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The MOST Theological Collection: Commentary on St.

Augustine
"I. The Confessions"
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1.1: The number stands for Book 1, chapter 1. This system will be used throughout this
commentary.
Here A shows a deep appreciation of something that is nearly lost in most people today, a sense of
the majesty of God. There are two poles in our relationship to Him: 1) love, closeness, warmth; 2)
sense of majesty, infinite greatness. He is infinite in all respects, including these -- so we cannot
have too much. Yet we can get a picture that is sick, because unbalanced. So many today cultivate
the aspect of warmth, and almost if not entirely ignore the other. Hence religion means little to
many. If someone told you: "Joe Doaks, three blocks from here, loves you," you might well say:
"Ho hum. Who is that? Why should I be interested?" Similarly if we do not have much notion of
the greatness of God, to hear of His love does not make much of an impression.
This loss of the one pole today is not really accidental. In the March 1, 1967 issue of National
Catholic Reporter, Daniel Callahan, a noted "liberal", said on p. 6:"... many find the notion of a
total dependence upon God somehow a very disturbing one... . So there is a desperate casting
around to find a kind of liturgy which is not only intelligible... but one which seems to express a
different kind of relationship between God and man... . many of the liturgical experiments seem to
be trying to work in the direction of finding whether one can say and liturgically act out this kind
of parallel relationship with God, rather than just being a king-and-lowly-subject kind of
relationship." This of course is pride: submission even to God is distasteful.
A year before , Leslie Dewart, a Canadian philosopher, in his The Future of Belief (1966) wrote
on p. 200: As christian theism is dehellenized [as we get the Greek influence out of it], the Christian
faith may recast the meaning of religion in terms that do not at all imply God's ascendancy over
man, or man's submission to God." And on pp. 203-04: "I think that the christian theism of the
future might so conceive God as to find it possible to look back with amusement on the day when
it was thought particularly appropriate that the believer should bend his knee in order to worship
God."
The Vatican had ordered that vernacular translation of liturgical texts be accurate. But this was not
enforced in the English texts. We compare the Literal Latin from the current English text of
Eucharistic prayer I:
Literal
Most Clement Father, Bending down we ask and beg you, Remember your men servants (slaves)
and women servants (slaves). We beg, Lord, that, being appeased, you accept this offering of our
slavery and also that of your whole family. We your servants (slaves) and also your holy people,

mindful of the passion of the same Christ, Bending down, we beg you, Almighty God, bid these
things to be carried by the hands of your holy angel to your altar on high in heaven in the sight of
your Divine Majesty.
Official English
Father, We ask you, Remember... your people Accept this offering from your whole family, We
your people and your ministers recall his passion. Almighty God, we pray that your angel may
take this sacrifice to your altar.

The only expression of our lowliness that was not removed was the "nobis quoque peccatoribus
famulis tuis" "also to us sinners your servants (slaves)". But it was cut down, and put in the middle
of the paragraph, to be less prominent.
So Callahan was right. But St. Augustine and other Fathers of the Church understood much better,
as the following quotes show:
Arnobius, Against the Nations 1.31: "To understand you we must be silent; and for fallible
conjecture to trace you even vaguely, nothing must even be whispered."
Pseudo Dionysius, Mystical Theology 1.2: God is best known by unknowing."
St. Gregory of Nyssa, Life of Moses: "The true vision of the One we seek, the true seeing, consists
in this: in not seeing. For the One Sought is beyond all knowledge."
St. Augustine, On Christian Doctrine 1.6. 6: "He must not even be called inexpressible, for when
we say that word, we say something."
Behind these puzzling expressions is this: When we use a word to refer to God, and to refer to a
creature, the sense in the two cases is part same, part different - but much more different than same.
Plato in his Republic 6. 509B, speaking of the Idea of Good, which he seems to identify with God,
said it is "beyond being." Plotinus in his Enneads 6. 8.9 wrote: "The One is other compared to all
things."
Near the end of his life, St. Thomas Aquinas had a revelation. He never could bring himself to
work on his Summa after that. He said: "Such things have been revealed to me that the things I
have written and taught seems light to me." Others filled out his Summa from earlier writings of
his.
1.1. Restless is our heart-- A knew from experience of trying to pursue pleasure, that it runs away
if one goes after it too much. Every pleasure, even sex, wears down in time - hence NFP, calling
for some abstinence, helps to revive it, and helps marriages. Seneca reports that Epicurus himself
in view of this principle lived rather frugally. Detachment in general promotes more happiness.

1.2. Call in is Latin in-vocare - to call in. This is really rhetoric, yet with solid truth in it. What
does it mean for God tome within us? Spirits do not take up space. We say they are present
wherever they produce an a effect. For God to come means He begins to cause an effect He did
not produce before. He is greater than heaven and earth. Cf. Aristotle in Physics 8.10 says God
does not have size -- cannot have infinite size, there is no such thing, and finite size would not be
enough for Him. We would add: Since God is pure actuality He is without limit (potency is limit).
1.4. The word Lord is ambiguous in Latin and Greek and Hebrew. But in context, A means God.
Note the series of seeming contradictions (oxymoron): most merciful and most just, etc. These
urge the reader to think. Within the divine nature, mercy and justice are identified. We begin to
see this if we note a sinner can go down and down on a bad spiral - he becomes more and more
blind (justice) and so is less responsible after a time (mercy). A holy person on the good spiral
grows in comprehension of God -- this is in a sense earned, and is justice. Yet no creature by its
own power can generate a claim on God- and so it is basically mercy.
You love but are not disturbed-- A is thinking of human love, which involves emotion, which does
move or disturb. But love really is willing good to another for the other's sake - emotion tends to
go along with this in the human scene (somatic resonance).
You regret -- This word and anger and many other things are anthropomorphism -- speaking of
God as if He had human characteristics. Scripture often does this.
You change works but not plans -- Decisions of will are identified with His essence, which is
eternal, immutable, since He has no potency.
You repay debts, owing no one. ---Cf. 5. 9: "You see fit, since your mercy is forever, to even
become a debtor by your promises to those to whom you forgive their debts." Hebrew notion of
sin is that it is a debt, a disturbance of the objective order.
1, 5. You order me to love you ---Love of anyone but God is to will good to the other for the other's
sake. For us to love God is to obey -- He gains nothing from our obedience, but likes it: 1) in His
love of all that is right; 2) obeying His commands makes us open to receive His favors, and keeps
us from the evils that come from sin, in the very nature of things.
From my hidden faults cleanse me. - This is Ps 19.2, the theme of Hebrew sheggagah - a man
violates a command of God without knowing it. When he finds out, must offer a sacrifice:Leviticus
4. Many instances in Scripture OT and NT on this and even modern Eastern liturgy. A probably
did not understand. Cf. Gen 12:17, Lk 12:47-48; 1 Cor 4.4; Clement I to Corinth 2.3.
1.6 I know not from where I have come here -- A. understands sex. He does not know origin of
individual souls. Sees 4 options: creation of each; traducianism, derived from souls of parents;
souls were in a world of spirits first, came in either voluntarily or involuntarily. Wrote Jerome in
Ep. 166 (415 AD). Jerome did not know either. A seems inclined to traducianism-- seems to have
had a positive notion of original sin, and needed that theory to account for transmission by heredity.
Was concerned with Romans 5. 12, which in the poor Latin version read:"In quo omnes

all have sinned". parents laughed at me... --Probably reflects his strong views on original sin. but it was not funny -.he means it would develop his taste for silly things. then no beatings. Humility exalts. The Hebrew probably means: "I cry by day. Way of Perfection 1 asked her sisters not to pray for worldly things. But the parallel is not really parallel.. for the sons of Adam. and by night there is no silence. so they might itch more ardently -. no problem of transmission.Cf. but does not think God ever hears such prayers. free also those who do not yet call on you. for tortures are grave harm. Cf.11. In Africa salt was given to the catechumens throughout the year. humility -.fascinating comparison to tortures of older persons. The permission is contained in His decision to create the human race. We now know orig. Much was artificial in his day.. which must be free or is not human. Christ's descent to us.he was made a catechumen. 12-5-8. is nontransmission of grace.A looks down on rhetoric.God governs all things. 1. Adam.e. might perhaps bring one soul less to heaven? This is not the time to ask God for things of little importance. that I might not get a beating in school. as a little one. --. he prays then too]". I kept asking you. A beating -.Also. so that they may call on you. men who prayed to you. Rather.A should have not been a bad boy...2:-. The false fables refer to Virgil etc. Psalm 22.. as in Sparta. p. but sin comes by His permission only. We found. Teselle. spanking is not.11 and Heb. ruler and creator. it must not oppose the damnation of unbaptized infants. Normally the first grace is the grace to pray for grace. . She does pray for such when asked. but yet useful.. [i. Aristotle. actually it casts down.. not by His creation..9.. -. Proverbs 3. The world is on fire [Lutheran revolt].A's interpretation is fanciful: the refusal of his prayer was to avoid teaching him folly.. A says in Ep 166 whatever theory is adopted.. Later he would feel he had to give up teaching rhetoric when he was to be baptized. suffering and grief...peccaverunt. loving to have my ears tickled by false fables. Are we to waste time on things which if God would grant them. but only the ruler of sins .. Wordy arts -. 69. Ethics 10.can also mean lowliness. salt -.St. almost oxymoron: pride lifts up or rather thinks it does so.. Teresa of Avila. She wishes people would entreat God to enable them to trample worldly things under their feet. sin is a privation. signed with His cross and.in whom. There must be rearing under good laws.9 says that lectures on ethics are not enough to make people virtuous. Weary ways. "He descended to our pride" is clever. 1. we should not pray for what we can d o ourselves .

But his mother puts baptism off.really means devotedness. Mt. 33. Neither the autocracy of Tiberius nor his isolation . but God made it turn out well for A. would be greater and more dangerous -. when there is not. every disordered soul is its own punishment: Some examples: hangover after being drunk-. after that bath the guilt of sins. but later then will find out. : chemistry is the same whether real love is or is not present too. Cf. as to his personal life-. the Portuguese proverb:God can write straight with crooked lines. And nothing can rise from potency to actuality without His movement. Cf. for God can bring good out of evil.you were already then my guardian -.A shows confidence in Providence -.1-6. Yet the Fathers did teach infant baptism. but the parallel is not parallel: Doctors do not have divine effectiveness as Baptism does. . To make it concrete: a boy sees a girl.if he did not really know. --A seems to be sure he knew the elders had bad motives. him). from the cruelty.12. with such different psychology on the two sides. 2)if they do stay with the plan of our Father. it is unlikely real love will develop. as if it were necessary [inescapable] that I become still more filthy if I lived. love will develop. go. the chemical or emotional condition that in human affairs normally goes along with love. also Tacitus Annals 6. deferring to. shifted by 5th century. giving in to the other so much. Shepherd of Hermas. if we could see them. 10:30 shows even the smallest things come under God's permission or command. would show wounds and mutilations.. But now we see the possibilities in the very nature of things again: 1) If they violate God's law. like lash-marks on a body. though they will think it is there. Yet there is a feeling of warmth etc. Cf.. as to the world. they who forced me did not do well. Clement of Alexandria speaks somewhat like Hermas in Stromata 2.not the thing but the ill will is meant. -This is true in a way. in Plato.Seems to mean they had a motive of vainglory.3. this would be rash judgment. for real happiness. Was regarded in practice by many as the completion of the Christian state rather than as initiation into it. because of warmth of feeling. 1.Cf. we should never break the seal by any sin. Mandate 4. lust. in the [case of the] health of the body we do not say: Let him. with happiness in this life and in the life to come. Cf.. the worse are sins if committed.in City of God. for by loose sex they are using each other. likes her (and she. This starts the somatic resonance to love. piety -. For certain. he has not yet been healed.God seals us as His property.13. promote real love. Gorgias 479-80) who said that the souls of despots. They dreaded more the unworthy reception of Baptism than risk of missing it by death. also Quasten II. 6: after quoting part of a letter of Tiberius to senate telling of his torments. and an opening for great spiritual growth --each one. 1980. malevolence they have. so little a boy and so great a sinner -. if used according to our Father's plan. This was common in 4th century. again the concept of Baptism as the seal. Fathers also call Baptism the seal .failed marriages because premarital sex deceives into thinking there is love. This is splendid for character. How right was the wisest of men [Socrates. -. and can.only chemistry.. See Declaration of Doctrinal Congregation of Oct 20.preoccupied with it in Confessions. the more light one has and the more advantage. Tacitus said: His crimes and wickedness had rebounded to torment him. not being concerned for the welfare of the other.

