpine (H) Lower Sonoran–Transition (L) Lower Sonoran–Canadian (L) Lower Sonoran–Transition (L) Upper Sonoran–Transition (L) Transition–Canadian (H) Transition–Hudsonian (H) 0.99 NA on May 5. respectively.93 0. Analyses of elevation change for 28 west slope species. truei are associated with fire-related conversion of conifer to shrub habitats. elevation.70 0.32 0.93 57–1160 183–1220 5 6 0. 1 2 Species P(G) P(C) Original elevation range (m) 0.62 0. the best supported form of the occupancy model (Elev. L) 0. whereas the downward shift of S.72 NA SCIENCE VOL 322 10 OCTOBER 2008 263 .98 0. Downloaded from www.50 0. S5).98 0. NA.99 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 w Range expansions +505 U Elev Microtus californicus Reithrodontomys megalotis Peromyscus truei* Chaetodippus californicus Sorex ornatus Sorex monticolus 3 4 analogous community in the Rocky Mountains (27). However.37 Upper Sonoran (L) Upper Sonoran (L) Canadian–Hudsonian (H) 0.00 NA NA 1494–2210 1768–3155 1905–3155 2469–3353 +50 U +128 L. Increased prevalence of mesic small mammals following cessation of grazing has also been reported for an Table 1. where L and H refer.00 NA NA 0. not analyzed). −64 U Era + Elev + Elev2 +1007 L.60 0.99 Lower–Upper Sonoran (L) Upper Sonoran (L) 0. voles (Microtus).74 0. −334 U Elev +Elev2 +244 L Era*(Elev + Elev2) +512 L Era + Elev + Elev2 +609 L.85 1.82 0. Although vegetation dynamics have likely contributed to changes at low to mid-elevation.32 0. The elevational replacements among congeners.39 0.50 0.48 0. documented so carefully in the early 20th century (19). are now quite different. and original Lifezone classification (18).sciencemag.95 0. leading to contraction of high-elevation species and expansions of low-elevation taxa. +468 L 0. Best occupancy model Range limit change (m) Lower–Upper Sonoran (L) +112 U +589 U.71 0. changes in upper (U) and lower (L) range limit that are significant by the Pfa tests.98 57–3287 57–1676 61–2734 183–1646 183–2469 1160–2286 1217–3155 No change No change −250 U +67 U −122 L No change No change Era*(Elev + Elev2) NA Era*(Elev + Elev2) Elev + Elev2 Elev + Elev2 Elev + Elev2 Elev + Elev2 NA NA 1229–3185 No change NA 0. original elevation range.71 0. Several small-mammal taxa that responded to changing temperature also showed large range fluctuations during late Quaternary climate fluctuations (28). 8. vegetation has changed within YNP over this period. −719 U Era*(Elev + Elev2) +355 L Elev +629 L Era + Elev +153 L NA No change NA 0.98 0.90 0. The park was hardly pristine in the early 20th century.71 0.

Monahan. CA. Shoo improved this manuscript. and NSF (DEB 0640859). Sci. K. P. C. 1704 (2006). S. A. 23. Tsao. Koo. Roy. Alp. 33. Switzerland. C. Hill. 3A). Shown are occupied (black) and unoccupied (gray) sites. Recent trends do not bode well for several mid. E.. R. Eds.S. 335 (2005). Grinnell. D. Yang. J. J. Fox. e157 (2007). Colwell. II. Nat. 242 (2007). Williams. on May 5. Schmitz. Vidakovic. Burns. Delany. 15. J. M. 170. S1 to S6 Tables S1 to S6 18 July 2008. 19. 25. 26. J. Evolution Int. 2163 (2002). J. M. Jetz..g. 13. Sci. 37 (2003). and range collapse (N. Ecol. B. in Encyclopedia of Statistical Sciences. 37 (2003). Graumlich. Power.. 37. 229 (2005).to high-elevation species. de Ruffray. Millar. H. Syst. Sci. 30. Ecol. T. truei) (A and C). Taylor. Annu.S. Acad. C. of California Press.sciencemag. R. W. 24. Walther et al. Species were classified as “No Change” if range shifts were biologically trivial (<10% of previous elevation range) or of small magnitude (<100 m). Mon. 2. J. T. 269.REPORTS Fig. (Wiley. Environ 5. and III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC. and model-averaged occupancyelevation profiles (table S3 and fig. (A) Summary of elevational range changes across all species in relation to life zones. Soc. Davis. L. 2007). J. Grinnell. R. T. the National Parks Service. Read. K. and L. R. Grayson. Materials and Methods Figs. Hijmans. Ecol. Evolution 21. J. J. Hill et al. 1873 (2007). K. 21. 