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CO GAME Videogame Research

Information
We collected 28 examples of video games. This analysis is an overview about
different elements that we consider relevant for the CoGame project. I've considered
leaving all games found in the research, both mainstream and indiegames, in order
to have a relevant point of comparison. Moreover, an extended data base with study
cases related to this research is available in the website http://www.cogame.eu

Years of production
From 1992 to 2016 and one not released.

Platform
Microsoft Windows
OS X
Linux
Android
iOS
Xbox 360
Raspberry Pi
PlayStation 3
PlayStation 4
Xbox One
PlayStation Vita

Windows Phone
Windows 10 Edition
Wii U
iPad 2
BlackBerry PlayBook
Web based
Dreamcast
Flash (web)
Nintendo DS
GameCube
Steam

This is an example of the wide variety of possibilities existing to play video
games from consoles to mobile. But it 's not the same program for one
platform and another. Finding a game engine, easy to learn, cross platform and
according to the objectives of CoGame is difficult.

Type of game
Web based Textgame
Grafic Adventure / Storyteller
Action-adventure
Strategy
Sandbox
Narrative / Puzzle
Maze / Discover, Grafic Adventure /
Storyteller
Turn-based strategy

Grafic Adventure / Storyteller, Point
and click
Grafic Adventure / Storyteller, RPG
Serious Game
Arcade / Platforms, Grafic Adventure /
Storyteller
Grafic Adventure / Storyteller, Stratetic
Game

We can point out the characteristic of the graphic adventure. The stories of the
games set the player in an environment that encourages him to search, find,
resolve problems, think, so it is very important for CoGame that the story
explains how video games are part of a gamification.

Age addressed by the videogame

The most relevant information is that the public focuses on the category of 1118 years old. This analysis has been useful in order to choose the age range
for developing the CoGame project.

Graphics

3D graphic (textured cubes)

3D graphics

Only text elements - and some rare graphics.

It is a point and click adventure. Only the character is movable

3D graphic (third person with 360° view).

2D hex-based map.

3D graphic (first person view)

3D graphics.

Rendered 3D graphics. The kids participated in the creation of these graphics
along with professional game designers.

3D graphics (latest versions). The view is "from above"- the player sees the
map he is playing on as if it was aboard.

2D graphics, with artistic illustrations.

2D graphics, the ones processed by the software of game design RPG Maker.

2D and 3D (2,5D?)

RPG Game

2D flash.

A sleek, grey background with luminescent effects + a hipster looking
character + old archives = retrofuturistic

Retrogaming: 1980-1990's Nintendo style (Mario). Lots of colours.

Simple, retro-looking graphics (old paper, ...) Comic-style drawings and
animated pictures. The colours evoke old times and WWI: sandy tones,
khakis, greens, greys...

Simplistic: black on white ASCII (printable characters are used to create the
shapes) One font (courier).

Sophisticated graphics: 3D modelization, cinematic use of shadows and lights,
cinematic POV's. The look and feeling is very soft.

Analysis of years of production lead us to the conclusion that the 3D is
predominant. But we see the fusion of different design elements that work for
the history of each game in particular (Fonts, colors, points of view, effects…).
At this stage, there is an important element to keep in mind, the design must be
closely related to the history explained in the game, with graphics that put us
in the historical moment in which we play and avoid graphics decontextualize.

Is it future or past oriented? It is dystopian or utopian?

Past oriented

Not relevant

It's present oriented. Both (dystopian and utopian)

More future and more dystopian oriented

Future - dystopian

Future oriented. It looks like a dystopia, but it remains a mystery whether there
is an escape or not.

It is based on the present time, on one specific location.

It's a futuristic steampunk dystopia, with friendly aesthetics and suitable
environment for kids.

It is future oriented. And the story consists in a sum of flashbacks from the old
age to the childhood of a man.

Present. Utopian

Is dystopian, past oriented

It is a future oriented game and dystopian.

Past oriented

Future oriented

Past oriented and utopian

It is medieval fantastic.

Neither of those. The aesthetics consist in a desk where the player places the
towers and the creatures spawn.

It is past oriented, and fantastic.

The game is both past and future oriented, "retrofuturist"

The game is past oriented: the story is set in the past, the graphics are
inspired by "old" videogames.

It is past oriented, very historical.

Fantasy, a little bit past oriented (weapons, pieces of clothing, etc)

The game is set in an idealised past.

Analysing the time in which the stories of the videogames take place, we can
highlight that videogames deal with histories adding fantasy elements,
historical references (often mixed with dystopian fantasy or an idealized past).
About the future we have nothing to say. The historical elements applied on the
video games are from rigorous to inspirational. For CoGame it is important to
take care about this point. It is closely related to the previous issue, the
fantastic elements must be "fantastic".

Target addressed by the project

Community of young adults.

Community of students and pupils from the age of 12.

Boys, girls, students, but also teachers and trainers.

General public.

Classroom and also community - all kind of players.

Children, young adults.

The community of the neighbourhood.

Communities of strategy game players who are interested in history.

The project addresses the game to the general public.

Students, teachers, classrooms.

Students and pupils from the age of 12. Subject: eighteenth-century life in
colonial America.

Classrooms (both teachers and students) from different levels.

Classrooms, groups of youngsters (associations and NGO's), families.

Creation process: local children and youngsters, some from underprivileged
background.

Players: anyone (but mostly the regional community who can identify the
references).

Children of any age, schools & teachers.

Inupiat youngsters (Alaska Native tribe), general public.