He contrasts learning language naturally with doing it under duress. Someone eager for truth might well prefer lecture. while the lips say all credit goes to God. not a Christian. Emperor Marcus Aurelius. not one will be alive when a hundred years have gone by. but attributes it to God.16: "A person is punished by the very things in which he sins. as if he did not know Aeneas -. Cf. 1. and is elated.they thought it meant happiness. Cf. to say something also about my ability.strange reversal! veils hang -. 26: "What profits it a man if he were to gain the whole world and suffer the loss of his soul?" someone called Aeneas -. also ancient Roman ideal of frugality . Cf. my God.he does. its physical organism is perishable.Homer. Contrast St. probably.. which he did not know about. Cf. and hence even hymns were late in coming in (first by St.30). veils might replace doors. and resolved to give up pagan literature .46:Xerxes looks over the Hellespont with his vast fleet.39: "He remembered that they were but flesh.probably the case of the pharisee vs publican in the temple. . but then weeps. Artabanus asks why. meaning it at every level of one's being. most sweetly vain . which can cover far more truth. or was he just posing? He may mean to tie it to original sin. keep the good.later came back to it.but he wept over the imaginary death of Dido. and it did help much. Xerxes says: "I felt a sudden pity when I think of the shortness of man's life.in so warm a climate. its destiny is dark.17. Epistle 194: "When God crowns your merits. and consider that out of all this so numerous a host." So he says that free curiosity has greater power for learning than fearful necessity. Ambrose).." Cf. Psalm 78. ." Same idea as 1 Cor 4:7: "What have you that you have not received?" . in sarcasm comparing them to curtains before specially holy parts of shrines. He crowns nothing other than His own gifts." Artabanus comments that the god who gives us tastes of pleasant times appears envious in his very gift. a spirit that walks. Allow me.In the opposite direction.. A takes it as if it had symbolic meaning. This attitude common in the west. a wind that passes and comes not again. We note the force of motive "my heart pressed me.14. De principiis 2. 1. 1. discussion. your gifts. its consciousness is a whirlpool. its substance in constant flux.17: "Human life! Its length is momentary. the Beatitudes in the Gospel point the way to happiness even in this life.But the real answer is the perspective of eternity as in Mt 16. which he makes too positive. True. lecture vs.4. But this does not say anything about teaching method. Humility does not deny what one really has. To Himself 2.A is posing. was called a Ciceronian.10. Its senses dim. and so well.on isle of Capri could save him from confessing what was happening to him -. even though the pleasure might be less. For one can in a subconscious way snatch self-credit. Attitude resembles that of St. his usual improper harshness on teaching rhetoric. . in which he appeared for judgment. Again.13:Why did he not like Greek literature too? His poor control of Greek was the real reason. with dry eyes I could bear myself -." We recall Herodotus 7. while not weeping for his own wretched spiritual condition . also Origen. Basil's essay on Greek literature: skip the bad. What can see us through? Philosophy.. also Wisdom 11. Jerome's dream (Epistle 22.

What good was it to me that there was more applause for me.Juvenal 7. his On Christian Doctrine IV on rhetoric (edition by Sr. and 10. do help to sharpen one in getting into the mental framework of another.this was merciful. cf.speak the words of Juno -.160ss and Persius 3. A is much preoccupied.. Some other subjects we know of: Hannibal deliberating whether to march on Rome after Cannae.unless the difficult things. Not many things in Scripture are easily apt for disputation .47 alluded to weekly school exercises of this type . But not so readily. in CUA Dissertation series).2 nor did I escape your scourges..was living with a mistress. fish.3 Madaura .19:"They are not delighted with odors of bodies but with divine honors. the applause was worse than no good. your praises through your Scripture would have supported the vine shoot -He means he could have gotten same training with topics from Scripture. Juno hates the Trojans since the son of Priam did not accept her bribe in the beauty contest. rightly. We note the claim that worldly praise is only smoke and wind. Psalm 8 praises God:"O Lord. but God anticipated them. it would be good to use both Scripture and other sources. Cicero is his chief basis there. and is often given to the less deserving. I want to recall my past foulness --To recall past sins can help contrition and humility. Apuleius the Platonist was born there. seeming contradiction.A town about 20 miles south of Thagaste on the border of Numidia and Gaetulia.Insofar as it favored vanity.. mercifully raging. oxen. my own family did not take care to snatch me out by marriage . but recalling sexual sins clearly can be a temptation to more sin.though she knows she cannot succeeds: the fates have decreed.2. sprinkling with most bitter unpleasantnesses all my illicit pleasures -. was concerned only over his career and felt marriage might interfere. and prepared extraordinary graces in view of her extraordinary sacrifices. ever present.9 he arbitrarily makes the birds stand for the proud. Cf. which a young student would not know.In his commentary on Psalm 8. Therese Sullivan. 2.and admiring relatives of the boys would watch. but by human errors"...22:"For those proud and impious spirits are not fed with odors and smoke [in sacrifices] as some vain men think."Mercifully raging" is fine rhetorical oxymoron. in anticipation of his mother's prayers and penances . preparing for bringing him out of it later. beasts of the field. Cf.1. and it does not last. with the need of humility." 2. So she wants to wreck the Trojan ships to keep them from coming to Italy . Such exercises. Against Faustus 20. God did prevent him from finding full satisfaction even in his sex . shameful prey for birds .which were not happening yet. our Lord.. 2. and they are more powerful than even Jupiter. it was good. In context. . City of God 12. Insofar as it might stimulate speaking ability. in spite of A's comments. saying the fallen angels wanted to be their own supreme good. . Care is needed. birds. Really ." God has put all things under man's feet: sheep. how majestic is thy name in all the earth. Rhetoric is useful to defend the truth. it is smoke and wind -. or Cato deciding not to survive the collapse of the Pompeian cause. but he uses also other sources. Recalling unemotional sins is safe in general. His mother was far from a saint at this point.

Carthage became an oligarchic republic. Religion required the eldest child of each family be sacrificed.4 he steals for the sake of stealing -. which is the parallel bodily condition to things in the mind and will. an expression . loved fellowship in crime . not malice was the cause he now says.22. often roasting alive on arms of idol of Moloch. who understands sins? --this is the theme of involuntary sin. Again. we were deceiving those who did not think we wold do it" --a pleasure in thinking self smarter . Then Tyre came under Babylonian rule in 6th century.C.by this time. religious beliefs and others.. beliefs wobble.Rome not interested. citizenship was not a great prize as it had been formerly. he was merely contemptible. 2.5. We saw it in 1. the stronger they attract. A is imbued with Neoplatonism which said we must return to the One and withdraw from the senses. and also S and E coasts of Spain as far north as Cape Nao. Virgil makes it shortly after the fall of Troy. soul.9. which gave opportunity to Carthage.The sort of contempt some teenagers get for the elders.peer pressure. he reports he became ashamed of not being shameful at times. the remarks just given apply. sheggagah. IN 2.He plays on the words carthago. Carthage was founded about 814 BC from Tyre. which A does not understand. Instead. So to let a temptation fill thoughts and stay there increases its power. Other Phoenician settlements were weaker.9. he may choose it as a pleasurable good. Also worked Corsica. Since Emperor Caracalla gave citizenship to all free men in the empire. cf. The treaties came in 508. the time of writing. all cities other than Rome were given the name municipium.8. Phoenicia was a great sea power 1000-800 B. pleasurable good. legendary date was 1184 BC. coast of Africa.1. being eager to be scratched by the touch of things of sense -. from Gulf of Syrtis to beyond Gibraltar.when really." --The problem for the teenagers is sparked by deep changes in somatic resonance. expedient good.. 3. His father was still a pagan. Early commercial treaties with Rome permitted Carthage to hog commerce. real date probably 1250. but only under the appearance of good. Carthage was free. Mt 5:16:"Let your light shine before men so they may see your good works and give glory to your Father who is in heaven. So A is wrong when he says there was no cause for his malice but malice . 348. and even though one knows it is a sin. and most of Sicily. a member of the local Curia. Three things can attract us: real good. Was baptized late in his life as we learn from 9. He would be ashamed to follow ideas of his mother.yet the will cannot choose evil as evil. Since somatic resonance is put into a flux in this way. but was to become a catechumen not long after this point. 2. womanly warnings -. By this time. and is correct. The Plotinian theory of the soul's relation to the body has two stages: (1) the soul animates the body by forming a portion of matter as an image. It was advanced in agriculture.this is rhetoric. Sardinia. Had trade on N. in the next paragraph. but was just malicious. Carthage .peer pressure. sartago (frying pan).. That seemed good to him. cast itself outside of me. This shows the need of support from others. 2. The more we let one of these fill out thoughts.6 he will say he had better fruit.father --his name was Patrick.

They have been there all their lives. it is scattered. even in the study of theology.what is justice. After death we return to that. In his The Morals of the Catholic Church & The Morals of the Manicheans 2. losing sight of itself. sometimes later he would come out with it.so he learned it in a previous life. when you are such that nothing at all of earthly things delights you. He likes to think of it. at the same moment. but must be reincarnated -. never to have a body again. birdlime. But if we live several lives as a noble philosopher. with no bodies. truth. So in that world they saw the Ideas of justice.. chained so they cannot turn around. There is a great likeness to Christian doctrine here. goodness etc. .we need them [wings] whole and perfect to fly from this darkness to that light. saw the real world.as Socrates said many times over. you will see what you desire.14. 517." The mention of cave.various types of bodies. We start with Mt 6:21: " Where your treasure is. 66. but face a wall on which shadows are cast of things that move between them and a fire that is behind them. wings. we get permission to skip reincarnation. tend to order. that is the opposite of the unity that is proper to having being or existence. the treasure would be a box of coins a man would bury under the floor.24. and the soul gets wings and flies away. If he has such a stash. But we can put our treasure in almost anything: in huge meals. much more so than this world which is only a poor shadow of it. (Plato arrived at this notion of a world of Ideas by noting that sometimes when Socrates questioned a man who at first said he did not know the answer to a problem in philosophy. Plato says:Imagine prisoners in an underground cave. Reason says: "There is one thing I can command for you. 543. truth etc. in study. and so it thinks the things are true which the body says are true. and one must greatly beware while we are in this body that our wings may not be impeded by any of their birdlime -. In Soliloquies 1. abstains from pleasures and desires and griefs and fears as much as possible. (2) the soul's enslavement to things of the body when it becomes fascinated with the brilliant reflections of the divine it finds in the world.. . they would laugh at him. in sex..6. it turns to them..He did not learn it in this life .or reflection of its inward life. Phaedo 82-83:" Those who really seek wisdom with determination abstain from all bodily desires. recalls Plato's image of the cave in Book 7 of Republic. What kind of life? Notice what things the men know . in travel. that these sensory things must be completely shunned. they thought.. So we see why A speaks of wings and flying away. Now For A. in gourmet meals. All these things are lower than God .. is perfect unity.g. the same point of time. it pulls his thoughts and heart to it. there is your heart also. also Phaedo 65. So the soul of the real philosopher. If one escaped.. Republic 485-86." Cf. -. breaking through and dissolving it. But the world of Ideas is the real world. 519. So. and so. To seek the truth we must have as little as possible to do with the things of sense . believe me. tried to tell the prisoners about it. and goes forth from itself to be present to the body.. to that extent it has being (it IS). they can escape into her air. each pleasure and pain seems to have a nail.So we must return. She [wisdom] does not even see fit to show herself to those who are enclosed in this cave unless they are such that. it is like a magnet. e." In the narrow sense. and so think shadows are reality. When the soul is scratched by material things. avoiding being held down. God who supremely is. caught by the birdlime of the things of sense). 8: "The things that tend towards having being. by fleeing sensory things completely. and nails the soul to the body and pins it on and makes it bodily. To the extent that a thing attains unity..

yet they may have two sides. The Gospel explains that the thorns are the riches. from detraction. Grace comes. Only a tranquil mind can occupy itself in contemplation.the current in the coil. We think of the thorns in the parable . from rivalry." So A wrote in his On Order 2. But that current is always mild in that it respects my freedom . from the empty matters of the shows.measuring the current. unless first the fire of concupiscence cools in the soul.the grain came up. They are not always bad. the more sensitive to divine light he will be. It will read accurately if there is no competition from outside pulls. It is obvious that the farther down on the scale one goes. the right direction..another degree would be occasional venial sin . even from immoderate desire for praise.. Hence St. to the end at which creatures do not pull him at all. to abstain "so they may be free for prayer. This is the current in the coil. such as 33.then occasional mortal sin .. in trying to have as little as possible to do with the things of the body.then habitual mortal sin. and as thorns.Himself. Now if the current in the coil is mild. even the lawful use of sex in marriage. A himself was such for years. Even legitimate pulls can hinder one's sensitivity. if one lets himself be caught greatly. . one comparable to a miracle." . So that is one factor. which can forestall or cancel out this resistance without fully taking away his freedom . as we saw. but Gregory reinterprets: "This is to be understood spiritually. from ambitions for honors and power. Let them believe that the love of money is a most certain poison to all of their hope. We supplement this with a modern comparison: We think of a galvanometer . 000 volt power lines. Now this meter is my mind. and the outside pulls.Socrates aimed at this. do not respect freedom. Paul in 1 Cor 7:5 urges married people at times. from the enticements of the stomach and throat. they take it away. So the man is blind. When ordinary grace cannot get through. by mutual consent. it cannot do the rest of the things. and tries to make me see God's will. unless somehow an extraordinary grace is sent.64 goes so far as to say that a man sleeping with his wife should not enter the church until he has washed with water. the current in the coil may have no effect at all on the needle. that much less easy to perceive the inspirations God sends us.8. with a coil of wire surrounding it. as good things. The second factor is this: How strongly does a man let himself be pulled by such things? At the least degree. Then two forces play on the needle . hardened. the right amount . So a point can be reached at which grace cannot register at all the thought God wills to send. wallowing in sex. for it is a powerful pull." Gregory the Great in Epistle 11. If grace cannot do the first things. He will be able to see the truth . No. they pull him only to imperfection -. Yet the human retains enough freedom to second the motion. We send a current into the coil and the needle swings.. is there any hope of salvation? Grace is necessary for that. or. from envy. the thorns choked it off.a compass needle on its pivot.it does diminish it inasmuch as the first decision ordinarily about how a grace will or will not have its effect is that of the man -but with the extraordinary grace. In proportion to these two factors it is that much less easy for thoughts and heart to rise to God. from the sluggishness of sleep and laziness.but the outside pulls.25: "Young people eager for wisdom should so live that they abstain from sexual things. some much more so than others. or much magnetic steel. they can easily be good . and pleasures of this life. from immoderate care and adornment of the body. while the outside pulls are powerful. the first decision is God's. cares. This resembles Leviticus 15:18. he should not think himself worthy.then habitual venial sin .

