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CUERPO DE MAESTROS

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La editorial del opositor


presentación
Editorial MAD le facilita el presente tema muestra de sus nuevas ediciones de
Temarios para la preparación de las oposiciones al Cuerpo de Maestros.
Con la publicación de las nuevas ediciones hemos conseguido en cada tema:
– Actualizarlos legislativamente.
– Incluir una introducción y una conclusión (aspectos muy valorados por los
tribunales).
– Elaborar un esquema para cada tema para que el opositor fije su atención
en los aspectos más relevantes.
– Actualizar la bibliografía teniendo e cuenta las últimas publicaciones rela-
cionadas con la especialidad.
Todos los contenidos han sido elaborados por profesores expertos en la mate-
ria de cada especialidad y expertos también en la preparación de opositores
a estas plazas, contando con un alto índice de aprobados.

©Editorial MAD, S.L. y Centro de Estudios Vector


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Depósito Legal: SE-5532-2008.
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topic
24
Technological and Pedagogical
Aspects of Using Audiovisual
Materials (newspaper, TV, cassette
player, video, etc.). The Computer
as an Auxiliary Resource for
Learning and Improving Foreign
Languages
Index
INTRODUCTION

1. TECHNOLOGICAL AND PEDAGOGICAL ASPECTS OF USING


AUDIOVISUAL MATERIALS (NEWSPAPER, TV, CASSETTE PLAYER,
VIDEO, ETC.)

2. THE COMPUTER AS AN AUXILIARY RESOURCE FOR LEARNING AND


IMPROVING FOREIGN LANGUAGES
2.1. ICT (Information and Communication Technologies)
2.2. Teaching English with computers
2.3. Internet options in the classroom
2.4. WebQuests
2.5. The computer as a resource for the teacher

CONCLUSION

BIBLIOGRAPHY

MAIN IDEAS
Technological and Pedagogical Aspects of Using Audiovisual Materials

The great thing about a computer notebook is that no matter


how much you stuff into it, it doesn’t get bigger or heavier.
Bill Gates (1955 - )

Introduction
As far as Spanish legislation is concerned, we can state that this topic is of great importance
as ICT are mentioned in many parts of the new legislation. That is why it is important for the
future teacher to update this topic constantly. We have tried to include the latest investigations
concerning modern technologies, but it is nearly impossible to include everything.
Media has always facilitated language learning. When children learn a first or second
language, they grasp the meaning of words from the objects that surround them. In the
same way, non–native speakers should make use of the here and now, or objects in the
immediate learning environment.
Media that lends itself to language learning generally falls into two categories: non–
technical media and technical media. The table below shows how media may be classified.
As far as the teaching learning process is concerned, this topic is relevant too because
pupils usually feel much more motivated if technical aids are used. It is more interesting to
follow a presentation on the digital board than only listening to the teacher. On the other hand,
as motivation is one of the essential elements of the learning teaching process, teachers should
be ready to use any of the new technologies so as to make the process more interesting.

1. Technological and pedagogical aspects of using


audiovisual materials
There are a lot of materials to be used in a classroom:
NON–TECHNICAL TECHNICAL
Blackboards/whiteboards Record player
Magnet boards / flannelboards Audiotape player/recorder
Flashcards/index cards CD player/recorder
Wall charts, posters, maps, scrolls Radio
Board games Television
Mounted pictures/photos Video player/recorder/DVD-player
Cartoons/line drawings Telephone/teletrainer
Objects/realia Overhead projector
Pamphlets/brochures/flyers/menus Filmstrip/film projector
Equipment operation manuals Opaque projector
Puppets Slide projector
Newspapers/books/magazines Computer
Language lab
Computer lab
Multimedia lab

