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F/11 l-'011111/i11g




(211c 1:1pnsrn1:1 <pie fuese de Espaa por muy principal que sea 1111p11C'd11
llevar co11si.t.:1ltantos deudos cercanos parientes y amigos de quien liar111'
co1110 es menester para ser temido de la <lemas gente, que la mas q1w vi\
;'t estas jornadas
es libre y ocasionada para intentar atrebimiento.
Que por la mayor parte nunca se han tenido buenos subcc: >s rl!
las jornadas que se han ido hacer de Espaa y por el contrario las clll'
de all sean hecho.

Carta del Gobernador y Capitan General de la Nueva Mexico, Don

de Oate al Rey.r [Ro de las Conchas, I5 de Marzo de I598.]


de las provincias
del nuevo Mexico que esta a mi cargo por abiento que conmigo Tomo l:I
Virey Don Luys de Velasco an sido tan grandes que se pueden Juzg-:ir
a milagro a verlas podido compadescer
e dado quenta de ellas a V uest ra
magestad habiendo Relacion de los daos que con la detencion se me .;111
causado Y de las perdidas que de ella se an seguido Y de lo mucho c11r
me questa y e sufrido por no desistir del yntento con que mi dispuse a
hazerla en Vuestro Servicio Y como si esto si viera alguna deformidad,
o se pudiera Reputar
por noscibo, tuve contradiciones
y opposiciones
yndignas de pechos christianos
y tan poderossas que si la obediencia q11r
guarde tan puntualmente
faltara en algo bastara para destruir todo l .o
echo Y ponerme en aprieto pues esta Claro que no hallando en que fundar
los agravios que He Recevido se an multiplicado
hasta que arrastrando
sali con el campo a los ciete de Hebrero deste ao llevando ochenta carretas
y carros aderescados
y el avo y sustento nescessario fiado de la mvscri-.
cordia de Dios que ayudando mi buen yntento e de conseguir el fin de la
Jornada con augmento
de la santa Fee chatolica y acrescentamiento
Vuestra Real Persona y rreparando
en poco ele lo mucho que he traba ja.lo
la fuerca con que El Conde de Monterrey
me a apretado y
a no yr adelante no sabre dezir el yntento mismo sal va r 1.e,

(legajo Simancas-Dcscubrimientos,

iuilc, I5y(l

;~!) ;,

1l rcrc would be great clifficulty in collecting another mass of supplies

1111as Don Juan has gathered,
not to mention the time that it would
1' ,111
i re, ancl the large amount that it would cost.
l liat it is very doubtul whether any person coming from Spain, with, 111property in that land or relationship
to anyone that might have it,
, o11ildcollect by means of money, even though it should be a large sum,
11,,.111enand other things necessary.
l\Jat it is a great drawback if the one who goes to make this expeclition
1 11ot a person of great experience
in clealing w ith the Indians, ancl it
11111sunlikely that a person going from here, even though he may have
,.,.,1 there, can be as well-infonned
as one who was born and rearecl in
That the person who goes from Spain, no matter how important a man
111111ay be, cannot take with him as many near relatives ancl friencls,
111"11whom he can clepend, as are necessary to make the rest fear him,
1," the most of the men who go on these expeditions
are bolcl ancl in, .lcnt enough to attempt audacities.
That for the most part the expeditions
which have been made from
'I un ha ve never been successul, while the contrary
is the case with
1l1i1Sewhich have been made from there [Mexico].

I rtter [rom. the governor and captain-general of New Mexico, Don Juan

de Oate, to the king.

[Ro de las Conchas, Moren 15, I598.]

To our lord, the king, in his royal hands.

Al Rey nuestro seor, en sus Reales manos.

Seor: Las dificultades quesean
puesto a la Jornada

r A. G. I., Patronato,


etc.) .

Sir: The difficulties that have been put in the way of the cxpcdition

1!te provinces of New Mexico, which is in my charge through a contract
111:1clewith me by Viceroy Don Lus de Velasco, have been so great that
11111aybe regarded as a miracle that it has been possible to adjust them.
1 gave an account of the expedition to your Majesty, making a statement
11[the clamage caused me by the detention, ancl the losses which ha ve fol1,.wed from it, and how much it is costing me, ancl what I have sufferecl
1'>1- not giving up my resolution to make it in your service.
Also [I gave
.111account of] how, as though it were sorne wrongful
might be
, <teemed as mischievous,
I met with contradictions
and oppositions
un11, irthy of Christian
breasts, threatening
that if the obeclience which I so
mctiliously gave should fail in the smallest particular
it woulcl be suffi' -nt to destroy all that had been done and put me in trouble.
It is thc
1111th,although nothing was founcl upon which to base the injuries which
1 have receivecl, that they went on multiplying
until, with thc c.unp, 1
.t.uted very slowly on February 7 of this year, taking eighty r.uts :1111!
w.igons loaclecl with the necessary stores and provisions, trustiru; t l [rv
1he compassionate
assistance of Gocl in my good intent I sh:11l :1n11111pli~d1
t hc purpose
of the expeclition, to the increase of the holy C:1t\11ilic f:titl1
111dthe advantage
of your royal person.
Dwelling littlc 11H111
J \I(' i:.r:it
1rouble which I have hacl in resisting the violent efforts of tl: ( "111111
'.\lonterey to dissuade me Irorn going on, Ido not know how to s:1y L11:1L







: :~);