Here he even arranged for sex while he was in the church. which interlock.3. . though much more restrained. second are the things of this earth which imitate the Ideas. Really. I was proudly glad.. to begin to bring him out. and even at times lied to say he did worse things than he really did... Another example of the overly sour attitude A took to rhetoric and law." This is grossly unfair.. understanding follows".To return to the subject proposed by A: 1)There are two ways to God. so he was swollen with smoke . Faith goes ahead. . He adds.he says human praise is a smoke without substance. within the walls of the church. are the imitations of the imitations. including the soul and God. he was ashamed not to be shameful. But from early years he also had the notion that everything is bodily.. ."whose tongue almost all admire. But he was proud.. The Wreckers were a wild bunch. says the real reason we enjoy a tragedy is that we get an emotional katharsis. They could be abused. the name of Christ was not there. a clean-out. he minimizes his acquaintance with Cicero. spectacles of the theatre. as he will say in City of God 5. Sermon 118. (b)any stage play is on the third remove from reality .4. with whom he went. (b) Reason plus authority. (a)Authority alone is poor (He seems to have been thinking of simplistic people he knew). Came upon a certain Cicero -. In al these you scourged me. 3. . believe so that you may be able to understand. Cf. rhetoric taught. and evil is a positive thing. goal of studies. along with a belief in God. The law could be used to defend the innocent. by pity or fear. Our weakness makes it impossible to bear the light of pure reason all at once. 3.Cicero was one of two honest politicians in his own day. -. interlocking. Aristotle. authority (faith) and reason. --A mistakenly followed Plato here. was law. As far as we can determine ... but then it is also needed where we cannot yet take in a thing by reason. he knew both very well indeed.. Plato thought these were unfortunate because (a)they made one rejoice in evil coming to another. to desire and arrange an affair to procure the fruits of death. why is it that man wishes to grieve? . and swollen with smoke. not so his heart. among other things.Cicero's Hortensius (now lost) enkindled in A a desire for philosophy . remote by far from the wreckings that the Wreckers did. how to argue dishonestly . on the stage. as if it came from himself.. namely. the more praiseworthy the more crafty.but that could help detect fraud by others..We saw above that God injected lack of satisfaction into A's sins. as we saw above in the case of St. third. so that (1) Faith or authority is needed to cleanse our heart so we can see. Jerome.yet he did not want to seek it in pagan works.the most real things are the Ideas (of which we spoke above)...as with Aeneas.and our information on that period is very full . not the lack of . But in the West for long it was thought undesirable to read pagan authors. 17.He did have very high natural ability. 3.1:"If you cannot understand. This is a strange inconsistency for one living with a mistress! Yet he from early years had had that attitude of wanting the name of Christ in all things. He got that from his mother. Here A seems to have in mind tragedies on the stage.2.The Latin ludi included many kinds of entertainment.. I dared even. I was the leading student. in His Poetics .

He did not do that at all. To recover the lost light it was necessary to make a universe. a very birdlime made of a mixture of the syllables of your name . Philosophy uses reason. light and darkness. and who had as armor the five good elements.1 on the need of purification to understand spiritual things. he came upon the Manichees.an echo of Col. they would say: He is not yet baptized. evil wind. with everything arranged higher or lower according to the amount of light it had (light particles are parts of God). for it telescoped theology and philosophy. for when people saw him doing evil. who evoked the Great Architect. This aroused concupiscence. 1:24). Four earths are filled with darkness. he turned to Scripture ---He did not find what he wanted for two reasons: 1) the style of the translation he used was poor. corresponding to the five evil elements: darkness. They did speak of Jesus. a Persian. and contain holy virtues. how eager I was to fly away from earthly things to you -. At request of Primal Man God sent out the Friend of Lights. and smoke. Then: Christ is the wisdom of the Father ( 1 Cor. plus wisdom. who evoked the Living Spirit .cf. but inside was just hot air. 2)he was too proud to appreciate Scripture. Paul was answering the false claims of the Gnostics or Jewish apocalyptic speculators . and he did not know languages so as to read the original.said only in the light of later experience. four with a mixture. 2:8-9.which never came. 3. The God of Light rules the one kingdom. so philosophy is the love of Christ. and the light of the soul which is held captive in matter can be set free. got up an army to attack. He had no sound moral code.6. but we should keep the methods distinct. God let him be beaten. comments above on 3.who rescued Primal Man. each infinite except in the direction where they bordered on each other. founded by Manes. A.5. Theology uses revelation. So the Sun and Moon are to be adored. as he admits here. there are those who seduce through philosophy . This was an unfortunate mistake. evil fire. God saw the five evil elements and forces coming and was terrified! He sent out Primal Man (not same as Adam) who was part of the divine substance. imprisoned in matter to prepare the way for a greater victory later . for he wanted that name. (Cf. Both are good. saw the kingdom of light.1. The latter can take on either masculine or feminine appearance to attract others. The word fly recalls Platonism .for the roots of the word mean love. but Hyle (matter) rules the other. But some natives of the darkness looked up. a light .These were the Manichees. he fell in with men proudly erring. He promised they would not need to take anything on faith.. But there St. as interpreted by the Church. At the very time he was disappointed in Scripture.A does not understand the context.that means. He says he was swollen with pride-. let us recall comments on 3. executed 277 AD. and that s a trap for him. Again. Then the moon. evil water.1 about birdlime (used to catch birds). De utilitate credendi 1. The Living Spirit and his five sons formed ten heavens and eight earths out of the mixture.sophia) to mean love of Christ . inflated so as to seem big. He did not really consciously desire God then. Let us recall our comments at 3. In the darkness there were five provinces.2) Manes said there were two eternal kingdoms.what should be there (a privation). would prove all. for he was sinning constantly. He understood philosophy (philo . but the latter had lost some of his light and good elements were mixed with evil. 3..

So the Manichees made little of Easter. could they be just who had many wives at once and killed men and sacrificed animals -. insofar as they were bright in color had light particles. just as He Himself has it.about the ban. The light of this image was given to one of the evil princes. All evil plus whatever parts of God have not been liberated. So Adam was made in the image of the Exalted One. the day on which Manes was killed. A tried to distort it. 3. his mother weeps now -. Further. There were two classes.By 412 A seems to have thought that the mind's capacity for participation in God meant he is in the image of God . already in Gen 15:16 God said He would wait till the sins of the Amorites reached their fullness. He also has two souls. the other from the land of darkness. There was a hierarchy. and brings forth this suffering Jesus. but he had no real flesh (flesh is evil) and only seemed to be born and crucified. thought God and soul were bodily. 3. But then the vision made her willing. and priests ordained by the bishops. and Hearers. will be bound in a globe of fire. All sins are due to the evil soul. image of God . By now they did. In the fruit was the image of the Exalted One. The Manichees attacked the OT. sin was captivated by the beauty of the Exalted One. dump it there. The wrong of murder is that it violates the rights of the Creator. who then by eating. hanging from every tree. which is good. and come back as a crescent.following warning of 2 Thes 3. 72 Bishops were ordained by the Masters. God can stop giving at any point . A began to have doubts in faith: what they said about the moon did not fit with what he read in astronomy. As to children: life is a moment to moment gift. animals.polygamy was permitted in OT-. came forth from it as its fruit. A waited 9 years. but exalted the feast of the Bema. the life of man.she now sees how wicked A is. When the Third Messenger came. she saw through his distortion. The large animals and man originated in the realm of darkness. and also deacons. . Real sense: God gave man dominion over creation. Man has a body of matter which is evil.14. who was the father of Adam and Eve.plants. from "the factory of their stomachs" (Confessions 4. There is a twofold Jesus: 1)the Jesus of the Gospels. and evil was a positive thing. said Faustus would come.or use a human agent for the same effect. Saclas . said misdeeds of some of the chief men proved the book was not of God. furnished vegetables for the Elect.ship. fig weeps -. Elect.10. 3.that part of God which is held bound and defiled in demons. Local officials could not solve.11. one from God. can carry it to the sun. Hearers did all these. 2)the Suffering Jesus . herem :God ordered them to wipe out Canaanites to avoid danger of falling into idolatry .before 412 A thought it means man had the image only so far as he actually participated in the Word through intuition. So became disillusioned. in the third phase of the war.1. There were Twelve Masters plus a chief. Man came from the den of smoke. So the greater victory never came. At the end will be a final conflagration.7 I did not know that other reality . but Faustus admitted he did not know. Elect did not kill animals or harvest plants or marry.he had no notion of a spirit.they did fall. But they rejected baptism. So Sin made a tree.1). For long she refused to live in same house with him. particles of God. set free gods.

And A seems to scorn having to take pay for it.you permitted me to roll and roll deeper.13. NAOQ 210-44.. wrongly. cannot be moved at all. St.very expensive to buy books then. 2)far stronger. pp. There was no support at all in the text or context for such a view. he referred the reader back to this early work for his true opinion .teaching rhetoric need not be low. Still more. Most. A needed that.55. Only God can create. When we do good. .two forces held him: 1) attachment to novelty. A thought God did not want Esau to be saved. in 1. extraordinary prayer and penance can call for an extraordinary grace. That this come along or not is not in the power of man. Whether it [the debt] be exacted or be condoned. I was still unteachable . she received it as if it had sounded forth from the sky -"Ask and you shall receive" applies strictly to requisites for one's own salvation ."Accordingly. Logically this implies his massa damnata theory. new being appears -that is. earlier in the same work. 4. (For the whole matter. as did nearly all the western Fathers. A thought God really hated Esau. A." In the last years of his life. cf. one that can forestall or even cancel out resistance in the other. This on the one hand refers to the basic permission to have free will. NAOQ. His mother obtained it.a call of grace adapted to the actual need of the man.. pride is the basic vice. (A denied that God wills all men to be saved: cf.. it is created out of nothing. thought that by original sin..which he did not change. there is no injustice. New Answers to Old Questions pp. deceived and deceiving. found already (395 AD) in To Simplicianus 1. We are not sure that at the time of writing this passage in Confessions (397-401). that he has it.2. since it implies one is God. seduced and seducing.14: "who would dare to say that God lacked a way of calling. Jerome copied out many books of pagan classics. . Cf. his pride. in which even Esau would apply his mind to faith.16: "Therefore all men are. unless something comes which delights and invites the soul. In his To Simplicianus 2.the rest He lets go to hell. given by God. from 395 to 429.12. 228-31 (Hereafter = NAOQ). and join his will [to that] in which Jacob was justified. he had such a view in mind. God could throw all into hell without waiting for any personal sins. he had read and even copied out almost all their books ..Her faith caused her to regard the reply of the bishop as something from the sky. which keeps one from seeing truth since he is so convinced. on the basis of a misunderstanding of Rom 9. that owes a debt of punishment to the divine and supreme justice. especially the lines about the potter.. Probably yes." Since God did not give Esau such a grace. in his On the Gift of Perseverance 21. 3. But the will itself. one condemned mass of sin. He blindly picks a small percent to rescue . .praying for others can meet with an obstacle on the part of the others. However. But A in this passage may also have in mind his notion of what he calls a congruous call . 225-44). sold a victorious wordiness -. it cannot happen that the son of those tears of yours should perish.1. He got this theory from a misunderstanding of Romans 9. There are several pairs of splendid rhetorical contrasts and balances here. Wm. But to show mercy. The Greek Fathers all held an incompatible view. all men had become a damned and damnable mass (Massa damnata et damnabilis).22: "This remains: that the wills [of men] are chosen.