topic 24 
cuerpo de maestroS. temario de INGLÉS

There is no doubt that nowadays students are part of a society in which image and
sound are more important than ever before. We are continuously surrounded by images.
Thus it will be interesting to know which functions these images may have on TESL.
Teachers should use visual displays (i.e. graphs, charts, photos) in the lessons and
assignments to support the oral or written message. Visual / graphic organizers should
be used before presenting a reading passage. The provision of additional contextual
information in the form of a visual should make the comprehension task easier. There are
numerous audio–visual aids that can be used in lessons. Among others, using audiovisual
aids has the following advantages:
a) They maintain a high level of interest and motivation in the lesson.
b) It is easy to get students to use the language, especially at the beginning stages.
c) Greater student participation is promoted.
d) They can be used at all levels of learning.
Another point of view to be kept in mind when talking about the pedagogical aspects
of audiovisual materials is Howard Gardner’s concept of multiple intelligences. If we apply
his general ideas to ESL, we can distinguish the following kinds of learners:
Auditory Learners.
Students with this style will be able to recall what they hear and will prefer oral
instructions. They learn by listening and speaking. These students enjoy talking and
interviewing. They are phonetic readers who enjoy oral reading, choral reading, and
listening to recorded books. They learn best by:
– Interviewing, debating.
– Participating on a panel.
– Giving oral reports.
– Participating in oral discussions of written material.
Visual Learners.
Visual learners will be able to recall what they see and will prefer written instructions.
These students are sight readers who enjoy reading silently. Better yet, present information
to them with a video. They will learn by observing and enjoy working with:
– Computer graphic.
– Maps, graphs, charts.
– Cartoons.
– Posters.
– Diagrams.
– Graphic organizers.
– Texts with a lot of pictures.
This group is the one which will take most advantage from audiovisual materials.

 topic 24
Technological and Pedagogical Aspects of Using Audiovisual Materials

Tactile Learners.
Students with this strength learn best by touching. They understand directions that they
write and will best gain knowledge through manipulatives. They will learn best by:
– Drawing.
– Playing board games.
– Making models.
– Following instructions to make something.
Kinaesthetic Learners.
Kinaesthetic learners also learn by touching or manipulating objects. They need to
involve their whole body in learning. Total Physical Response is a good ESL method for
them. They remember material best if they act it out. These students learn best by:
– Playing games that involve their whole body.
– Movement activities.
– Making models.
– Following instructions to make something.
– Setting up experiments.
Global Learners.
Global learners are spontaneous and intuitive. They do not like to be bored.
Information needs to be presented in an interesting manner using attractive materials.
Cooperative learning strategies and holistic reading methods work well with these learners.
Global learners learn best through:
– Choral reading.
– Recorded books.
– Story writing.
– Computer programmes.
– Games.
– Group activities.
Analytic Learners.
Analytic learners plan and organize their work. They focus on details and are logical.
They are phonetic readers and prefer to work individually on activity sheets. They learn
best when:
– Information is presented in sequential steps.
– Lessons are structured and teacher–directed.
– Goals are clear.
– Requirements are spelled out.

topic 24 
cuerpo de maestroS. temario de INGLÉS

In the following these audiovisual aids are going to be analyzed:


  1. Newspapers.
  2. Television.
  3. Tape recorders/CD–players.
  4. Video recorder/DVD-player.
  5. Slides.
 6. OHP.
 7. Chalkboard.
  8. Flannelboard.
  9. Flipcharts.
10. Wallcharts.
11. Photographs.
12. Flashcards.

1. Newspapers

Due to the fact that newspapers are written for native speakers, we should not use them
before the last cycle of Primary Education as it could be demotivating for our pupils. Even
then we will mainly use sections like entertainment or sports. In the past it was not always
easy to find a foreign newspaper, but now we can use On–line newspapers which provide
further opportunity to bring authentic English and current events into the classroom. There
are sites for large papers like The Times or The Daily Telegraph, and most local newspapers
also maintain web sites. It is necessary to do some advance research to see if the sites charge
a user fee and how the information is organized. Then, teachers can set up activities as they
would do with any reading unit.
Another teaching resource is on–line ESL newspapers or newsletters. These publications,
such as the ones from “The Guardian Weekly” available at http://www.onestopenglish.com/
(accessed 15/09/08) serve many purposes in a classroom. Like any newspaper, they provide
information and reading activities. However, because they are written for ESL students, the
writing tends to be at a more accessible level and there are sometimes support features such
as vocabulary lists or grammar explanations.