The range of the target is not as great as it seems. Students and teachers are
the ones who mostly appear in the list. CoGame should offer, for both students
and those who only play the game, a more exciting experience. Regarding the
teachers, these ones should see the whole process and add value, skills and
knowledge.

Is there any link with the national educational levels?

Foster the attitude of the child to exploring and learning through play.
Developing competences: mental courage, creative thinking, social interaction,
forward thinking and strategic planning, historical knowledge, The students
learn spontaneously (through own curiosity) and intentionally (under the
teacher’s guidance). They discover and find functionality of things, fantasies or
thoughts, realizes their changes. Pedagogical activities: Understanding
students' cultural backgrounds, interests, skills, and abilities as they apply
across a range of learning domains and/or subject areas; Understanding
students' motivations and their interests in specific content; Clarifying and
articulating the performance outcomes expected of pupils; Planning instruction
for individuals or groups of students.

Foster the attitude of children to explore and learn through play. Developing
competences: mental courage, creative thinking, social interaction, forward
thinking and strategic planning, historical knowledge, The students learn
spontaneously (through own curiosity) and intentionally (under the teacher’s
guidance). They discover and find functionality of things, fantasies or thoughts,
realizes their changes. Pedagogical activities: Understanding students' cultural
backgrounds, interests, skills, and abilities as they apply across a range of
learning domains and/or subject areas; Understanding students' motivations
and their interests in specific content; Clarifying and articulating the
performance outcomes expected of pupils; Planning instruction for individuals
or groups of students.

It is more or less for pupils in the age from 12 - 16. So it focuses on pupils and
so NQF 4.

No. But soon Microsoft will announce Minecraft Education version (2016).

Whereas it may not have been designed for a specific educational syllabus,
this game can be perfectly used as a pedagogical activity for secondary or
university students. In terms of game design, it has an enough complexity
level to be applied to or used as an inspiration for activities in different areas.
That is possible to be done by establishing connections between the logic of
the levels, the gameplay and the plot, with any piece of knowledge that one
desires to transmit.

It is not aimed to a specific pedagogical level. However, the whole process
gives to the participants a range of learning assets that correspond to different
pedagogical syllabus.

The game isn't meant to be part of national educational plannings, however it
can be used as a tool for teaching.

There is no direct link. However this game can be used in a learning process
for a wide range of levels (from secondary school to university), as well as
other educational situations.

It's not addressed to any particular pedagogical activity, although it could be
implemented into one.

Reflecting the latest academic scholarship and incorporating primary source
documents, the history content for the mission is developed by a team of
historians at the American Social History Project/Center for Media & Learning
(ASHP), a research center at the City University of New York Graduate Center.
Scholars with expertise in the era serve as advisors. Throughout the
development process, researchers from the Center for Children and
Technology/Education Development Center conduct focus group testing with
students and teachers that helps the game development team address
misconceptions about the content that the mission explores. The game
developer is Electric Funstuff, a company with extensive educational
technology experience.

Betwixt Folly and Fate game is one component of Colonial Williamsburg's A
Day in the Life program, which includes an eight-episode DVD series and
teacher materials.

It is specially aimed to learn programming skills.

There is no direct link to them, but this game can be used as a tool for
learning.

History classes: see http://www.warmuseum.ca/overthetop/teachers/. In
addition to being an exciting adventure story, Over the Top is a pedagogical
learning tool whose main purpose is to allow students to better understand
and appreciate the nature of trench warfare during the First World War. In
addition, to survive their ordeal in the trenches, students will also gain: •A
better understanding of the difficulties and perils faced by frontline Canadian
troops during the First World War; •Enhance knowledge of words,
expressions, strategies and technologies used in trench warfare; and •A
greater appreciation of the bravery and sacrifice of Canadians that fought
overseas. The following activities have been developed for teachers for
classroom use. Teachers may freely copy and/or modify any activity to suit the
needs of their students. Questions about the story, questions about the First
World War, First World War Maps, Propaganda and Censorship, First World
War Poetry, Researching War Poets and Writers

It is a central goal of the game developers that are linked to the NQF. This is a
value bet that CoGame can indicate the path by including it in the process of
creation and production of video games. Each partner must adapt the
necessary elements to achieve this point.

Which educational purpose has the game?

Explore Real Life Buildings. There are many already-created structures that
you can import into the game and have students explore. From the Roman
Coliseum to the Globe Theatre, they can wander through and literally see
three-dimensional replications of buildings that are no longer there. You might
have students identify aspects of a theatre, or use it as a tool for
presentations. If you really want to go nuts, have students create these
models themselves. Practice Ratio and Proportion Minecraft allows students
to build whatever they want, so use the opportunity to have them create scale
models when you need a practice unit about measurements and proportions.
The building of scale models might integrate social studies content to allow for
cross-curricular connections. Coupled with in-class lessons and activities,
Minecraft can help students apply the knowledge they have learned in
technological and playful ways. Learn About Survival You can contextualize
the concept of survival for students by having them playing the survival mode,
which demands players take into account resources, hunger, tools and more
as they build and expand their world. Students have to explore in order to
collect resources, and they have to process what they find, such as smelting
or to create metal. Doing this in the game can give students a basic
understanding of how things work, and help them analyse the different
components of survival and settlement. Visualization and Reading
Comprehension. One of the best ways to improve how students display their
reading comprehension is asking them to create visualization. They could
reconstruct various settings from the text, and even recreate scenes and plot
events. They could also use these recreations to give a presentation or make
predictions on what might happen next, and then physically create those
predictions in Minecraft.

Critical Consumption.

Reflection is a way to know more about yourself.

Save the environment.