exchange of benefits." . once born it forces one to love it --the son was Adeodatus ("given by God"). where could my heart flee from my heart? -.2.the exalted means those who exalt themselves in pride.Cf. and did not really know Him . and so the friendship was not solid. you were not something solid.he had just an empty. Epistle 28. Bonding takes place readily. Cf. So it was not real love.Cf.A did not really will good to the "friend". Psalm 138:6.Cf.there are false loves. The Hound of Heaven.compare Seneca. my error was my God .1:"You need to change your soul. Ps.1. whereby the other will be well-off having the things we wish him.12. A sees this as part of the providence of the Father. to speculate about the world . . we wish he may be open to what God gives (a) for his benefit.similar to Francis Thompson. 42-1-4. not [your place under] the sky -. Aristotle. To love is really to will good to the other for the other's sake. quoting Is. Psalm 35:6. and truth with doing what is right.he taught how to argue falsely. God made us so we love babies in general and especially our own. Rhetoric 1. how did they not more quickly find its Lord?" your know the exalted from afar . Wisdom 13:9: "If they so far advanced in knowledge that they could speculate about the world. but only what A falsely thought was good. (2) when we love someone in God. Feelings merely tend to go along with it.. based on sensory pleasure and/or expediency. God's goodness is more eager to give to us than we are to receive from Him. True love is based on real goodness-. 4.Friendship requires mutual wishing well to the other for the other's sake. 4.4. erroneous concept of God. Cf.7. So love of God and of neighbor rightly understood are inseparable. 4. Scripture sometimes equates lie with sin. But as we said before.20.12. with your love diffused in our hearts . slipping in a slippery place .cf. those who loved vanity and sought a lie -. no true friendship unless you glue it together .. pressing on the back of your fugitives -. (b) to please God.without guile I taught guile .Cf. this knowledge can be used to detect falsity in others too. if I wanted to be his friend -. A is deeply impressed with the need of humility and returns to the idea many times over.He still thought God was bodily.you ask why that running away does not help you? You are fleeing from yourself. Cf. Rom 5:5: :God's love has been poured into our hearts through the Holy Spirit which has been given to us. so God may have the generous pleasure of giving to him." 5. Mt 12. in the human situation (They are what psychologists call somatic resonance to love). 3.(1)The Holy Spirit IS the substantial love of Father for Son and Son for Father. my faith glowing under much smoke -. our comments on "every disordered soul is its own punishment" in 1.

Manichäische Handschriften der Staatlichen Museum Berlin Bd.16 Manes speaks of: ". I was ordered to just believe .. the greater the structure will be. Lieferung 1 10. A point on the line from its center to the center of the epicycle moved at constant speed around the equant . was personally present to him . Stuttgart. would prove everything. Did not know the distances of the planets... 150 AD: Ingenious but not correct: Thought the earth is the center and is stationary. Through impious pride they go away form you and suffer an eclipse of your light . 5. as a result of long making of records.. the deeper one digs the foundation. supported Aristarchus on heliocentrism. his Sermon 69. 1. we have.. 1935-40. but rejected heliocentrism.. Got the length of the solar year within 6 minutes.. they have discovered many things -Greek science after Alexander did some remarkable things: Aristarchus of Samos c.. they were glad. 14 seconds.Now some original works have been discovered: C. 300 BC . A great contrast to their opening attitude which we saw: they promised to not ask anything on faith.equals 5000 stades (a stade is about 600 Greek feet). believed . Hipparchus of Nicea c 185-120 BC . Manes tried to convince people that the Holy Spirit. This theory was gradually abandoned when Kepler proved orbits are elliptical. even when A saw they were in error.the Manichean books. That is about 1/50 of a circumference -. humility. -. 150 BC ..dissected cadavers. The center of the epicycle revolved around a larger circle. Seleucus c. Herophilus c. Ptolemy c. there was introduced a third circle.-found the cause of tides. a difference of 7 degrees 12 minutes.In spite of the theoretical error of the system of Ptolemy. Thought India could be reached by sailing west. with center neither at center of earth nor center of the deferent. No one of the Apostles has ever done such. Each day the sphere of the stars rotated once about the earth. 000 stades around. Since this did not account for the movements of planets yet. 5. 310-230 held the earth went around the sun . All celestial movements are circular at constant speeds. . In Kephalaia 1... Cf.. yet.1. sensory and motor nerves. the holy church to which I was sent from the Father.the result was variation in speed of the epicycle around the deferent.if they could even predict eclipses. the astronomer of that days could predict eclipses accurately. Made nearly accurate description of the circulation of the blood. the equant.Cf. Each planet moved at constant speed about a small circle. an epicycle.not generally accepted then. 1 Peter 5:5. found the true functions of the brain.2:"First think about the foundation. Schmidt.. Discovered the precession of equinoxes. [When his] disciples had heard all this from him. Eratosthenes of Cyrene c 275-194 BC -.. Kephalaia 1 Hälfte. they should have found God. He concluded earth is 250.observed noon day sun at Alexandria and Syene. . a deferent (also called eccentric: center not at center of earth). Their mind was enlightened and they said in joy: 'We thank thee.

since love works for the well-being of the other. We suggest: The parables were so built that someone well-disposed would begin to get something. In both spirals we see God exercising both mercy and justice in one and the same action (reflecting the fact that all His attributes are identified within Him): on the bad spiral the man is getting more and ore blind. Greek hina can be either purpose or result. 7. snare of death." Permissiveness can be lack of love.We think of Mk 4:11-12: "To you have been given the secrets of the kingdom of God. Did this mean he was the Paraclete? The disciples as quoted here seem to take it that way.that you are the [Paraclete] who [comes] from the Father. In the Hebrew it reads:"Go and tell this people: Hear. his blindness growing. which justice calls for. He would begin to go out on a bad spiral. but do not understand.which says the things of this life are worth hardly anything compared to eternity-.We notice too that A now did not know what to believe -. his ability to understand spiritual things growing. On the good . . Your brought it about -. -. This was due to "the blood of the heart of my mother". again 1.quite a compliment. so that they may indeed see but not perceive.2:"Every disordered soul is its own punishment. he was not altogether ignorant of his ignorance -. in Kephalaia 67. he would have more infallibility than the Church! Of course A does not say Faustus had that much. 8. Further. This is a quote form Is 6:9-10. Interpretation is much debated." A summary of the Kephalaia can be found in Catholic Biblical Quarterly 7 (1945) 206-22 and 306-25. and see." -.9:"We believe this [namely] that he is the Paraclete. for he was hardened. He turns to parables. If one could always know he did not know when he did not know. which A needed." The three "Synoptics vary in their wording here.A had been wicked too in Carthage. Cf. So A sees in this providence "your most profound depths." So Manes himself seems to have claimed to have been sent from the Father. had begun to loosen the snare -.In Mark after the Scribes charge Him with casting out devils by the devil. and he in the Kephalaia does not correct them on the point. yet there is mercy. 5.165-66 Manes says he is like the sun. the greater the responsibility. But someone who would act strongly on faith .God can write straight with even crooked lines. So He made use of the snare that Faustus was to begin to loosen the snare in which A was caught.they shared a common artistic interest in literature. that his wisdom is anointed upon them all. and he will not allow any of the elect to go into darkness. . and would become more blind and dull. but was not caught by it: Providence again. 5.even though A decided on his own to go to Rome. the Revealer of all mysteries.just before he met with the sceptical New Academy in Rome. but do not to perceive. and may indeed hear but not understand: then they might turn again and be forgiven. Acta cum Felice Manichaeo 1. they are the more wretched the more they are allowed to do. an extraordinary weight it the scales is needed to call for an extraordinary grace. he sees the hand of God behind it. young people [in Rome] studied more quietly . her prayers and penances obtained it. are the rays. and the Elect. I began to associate -. Make the heart of this people gross. someone ill-disposed would not. but for those outside everything is in parables. Cf. Again. though not as bad as the Wreckers. A. for the more understanding one has.will go out on a good spiral.

but can owe to Himself to keep His word in the covenant. 5. 9.echoes Psalm 142. in the quote from 5.A marvels at the way God works again -. in that no creature by its own power can generate a claim on God. Cyprian -. your mercy is forever .He guided the whole matter. proved in her the inheritance of Eve -. my hope and my portion . It was current in A's time.Manichees.the death of body and of soul.6. chapel in honor of St. A mortal sin does make one more inclined to further sins. you knew.he was Bishop of Carthage. A admired him. c." Teselle seems not to notice that already in Confessions 5. without letting either one know. the added light is in a secondary sense due in justice. 9. had no real flesh. which gives the same effect. so did not really die. as we saw. Monica did that. nor my mother .the picture is that of 1 Timothy 5:9-10. martyr in 258. cross of a phantasm .1.echoes Psalm 116. His mother even wept at what was really part of the fulfillment of her prayer. circulated as if by Pope Clement I) 2. She came twice a day. 5. where these words are a refrain. knew of original sin earlier.. but in a more basic sense.59 exhorts people to come twice a day.19. nor did you tell me.God cannot strictly owe things to creatures.spiral.seems to mean original sin. Yet we have seen that A. So He becomes a "debtor" to those to whom He forgives debts! The concept that sin is a debt is found widely in Scripture. The so-called Apostolic Constitutions (a late forgery. 16. 9 A wrote of "the bond of original sin in which all die in Adam. why I went. deceived and deceiving saints ." The words "all die in Adam is part of a poor translation of Romans 5:12. p. 51. according to them. called him " the great sword of God" (Sermon 313 on Cyprian).cf. sober widow -. the offering at your altar -. Teselle. die twice -. become a debtor by your promises -.reflects Ps. it is mere mercy. But Augustine now begins to think of man as being captured by his first sin. my God. Psalm 118. and becoming increasingly accustomed and addicted .. 182: "There is not yet a doctrine of original sin. which speaks of original sin. Some doubt whether A had a clear concept of original sin at this time.in Manichaeism there was a twofold Jesus. Teselle has to make the words original mean really first sin of the individual.daily Mass. .10. son of your handmaid . 400 AD. The Jesus of the Gospels. contrite and humble heart -.

Against the Academics 3. But this reasoning holds only if one thinks evil is positive. On the Two Souls against the Manicheans.no longer could believe the Manichees.12.17.. If it is merely the lack of something that should be there. The idea could come from such things as Plato.there were not really two souls or principles. different from that of his published works.341c. If one thinks evil is positive.3-4. The Zoroastrians also held this view." Later he wrote a special word. I was that one whole -. 5. 313c. Phaedo 62b.. the Manichees held we have two souls. the good soul composed of light and is part of God. so an evil power must have made them.43 and note 53 on the former passage in the Ancient Christian Writers edition.6). A had held it from early life. the same host . such as paws on a cat). so a good God must have made them. and not the lack of something. in On the Soul 9. as we learn from A's Against Faustus 5.as we saw above (on 3. neither did I yet understand their intention . 3)it is a thing not the lack of a thing.38 and 3.echoes Psalm 141. It was common in Hellenistic times to say philosophical sects had secret doctrine. So this was comforting to A . thinks that everything is bodily. for all knowledge begins in the senses. he will reason: there are good things in this world.. They claimed you cannot know anything for certain .the two kingdoms.the basic error of all dualisms.just probability. then no power is needed to produce a lack. The Manichees thought each infinite except in the direction where they met -. yet did not know what he should believe. the more incurable by the fact that I did not think myself a sinner . Also Plato's belief that our senses are unreliable. because they tell us the present world is the chief thing. two masses . A seems to think scepticism was just a false front to keep out triflers: cf. Academics.it was not we who sinned . Cf.the first step in a cure is to recognize one is sick.20. because my reverence forced me to think a good God could have created no evil nature . But the evil soul comes from the land of darkness and is responsible for the evil we do. a guard about my mouth .a childish notion! . 2. and especially his Epistles 2."it pleased my pride. also Confessions 3.probably he was staying with Constantius. 344c.he still had no concept of a spirit. held on to them more loosely and negligently . and in On the Flesh of Christ 11. evil was some such substance . but apt to have Plato's thought on this) to have said that he did have a secret doctrine.there are three possible theories abut the nature of evil: 1)it is a mere negative (such as lack of wings on a cat). founded by Carneades (214-129 BC) who took the Scepticism from Arcesilaus of the Middle Academy (315240). Plato himself seems in his Epistles (cf.but he blamed his sins on the evil soul he had.This is the New Academy. even the soul. but there are evils.312d.314 --probably not authentic. The latter was converted to the Church c 400 AD.. 314a 7. you had the shape of human flesh. This could help lead to scepticism. Tertullian. I could think of nothing other than the mass of bodies . would undermine knowledge. 2)it is a privative negative (lack of what should be there.7.