2. Television

When using TV in English lessons there may be some technical problems like moving
from one classroom to another, too much light in the classroom or bad acoustic conditions.
Once these have been overcome, we must be careful about which programme we choose
as at least global comprehension of what students watch must be assured.
Nevertheless, TV is an excellent resource for hearing and listening to English. The
pictures help you understand what is being said. If you do not have access to English–
language TV, you may be able to watch TV on Internet.

 topic 24
Technological and Pedagogical Aspects of Using Audiovisual Materials

Here are some interesting free sites where you can watch TV programmes:
BBC Breakfast with Frost
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/programmes/breakfast_with_frost/default.stm
Interviews and News.
BBC News
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/programmes/breakfast_with_frost/default.stm
News from all over the world.
BBC Parliament
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/programmes/bbc_parliament/default.stm
Listen live to British Parliament.
Euro News
http://www.euronews.net/create_html.php?page=accueil_info&lng=1
Watch videos concerning the most important daily news and current issues.
Worldart Media TV
http://worldart.com/
Programmes concerning arts, cultrue and music live.
C–SPAN
http://www.c–span.org/watch/
General interest programmes, programmes about politics and economy
Comedy Central
http://www.comedycentral.com/
Funny videos and episodes from comedies.
On the other hand, TV commercials provide an ideal medium for teaching ESL students
critical thinking skills in the listening class. Teachers, can use commercials in the classroom
to teach students to be critical consumers (cross curricular issue) who can make thoughtful
judgments about the products and services they see advertised. At the same time, teachers
can also take advantage of the TV commercial format to introduce critical thinking skills
such as sequencing, predicting, making associations, and seeing cause and effect.

3. Tape recorders/CD–players
Tape recorders and CD–players are traditionally used to present listening learning
materials to students. However, tape recorders are also wonderful props that help students
become more playful with the learning process and involve them at a deeper level. Here
are a few suggestions for using a tape recorder or CD-player:
– Have students record their conversations. The feedback involved is invaluable –
and often more effective than simple teacher correction. Students are surprisingly
quick to catch their own mistakes in pronunciation and grammar when listening
to themselves on tape/MP3.

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cuerpo de maestroS. temario de INGLÉS

– Have students practice and prepare a presentation or dialogue for a tape recorder.
Students preparing materials for a finished “project” tend to be very involved in
that project. This involvement contributes to effective “long–term” learning.
For the presentation CDs are important media especially for non–native teachers whose
pronunciation is not perfect. Besides, it is important for the pupils to listen to different
inputs as far as pronunciation is concerned. There is a lot of recorded material available
nowadays, even to produce background noises like people washing up or clapping hands,
but if none of them should be acceptable for our lesson plan, the teacher can prepare own
CDs or tapes.

4. Video recorder/DVD-player

The video recorder and tapes or DVD player and DVDs are now common teaching
aids available in many schools, especially those located in urban areas. However,
teachers often do not take full advantage of their usefulness for teaching and learning
and this is usually because they do not plan sufficiently well and ahead of time to
incorporate them in their lessons. This section discusses the advantages of using the
video in the classroom and what you must do before, during and after viewing to ensure
an effective lesson.
A video / DVD can be used to:
– Generate interest and stimulate the students’ imagination.
– Provide a common experience for all your students.
– Offer a different approach to a topic.
– Connect students to far away places or to experiences unavailable in the
classroom.
– Demonstrate abstract ideas.
– Stimulate the development of critical thinking skills.
– Promote critical viewing skills and media awareness.
To ensure an effective lesson using the video /DVD and to encourage students to
become active viewers the following guidelines should be followed:
Before Viewing:
Teachers have to preview the video /DVD to see if its content is appropriate for the
lesson’s objectives, they should also review related print material, especially the teacher’s
guide that may accompany the video /DVD. It should be decided whether the entire tape/
DVD or only relevant segments that illustrate the lesson’s objectives will be used.
Items to be kept in mind when selecting the video / DVD:
– Select programmes that model language and provide settings and events that are
familiar to the students’ real–life experiences.
– Select videos / dvd that provides background images for student reading.

10 topic 24
Technological and Pedagogical Aspects of Using Audiovisual Materials

Once the video / DVD has been chosen, the teacher should prepare the classroom
environment and video / DVD equipment by:
– Making sure that s/he is familiar with the features on the TV set and video recorder
/DVD player, especially the record, pause, review and memory functions.
The teacher might want to delegate the job of operating the video recorder to
responsible students.
– Using low light to increase the dramatic effect and brighter light to help eliminate
distractions in order to enhance the learning experiences.
– Planning one’s own position in such a way that it maximises the “facilitator” role.
If teachers stand close to the TV monitor, they will find it easier to point to the
screen and explain unfamiliar information.
Carry out previewing activities with your students by stimulating their pre–existing
knowledge. For example a brainstorm task to elaborate a list of words related to the topic.
During Viewing:
The following advice should be followed: Use video as the jumping–off point for
active learning. Use a short segment at a time and find segments that support your specific
objectives. Control the pace and amount of information your students receive in any given
viewing. Classify, analyse and discuss each segment thoroughly
After Viewing:
Questions like the ones bellow can be asked. The lower the level is, the easier the
questions will be.
– What is the message?
– Who is the target audience?
– How was the video made?
– Why was it made in that way?
– What is the context in which it was created?
5. Slides
The best slide projector to use in the classroom is one which holds a slide tray or
carousel and has a long remote control extension cable to allow the teacher freer movement
and to talk from the front of the class. Although the slide projector is not as flexible as
the OHP (slides have to be carefully prepared in advance and there needs to be a partial
blackout in the classroom), it has some definite advantages:
– There is a change of pace and activity when the slide projector is used and this
could arouse the interest of the students. The practical preparations of setting up
the projector and blacking out the room cause an excitement that something
different is going to happen.
– The slides are easy to obtain and produce. Slides can be teacher–made or can be
bought commercially.
– They can be arranged and re–arranged into different sets for different uses.

topic 24 11
cuerpo de maestroS. temario de INGLÉS

– They create an impact and transport the students beyond the confines of the
classroom.
– They can be shown at any speed. The teacher can, for example, hold a picture
on the screen for some time to examine it in detail or to facilitate discussion
among the students.
Slides can be used in a variety of learning situations, from grammar–learning to story–
telling. For example:
– A set of slides of beautiful scenes can be used to learn adjectives, verbs, practising
comparatives and superlatives, practising invitations, acceptances and refusals.
– A set of slides showing a sequence or process can be used, of course, to describe
a process or sequence and the grammatical and vocabulary items related to the
process or sequence. A reading passage or guided writing exercise could follow.
– A single slide can be projected and exploited in exactly the same way as a wall
chart or picture.

6. OHP (Overhead Projector)

The overhead projector (OHP) is considered a versatile teaching aid because:


– It is vivid and interest–catching – it gives a bright image on the screen.
– There is no need to blackout the room – the image is clear even in a bright room.
– The teacher can face the students while providing and explaining information on
the transparency.
– The transparencies can be prepared ahead of time or written during the presentation
stage.
– The OHP is mobile –– it can be moved from room to room or from one part of the
room to another part.