Strengthen the knowledge of the Renaissance in Europe. A database is also
available, providing extra historical information about key landmarks,
characters and services that the player encounters.

-

It can assist children setting goals, ensuring goal rehearsal, providing
feedback, reinforcement - it is fun and stimulating for participants - it
can act as stimulations. These allow participants to engage
extraordinary activities and to destroy or even die without
consequences - it attracts participation of individuals across many
demographic boundaries (age, gender, ethnicity, educational status)

-

It can boost the motivation to learn - It facilitates learning because
students are focused on accruing knowledge and developing abilities It promotes student engagement and enhance the learning process
while making it fun - It helps gauge children's cognitive development
and facilitate individualized learning. - It can be useful because the
game allows the player to measure performance on a very wide variety
of tasks, and can be easily changed, standardized and understood. The
Historical Animation Society of Hungary has the intention to bring closer
to the student historical events by reconstructing decisive battles of
Hungarian history and creating 3D animation films about them. It is an
unique initiation in Europe yet. They use the “engine” of the Total War to
create their films. During the films, there is narration available for
complete understanding of the historical context. The animations are
well used in the Hungarian Education System, and successfully
integrated. The Society makes more and more films every year, which
stimulates the student to go deeper into the learning material in more
detail. An example: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?
list=PLACK0iskXWidsj5efTo0NN5ns7SzmGICI

Strengthen the knowledge of the students about pre-historic times (Stone
Age).

We can divide them into two areas: 1.- To transmit several philosophical and
historical matters. 2.- To develop mental skills needed to solve puzzles as well
as those the player develops when paying attention to the way the narrative,
which are the same the students use in learning processes.

The development of social consciousness, interest in other people, all of it
combined with a transversal learning process.

Transmit historical notions to the player as well as those skills one can
develop when playing a strategy game.

The purpose of the game is mainly artistic. One may use the game as a mean
to reach other purposes.

It's not a game made for an educational situation, but it can be used to learn
both about the designing of a game (because it clearly displays distinguished
parts of the gameplay: story, exploration and puzzle solving), and to learn
about issues ranging from elemental psychology concepts to literary studies.

Environment, preservation and care of animals.

The player navigates throughout a castle by using mouse clicks and needs to
find out how to open doors and overcome hurdles in order to free the good
fairy “la Musica” from the castle’s dungeon.

Economic Knowledge - work field of supermarkets

Students will: 1. Learn the story of America and the ways Americans struggled
to realize the ideals of liberty and equality. 2. Understand the role of ordinary
men and women—including young people—in history. 3. Develop historical
thinking skills that increase historical understanding and critical perception. 4.
Identify the buffalo era of Plains Indians as one era in Northern Cheyenne
history, and understand that the tribe has adapted to new circumstances while
maintaining its culture. 5. Describe the transformations caused by US
government policies and westward settlement on Plains Indians in the mid19th century, and how the Northern Cheyenne fought to maintain their
homelands and culture.

Through role playing games Betwixt Folly and Fate, in which they become
virtual citizens of Williamsburg, Virginia, students and teachers can integrate a
variety of skills with the study of eighteenth-century life in the colonies. The
colonial town in the game is a recreation of approximately one-third of the
Colonial Williamsburg Foundation’s Historic Area.

Learn about energy balance

To make the players learn with the game within a pedagogical program or
course.

The development of this strategy and pixel art skills, is useful, among other
things, for game design.

It hasn't got a certain educational purpose, but it gives us ideas on how to
create an RPG game in order to teach History as well as game design.

Sharing information about a specific heritage in a fun way. Interesting
youngsters in concepts such as pacifism, knowledge society, information
science history.

The educational aspect was mostly in the creation process. The game can be
used as a tool when teaching children about the local past (mining industry
and its social context).

Teaching children about life during WWI for Canadian soldiers in trenches :
who were the enemies, the realities of the living conditions, the tasks of a
soldier in one day, ...

To awake the interest of youngsters in the heritage of the Alaska Native
people.

Educational objectives, unless it is a game designed specifically for the
education sector, it is quite difficult to define. All game should have an
approach in this regard. Only one game has similar characteristics to CoGame
process, teaching history. It is a point value for CoGame that can combine
different levels of learning process.

Are there more institutions cooperating to the videogame
development? Which profiles?

4J Studios

Microsoft Studios

RTM - Reggio Terzo Mondo, Asal, ProgettoMondo Mlal e Osvic

The client of this game was the ministry of education of Austria

Developed by Hussar Games and published by Matrix Games (Hungary). The
game was free, because it was co-financed by the Hungarian Educational
Ministry.

Developer: Creative Assembly

Publisher: SEGA

Other: Educational Animations: Historical Animation Society of Hungary

This is a mainstream videogame that has been releasing versions since 1991.
We consider this game for its value on how to implement historical research to
gameplay.

RPG Maker

WWF. For every box sold product, 1 euro will be donated to charity just to this
organization

Electric Funstuff, EDC Center for Children and Technology

The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation – historical expert

It's a small company located in San Francisco (USA) that has a collaboration
policy that opens the possibility that other users contribute to the game in an
specific way. Even that is gamified.

Online game distributors.

Gaming start-ups: Amoobi, Fishing Cactus

Academic partners:
-

Numédiart Institute (University of Mons)

-

OPERA department (Optics, Photonics, Electromagnetics,
Radiocommunications and Acoustics - Free University of Brussels)

Cultural institution: Mundaneum

EPN Quaregnon - EPN de Wallonie (regional digital public spaces)

Ville de Quaregnon (city)

Blanc Murmure asbl (cultural and social NGO)

Fondation Mons 2015 (CEC foundation)

Qmix-Cité - Maison de Quartier "Egalité" (youth center in Quaregnon)

No. It was developed by a 19 year old student.

E-Line Media (publisher of educational video games)

Cook Inlet Tribal Council (C.I.T.C.)

Upper One Games (US first indigenous-owned video-game company)

If we managed to add to the project local authorities of both worlds,
educational and creative games industry, it was important because they played
a role of guarantors of quality and dissemination.

Is there any distinctive heritage element?

No - but an Austrian perspective of thinking. But for such a game it is possible
to describe anything - also heritage elements.

The game focuses on Austria and his environment.

The cultural heritage of Renaissance in Italy during the 15th and early 16th
century.

There are many fascinating historical touches to For Liberty!, especially for
Americans who don’t know much about their own war of independence. Both
sides have a huge roster of leaders, each with his own special attributes.
Clinton, the British commander, is skilled but jealous, making him less likely to
aid neighbouring armies. The American ranks are riddled with officers who are
incompetent but influential, making them hard to replace. The various combat
units have special abilities, such as rifle units picking off enemy officers
(simulated by reducing the target unit’s experience level). There are also
colourful though goofy random events each turn, such as a fort garrison
paralysed by drunkenness.

Medieval II spans four and half centuries of the most turbulent and valuable
era of European history, encompassing the golden age of chivalry, the
Crusades, the proliferation of gunpowder, the rise of professional armies, the
Renaissance and the discovery of America.

Heritage of the Stone Age (pre-historic times)

Based on the last launch (Civilization V), the heritage elements, linked with the
gameplay are: - The construction of historical buildings, which give a bonus
once built. For example, building the library of Alexandry gives a science
bonus, whereas building Nôtre Dame gives a religious bonus. - The very
selection of the civilization to play with gives the game a certain advantage
based on historical facts. For example choosing the ancient Egyptians gives a
building bonus, choosing the Japanese gives a cultural bonus when playing
with maritime cities, or choosing the Polynesians gives an early advantage
when navigating oceans. - Unlocking different features as the player focuses
on the game concepts. Studying science unlocks new technologies that open
new game possibilities (investigating the steam machine gives the possibility
to build factories, which once built increase the production of other buildings).
Contributing with culture points (gained with some buildings and the creation
of works of art) opens the possibility of developing political advantages, the
choosing of a "national ideology" in the 20th century, as well as points towards
a cultural victory. - The way the AI players (the one who is controlled by the
computer) interact with the rest of the players, including humans, is based on

the "personality" of the historical leader, so they can be more peaceful,
belligerent, cultural, scientific, religious, commercial, etc. Also, interacting with
them lead to an interface where the other leader is animated and speaks in his
own language. For ancient civilizations the game designers needed the
participation, as researchers and dubbers, of historians specialized in ancient
languages. In some cases they made approximations. - As one plays the
game, several historical quotes appear, as well as artistic, musical and literary
works.

It's a fantastic scenario, based on the science fiction subgenre steampunk. As
a dystopias, it has connections with History or historical situations, as long as
with some cultural imagery.

The game is specially focused on the psychology of some of the characters
and their personal lifes. So there is not a clear heritage element. However, we
can find some science fiction elements, such as a machine to get into
someone's memories (which is the main unifying thread of the story).

You have to work in a Supermarket - this could be also in Austria.

Developed for use in middle and high school classrooms, Mission US engages
students in the study of transformational moments in American history. Each
mission consists of an interactive game and a set of curriculum materials that
are aligned to National Standards and feature document-based activities. The
game immerses players in rich, historical settings and then empowers them to
make choices that illuminate how ordinary people experienced the past. The
Educator's Guide provides a wealth of resources and activities for both
teachers and students, including primary source documents that show the
broader social, political, and economic context of events and perspectives
featured in the game.

Yes.

The whole "landscape" of darklands looks like the Schwarzwald in Germany.

It's a fantasy game. Non-historical, even though the aesthetics, graphics and
storytelling might as well be different and the game would have preserved its
educational value.

There are several among the game, as explained before.

Heritage is the basis of the contents. Pictures used in puzzles are archives.

The game (especially the intro) uses as context the mining past of the city of
Quaregnon. The landscape comprises typical elements such as a factory, the
"estaminet" (pub), the Church, the house of the rich owner, and of course the
mine with horses, the steel headframe, lifts, canaries, pickaxes... The
language spoken by the characters mirrors what went on at the time: the
miners and workers speak in dialect, the priest and the owner speak "proper
French".

The focus is more on history than heritage.

The heritage is at the center of the game: voice narration in dialect, outfit and
tools of the heroin, legends and oral tradition as basis for the characters and
stories values of the Alaska Native people (interdependence, helping each
other), videos with testimonies of Alaska Native elders.

The historical notions and assets implemented in the game should be as
possible, both graphically and contextually faithful.

Are they rigorous or inspirational or simply scenarios for the
development of the story?

Rigorous

Inspirational

Simply scenarios / game modes.

Simple Scenario

There are some short intros for every chapter of the game. This scenario
focuses on the story.

Inspirational and fictional story.

The historical elements are rigorously placed in the visuals and narrative of
the game. You need to get to know them to have a better understanding of the
story you are playing through.

The presences of these heritage elements in the game are rigorously part of
its essence. The story of the game is the human heritage itself.

The historical elements are placed through all the game as described before.

The aesthetic elements of this dystopia are fundamental for the whole game:
story, visuals, music, etc.

Rigorous scenarios

Only a short intro and really short and simple scenarios

Inspirational.

Yes, there is always something like popups if you have done your work good.