" To help understand this.He did not have to . 2)to will that the objective order. 7. Cf. If he stole a pleasure. The martyrs do not do that. richness of your grain . Ambrose was elected bishop.defiled with flesh ." if only you would listen. Ambrose had become Bishop of Milan 10 years before. So if the Father willed it . but are completely different: 1) to will evil to another so it may be evil to him. wants it rebalanced. Woe to him! He has tipped the scale to the side of debt for himself and for the world!" We imagine a two pan scales. 1967. hatred.echo of Psalm 81. Ambrose in his Epistle 51 insisted on public penance. but in vain. and won. This is vengeance. willing evil to another so it may be evil to him instead of wiling that the objective order be rebalanced. He came from a noble Roman family. OFP. When Bishop Auxentius died. but there is a danger in it of sliding over into real hatred. In his Enarrationes in Ps 138. Theodosius in 390 had ordered a massacre of all in Thessalonica. in the Redemption." A had trouble understanding this .22: "Do I not hate them that hate thee.as God Himself does. son of the Prefect of Gaul.this was the year 384. In 384 he wrote to Emperor Valentinian (383-92) asking him to restore the statue of Victory (which pagans worshipped) to the senate house. But these things only begin to rebalance .. and very immoral. I loved what you had made. If the man stole property. This is supremely moral. how long before you will judge and make it right for our blood on those who live on the earth. earlier in same century):"He [anyone] has committed a transgression. nor love the vices because of the humans. Ordained Dec.17: "I would feed you with the finest of the wheat. O Lord? . .it could be done only by sending a Divine Person to become Man.A has in mind Psalm 139." There are two things that seem the same. became Prefect of Aemilia and Liguria. Gratian had taken it out. Ambrose was one of the few clergy who could read Greek easily. This is right.. 5. and consul 391. we turn to Apocalypse 6:910. Cf. The sinner takes from one pan what he has no right to take . Paul VI. Rome. This the Father did.22 he wrote: "What is 'perfect hate'? I hated in them their iniquity. God Himself wills it. their hearts are in unison with God.flesh and all matter was evil in the mind of the Manichees. in such a way that you do not hate humans because of their vices. loving all that is right. Simeon ben Eleazar (c. out of balance for sin. chapter 4. Ambrose . he begins to rebalance by giving it back. holy and true. with a perfect hate . 374. Ambrose was born about 340. Indulgentiarum doctrina. 170 AD quoting Rabbi Meir. The souls of martyrs under the altar pray: "O sovereign Lord. tried to recall it. This is the true explanation of the so-called "cursing Psalms". Such a Divine Person could generate an infinite value to fully rebalance. A help comes from a Jewish Rabbi. The psalmist wills that the objective order be rebalanced . which is "with full hatred did I hate them. reluctantly. the new constitution on indulgences of Jan 1. he begins to rebalance by giving up a comparable pleasure he could have lawfully had.for even one mortal sin is an infinite imbalance (offense against an Infinite Person). The holiness of God. Theodosius did it. Augustine could not.as do many people. Symmachus -. Ambrose wrote against Symmachus in Epistle 18. I hate them with a perfect hatred.12. and with honey from the rock would I satisfy you. He was advisor to emperors: Gratian (375-83). with headquarters at Milan. Valentinian II (383-90) Theodosius the Great (379-95).the scales are out of balance." But A missed the true sense. This is to hate with a perfect hate. St. 384-85. when not yet baptized. may be rebalanced.he was Prefect of the city.

Pythagoras.he felt the literal sense is as a shadow to the body . Athanasius and Didymus the Blind. Neither Ambrose no Augustine understood that. it cannot save. as also the Stoics.what one sings. but not everything has a literal meaning.as we noted in passing before . Origen in First Principles 4.the allegory shows the true and deeper meaning.when he opened up in a spiritual sense. sinks in more deeply. A still had his bad morals.they disliked anything that seemed like pagan literature .echo of Psalm 119.and metrical compositions did.. He was meant who bore not his own but other's sins. Antisthenes and others.1-98.sober drunkenness of wine -. Ambrose was the first to successfully write hymns for use in the liturgy in the West (St.. evil. for Ambrose was a fine speaker. I was killed in Confessions 6. But the content came in too." His verbal notion of inspiration. Neoplatonism would help him see there are spiritual things.he could not yet answer the charges by Manichees that the great figures of the OT were sinners. 5. A thought he went to hear Ambrose out of professional interest. but the spirit gives life' . but the new regime of the spirit. . to interpret myths and fables to avoid the offense of the literal sense. gives life. Your led me to him.A again admires the ways of Providence. if we pay faithful and diligent attention is not a lie but a mystery.5 said: "Everything has a spiritual meaning. The East had had hymns from the start.not a real solution. Ambrose was quoting St.3. seemed to teach perversity. In addition. especially Clement and Origen. Ambrose solved these problems by the use of allegory . So he could not join the Church. impelled him in this direction.4. salvation is far from sinners . those things which. if taken literally. The Alexandrian school of Scripture used it much. as though he were most diligently teaching a rule: 'The letter kills. and faith our drink.155. He used it on Greek poetry and on OT. brings spiritual death. Paul's Epistles. The first Jew to use it was Aristobulus at Alexandria. Hymns are powerful for propaganda .. So the true meaning can in no way be rightly called a lie.from a hymn by Ambrose. without the help of the approach by genres. But in the West . The Epistle of Aristeas (mid 2nd cent) uses it to defend dietary laws of OT.14. in 2nd cent. Allegorical method goes back to Xenophanes. though I did not know it . to seem to deceive his father. Cf. I despaired . faith in Christ. Against Faustus 22. BC. But especially Philo used it . Let us joyfully drink in the sober drunkenness of the Spirit.24: "What Jacob did at his mother's urging.. Plato." For more examples. Paul 2 Cor 3:6. The real sense of Paul was this: The old regime. Prominent in this school were St. and the Cappadocians. we will think it a lie. An example of what A began to think is found in his work On Lying 10. we see some of them in St. . the soul.6 we read: "Joyfully I used to hear Ambrose saying in his sermons to the people. of the law. and the false beliefs that everything is bodily: God. and that is what A taught. Hearing of good example would rescue him from his bad habits. Hilary had tried but failed). But if this is referred to that to signify which it was really done---by the goat skins are meant sins. Splendor paternae gloriae: "May Christ be our food. for he did this to be thought to be one who he was not. by him who covered himself with them. but it pleased A. when I took them literally. He did cover his arms with goat skins: if we look for the proximate cause." Ambrose may be alluding to Eph 5:18 and also Psalm 23:5.

6. I now criticized my own despair . Stressed the humanity of Christ. .seems to mean that Ambrose meditated. who was to give him living water. and the flood sweeps over me." depths of the sea . a martyr in 312.God is within each of us.1 above.3. also Confessions 2. He seems to have shared the view of Paul of Samosata in denying the divinity of Christ. but recanted. whose son was on the bier.Cf.seems to refer to Ambrose. was founded by Lucian of Samosata. Ps 69..1. gathering myself from the scattering in which I was torn apart bit by bit. But A also seems to be thinking of his idea that a person is to the extent that he is unified. It went into decadence after 430. Could also refer to strong temptations to violate celibacy. and became vain toward many things. while I turned aside from you. being carried to burial.2. not at defense: On the Utility of Believing 1.The opposite school. the water I will give him will become in him a spring of water welling up to eternal life.3.probably means temptations arising from his high position. :"I do this out of love of love [God]. I was seeking you outside me -. I have come into deep waters. where there is no foothold.. John 4:14:"Whoever drinks of the water that I will give him will never thirst. the font of water -. not scattered. I ought to leave the Manichees .21.finally the Neoplatonists helped him to do this.1. especially in Flavian. who are One. (3) they were good at attack. ruminated on the divine truths." unable to conceive a spiritual substance . (5) their false astronomy: Confessions 5. but Jesus raised him: Lk 7:12. temptations against his very excellence -. for a long time the Academics held my rudder. Cf. Theodoret of Cyrus and especially st. Please see our comments on 3. refused to entrust the cure of the sickness of my soul [to philosophers] because they were without the saving name of Christ.a fine allusion to the widow of Naim.He had turned away from philosophers after reading Hortensius at age 19 for the same reason: lack of name of Christ.1.We can gather up the scattered texts he has giving his reasons: (1)They gave no spiritual help towards needed asceticism: On the Utility of Believing 1. a priest of Antioch. Therefore I decided to become a catechumen -. and cultivated Aristotle. (2) the morality of some of the elect did not match their profession: On the Morals of the Manichees 6872. The great period of the school is 360-430.3. Diodore of Tarsus.6. that of Antioch.In his early On the Happy Life 4 (during his retreat before baptism) he wrote: "But when after shaking them off [the Manichees] especially after crossing the sea. John Chrysostom. sound doctrine and later Baptism: cf. It substituted moral teaching for mystical. dwelt on your bread . (6) A sect must be mentally poor if their best spokesman is Faustus.11." 6. for power tends to corrupt. (4)they claimed that all Scripture opposed to them was interpolated: Confessions 5.3: "I sink in deep mire." the bier of her thought .

7. subtle in mind. Rich. Jerome at Bethlehem. gave self to an ascetic life.-he lost his checkpoints.10: "The bones you crushed will rejoice". which Ambrose solved for him. But when there ar no points to compare.did not have several rows of secretaries to keep people out or make access difficult.A sees this as providential. met St. wise. for Valentinian II. Back to Africa. Went East. Some could stand it longer than others. converted his family. chapters 19-20 tells us that A sometimes acted as a judge in cases all day and got nothing to eat. no sound. Then at Milan with A. from Thagaste. things can go far.Possidius. Cf. The reason: In normal conditions. since even nonCatholics came to him. 385. Was first a pupil. Nebridius .echoes Psalm 51. in his life of Augustine.a panegyric speech. no sensations at all. fond of games. An ordinary man. the praises of the Emperor . and a Manichean. by rhetors.A is thinking of the Manichean attacks on the Old Testament. and easily dismiss it. but good in friendship. Emperors could swallow great extremes of flattery. in a poem on an equestrian statue of Emperor Domitian said it would be better if Domitian were up in the sky . Studied law. his voice and tongue were silent . a companion in conversion and baptism. God was trying to make him look further.so much a better god than Jupiter! Not only Emperors can meet this sort of trouble -anyone who has a power position such that no one dares to contradict can go much the same way. 83. all the knots of calumnies . How? Let us think of early experiments before sending a man into space. and came gradually to absorb outrageous flattery. then living at Milan. less emotional than A. if a wild imagination comes. no one was forbidden to enter . He left everything to follow A. then a friend of A at Carthage. A man was put into a capsule. to Milan where he taught grammar under Verecundus. fervent in nature like A. But an Emperor was told only what people thought he would like to hear. but chaste. Alypius Born 354 died 430. out of charity. if he gets out of line. became bishop of Thagaste in 394. as he had said earlier about lack of complete satisfaction in his sexual sins. no light.cf. eager to find answers to deep questions. were crushing my bones -. Acts 17:28: "In Him we live and move and have our being. . Died c. but eventually all got hallucinations. Baptized with A. without whom no things would be . returned to Africa. On return to Africa. out of hatred. even if it was by allegory. 391. This probably was on Jan 1. There were many of these. was counsellor to the Count of the Italian Treasury.6 most bitter difficulties .crowds of busy men . 6. Thus the poet Statius. 6. Was quiet by nature. 125. will be corrected by friends. He was the first of the friends to see the vanity of the Manichees and of astrology. 127.From Carthage. A's Epistles 39.As late as 3-4 centuries the custom of reading aloud even when alone was general. He used the occasion to teach truth. we compare it with reality. or enemies. erudite.

(c)that there is not someone else equally or more able to do the job. unless it is a superior who does the correcting.either death is a state of nothingness and utter unconsciousness.10. as men say." Leviticus 19:17 (NRSV) said: "You shall reprove your neighbor or you will incur guilt yourself. For example. burn. as indicated by Proverbs Most people do not accept correction. there is a change and migration of the soul from this world to another. and then were to tell us how many days and nights of his life he had passed in the course of life better or more pleasantly than this one.one of the provincial treasuries. subordinate to the Count of the Sacred Largess who presided over the finances of the Western Empire. Count of the Italian Treasury .there seldom is hope. there can be no obligation to do something that will bring harm instead of good. Now if you suppose that there is no consciousness. 4)there should be a real spiritual need of neighbor.. and were to compare with this the other days and nights of his life. which requires three things (a)certainty that he has committed a sin or intends to do so. burning coals .11. Our physical side responds to emotional things in spite of our mind: the only remedy is to turn away from them. or. 3) it should be able to be done without grave difficulty for the corrector: charity does not oblige with a disproportionate burden. --Here." Some have misunderstood this to meant hat always and in every case one must correct another or incur the same guilt. or he will hate you.I will not say a private man.8: "do not correct a scoffer. such as a superior of the person. the chances are not often good. says in Plato. heal . I say that to die is gain.8. For if a person were to pick the night in which his sleep was undisturbed even by dreams.. 6. what if death cuts off. Alypius shows special quality of character. and if he is thirst.no one is obliged to correct all small things. what cannot be cured by the knife is cured by fire. and even then. not despair .will not find many such days or nights when compared with the others. 2) there should be hope of success . 6. but even the Great King -. harm will result. for you will heap coals of fire on his head and the Lord will reward you.alludes to Proverbs 25:21-22:If your enemy is hungry give him food.good psychological description. augustine and Jerome thought it meant making the enemy ashamed in this way. what cannot be cured by fire is incurable. I think that any man -. Socrates after receiving a death sentence. that there was no annihilation.. death will be an unspeakable gain. First. assessor -Roman magistrates were not necessarily trained in laws. St. consciousness? -It is pitiful to see the great philosophers of antiquity trying to prove to themselves that there was some survival." 6. But several conditions must be considered before an obligation is present:1)It must be grave matter -. bold rather than strong in mind -.there is a maxim attributed to Hippocrates: "What cannot be cured by medicine is cured by the knife. for eternity is then only a single night. reprove a wise man: he will love you."This is cited in Rom 12:20 in same sense.not give in to the New Academy who said we cannot know anything for certain.correct a wise man Proverbs 9. and so used the advice of assessors for legal information. but a sleep like the sleep of him who is undisturbed even by dreams. Now if death be of such a nature. (b)that he has not already corrected himself. Apology 40: "One of two things -..otherwise. But if death is the . give him water to drink.

A is thinking probably of the spread of the faith by miracles. in Paradise Lost. she was daily asking you to show her a vision. Ascent of Mt. finding himself in hell.1. For Plato's attempts to prove survival.13. she did see certain vain fantasies -. . And so it may always be supposed that such things as these are more likely to come from the devil than from God."There are many saintly persons who have never known what it is to get a favor of this sort. Teresa of Avila. Picture a cutoff point somewhere ahead of you . And very heavy trials usually go with these favors.13. 72e -77d. For in sleep one exists. and do many wonderful works in your name? And then I will say to them: I never knew you:depart from me. because the devil needs only to see a door left a bit ajar to enter. free will was sufficient.6. but we should always fly from them.cast way the rind.25:" To go into sin..you stop existing .. Behind this is the thought we commented on in notes on 3. and is gaining bodily refreshment. Carmel 1.. can be greater than this?" Socrates tries to convince himself annihilation is not to be feared -. For.. 5. imagines satan just expelled from heaven.it is there to make clear what we might not know otherwise. Even if you think it a very good one. there are certain reasons why such a course is not wise. did we not prophesy in your name." Also it is presumptuous for one to want to choose his own path: only the Lord knows what is best for us.22: "Many will say to me on that day: Lord.journey to another place.His Mother's strong desire set her up for suggestion and even deception of the devil. or Phaedrus 245c ff. medicine of your mercy Compare his words in On nature and grace 23." . and saying: At least I still exist. the good effects of the love of God. and there are others who receive such favors. and at best will have in himself a full impediment to the attainment of spirituality. my friends and judges." It show slack of humility. he has need of a life-giver. the loss of all existence. for he is dead. of which he speaks in City of God 22. John of the Cross. see Phaedo 70d-72e. as men say." 6.he wonders if having a wife will be a hindrance to the search for wisdom.. One may even work miracles and be in the state of sin. in 3. 11 2-3 says about visions a soul might b e offered: "We should never rely on them or let them in.9: "I will just warn you that when you hear that God is giving souls these graces.611a. Further. between spiritual things and all these bodily things there exists no kind of proportion at all. he compares these things to fruit and the rind ." Later.you simply are not. Interior Castle 6. you workers of evil. for the person is not in health. and puts himself in great danger of deception. wife -.but it is the greatest terror. so eminent a peak of Christian authority . to return to righteousness. as if by one's own will he could heal himself since free will by itself could put him in vice. he convinces himself he is seeing or hearing what he wants. and cast out devils in your name. one to be prized and respected. Also St.when you reach it . He [Pelagius] said nothing at all about that grace. St. leaves door open "to great danger. as we learn from Mt 7. may use the fruit.107a. all the dead abide: what good.after thousands of ages will you make it back to existence? No . you should never ask or desire Him to lead you on this road. 103c . 78b-80e. and there.. So he who esteems such things is greatly in error. Lord. or his Republic 608 d. although they are not saintly. there is need of a physician.." and there is danger of auto-suggestion: "When someone has a great desire for something.. John Milton. without trying to determine whether they be good or evil.

466 says emanate .1 Peter 5. His last words: "I was waiting for you [the physician Eustochius] before that which is divine in me departs to unite itself with the Divine in the universe. Porphyry tried to arrange the writings of Plotinus in systematic form. who is even beyond being." 7.15. Adeodatus. certain Platonic books -. Egypt (c 175-240).8. was ascetic.marriageable age .the legal age was 12. i n Justinian's Institutes 1. a great Neoplatonist. The girl here was only 10. from Greek ennea. Gordian was assassinated. who later wrote the life of Plotinus. The founder of Neoplatonism was Ammonius Saccas. Enneads 6.22. nor knowledge.his only illegitimate son. but He is One.9." He attacked Gnosticism. He opened a school. for we cannot ascribe activity to Him. Died in 269/70.5. a day laborer in Alexandria.He is beyond these. than decay without pain. History of Philosophy I. it would impair His unchangeability.most likely the Enneads of Plotinus. Then he joined the Persian expedition of Emperor Gordian. a certain man . a great man in the service of the princes at Milan. Plotinus was born in Egypt in 203 or 204. enjoyed much favor even from Emperor Gallienus. So Plotinus even said we cannot ascribe thought or will or activity to Him. 9 (743 e):"He is other than all things. consul in 399. Copleston. 4. which he probably identified with God: "In like manner the Good may be said to be not only the author of knowledge to all things known. 9). but more despairingly . Not thought . yet the Good is not essence.1 (516 b-c): "Of whom there is no word. 6. gentle and affectionate.16. remained his pupil till around 240. each with nine chapters (hence called Enneads. Plato Republic 409b." (Cf.10.44: "that supreme God who is known best by not knowing". which must be distinct and logically prior. into 6 books. Plotinus even took in orphaned children. was silent on Christianity. This is not pantheism . to learn Persian philosophy. Enneads. more coldly. Porphyry became his pupil. but give grace to the humble .this is probably Manlius Theodorus. When Plotinus was about 60. Porphyry says that Plotinus experienced ecstatic union with God four times in 6 years. A says in On Order 2. studied under Ammonius Sacas when he was 28. So God emanates things. but of their being and essence.the One is not identical with the sum of individual things as Parmenides said.for that implies a distinction between thinker and object of thought. but far exceeds essence in dignity and power. His teaching: 1) God is the One.In his On the nature of good 20 (399AD) he wrote: "It is better to have a wound in the body with pain. natural son ." Neither essence nor being nor life can be predicated of Him . Similarly for will and activity:he is beyond all distinctions whatsoever. He did not create the world. . speaking of the Good. arriving about at age 40. and Plotinus went to Rome. is beyond selfconsciousness. you resist the proud. for these need a source." This is a strong concept of transcendence.

It is incorporeal and indivisible. Plotinus in this way combined Platonic and Aristotelian themes: He saw matter as the substrate [the underlying element onto which form comes] of form: Enneads 2.9.is a metaphor. So the Nous is the intelligible world. The Demiurge of Plato and the noesis noeseos [thinking of thinking] of Aristotle thus come together in the Plotinian Nous.6: "It is necessary that there me a substrate for bodies.1ff. it is privation .the latter is the real soul of the phenomenal world. thought. the kosmos noetos:. grows gradually dimmer. Plato had supposed there was just one World-soul Plotinus put in two.but insofar as it stands against the intelligible and represents the ananke [necessity] of Plato's Timaeus. No cosmos can be better except the intelligible cosmos in the Nous. other then them . which illuminates. Matter is the principle of evil inasmuch as at its lowest grade. He seems to say every nature should make that which is less perfect than itself. The phenomenal world owes all its reality to participation in the Ideas that are in Nous. There is transmigration of souls. He also uses the metaphor of perilampsis. A thought the Nous was like the Divine Word [Logos]. but without memory of the period of earthly existence.This is the first emanation. mind . Plotinus did not thereby scorn the world like the Gnostics. but praises the world as the word of the World soul. until it shades off into the total darkness which is matter in itself -. as a seed unfolds itself. In the Nous are Ideas not only of classes but of individuals: Enneads 5. and a lower one which is directly connected with the body. Enneads 5.it proceeds from Nous. Nous in Beauty. In this way matter remotely emanates from the One. It is in the Nous then that multiplicity first appears. It has a twofold object: the one and itself. not a positive substance. though the whole multitude of Ideas is contained indivisibly in Nous. The Greek is usually rhein or aporrhein. The material . is darkness. comparing the One to the sun. 3) World-soul .7. it is unilluminated. 4) Individual human souls come from the World-soul. as unilluminated privation. Matter is also the antithesis to the One. and so this attracted him. 2) Nous. That union is a fall. since matter is privation. Inasmuch as it enters into composition of material objects and is so illumined by form. and are subdivided into two elements: a higher one which belongs to the sphere of Nous. yet stays undiminished in its own place.each is of matter and form.the change of the elements into one another shows this -. Since the Ides do not operate in the sensible world. However this is not a dualism. It survives death of the body. Plotinus put reflections of the Ideas in the World-soul: logoi spermatikoi [seminal reasons] .matter is a privation [steresis] of light. for the One is above all multiplicity. Plato calls the second soul nature [physis].which is evil. The soul preexisted before union with the body [as in Plato]. higher and lower . it cannot be said to be total darkness -.9. The protoi logoi [primary reasons] are in the higher of the two souls. the derivative logoi are in the lower soul. passes outwards.4. but forms the link between the supersensual world and the sensual world. as devoid of quality. 5) The material world: Light comes from the centre. ellampsis.an adaptation of a Stoic idea.

and how that which is one and the same can be everywhere. Magic does not seem reasonable.we will see this in the City of God 10. He attacked the divinity of Christ." "There is a fatherland for us. Reminds one of the much later higher criticism. The sensible reproduces the intelligible according to its capacity: Enneads 4.4. but dropped. Cf. which were burned in 448 under Valentinian III and Theodosius II. himself made radiant and filled with intelligible light. occupying self with philosophy and science. prudence. He wrote a life of Plotinus and other works. Some suspect Porphyry had been a Christian.6. He wrote 15 books against the Christians.8. and the father is there": Enneads 1. b) Second stage: One should rise above sense perception. Augustine himself: had probably read at least these treatises of Plotinus: On beauty.3. c) Third stage: The soul goes beyond discursive thought to union with the Nous. ln the ascent the ethical is subordinate to the intellectual element: a) First stage: Katharsis. and tried to show Christianity is illogical. Please recall the notes on the soul in 3. on providence. from whence we came.40 Plotinus thinks there are three levels of things: sensory.9. d) Final stage:Enneads 6. a certain man swollen with immense pride -. 12. to rise to the four cardinal virtues. it is as though the fire is quenched. There there will be "a flight of the alone to the alone. and then to reach union with God. Porphyry of Tyre (232 to after 301 AD). turning towards Nous. In Enneads 4. and also other gods and daimones invisible to man.8. The universal harmony and cosmic unity are the rational basis for prophecy and for influencing superhuman powers by magic . transfigured to the divinity. a disciple of Plotinus. really. the first beauty [protos kalos]. .world is the image or exteriorisation of the intelligible. the highest of which is phronesis. Such a union is brief in this life. being god in essence. but when once more he becomes heavy. in connection with theurgy. 44-45. But the soul retains its self-consciousness. rational.seems to be Amelius. really. on the three divine hypostases.6. certain Platonic books translated from Greek into Latin -translation was by Victorinus Afer. to free man from the dominion of the body and the senses. on the soul. but can be permanent when we are freed from the body. 6) The ascent: We aim to become like to God. involved in contradictions. an introduction to the Categories of Aristotle.9: The soul comes to see both God and himself. and beyond reason . PLotinus thought there were star-gods. Teselle pp. purification. grown to be one with that light in its purity. but it is beyond reason.1. ignoble. of whom we will see in 8. of which the most famous is the Isagoge. He attacked the Bible and Christian interpretations of it. without any heaviness. wanted to stop conversion of cultured people to Christianity. Plotinus had shown no hostility to Christianity. For that point of time he is enkindled.

therefore. It does not mean the . to him. as Victorinus was doing. Ambrose answered the Manichean attacks on the Old Testament. In the beginning was the Word . incline the heavens and come down . for he had baptized Ambrose. St." 8. 7. Simplicianus became Bishop of Milan in 397 when Ambrose died. Cf. Soon." "Saved" here means entry into the Church..cf. by the mouth moreover a profession [of faith] is made leading to being saved. In fact.cf. Please recall the explanation given on Mt 6:21 in the notes on 3. Mt 10:32: "Everyone who acknowledges me before men. I too will acknowledge him before my Father. fleshy habit .and their idea of God as bodily was just an error: there is no such a god. that you have hidden these things from the wise.1. A wrote a major work. by my own weight .5. Ambrose in Epistle 37.a form of the Creed.17.but did not yet know of gravitation.by it I am carried wherever I am carried.he thinks that when a person lets sin get a hold of him.it was just his immorality that held him back.as we saw before. Romans 10:10: "By the heart one believes. Lord of Heaven and earth. .2 speaks of him as his father in the faith." By weight he really means gravitational force .A seems to take Nous for the Word. and revealed them to babes. not a substance. To Simplicianus. not bodily. Jesus in the Manichean system had no real body .9. not a fantasm -.However.. Father. Simplicianus . Please recall the comments in notes on 1. But it did nothing to check his long running immorality.4 on the bad spiral and the good spiral.10: "My weight is my love ." his profession in set words -. its demands to rise above the senses may have been counterproductive in A. Simplicianus handled A prudently. Porphyry specially attacked it. and encouraged his esteem for Neoplatonism. I also will deny him before my Father who is in Heaven. Neoplatonism did great service for Augustine: it led him to see that God and the soul are spiritual.echoes Psalm 144. but whoever denies me before men. the body that is corrupted -. Mt 11:25: "I thank you. leading to justification.cf. hidden to the wise . Wisdom 9:15: "The corruptible body burdens the soul.2.. As we saw St. working through the heroic examples he heard about.. A will say openly that all his intellectual difficulties were gone . what began as a single sin becomes a sort of addiction." Humility makes it more possible for one to see spiritual truths. But he noted that Plotinus did not teach the incarnation of course. afraid he would be denied by Christ .compare Confessions 13. from which the soul by its own power cannot free itself. What really would bring the change was extraordinary grace. and that evil is a privation.he was already an old man when A consulted him. and the earthy shelter bears down the mind that has many concerns.