7. Chalkboard (formerly called blackboard)

Although modern means will substitute the chalkboard because they are easier to
handle and less time–consuming, the chalkboard can be used for the following:
1. To write down what students say (for example in brainstorm activities)
2. Stick pictures or flashcards on it.
3. Draw pictures. This can be done by students or the teacher.
4. Students work together to create their own poem/song. The teacher can act as
the “scribe,” writing on the chalkboard as the students dictate. Students can then
practise reading their own work.
5. By using chalkboard–style pictures the teacher can illustrate each context and
make practice more meaningful and interesting.
6. During pair work, we can ask each pair to go to the chalkboard and write their
sentences, so that the whole class has the opportunity to have all the sentences for
further reference.

12 topic 24
Technological and Pedagogical Aspects of Using Audiovisual Materials

8. Flannelboard
A flannelboard (and a magnetic board too) is simple and inexpensive to construct. It is easy
to store and light to carry. It makes the teacher more mobile as it can be moved to where students
are sitting. Both can be used to provide a wide range of language practice for the students from
language skills, forms or functions to grammar items. Children usually enjoy participating in
flannelboard activities if materials appropriate to their mental maturity have been chosen.
The flannelboard is a dynamic medium in that it provides a way of presenting ‘mobile’
situations and changes can be shown by adding or taking away figurines and flashcards.
The figures can be made by the teacher him/herself for that s/he should choose a reasonably
thick cardboard to ensure durability. The figures or objects should be cut out large enough
to be seen by students at the back of the class. There should not be too much detail on
them. It is a goog ide to give them a clear coat of varnish to make them more lasting. You
can make a collection of figurines from magazines, posters, newspapers, wrapping papers,
etc. There is a variety of materials you can use: felt, woollen material, velvet, suede, blotting
paper, sponge or any other material with natural adhesion.
It is a good idea to build up sets or categories of figurines rather than try to prepare
them for individual lessons or specific language items. Examples of sets of figurines: people
in general, people doing things, occupations, food, household objects, places, animals,
symbols logos. It is recommendable to store figurines in stiff, clear plastic envelopes (these
can be bought), each clearly labelled with the contents.

9. Flipcharts
These consist of a number of large sheets of paper, fixed to a support bar, easel or
a display board by clamming or pinning them along their top edges so that they can be
flipped backwards or forwards as required.

10. Wallcharts and charts


Although charts and wall–charts are basically the same,
they can be distinguished in two ways:
– Charts usually refer to displays on large sheets of paper
or cloth that are designed to be shown to a class or
group in the course of lesson. Wall–charts are displays
that are pinned to a wall or bulletin board and are
mainly intended for casual study outside the context of
a formal lesson.
– The material on charts are usually larger and easier to
read than on wall–charts as the former has to be clearly
distinguishable or legible at a distance whereas the latter
can be studied at close quarters.
Both charts and wall–charts have a great advantage in
that they can contain far more complicated and detailed
information than transparencies or flipcharts.

topic 24 13
cuerpo de maestroS. temario de INGLÉS

11. Realia

In the context of the ESL classroom, realia can be defined as a real object which has a
purpose outside the ESL classroom and can be brought into the classroom.
Realia can be in the form of:
– Written text or print taken from newspapers, magazines, books, the Internet which
have not been written for the purpose of second language teaching and learning.
– Audio–visual materials not produced for the purpose of second language teaching
and learning.
– Non–linguistic material such as stones, leaves, food products, clothes, etc.
The usage of realia has the following advantages:
– They connect students to the world outside the classroom.
– They make language learning more relevant and meaningful.
– They prepare students for post–classroom experience.
– They motivate students to investigate and use L2 outside the classroom.

12. Photographs

Photographs have layers of meaning and can be used in a number of ways depending on
the context and the intent. They can, for instance be used to teach various tenses depending
on the level of the ESL students. Here are some examples:
– Present tense.
What do you see in the photograph? What do you remember of the day? Who are
the people in the photograph? Why do you like this photo?
– Present Continuous.
What is happening in the photograph? What are the people doing? What are the
people wearing? How are they feeling?
– Simple Past.
Who took the picture? What happened? Why did you choose this particular
photograph to write about? Why did you take this photograph?
– Past Continuous.
What were the people doing?