There are simple scenarios between the different parts of the Story.

They are inspirational.

They are inspirational: the game shows how a selection of the most relevant
elements can help visitors understand the heritage site.

Apart from the monster (grisou was a real dangerous gas), everything refers to
historical realities.

It could be rigorously reproduced, an inspiration or an example of scenario to
be adapted.

Inspirational + scenarios

The scenarios focus on being inspiring environments, fidelity seek only in few
cases. For CoGame the aim is to do work with youth groups on elements of
environment as faithful as possible (photographs, films, documents...) so that
later they can make a good video game adaptation.

Which are the most interesting elements regarding COGAME
framework, and why?

How the game can be widely popular even with the not too attractive graphical
design.

Indie videogame. Critical consumption and fair-trade. Human rights.
Independent producer. Didactics.

For members of the target group, which are very keen on telling text stories, it
is an opportunity to make a game like this.

Conversations - these makes the game more attractive and also interactive.

The creative story writing, the interesting historical background, the
atmosphere, the artistic elements (music, graphic, sound design, visual
effects, etc.), and the action scenes.

The historical and the educational aspects of the game.

Developing competences: mental courage, creative thinking, social interaction,
forward thinking and strategic planning, historical knowledge, the students
learn spontaneously (through own curiosity) and intentionally (under the
teacher’s guidance). They discover and find functionality of things, fantasies or
thoughts, realizes their changes. The game team children with state-of-the art
technology. This may help overcome technophobia (a condition well-known
among many adults). Over time it may also help eliminate gender imbalance in
IT use (as males tend to be more avid IT users)

The creative story writing, the historical background, the atmosphere, the
artistic elements (music, graphic, sound design, visual effects, etc.).

Historical scale: it has a clear presence of heritage elements (both material
and intangible), very well fitted in a science-fiction story. Game-design scale:
narrativity, world exploration, puzzles solving. And the combination of these
elements with a non-linear difficulty curve.

The social inclusiveness potential of this kind of activity, not only as a creation
and tool that could be used by the neighbours to establish connections
between them, but also as a collaborative designing process and its
pedagogical and social implications.

Clearly, the way a wide range of the historical elements are converted into
game concepts, points calculated by the game as the player advances, giving
a strategy game adds value to a historical-fiction simulation.
-

PRODUCTION - ART / AESTHETICS: The use of long-living classic
genres, both in the narrative (science fiction - steampunk) and in the
video game per se (point and click), for an independent production that
includes several artistic elements: literary, visual and musical. PRODUCTION - GAMEPLAY: The development of a puzzle game,
which is useful to learn and develop skills, and to gain cultural
knowledge of video games, since this one is highly referential because
of its genre (there were lots of point and click games during the 1990s).

The most interesting is that this game was mainly made with a tool we may
have access to in CoGame project: RPG Maker. So we can see here some
gameplay and graphic elements that we can use to create games for our
projects.

Education

Education, teaching and learning music in a castle setting.

To make a connection to all the economic and social issues that are going on
in the world.

The gameplay is linear and accessible to all age groups, but also provides the
players with options that develop a sense of responsibility and ownership. The
designers included knowledge incentives that motivate the players to learn

more and expand their historical terminology. “A Cheyenne Odyssey” can be
played in a variety of settings with a variety of technology set-ups. The
students can play as a class, in small groups, in pairs, individually, or you can
mix and match these approaches. Depending on accessibility of technology,
students can play in class, at home, or both – since their online accounts will
save their game data wherever they play, and allow them to continue playing
in any setting where a computer with an Internet connection is available. The
classroom activities offer an extensive set of resources to support instruction.
The activities roughly fall into four broad categories: • Document-Based
Activities • Vocabulary Activities • Writing Prompts • Review Questions Other
activities and resources provide additional primary sources, background
information on the characters and setting, historical essays, and printable
artwork from the game.

Designing the historical background and the civic heritage scenarios. Using
RPG as a form of education. Learning is well integrated; the experiential/firstperson nature of the simulation brings historical details to life and may help
kids absorb the content more readily. By exploring in-world objects and
vocabulary words, kids help shape their character and the story's trajectory.
Kids will be very engaged by the game's immersive feel and the ability to
make their own choices while still learning about the time period. Still, between
the difficult subject matter and the slower-moving style, don't expect that kids
will choose this over pure entertainment titles.

The game is important because it deals with real events (energy) and you
always have to keep a balance in the game. This is an interesting game idea always keep the balance.

The game is a RPG Game - and the whole structure and story telling is very
interesting for CO-Game

It is a game created especially for an educational purpose. Levelling up means
that the player has learned something new. There's also the possibility,
besides playing the game, to create an online classroom for teachers /
professors to manage their course.

It has no historical elements. However, after this game, other tower defence
games started to spread, with many different aesthetics and storytelling
elements regarding historical elements.

How can several historical elements be placed in a fantasy game? With this,
through a story and gameplay, certain lessons and courses may be taught.

The game translates information about the history and characteristics of a
heritage site into little games. Simple games such as picture puzzles can be
effective and fun for the younger audience.

It was created by children (using Multimedia Fusion 2) and its main objective
is to have fun. The simplicity of the gameplay and graphics. The use of dialect
vs. proper language.

The game is a first person experience of real events of history, based on
testimonies and historical research. The narrative gameplay with simple
pictures, animated pictures, texts with links to a glossary. The engagement
from having to chose between different options and from the identification with
the first person character.

The game has been created to preserve heritage and interest younger
generation in that heritage. The game allows to unlock "insight" videos with
testimonies of elders about that heritage and their values.

This is a compendium of the elements considered important for CoGame by
the partners of this research.
-

Educational, teaching.
Linear and accessible history.
The story must be creative.
Rich conversations between characters.
The skills they develop.
A development of the socio-cultural context.
Balance between history and playability.
Simplicity of gameplay and understanding of history.
Appropriate Language.

Which are the main skills / knowledge / attitudes learned by using
the videogame?

Skills and knowledge to learn with Minecraft: geometry, social interaction,
historical buildings, digital citizenship (online security, privacy, internet ethics),
materials, self discovering, history, reading comprehension, visual and spatial
reasoning skills, collaboration, critical thinking.

For players - think outside the box.

Protection of the environment Save energy, need of organic food, well being
for animals ...

Historical knowledge: buildings, cloths, locations and persons.

A, historical knowledge B, mental and creative prowess C, social interaction D,
forward thinking and strategic planning. Developing competences: mental
courage, creative thinking, social interaction, forward thinking and strategic
planning, historical knowledge, The students learn spontaneously (through

own curiosity) and intentionally (under the teacher’s guidance). They discover
and find functionality of things, fantasies or thoughts, realizes their changes.

a, Social competences (interaction): For most gamers, gaming is a highlysocial activity. b, Communicative competences: understanding and recognizes
that some people communicate also in other languages, actively listens to and
understands the ideas and information from the game c, Cognitive
competences: applies in play creative thinking, applies own imagination in
problem solving, finds uncommon answers or solutions

Survive in the unfriendly environment: making fire, collecting food, hunting,
etc. Social skills: cooperate with other tribe members, leadership,
communicate with other tribes, taming animals.
-

Several historical approaches. - Philosophy matters and thought
methods. - Abstract reasoning. - Literary and creative skills (storytelling,
metanarrativity, etc.) - Problem solving. - Attention to details while not
leaving the whole structure apart. - Referential knowledge (when
identified, to other cultural assets than the game itself).

-

It encourages social awareness of the urban environment where the
kids live in and helps them learn how to engage and establish bonds
with other people. - Develop several specific skills regarding the
designing of the game (through: research process, interviews, use of
digital media to get pictures and other information, storytelling, level
design, dialogue writing, working with game developers, etc.).

-

Historical knowledge of different historical periods. With a right
complementary pedagogical program, it can be useful for teaching
certain aspects of history. There's the possibility of recreating historical
situations prepared by the game like: the colonization of Africa, the
world wonders built by ancient civilizations (Egypt, Babylonia, etc.), the
fall of the Roman empire, the European religion conflicts of the early
modern era, etc. - Also, the acquisition of several skills gained by
playing a strategy game: planning, decision making, problem solving,
etc. - The discovery of how certain actions have certain consequences
and the necessity of leaving something apart while focusing on
something else.

Just by playing it, the player needs to think of ways to solve puzzles, learning
skills related to problem solving and developing abilities such as abstract
reasoning, memory, etc. With a complementary pedagogical program several
issues may be teached: video game design, arts, literature, philosophy, etc.

Storytelling concepts and practices, puzzle solving, sensibility to human
values.

Environmental issues, biological pollution, the environment and the
ecosystem, protection and care of the animals.

“Lisssn!” is an adventure computer game helping kids of all ages learn the
basics of music. It belongs to the so-called point&click-games and is currently
under way.

It is hard to survive in this branch :)

Learning is well integrated; the experiential/first-person nature of the
simulation brings historical details to life and may help kids absorb the content
more readily. The experience changes based on the choices kids make, and
they can see how their decisions affect their character. Players gain
knowledge on numerous historical figures and artefacts, develop empathy with
their historical counterparts, and find themselves enlightened on significant
historical events and the effects on all involved parties.

Students will: • Interact with an exciting portal to the past that fits today’s
learners, keeps them motivated, and helps them draw from prior knowledge •
Use gaming strategies in a virtual environment based on the daily lives of
Williamsburg residents in 1774 • Explore how social class and customs
operated in pre-Revolutionary War Virginia • Build problem solving, sequence
learning, deductive reasoning, and memorization strategies

Learning about Energy Sources (Knowledge) - Keep the balance between
new energy (wind, sun...) and conventional energy resources (coal, power
plants...). So - you have to look, that there is always enough energy - because
sometimes there is no wind or sun for the new energy!

Good general knowledge, a good knowledge of the late Middle Ages, good
reading skills, good memory.

The main skill and knowledge is programming in several languages, and
obviously all the abilities surrounding it.
-

Strategy skills, trial and error, finding different ways to solve the same
problem. The idea of getting new achievements as the player solves
new and more complicated situations. - Creative skills: pixel art. Having
the game personalised by drawing by hand its elements, contributing,
as an extra gameplay, to recreating the game itself. The way these
elements are drawn is by drawing pixels, a skill that is used in the
creation of graphics for 2D video games.

Storytelling, strategy, interacting with an open environment.

Skills: fine-tuned agility (using a tablet); using a classification by categories
Knowledge: about the heritage site --> end 19th-early 20th science information
pioneers in Belgium Attitudes: Healthy sense of competition

The skills are similar to any Platform game: sense of direction, dividing a task
in several steps / stages, progression along a definite path. Attitudes: altruism
and helping others, as Robert must rescue his colleagues. The knowledge

acquired needs a pedagogical context outside of the game. It is a tool, not an
educational medium as such.

Skills: reading, making decisions. Knowledge: history of WWI, living conditions
of soldiers in the trenches. Attitudes: emotional response to the characters and
situations for example facing danger, helping or not, acting bravely or
cowardly, ...

