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INDEX

1 introduction
2 structural components of a SIPHON
a tube
b. transitions
c. gates
d. breath builds
e surplus channel
f security features
3 design of SIPHONS
a speed limit in pipeline
b. head losses
c. seal hydraulic
d. design steps
1.
2 introduction
-Siphons, or inverted siphons, are used to
transport water through a natural
depression, under a road, or surround
channel
-Some traps have rectangular cross
sections
-Siphons can have a straight side
alignment, or they may have changes in
direction
-The siphon must be buried in general
with a minimum of approximately 1 m of
cover.
-Open channels (bridge - channel) can be
alternative but they can be expensive and
unsightly.
-The traps are very dangerous therefore
provides a grating at the entrance to
avoid the accidental entry of people and
objects.
-Sediments are a serious problem
because they settle at the point of the
siphon.
-Cleaning can only be in large siphons but
is impossible in small traps, also means
interruption of the service.
3 structural components of a SIPHON
a tube
-The majority of traps are constructed of
concrete premoulded and can go up to
200 feet.
-Previously but prestressed concrete
pipes used the experience to
demonstrated that the wire may corrode
in just 15-18 alos of service.

-The traps can also be built with plastic or


steel pipe, including less common
possibilities even wood.
b. transitions
-The transisiones are structures of
inlet and outlet of the siphon.
-Are necessary to prevent erosion
on the inlet and outlet of the
siphon and maintain immersing the
pipe.
-The transisicones the same design
for inlet and outlet can be taken in
small traps to save costs. But in
large siphons is neseario design
separately.
c. gates
-Valves can be installed: to the check of a
siphon to control the water level
upstream. At the exit of a siphon to
control the immersion waters above.
-The operation of a door at the entrance
of a siphon can ensure hydraulic
tightness.
d. structures of BREATHING
-A "blow-off" structure is an output valve
in the top of the pipe at a point low on the
siphon
-Smaller traps often do not have a
structure of expulsion
-These structures are used to help drain
the siphon in the event of emergency,
routine maintenance, and to remove
sediments from the pipe.
e surplus channel
-An evacuator (spout side) was
sometimes built in the channel just
upstream of an entry from trap to divert
the flow of the channel in the case of
obstruction of the siphon or other
emergency situation.
-In addition, the entrance to a siphon
should always be trash racks and / or
screens to prevent rocks and other debris
from entering the tube.
f safety features
-In operation, traps may seem harmless,
especially in a Grand canal, but can be
deadly
-Just upstream from the entrance of the
trap can be used as follows:
-Posters with warnings

-Rungs of the ladder on the banks of the


canals
-Steps on the banks of the canals
-Cable with fleet across the surface of the
water
-Network security with cables and chains
-Grilles or trash racks
4 design of SIPHONS
Siphons design has many similarities
with the design of sewers; However,
unlike the sewers project:
-Traps are usually designed for the flow
of the pipe complete
-Traps are usually designed to minimize
head loss
-Siphons carry water down, then back up
USBR trap designs are usually for 50
years assumed useful life
a speed limit in the pipe
-In accordance with the USBR, speeds in
the pipes must be between 3.5 and 10 fps
-The latest designs of the Bureau have
been called especially for the speed of 8
fps.
-Long siphons can cost less with a size
slightly more small tube.
b. loss of load
-Total load loss is the sum of: input,
output, pipe, and minor losses

- Most of the loss of a siphon is

pipe friction.
-Output losses are typically about
twice the loss of input.
c. hydraulic seal
-"Hydraulic seal" is the minimum
requirement of upstream head, relative to
the top edge of the siphon tube, to avoid
air drag at that location.
-Hydraulic seal recommended by the
USBR is equal 5hv, where hv is the
difference in the heads of speed in the
open of upstream channel and pipeline
(when full flow) a1.

-For a more conservative value of


hydraulic seal, use 1.5hpipe, when hpipe
is the speed all the way-trap pipe.
d. steps of design
-Determine the path that the siphon will
continue
-Determine the diameter of the tubing
required in accordance with the approval
of the management of the design and the
speed limit
-Determine the types of transition
structures right at the entrance and exit,
or custom for the installation in particular
design transitions
-Design siphon according to the existing
land disposal and the proposal (or
existing) elevations of the channel in the
input and output
-Determine the requirements of the line
pressure in accordance with the head (the
lowest point) during operation
-Determine the head loss total in design
spending trap
-If the pressure drop is too high, choose a
larger tube or different
material; Alternatively, consider adjusting
the elevations of the channel at the
entrance and exit
Download
link: http://ocw.usu.edu/Biological_and_Ir
rigation_Engineering/Irrigation___Convey
ance_Control_Systems/6300__LectureNo
tes.pdf
SOURCE:
Publication by the University of the State
of Utah, United States.
http://ocw.usu.edu/Biological_and_Irrigati
on_Engineering/Irrigation___Conveyance
_Control_Systems/Lecture_Notes.htm