13. Flashcards

Flashcards have a lot of advantages over pictures drawn on the blackboard the teacher
can prepare them beforehand and no time will be wasted by drawing them. Besides,
flashcards can be used over and over again. You can classify them according to grammatical

14 topic 24
Technological and Pedagogical Aspects of Using Audiovisual Materials

aspects or semantic ones. Nowadays there are thousands of flashcards which can be found
on the Internet. At the end of this practical situation we will show you some websites. One
important point of view to be kept in mind when using flashcards is that they should be big
enough for the whole class to see.
Images are a very effective tool in teaching a language. There are countless ways to
take advantage of images in the class and make ESL lessons more effective.
– Images help translate the meaning of words.
– Images help teachers elicit target and grammar structures.
– Images add colour to a lesson, and help keep students interested.
– Images give context to the structures being taught.
– Images motivate students to speak and write.
In general we can say that using pictures or flashcards has the following advantages:
– Initial motivation can be created easily and the students will be interested in what
they are going to learn.
– The teacher can create situations to role–play dialogues.
– Structures can be practised by using communicative functions which are
contextualised with the help of flashcards.
– Vocabulary will be studied more easily with the help of adequate flashcards.
– You can use pictures or flashcards for the contextualised practice of pronunciation
with minimal pairs.
– Flashcards can also be used to explain grammar, e.g. question formation. In this
case, they will have words instead of pictures.
– Prepositions or interrogative pronouns can also be shown and taught more easily.
As flashcards are an excellent medium for introducing, practising and revising
vocabulary, we will describe some techniques, activities and games which can be used
with almost any vocabulary set and which can be adapted for use with all levels.

2. The computer as an auxiliary resource for learning and


improving foreign languages

2.1. ICT (Information and Communication Technologies)


This term (USA: IT=Information Technologies) is generally applied to tele–
communication, computer science and all means of interchange of messages, data,
information and knowledge. In Europe since 1990 ICT also refers to audio–visual means and
multimedia. As far as language learning is concerned, we can choose among the following
technologic media:
– Cassette–player.
– Walk– and discman.

topic 24 15
cuerpo de maestroS. temario de INGLÉS

– Minidisk.
– Video–cassette.
– Video–game.
– Cd.
– Dvd.
– Radio.
– Television (ppv, digital, interactive).
– Cinema / home–cinema.
– Internet.
– Mobile phone.
– Pc (personal computer).
Many English departments, nevertheless, apply the following forms of ICT:
– Activities designed with the help of the programme (e.g. CLIC).
– Educative programmes.
– Vocabulary learning with “bits multimedia” by using flashcards, e.g. (http://www.
lanet.lv/simtel.net/win95/edu.html).
– WebQuests.
– Record one’s own digital videos.
– Activities designed by the programme Hot Potatoes.
– Information Search in the Internet.

2.2. Teaching English with Computers


Four of the main reasons why computers should be used in the English language
classroom are the following:
1. Motivation. Pupils usually like using computers outside class and school to play
games or surf the Internet. We can take advantage of this enthusiasm and focus it
on the pupils’ learning process.
2. Neutral Assessment. English language exercises on–line can be a good solution
for less advantaged students as they will be corrected or evaluated by a machine
and not by the teacher or other classmates. This fact may motivate them to take
risks and experiment with language during the learning process.
3. Communication. Nowadays computers are used as one of the major means of
communication. The language teaching and learning should not leave this medium
behind.
4. Attention to diversity. In big classes, there will always be pupils who learn at
a different pace. By using computers, each student can use exercises which are
adapted to his / her pace. Thus, individual learning features will be respected.