Dividing a task into smaller tasks. Making decisions.Curiosity and taste for
discovery (map). Patience.

Cooperation (in 2-players mode). Dexterity. Knowledge about the Alaska
native people and their legends.

In this section we have to define very well in what extent we want our young to
deepen design development, to write the story given by the NQF.

Which are the elements you identify as relevant to be taken in mind
for the development of the different IO for Co-Game?

Educational issues. Pedagogical issues.

It is a good idea to insert dialogue where the player have to think about
himself and then he can choose - what is to do - in text form.

Things to search, different characters to get in touch inside the game,
protection of the environment.

Proposed elements to follow: storytelling, atmosphere, artistic design, music
(quality of gamification).
-

The game is challenging for the player - the goal of the game really
good determined - good music and sound - great tutorial

Proposed elements to follow: freedom of gaming and the infotainment level.
-

The game is challenging for the player - the goal of the game really
good determined - enjoyable gameplay - high immersiveness - great
tutorial - illustrative short animations for educational purposes The team
game children with state-of-the art technology. This may help overcome
technophobia (a condition well-known among many adults). Over time it
may also help eliminate gender imbalance in IT use (as males tend to
be more avid IT users)

Proposed elements to follow: storytelling, atmosphere, artistic design, music,
sound design, quality of the product.
-

Contents of the game (historical and philosophical): how to place them
on video games of different genres: a level-based game (puzzles,
platforms, etc.), a narrative game (graphic adventures), open-world
games, etc. - Re-thinking of the production process. This game is "big",
i.e, it has a mixture of genres and ways of playing. One can focus on
one of those or on a different mixture, depending on the aim of the
game. - Skills developed while playing the game. It can be used as a
learning tool itself, with a complementary pedagogical program. - Skills
developed while creating a game with (part of) the elements found on
this one. Both the development of a complex narrativity and the design
of puzzle levels require the acquisition and development of different
skills. - Redefinition of a communication strategy, bringing the game to
the area we want to reach.

-

All the learning assets that take place during the creation of the game. Making a game that gives both a learning process and a social
inclusion activity during the creation process as well as during the
gameplay once the game is done. - The dynamization of a community
in its social space (urban environment, in this case).

FOR THE DESIGN PROCESS - The most important to be taken into account
from this game is how historical knowledge can be implemented on a game,
turning historical or academic concepts into game assets. -Also, the need for
historical research or the participation of historians and other Humanities
professionals, in the design process of the games. -The intangible resources
the game designer uses when creating a strategy game or a game with
strategy elements. FOR THE GAMEPLAY -When playing, it may be used as a
learning tool with the right complementary pedagogical program.

How to create a story and a video game with a 2D graphic system and
accessible software. The most important for CoGame is to show us the
possibilities of a game-designing tool that doesn't require programming skills.

Education, Environmental heritage.

Learning, adventure, historical heritage.

The economic approach - the insight to the working field.

Proposed elements to follow: freedom of gaming and infotainment elements.
Minecraft is a fantastic tool for collaborative, student-directed work, but for
teachers looking for ready-to-use tools and features that allow Minecraft to be
modyfied and tuned to teaching specific content, Minecraft offers tons of
added values. An entirely open world game, Minecraft is made to give
teachers the most control over the game itself to create fun, interactive
lessons and assignments in virtually any possible subject. The build comes
with two tutorial levels tailored for large classes and team-based learning, to

help both instructors and their students quickly become acquainted with the
many aspects of Minecraft, while encouraging creativity and experimentation.
Values of the Game 1. Teacher tools from Minecraft are invaluable. They form
an important part of classroom management practices. 2. Students love to
collaborate 3. Students will often extend tasks, adding their own creativity to
personalise their end result. 4. Minecraft caters for a diverse range of
students, allowing them to excel, regardless of personal strengths or
weaknesses. 5. You can have high expectations from students and be
surprised by the outcomes because Minecraft is student centred and openended. 6. Students who use Minecraft as their tool during a lesson, have
anticipation and excitement, this seems to translate into participation in group
discussion, before move to the computers, a dramatic contrast to their usual
participation levels. 7. Creating resources, activities and maps for the students
is fun and gives the opportunity to explore creative ideas. 8. Students are very
motivated to complete tasks when rewarded with items in Minecraft. Students,
who were typically off task, were able to demonstrate their understanding of
the topic.

Historical Thinking: Change and continuity over time to understand the
present, students need to examine how past events have shaped the world we
live in today. As students study history, they gain insights into what life was like
in the past and what has changed or remained the same over time. Examining
the past allows students to develop a historical perspective and to answer
questions such as: What happened in the past that has shaped the present?
How has our country changed over time and how might it continue to change
in the future? How do our attitudes about events and people change over
time? What ideas and traditions have persisted? By playing “A Cheyenne
Odyssey” and completing the accompanying lessons, students will develop
skills in analysing change and continuity over time. This kind of learning
method is very relevant and useful for the CO-Game project.

Historical Thinking: Cause and effect to understand the past, we need to
examine what happened and why, and who supported and opposed change: •
Events have multiple causes, and some causes are more important than
others. • Individuals shape historical events, but events are also shaped by
larger political, social, economic, and environmental forces. • Just because
one event happens before another event doesn’t necessarily mean it caused
it. • Actions can have unintended consequences. By playing the game and
completing the accompanying lessons, students will develop skills in analysing
cause-and-effect relationships.

Always Keep the Balance - this could be also important for our own developed
games! Also in a civic heritage field: Example - Have Always enough water in
the aqueduct to supply the old ancient Rome with water.