36. Chang. Thomas. 3. Red marks for historical elevation profile of T. Significant (Pfa < 0. 125. 5. J. Shorrocks. cinerea) (B). because range expansions compensated for retractions. Rev. 51. Proc. Nevertheless. 18. D. PLoS Biol. D. D. Supporting Online Material www. S. Rowe. 181 (2004). Mammal.sciencemag. Am. A. 77. D. Monserrat. Chow (U. J. C. Berkeley. Biogeogr. Williams. 2964 (2006). C. Pearson et al. 32. Downloaded from www. Change Biol. 17. Res. 2. Science 320. Biol. 27. V. S. W. E. Supported by funding from the Yosemite Foundation. J. 12.05) shifts are colored green for range expansion and red for contraction (Table 1). Wilson. K. Org.. Lawton. Jenkinson. D. (B) Comparison of changes in elevation-range limits for species that formerly had low. D. 8. species diversity within Yosemite has changed little. R. Comments from R. Front. J. Conserv. P. Shofi. 11. Quat. Pop. P. 16. D. Hero. C. Rowe. Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report Contribution of Working Groups I. H. Am. Johnston. probability of false absence (Pfa). 783 (1998). Brussard. Rev. B. R.. 2006). 1768 (2008). Nature 391. J. C. I. R. 9. Glob. 22. J. and mid-elevation versus mid. Natl. San Diego. J. historic. For. Thomas et al. H. Hickling. 13. 14. L. Beever. New York. Storer. Inferring Patterns and Dynamics of Species Occurrence (Elsevier. Biol. K. truei colonized high elevations west of the Sierra crest from the eastern slope. Dobson. A. S2). M. Gutierrez. including some endemic to the high Sierra (e. C. 11474 (2003). high-elevation ranges (Table 1) across the transect. Sci. G. Nature 416.A. S. J. B. 7. E. R. Arct. S. Geneva. 3. J. Hill. Gégout. Gutierrez.sciencemag. J. Guarin. 25. G. 1924). U. Nature 453. King. D. B. Proc. Fig. Hamer. Our results confirm that protecting large-scale elevation gradients retains diversity by allowing species to migrate in response to climate and vegetation change. A. 475 (2007). A. C. Chao. L. Wood. alpinus and P. Thomas. Shoo. 5. A. J. Evol. Berger. 389 (2002). 12. 115 (1917). C. Thompson (Yosemite National Park) stimulated and participated in the project. 4. Jackson. 20. Nature 421. C. R. Yosemite National Park. Grinnell. Glob. MacKenzie et al. 6. Parmesan. present. Assistance was received from A. O. J. .. N. D. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. 2010 References and Notes 1. Franco. Biogeogr. D. 28. Marquet. P. A. Geological Survey Yosemite) and S. Example elevation plots from the west slope transect of upward range expansion (T. accepted 9 September 2008 10. Nature 427. 450 (2006). A. Animal Life in the Yosemite (Univ. alpinus refer to ad hoc records. A. Manage. 29. 100. Wilcove. Nat. R. 2005). 1883 (2005). (C) Mean (T SE) estimates of species richness by era (bars: H. J. P. P. 10. 145 (2004).. 218.1163428 264 10 OCTOBER 2008 VOL 322 SCIENCE www. See supporting material on Science Online. Rosenzweig et al. Yohe. K. Parmesan. see also table S4 and fig. 163 (1910). B. F.1126/science. L. 637 (2006). Lenoir. H. and the entire transect. Brisse. J. 353 (2008). Westfall. 415 (2006). P. Change Biol. The long-recognized importance of protected landscapes has never been greater. L. M. S4) and community similarity (points) for individual life zones. Balakrishnan. I. 84. E. W. alpinus) (Fig. Antarct.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful