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SUSTAINABILTY

Sustainable energy is a form of energy that meet our todays demand of energy
The long-term availability of the energy source that guarantees to meet any
present or future consumption needs.
The energy source must be replenishable without human intervention.
The amount of energy consumed to exploit the available resources should not
exceed the amount of energy these resources produce.

Solar Energy:
The sun provides us with a completely clean and environmentally friendly
source of energy.
Wind:
The wind turbines will have to be placed in windy locations in order to be
effective.

Types of Sustainable Energy Sources


Nuclear power, municipal waste, etc. are not renewable sources of energy since
they are responsible for polluting the environment.
Nuclear Fission-Fusion: Nuclear fission energy is the energy derived from the
splitting of Uranium atoms within the reactor of an atomic power plant. The
chain reaction releases vast amounts of energy from a very small fuel quantity
and therefore this source can be regarded as sustainable. However, the power
generation process releases radioactive wastes, a very dangerous by product that
causes irreversible damage to all living organisms.
WIND ENERGY

HAWT (horizontal axis wind turbine)


Advantages

Highly efficient
Allow for taller tower support
Disadvantages
Require YOW control
Noise
VAWT (vertical axis turbine)
Disadvantages
Require guy wires for support
Not Self starting

SOLAR ENERGY
Two broad ways of producing electrical energy from solar
Photovoltaic (PV)
Solar thermal (ST)
Factors affecting module efficiency
Solar irradiance
Dust
Temperature
System efficiency is the product of
Module efficiency
Inverter efficiency
MPP-tracking efficiency

Hydropower
Components of a conventional hydropower plant:
Generators - As the turbine blades turn, so does generator to generate Power.

Transformer - The transformer inside the powerhouse converts Generated Power

to Suitable Volt- Ampere for transmission and distribution.


Name
. penstock and
intake or the
HydroPower
definition will
Calculation
be given
Flow rate
Hydraulic
head
Pumped-Storage Hydro
Generation
The method stores energy in the form of water, pumped from a lower elevation
reservoir to a higher elevation.

Please include the directions


DO THE EXAMPLE 4B BEFORE THE EXAM. JUST HAVE TO SUBSTITUTE
THE VALUES. THE EQUATION WILL BE PROVIDED DURING THE
COURSE OF THE EXAMINATION.
BIOMASS

Photosynthesis Process

Biofuels

Disadvantages of biomass
Carbon monoxide and other organic gases are produced.
If wood burnt at high temperatures oxides of nitrogen will be produced

Wave and Tide Energy


Figure given just have to identify whether annuter and overtopping
`

Annuter

Overtopping Devices

Wave Energy

The direction is important make sure you include the arrows.

Effectiveness of wave power machines ( know the units and conversion.Only have to
sub)

Fuel cells
Is a device that converts the chemical energy from a fuel into electricity through
a chemical reaction with oxygen or another oxidizing agent.
Classification of fuel cells
1. High power density
2. Low operating temperature (ranging from 60 to 80 degrees Celsius)

Anode , cathode, electrolyte


What is produced in FC?
Nothing is produced but electric power and pure, distilled water,
along with heat.
Basic Reaction of Fuel cells?
2h20 2h2 +02
2h2 = O2 2h20
Geothermal energy

Mention the arrows please!!


4 things important to remember.

Types of geothermal heat pump

Alternative fuels
Just have to
know the
percentages

Aurora car

Tutorial questions
Derive the power equation? TUT 06

Akhw.
2 formulas are given .
If mentioned wind map then use EQ 1 and if cf* cg then use 2

Give in AKHW UNITS PLEASE!!!


Tutorial 4

Tutorial 3

Alcohol Yield example