8. to show himself little.Protestant "infallible salvation". thinking he was pleasing God.. . feels self pulled to be converted too. Yet God wants the objective order rebalanced even for unwitting violations. He did it in good faith.but his immorality was not gone. and so he felt they should not be expounded by unbelievers in paganism. Later in this section he admits: :For now it was certain"-. A speculates how it is that Saul starts to be called Paul at this point in the Acts of the Apostles.5. epics. he might not be rejected himself: 1 Cor 9:27. A often calls laymen provincials. father of Aeneas. Paul would surely have it. e. in Sermon 351. least of the Apostles -. At the time of writing A had considered as possible the preexistence of souls. being a Roman consul (Acts 13:12)."These will be your arts.12 he speculates Saul took the name Paul for humility. AS a result. remember to rule peoples. St.echoes Lk 15:8. g. and even Platonic dialogues out of Gospel material. and would not say he had to chastise his body and bring it into subjection. but not now.Sergius Paulus. Leviticus chapter 4. by taking Christ once as your Savior. so that when he had preached to others. drachma is put back -. to impose the way of peace. Scipio Africanus. Paul as a mark of so great a victory -. and clerics soldiers.4 be fragrant and sweet.Julian (361-63) returned to paganism. and to beat down the proud in war. governor of Cyprus. Emperor Julian . If there were infallible salvation for that. I feared to be loosed . Cf. He also wanted to degrade Christianity by cutting it off from literary culture. Apollinaris and his father rewrote much of Scripture in classical forms. 8. became a common soldier of Christ. O Roman. making comedies. Actually. pride being conquered -. Julian claimed Christianity was a debased Judaism."Aeneas is seeing preexistent souls of Romans.A is moved by the example of Victorinus. e. the comments on "with a perfect hate" in the notes on 5.In 8. provincial -. and notes on hidden faults in 1. let us love and run -.7 he said that long before that he had even asked chastity of God and said:"Give me chastity and continence.perhaps an illusion to the words of Anchises. who might even contaminate them with the Gospel.g.because he had persecuted the Church. St. spoken to Aeneas in the underworld in Vergil's Aeneid 6. tragedies. Jews commonly had two names since Romans would find it hard to pronounce some Semitic names.8. Cf. But in his work On the Spirit and the Letter 7. Julian wrote a work Against the Galileans.5. forbade Christians to teach literature. The Classics were sacred books to Julian. There is no such concept in Scripture at all.Roman generals after a great victory got an adjectival form of the name of the conquered nation as part of their name. Cyril of Alexandria wrote an Apology against Julian.all his intellectual difficulties against the faith were gone .5.echo of Canticle of Canticles 1:2-3.851-53:You. to spare those who are subject. eager to imitate him .

who do not presume on their own merits or their own justice. This incident probably happened under Emperor Gratian (375-83) who resided chiefly at Trier. at Milan . the fall need not happen. then gathered disciples and founded settlements which are regarded as the beginnings of monasticism.1 in commenting on Mt 6:21). grace was offered even before Christ: if one used it. and so sees only what is inside the circle made by the tube: the law lets one know what morality calls for. There is a life of him attributed to St.he let A use his villa at Cassiciacum before baptism. if that can be given by teaching .. . in those times it was Augusta Trevirorum. friends of the Emperor . but could not do it. Really.title for persons of senatorial or equestrian rank who formed the immediate entourage of the Emperor.I was delighted with your law according to the inner man Resembles Romans 7: 22-23. St.so an argument from silence is weak. special agents . commissariat officers and secret police. poor in spirit . In the factual view we would add: In no relation to the law. In the focused view it is as if one is looking through a tubs.146.Cf. From the time of Diocletian the Emperor often used it as capital of the western part of the empire." The original Scriptural word was the anawim. Special agents could rise to this. Both point out that teaching alone cannot make a man eloquent.3. as Luther claimed.24: "Who are the poor in spirit? The humble. Athanasius . Verecundus . Romans 7:7-24 is entirely a focused picture. but gives no strength . On the Orator 1. spent 20 years in solitude in the Egyptian desert. Cf.(c.they seem to have been couriers. it may well be his work. who fear the words of God. Paul has two ways of looking at the law. Athanasius spent his first exile there. which as such. Trier . it would be total corruption. who confess their sins. Ascetic writers use the word to stand for those who are detached from earthly things (in the sense explained above in 3. After the Babylonian Captivity it came to mean the poor who trusted in God. that St. On Christian Doctrine 4.20-23. the poor who did not have lands or power and were humiliated. Anthony .in such a perspective.. cannot do anything but save.also called Treves.Since St.authorship is debated.even though A lived at Milan he did not know of these.In Enarrationes in Psalmos 73. Code of Justinian 12. Athanasius was in exile in Trier. focused and factual.32. much ability is also needed. and were called into council by him on official matters. monasteries of which we knew nothing. a book in which was written the life of Anthony .4 and Cicero. If it meant that he saw what was right. 250-356). Chapter 8 is a focused picture that is different: the regime of Christ. fall is inevitable. That passage is often misunderstood. it is a focused passage We mean this.

also comments above on A's notion of the congruous call in the second note on 3.Luther thought A meant total corruption. . or in any sea-conveyance. all my bones cried out . but it did not bother him. stripped of the grace that clothed it.10. God had given Adam and Eve a coordinating gift (often called Gift of Integrity) to make it easy to keep them all in their proper places. Adam was naked. we do not go [there] on foot or on horseback. Probably he did not mean that. not only to go. 1986: "It is human nature so fallen. the hiding places of the penalties of man . the drives would tend to rebel. and it is in this sense that every man is born in sin. most probably . as A read it: "All my bones swill say: Lord.8: "Let us flee to the fatherland. 8. But he is apt to have meant a damage to our minds and wills taking them down farther than would have been the case with Adam if God had given him only basic humanity without added gifts.the sex drive had begun to rebel against reason. or the soul of a lover.11. each good in themselves. Pope John Paul II in General Audience of Oct 8. injured in its own natural powers and subjected to the dominion of death that is transmitted to all men. but also to arrive.only the soul of a philosopher.. Also ibid: "He who loves the beautiful is called a lover because he partakes of it "[the Idea of Beauty]. Phaedrus 259: "Ten thousand years must elapse before the soul of each one can return to the place from whence she came. . . guileless and true." Cf..9.. who is not devoid of philosophy. does not really fully will yet. but the idea is similar.the bird can fly only so far up as the cord permits. So when it is said that our mind is darkened and will weakened. thin chain . A exaggerated the effects of original sin. according to the Church's teaching.He was struggling trying to make a decision to become chaste. was nothing other than to will .he means it should not take much to break it and turn to God .11. may acquire wings in the third of the recurring periods of a thousand years.6. We have a fatherland from whence we came.. and the father is there. he said he hid himself because he was naked . with no concern for the other drives or the whole person. Enneads 1.He did not fully will to go. in Ascent of Mt. 8. He says it makes no difference if the cord is thin or thick . the body will obey if it is physically able . In a very different context. the framework for this in notes on 3.11.a clear echo of PLotinus. when God called.Cf. but yet each going after its own object blindly. for she cannot grow her wings in less. and so the struggle and emotion tends to cloud the mind and pull at the will. Before the fall.. it is a case of a relative and not an absolute deterioration. due to the loss of the coordinating gift.but why does the will not obey itself? It does not really fully command. After it. not of a loss of their essential capacities even in relation to the knowledge and love of God" [underlines added]. Without the coordinating gift. St.but yet that little was holding him. who is like to you?" one does not reach that point by ship or on foot .8.cf. However. . He means that an attachment to anything even a small thing sets a limit to the spiritual growth of a soul. it is true only in this relative sense: Human nature without anything extra would have many drives. Plato. Psalm 35. 8. A of course means the cord of mortal sin.they take wing .4 asks us to imagine a bird tied to the ground by a thin cord.Actually this should refer to both the effects of original sin.. John of the Cross. .1 above.Cf. not intrinsic to the human faculties. He notes that in things where the will commands the body. Carmel 1. and of long habits of personal sin. .

Once there was a debate: was he converted in the fall of 386 to Christianity or Neoplatonism -. and probably also for schools. seemingly taken down in shorthand: cf.severe mercy . thought blessedness could be had in the present life: Soliloquies 1. 3)On Order (providence).4.A villa owned by his friend Verecundus where he went for a sort of retreat before baptism. There are four works. 9. bringing low the mountains .from Romans 13. with his mother. where was my free will? -.I follow the worse.1. A probably means here Ps 120:1-4. 9.about this time an edict of Theodosius and Valentinian fixed the vacations for imperial tribunals. not in rioting -. Could also have been for the returning exiles.to Hermogenianus.4.20 (Medea is speaking: "I see the better and approve of it . Zenobius and two to Nebridius. song of the steps -. and all is vanity.the works written then were thought to point to Neoplatonism. The claim is generally abandoned today. Qoheleth (Ecclesiastes) 1. vanity of vanities. Metamorphoses 1. 3. rule of faith . immortality of the soul).recalls the earlier vision of his Mother. The measure of her grief was also the measure of her rejoicing. Against Academics 1.2. Cf.19.Psalm 30:12. Cassiciacum .cf.2: "Vanity of vanities.14.There are several "gradual" psalms. 9. Navigius his brother. he was still proud.fine oxymoron! the worse . Also possible they were sung by Levites on the 15 steps from the court of women to the court of Israelites in the temple. The vintage vacation was for two months: Aug 22 to Oct 15. 2. harvest holidays . Code of Theodosius 2. turned her grief into joy . Letters -.again an echo of the problem we dwelt on in a note to 3.7.compare Ovid.1." 8.12. vanity of vanities .echo of Isaiah 40:4:"Every valley shall be lifted up. and Alypius. The works are: 1)Against the Academics.Epistles 1. cousins and some former pupils and Adeodatus his illegitimate son." .8. says the preacher. 4)Soliloquies (on the qualifications needed for pursuit of knowledge. 2)On the Blessed Life. 4 -.13-14. This Psalm is probably one of the "pilgrim psalms" (120-34) sung by people going to Jerusalem for the great annual feasts. and every mountain and hill brought low.11. In this passage he speaks disdainfully of these works as "panting of the school of pride:" He is right about that. very literary.