16 topic 24
Technological and Pedagogical Aspects of Using Audiovisual Materials

Another point of view to be considered is the role of the teacher when using
computers. First, the teacher must know the moment when computers are utilisable, but
s/he must not become a slave to technology. To take advantage from using computers, the
teacher must know the pupils’ strong and weak sides. In this way curricular adaptations
can be developed, so that slow learners can gain better support. It is also important that
the pedagogical demands should always be highlighted. On the other hand, the teacher’s
technical training gains importance. By using computers, pupils will be more responsible
for their learning, but they should also be allowed to experiment. Computers may constitute
a motivating factor in language teaching, above all, if the pupils are required to use a
computer to answer the teacher’s questions. Teachers ought to get used to the idea that
computers will be an essential teaching tool, so teaching will change in a positive direction,
as blackboard and teacher–fronted approaches will be reduced.
As far as teaching resources are concerned, one of the most obvious uses of a computer
is to make worksheets. To do so, we can use simple programs or more complex ones, like
Excel, if we want to prepare crosswords or board games like “Snakes and Ladders”. The
computer can also be used to play DVDs. the advantage of DVDs over videocassettes is that
you can choose whether or not to show subtitles, and also choose the language in which
they can be viewed. In general, it seems to be best to watch with no subtitles first, to get a
general impression, then with subtitles in the students’ mother tongue to get the gist, and
finally with English subtitles to focus more clearly on form.
Another variety of computers are Power–Point presentations as they are an excellent
visual stimulus to facilitate language acquisition. You can use slides (of your own or from
the Internet) and although it is a time–consuming preparation, it is worthwhile as you can
use the same slides on more than one occasion. In a first step, the students will only see
the slides, but after the presentation of the pictures, they will also find the vocabulary and
structures in the Power–Point presentation.

2.3. Internet Options in the Classroom


If there is only one computer in the classroom, you can download any page, print it
and hand it out in the classroom or transfer it to an overhead transparency. (Be sure to get
permission to do so from the author of the web site if it is copyrighted.)
Another option is to save the page on your hard disk and then use it for later
applications. With one computer in the classroom, you will find that the computer screen
is too small to use for viewing by the whole class. A high resolution LCD (Liquid Crystal
Display) player or panel gives very good resolutions although they are not cheap.
There are a lot of ways you can supplement your programme planning with Internet
resources. For example, in the shopping unit, you can use “Harrod’s online shopping” with
descriptions, sizes and colours and the special e–mail order service.
It usually works well to have two students for one computer, if there are more
computers. Three students for each computer is less desirable, but can be satisfactory in
some cases. Keep in mind that students need free access to Internet resources for research
activities. Otherwise web pages can be downloaded and copied onto each computer.

topic 24 17
cuerpo de maestroS. temario de INGLÉS

In general, there are some advantages of using Internet in the English language
classroom. First of all, we should mention the authenticity of the source. It is usually quite
difficult or expensive to get hold of English magazines, newspapers or radio programmes,
but the Internet can substitute these to a certain extent. Secondly, say that on the Internet
we can find nearly all the information we may need: encyclopaedias, dictionaries or
informative magazines. Last but not least, Internet is a communication tool and as such it
will substitute traditional penfriends because communication is more direct and faster.
Another option of using the Internet are MP3 files. They are used when neither the
students nor the teacher have the song needed, for example, a song that refers to the topic
“summer time”. You can use the Internet to search for the lyrics, download the song, and
later you make a listening exercise for it.