Y aun pienso que no sean acavado Los l'slr11111
c,:os Me H11ia:1 c:tlorze del mismo mes embie a Vicente ele saldivar s:1r11"11l11
111ayurck-l c:1111po
a descubrir camino nuevo con diez y seis hombres 1knd11
el l{io de conchas con una guia que perdio el Camino y tino sin c11v:11
desto passe s adelante y llegue tal pueblo rancherial ele yndios de q11il'111111
fue bien recevido aunque unas e hasta sinquenta de ellos se pusieron 111
arma y le resistieron sin que aprovechase la garisia que se les most ruvn
y les obligaron a Representarles Rigor con que dieron lugar a passa r dt
ally. Llego a los veynte y ocho del mismo mes al Rio que llama 11di'!
norte y hasta I 6 o 20 leguas de las pobla<.;ionesprimeras del nuevo mr x i111
de donde se volvio reconoscienrjo el camino y Juzgando ser mui buc1111y
de vastantes aguajes y con certinidacl se que se ahorraran sesenta lq~11:1~
del que hasta aqui se savia y se salva el parage del llegar a los T'at:1rn
gueyes ynclios ele guerra dejandole quarenta leguas a un lado, a la m11111
derecha; con este principio faborable prosigo La Jornada y hasta 11111dr
ha re el dever sirviendo a Vuestra Magestad continuandola hasta alca 111.;11
el fin de ella y como para cornencar la tenia cerrada la puerta y al Vi rry
por contrario no hallava cossa que no fuese estorbo y temiendo esto 11111
contento por ahora con que esta carta y el duplicado ele la que te11f:11
escripta a Vuestra magestacl llegue a sus Reales manos sin osar emhinr
Le Razon de la poca que me hizo el que segunda vez me tomo La Mues! 111
con gana ele que alcansaclo ele quenta me quedase. Suplico a Vucst 111
Magestacl que asetando mi sufrimiento por meritorio se sirva ele man.l., I'
Lo capitulado conmigo por el Virrey don Luys ele Velasco se guarde y q1w
la merced que meresco y se devea quien como yo a sufrido con pa<.;ic111;i11
una lluvia de vexaciones se me haga con ventajas en encomienda de 111i~
trabajos que espero en dios sera de grande efecto el que voy siguiendo
ele que clare quenta a Vuestra magestad en llegando al nuevo mexico .v
prometienclome el premio del ele mano ele Vuestra magestad cuya V id:1
guarde nuestro seor con augmento de grandes Reynos en esta parte co11111
Lo clesseamos Los leales Vassallos de Vuestra Magestad del Rio de 1:1.1
conchas a I 5 ele marco de I 598 aos.

Don Phelipe ...

por quanto por parte de Vos don Juan ele oii.ur
governador y capitan general de la provincia del nuevo mexico que es 111
Evidently a miscopy for "passo ".
Evidently a miscopy for "llego".
u F. R. B., Sevilla, May 19, 1914.
v A. G. I., Indif. Gen., 139-1-2.



lw projcct itself can be saved unless I go on, even though I believc that
l11lras not ceased putting stumbling-blocks in my way,
< >11the fourteenth
of the same month I sent Vicente de Zalclvar,
111gcntomayor of the camp, with sixteen men, to search out a new road
l 1'lll the Ro de Conchas with a guide, who lost the road and clirection.
~~llwithstanding this, he went on and arrived at the village of the Indians,
lv whorn he was well received, although sorne, as many as fifty, of thern
1." -k up arms and resisted him, without appreciating the kindness which
l11showed them, and compelled him to treat them with severity, after
\\'l1 ich they permittecl him to pass from there. On the twenty-eighth of
t l: same month he reached the river called El Norte, sixteen or twenty
l:igues from the first settlements of New Mexico. From there he rel urned, examining the road and judging it to be very good, with plenty
1 springs of water, well placed for its conservation, for sixty leagues
1mm there to here. He hearcl of and avoided the village of the hostile
l 'ataragueyes Indians, leaving it forty leagues to one side, on the right

l 1 .md.

With this favorable beginning I am continuing the expedition and

.hall go on with it until its purpose is accomplishecl, and, until I die, I
.hall do my duty in serving your Majesty.
Since at the beginning the
,loor to it was closed and the viceroy was in opposition and I encountered
uothing but obstacles, fearing this now, I shall be content if this letter and
1 lic duplicate of the one which I have already written to your Majesty
1 cach your
royal hands, without claring to send an explanation of the
<mall creclit that was given me by the one who took the muster from me
1 he seconcl time, with the desire of making me appear impecuuious.
I pray
vour Majesty, in the belief that rny suffering deserves rcward, to deign
1o order that the agreement made with me by Viceroy Don Lus ele
Velasco be kept, and that the favor that I cleserve and that is cine to one
who has endured with patience, as I have, a flood of vexations, be grantcd
me, with rewards in return for my labors, for I hope in Gocl that the one
1am now following will have great results. Of this I will give an account
10 your Majesty when I reach New Mexico, ancl I prornise myself the
rcward for it from the hancl of your Majesty, whose life may our Lord
'-'.uarcl,with increase of great kingdoms in this part, as we, loyal subjects
of your Majesty, desire. At the Ro ele las Conchas, March 15, 1598.

Don Juan de Oaie. Title of adelantado of the provinces of N ew M exico

f or Don Juan de Oate, governor and captain-general of them.
[Villalpando, February 7, I602.]

Don Juan de oate. Titulo de adelantado de las provincias del nu.1"1 11

M exico para don Juan de oate governador Y eapitan general dellas."
[Villalpando, 7 de Febrero de I602.]


de Oiuc,

Don Felipe . . . Inasmuch as upon your part, Don Juan ele Ofiate,
~-overnor and captain-general of the province of N ew Mexico, which is in
l\f cw Spain, the statement has been made to me that by one of the articles
of the contract which was made with you by my orclers in regarcl to the
xploration, pacification, ancl settlement of the said provinces, Don Lus
de Velasco being my viceroy of N ew Spain, it was promised you that you