the catechumens gave their names and came for catechesis." Cf.a factory man in US today uses 5 to 10 thousand. Pride darkens a man's mind.1 for the framework in notes there. In our selections from the City of God. but with the validity of our judgments and the regulating authority under which our minds act. Adeodatus probably died in 389 or 390.he uses Greek typhum. written in Thagaste in 389. and Evodius. Enarrationes in Ps 18.Alypius thought such a word improper in Latin-a misguided notion -. In his Retractations (a review.it took until 12th century to settle on our present precise meaning for the word. who was assassinated in Gaul at age 20. cedars --refers to the cedars of Lebanon as a sign of lofty pride. faith did not let me b e at east over past sins -. This is the much debated Illumination theory of Augustine. At Milan before baptism he wrote On the Immortality of the Soul.near end of Lent. joined the monastic community of his father. Cf. Christ. Teselle 105.1.did he fail to see that perfect contrition can remit sin even before baptism? Cf. yet there is greater assurance with the sacrament. 116-17. walking barefoot on the icy soil . Psalm 29:5: "The Lord will break the cedars of Lebanon. Ambrose was on the way to baptize him. concern for past life left us . Bonaventure: A was not concerned primarily with the origin of ideas in man.resulted in a very small vocabulary for Latin at that period. quickly did you take his life .Latin Salvator -. A used only about 2500 words -." pride of the human race . or Vernon Bourke. sacraments . St. the case of Valentinian II. Avicenna). On the Teacher .12 he said: "In it we find there is no teacher to teach men knowledge except God. Baptism removes all liability to temporal punishment for sins committed before Baptism. and further.10. (3)the Thomistic view:illumination is the creation of the human mind with its ability to confer intelligibility upon the contents of sensation. including Alypius. according to that which is written in the Gospel : One is your teacher.Adeodatus went back to Thagaste. while St. not nearly all was retracting things) 1. which is not too difficult.A dialogue with Adeodatus. his devotedness and intention washed him. Cf. Cf. Augustine's Quest of Wisdom pp. ." 9." This was Mt 23. (4)view of St. and to help tame the disordered appetites within us.4. Ambrose in a sermon on him said: "If martyrs are washed in their own blood. 3.even though sins can be remitted before Baptism by perfect contrition. it supplies intelligible species or forms to the mind on the occasion of sensation (this view came from the followers of the Arab commentator on Aristotle. meaning smoke.6. What he means is debated: (1)The Divine Word is the giver of forms to the intellect. when time came for me to give in my name -. In 387 Lent began on March 10.here used broadly. (2) all intelligibles are known 'in God' through an immediate vision of God Himself.this was a strenuous instance of mortification for reparation of sins.

though some commentators think it is the same as what St. Wordsworth gives a similar thought: . Possibilities: "at once" or "both". This is a Neoplatonic path to enlightenment. Cf.. Our destiny. his refusal of homosexual acts with Alcibiades as reported near the end of the Symposium). the Selfsame -.in heaven that will also be true. singulariter in spe constituisti me" That would mean. Cf.10. Real infused contemplation does not come by human effort at the time it arrives (cf. Our Father's Plan. without change." the true sense is debated. simultaneously. Teselle 113 -. very unlike that of Aristotle. Is this really infused contemplation? Definitely no. and no future . on this Wm. in such strength of usurpation. Bonaventure describe.but not the same as what medieval theologians would call infused contemplation. and instead said the one who seeks for truth must have as little as possible to do with the things of the body. quoniam tu..in our meditation. chapters 21 & 22). Domine. if in the state of grace. Lord have singularly put me in peace. Socrates himself avoided homosexuality ( cf. when the light of sense goes out.this is from a fanciful interpretation by A of Psalm 4. .He possesses all at once. Still less is it like the ascent in Plato. for you.9.. up to the thought of God. Compare Wisdom 7:27. have the Holy Spirit dwelling within us -.contrast with the eternal Word..11. This is much like the concept of eternity given by Boethius. though put in the mouth of Socrates.6..1. in the Latin: "In pace in idipsum dormiam et requiescam. We now. John of the Cross and St. to have been and to be are not found in it. for whom eternity is simply time with no beginning and no end.echo of Romans 8. we went from one step to another from physical nature.7 . .. Plato's thought there. He speaks more on this in Confessions 9. as A saw it:"I will sleep and rest in the One who is always the same [God]. Symposium . including constant change. Most. higher and higher by steps. but with a flash that has revealed the invisible world.which begins with the foulness of homosexual feelings. first fruits of the spirit .23. without beginning or end.9. our being's heart and home is with infinitude and only there. where a word has a beginning and an end . but then we shall know Him directly. rises to contemplate the Idea (in Plato's sense) of Beauty. is really Plato himself.4.thinks A means to claim an immediate vision of God such as Plotinus claimed in Enneads 1.this means that in God there is no past. doth greatness make above. it is eternal . we walked step by step . comments on "soul cast itself outside of me" in notes on 3.

but it is better..31. A ignores what he knows. unfeigned faith . St. when it grieves. Jesus wanted to teach us that we should not be Stoics.if for any man there grew silent. than that by not grieving it becomes inhuman. Cf. also ibid. St. 9. as much as is possible.a close echo of Plotinus Enneads 5. for she has gone to a better world.5." this reminds os\us of the words of Dionysius (on p.2. Many in the patristic age thought only martyrs could have that vision before the resurrection: St. Paul.written 10-15 years after her death! He shows a more balanced attitude later.2.20. go behind [itself] and as much as is possible. the things of this life seem worth nothing compared to eternal things. not a relative. in Epistle 263..8. .. Cf. in effect: we should not weep. became cheap -. Against the Anthropomorphites 15 .21. we did not think it proper . Clement of Alexandria speaks of Jesus as apathes. Lactantius. be silent.2). 2 of these notes) that God is best known by "Unknowing". if it wills to see that being. Against Heresies 5. let the sea and the air and the heaven itself. still better. A tendency to Stoicism appears in some other saints. .3. Cyril of Alexandria." passed beyond itself.through a certain purgatorial fire. also Sermones 173. And in 9. not thinking of itself . that the human heart be healed. riddle of a likeness: echo of 2 Cor 13:12: "We know God now darkly. Cf. St. He seems to say.and Augustine himself in Retractations 1. Hilary of Poitiers (On the Trinity 10.2. Demonstration 8. Dialogue 5.13. as we read in Enchiridion 69: "That there should be some such fire even after this life is not incredible.A wonders if most souls that are just can reach the vision of God even before the general resurrection ("when we shall all rise"). he explains Mt 12:32 as referring to purgatory. leave itself.3.2.71.There is really a tendency to Stoicism in A's attitude on her death. Institutes 7. just a good friend. and some more quickly in the greater or lesser degrees in which they loved the good things [of this world] that perish .1. and it can be inquired into and either be discovered or left hidden whether some of the faithful may be saved.12. but also everything that is about. some more slowly.9: "It is necessary that the mind.Cf.. 109. But he did not notice that Jesus Himself allowed Himself to weep at the tomb of Lazarus. Let the earth be silent.. In City of God 18. Justin. that there is a purgatory.2. And in saying she went to a better world.9.g.2: "Let there be silent for it [the soul] not only the body that surrounds it or the wave of the body.an echo of 1 Tim 1. Tertullian On the Soul 55.13 he will ask prayers for her soul . Enneads 3. Philippians 3:7-8. through a glass. Irenaeus.: "The human heart is capable of not grieving over a deceased dear one. Aphraates. e.23) spoke similarly. without feelings (Stromata 6." when will this be? . St.when one realizes.

needed to induce real change of heart. Homily 2. only prayers -.so without the mercy paid for by the sufferings of Jesus and His Mother. there is to be no Mass.sacrifice of our ransom . and Paul F . I do not dare to say that ever since her baptism -. Shepherd of Hermas. he can never by his own power. He crowns nothing other than His own gifts. which may be by admirers of his.5. without success. 281-303.12) we can see that if a person has ever committed just one mortal sin.8. On Penance 3-4. 9. On Psalm 37. Cyprian Epistle 10. Bourke. of the Church's deepening understanding of the deposit of faith). Ambrose did succeed.seems to reflect a strict rule on Eucharistic fast. We gather it was the custom at Rome to offer Mass at the graveside. there could be no forgiveness. Tertullian.1. 319-51.seems imply she never went to Confession." .echoes 1 Cor 15:22. A's Enarrationes in Psalmos 129. St. which she would not have committed. Palmer.but the penance performed was public. On the Lapsed 28. On Penance 4. Mandate 4. dies in Adam -. under the high altar of the church of San Pietro in Ciel d'Oro in Pavia is a silver casket which many believe contain the remains of St." God is losing money. pp. St. Hilary of Poitiers tried. 19. p. and a feeling all must communicate."it will be shed for all. Cf. Augustine.3:"If there were not propitiation with you.If we recall the need for rebalance of the objective order. you would observe all our iniquities. to introduce hymns into the western liturgy . rebalance the scales -. St.Origen."Jean Morin and the Problem of Private Penance" in Theological Studies 6 (1945). Ambrose . The Council of Carthage in 397 in canon 29 provides that if the mourners are not fasting. 298. Yet there is evidence the sacrament was used for some other kinds of serious sins: cf. Eastern liturgy had hymns from the beginning.they were too classical. Cf. without mercy . such as apostasy . 18.19: "When God crowns our merits. Augustine. as some see the fact today. so that there are many today under his name . (Public penance did not mean public confession. The church in that age understood more than today the need of a lot of penance for sin.who could sustain it? whoever recounts to you his own merits . as illustrated by Paul VI and Simeon ben Eleazar (in note on "with perfect hate" at 5. Her remains rested at Ostia until 1430 when Pope Martin V caused them to be moved to Rome and placed in the church of St. and so long and difficult.24-26. which they had abandoned. for the most part at least. so all would know the person had done something serious. That sacrament. But it did not see the possible use of the Sacrament for spiritual growth. and his hymns were very popular. for as the words of consecration at Mass recall.13. adultery. and the need especially of a lot in cases were someone might have become hard. On Leviticus 15.The Mass. There is a gradual growth.3. on practically all. and would seek them out. On Modesty 18. Tertullian. so that sins may be forgiven. and did not will to be merciful. apostasy).cf. cf.Before him.6. if you willed to be merely a judge.24-26. and 7 (1946) pp. Gregory of Nyssa. St. was used for the great sins (murder. as it were. Epistula Canonica. over the centuries. even with a lifetime of penance. The west felt a bit guilty about dealing with any of the forms of classical literature. There is also a bit of evidence for the existence of a private use of the Sacrament of Penance. 19. Today. Epistle 194.

He took it out of the midst and affixed it to the cross.7: "What have you that you have not received. Cf.2. Most likely He considers those who need more.the correct word in the Our Father should be:"forgive us our debts". But on the secondary level. might gain him for you . namely the special favor of full membership in the People of God. gave up much more than all sinners had taken. God gives that without regard to merits.echo of James 2:13: "Judgment without mercy to him who has not done mercy." There is an interesting play on the sense of word here . for by sin we have sunk still lower. the handwriting . also and 1 Cor 4. may be gained through the way of living of the women without a word. referring to open anger. and gives them more. Cf.from 2 Cor 10. in fact.cf.we have nothing at all. 1 Peter 3:21: "Similarly. the dragon. let wives be subject to their husbands." [speaking to kings]. 112-16. less. and have not received it from God . mercy however superexalts judgment".echo of Psalm 143. let mercy be exalted . because judgement is severe for the exalted. but the mighty shall be mightily tested.1):"the lion. There are two levels. On the fundamental level. she forgave debts . The general sense is clear: the wife has better hope by her way of life than from much urging of conversion. the concept of the redemption as the rebalance of the objective order. Cf. 2:14: "Destroying the handwriting that was against us.to rebalance." A. again the first note on 5.A.12 above." owing nothing. sharing in the divine nature. in his Encyclical on marriage.17. which the Holiness of God wants to have paid. Cf.again. you will have mercy .we are magnificent: adopted children of God. Pius XI. or it could mean words from the wife urging conversion. where we consider what good we have produced by ourselves." So on that level we deserve no esteem at all. Cf. On the relation of husband and wife . paid for us . again the matter of the first note on 5.cf.those who glory -. Psalm 91:13: You will walk on the asp and the viper. so those who do not believe the Word. Col. as the . of course: "This order includes both the primacy of the husband in relation to the wife and children. Cf. Any earthly dignity compared to this is nothing. referring to hidden snares. do not enter into judgment . Sin is a debt. and the ready and willing obedience. The lowly can be pardoned out of mercy . A sinner takes from one pan of the scales what he has no right to . This is from Romans 9:16 where the word mercy has a different sense. or could mean preaching. comments (On John 1. has the proper picture."The price of redemption rebalanced the objective order. OFP. does not recognize the context. pp.12 lion and dragon .it could mean the divine Word. you will trample the lion and the dragon. also Wisdom 6:5: "Terribly and quickly shall He come against you. the quote above from Epistle 194. Jesus who owed nothing.the conversion of her husband. where we consider what we have as gifts of God .

partly remaining in heaven. .cf. she is the Church of the holy ones. which is our mother.Apostle commands [here the Pope cites Ephesians 5:22-23]. is eternal in the heavens. nor. finally. but we look for one to come. This obedience does not deny or take away the freedom which fully belongs to the woman. or with the dignity due to a wife.Cf. and in view of her most noble position as wife and mother and companion. Nor does it direct her to obey every request of her husband." pilgrimage . if not in harmony with right reason. Enarrationes in Psalmos 149. Hebrews 13:14:"We have not here a lasting city." the Catholic mother.. she nourished us. partly being in pilgrimage. eternal Jerusalem . She begot us. does it imply the wife should be on a level with those who are legally minors.. both in view of her dignity as a human person..5:"But the true Sion and the true Jerusalem.": Cf. to the Church of God in exile in Corinth". also First Epistle of Clement 1: "The Church of God which is in exile in Rome..