2.4. WebQuests
According to Philip Benz, a WebQuest is a constructive approach to learning by
means of which students can accomplish far more real learning than in traditional learning
situations. Therefore, good guidance and scaffolding must be provided.
A WebQuest is an interactive task that involves pupils in searching the Internet for
information which is related to a topic. The English language should be used for authentic
real–life purposes while searching for the information needed to complete the task. In
general, WebQuests are flexible tasks that can be made easier or more difficult according to
the pupils’ abilities. Once students are used to working with WebQuests, we may ask them
to develop their own WebQuest.
Dudeney established four main points of view to carry out a good WebQuest:
1. Introductory Phase. The learners will know the theme, the key vocabulary and any
concepts that will be necessary to deal with the tasks.
2. Explanatory Phase. The tasks will be explained clearly to the learners so that they
can proceed successfully through the project.
3. Process Stage. The learners are guided through the activities and tasks using the
resources which are usually presented in the form of Web links. At the end the
learners are expected to present one or more products.
4. Evaluation Stage. This stage involves both, self–evaluation and teacher evaluation.
There will also be time for feedback on language performance and final
production.
By using the Internet for a project, the students do not only use the English language
to do things, but they also develop autonomous learning and creativity. Within this process
one of the most interesting features is that pupils are in touch with authentic language. The
teacher’s role during a WebQuest can mainly be described with the following terms:
– Facilitator. S/he provides the necessary language items.
– Monitor. S/he always keeps an eye on the development of the tasks in general.

18 topic 24
Technological and Pedagogical Aspects of Using Audiovisual Materials

As to this role, the teacher should always keep a balance between helping students
and letting them learn autonomously.
– Evaluator. The teacher should evaluate the final result as well as the process. In the
explanatory phase it should be clear for the students what they are expected to do
and their outcomes should accomplish these guidelines.
In the following we are going to describe a WebQuest task about “The Swan’s Nest” by
Hans Christian Andersen. By doing this WebQuest pupils are supposed to:
– Get more information about Hans Christian Andersen.
– Learn more about swans and other animals.

WebQuest The Swan’s Nest by Hans Christian Andersen

Name: … Date: …
Introduction: In the WebQuest you are going to read a story about a
swan. You will find information about swans on the Internet and use
this information to write a short description of a swan.
The WebQuest
1. Read the story “The Swan’s Nest” by Hans Christian Andersen:
http://www.theconsultants–e.com/index.asp
2. Find the names of three more tales by Andersen: http://
www.andersen.sdu.dk/titler/vis_e.html
3. Go to this page http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swan and answer
the following questions about swans:
a) What colour are swans usually?
b) How many eggs do they usually lay?
c) Where is the black swan from?
4. Go to this page http://www.davisfarmland.com/fun/
funsound.htm#to find out about different animal sounds.
5. Go to this page http://www.esl–lab.com/animal1/animal.htm
and do the test about animal sounds.
6. Go to the following page to look for a picture of a swan, http:
//images.google.es/images?q=Animals+Pictures&hl=es&lr=&
sa=N&tab=ii&oi=imagest. Once you found the picture, copy
and paste it in a WORD file.
7. Now go to your WORD file, write the answers to question three
in sentences, print the file together with the swan picture.

topic 24 19
Editorial MAD ha diseñado un Servicio Exclusivo para apoyar a
los opositores que han confiado en sus textos para la preparación
de las pruebas de acceso al Cuerpo de Maestros. Este Servicio Ex-
clusivo se presta únicamente a través de Internet. La página princi-
pal para acceder al mismo es www.oposicion-primaria.com
En esta WEB, y durante 3 años desde su alta, los opositores en-
contrarán contenidos que apoyarán la preparación de las pruebas
de la oposición. Entre otros, podrá encontrar:
– Actualizaciones legislativas relacionadas con la oposición.
– Currículos de cada Comunidad Autónoma.
– Actualizaciones de los Temarios.
Todo este asesoramiento, acceso a la información actualiza-
da y actualizaciones normativas de las publicaciones se realizan
a través de Internet y se facilita exclusivamente a aquellas per-
sonas registradas como adquirentes de nuestros libros (consulte
condiciones en la web www.oposicion-primaria.com).
Una ayuda personal y en exclusiva para aquéllos que se quie-
ran preparar estas oposiciones con garantía de un buen material y
el respaldo de una empresa con un plan de preparación completo.

EDITORIAL MAD, S.L.


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41500 Alcalá de Guadaíra, Sevilla
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