I think it is a good example how to create a Story for a RPG Game.

The very interesting way the designers took both gaming concepts (ranging
from design to gamification, including visuals, music, etc.) and pedagogical
philosophy of games, and implemented them into a learning tool.

The strategy elements and the diversity of levels and difficulties are useful to
know when designing a game. Also, the drawing part is very interesting to
implementing it in a game design processes or, like this game, as part of the
gameplay.
-

The implementation of historical elements in an RPG as well as other
issues we want to transmit through interactive storytelling. - The basic
elements of game design for an RPG: story, characters, exploration,
levelling up, learning game skills, etc. And finding creative ways on how
to fit those on an educational / learning context, being it done by playing
a game or by designing it.

Selection of a limited number of elements (historical and conceptual) to make
it easier for the construction of the storytelling in later IO's (especially the
training). Minimalist graphics (mainly flat). Use of cultural elements relevant to
the history of the heritage object (images from archives).

Simplicity of looks and content. The game can be completed in less than 10
minutes. It uses a lot of historical details: the story, the landscape and decor,
the main character and the secondary characters, the tools, the outfits, etc.

The game is really thought to be part of education, with a lot of content and
many activities already prepared for teachers and students. The creators paid
a lot of attention to uses that can be made in the classroom. The objectives
are clearly defined. The knowledge corresponds to school programs (for us,
the EQF).

The simplicity of use and graphics: a video game does not have to be flashy,
expensive-looking or complicated. A map can be interesting for heritage
objects that have a geographical element. The step-by-step approach: the
player has to be patient, learn new skills and accomplish certain tasks in a
certain order to progress.

The use of heritage as inspiration for the storytelling of the game. The heritage
videos between the different levels of the game. The use of sounds and
spoken narration in local native language. The cooperation of elders as
"amateur game makers" alongside the professional developers ("bring the
community into the creative process", "inclusive development")

We must take a moment to analyse this point. There are concepts that repeat a
section of the form to another. This is because we turn around a drive shaft. It
shows that partners have understood the essence of the project and have it
displayed on the research.

We talk about:
-

Educational, teaching.
Linear and accessible history.
The story must be creative.
Rich conversations between characters.
The skills they develop.
A development of the socio-cultural context.
Balance between history and playability.
Simplicity of gameplay and understanding of history.
Appropriate language.

Which are the elements not to repeat while developing Co-Game?

Lay greater stress on the story it’s important to point out that the story still
plays a key role in a game’s success. A great story can keep the player
immersed in the world you have created. They should feel attached to the
characters and want to continue playing to see how the story unfolds.
Gameplay and immersiveness must have been given a bigger role in the
game.

The videogame experience and practice may enhance a participant’s
performance on particular games, which may skew results.

Sometimes the missions are the same and it can be frustrating and boring.

The aim of creating a game like this can be focused into dimensions other
than the commercial channels. A good communication strategy may lead a
game with these features, or part of them, to be implemented on educational
(teens and/or adults) or social contexts.

The need for an implementation of the game after the creation process and,
specially, the possibility of making more games like this since it's on the
designing process where most of the learning takes place. This means a need
for a strong communication campaign.

This game, as a whole cultural element, is made on the main video game
industry and it has a commercial purpose. We have to actively take those
elements we think are appropriate for our project in terms of game design and
pedagogical resources.

Creating a new game with the same elements of this one (point and click
gameplay, puzzles and strong aesthetic elements), may be very useful to
implement into different educational and social projects.

While at first sight it has no need, this game could have had specific
educational elements that could be used for pedagogical activities.

The elements that can be found in this game, in terms of pedagogy and
gaming philosophy (the question being: "why and how games and playing are
essential in a learning process?") can be implemented in different ways,
depending on the project one is working on. The gamification of learning can
take place in several stages: as an utility of the learning process itself, as a
way to record a longer pedagogical process (the idea of achievement and
unlocking new characteristics of the game as rewards), as a way to interact
with teachers, trainers and other students or trainees, etc. The way
CodeCombat did this is just one possibility.

The game wasn't conceived to be on a social or educational context. However,
the elements described before can be used for projects that do have a context
related to co-game.

This game will be distributed to a large young public, with no specific learning
goals. However, something we may learn from this game is how to create an
RPG with a different story, which includes the elements we wish to transmit.

Too complicated, not intuitive enough. No definite narrative storytelling, no
predefined progression.

The game needs explanations, prior to or after the game, to explain the entire
historical context and the heritage elements. There is no heritage knowledge
"gained" from the game alone.

The game uses videos that sometimes do not play properly -- we must be
careful about formats.

No educational content, no heritage content

The sophistication of the graphics. Apart from one specific legend and a few
visual elements, the heritage educational content is completely separate from
the game itself (videos).

The indications of the elements that we should not repeat in CoGame are:
- Delays and boredom in the mechanics of the game.
- Missions frustrating.
- No creation of complex subsets within the game.
- Avoid long explanations of history that are not playable.

Video Games in the research
Minecraft
The Invisible hand
ALHAZEN
NSI Engagement
Assassin's Creed II
Pro Libertate! / For Liberty!
Medieval II: Total War
Far Cry Primal
The Talos Principle
Ravalgames
Civilization (series)
Machinarium
To the Moon
WWF Panda Junior
Lisssn!
CHESTO
Mission US: A Cheyenne Odyssey
Betwixt Folly and Fate
Grattle
Darklands
CodeCombat
Desktop Tower Defense

Skies of Arcadia
Mundaneum Web 1895
Quaregnon Quest
Over the top / A l'assaut
Candy Box 2
Never Alone