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Conference

Program

Wednesday, June 27, 8:30-8:45

Fracture of Multi-Layered Material Systems: 1


Wednesday, June 27, 9:00-10:30
Executive Conference Center 3A
Chair: Raman P. Singh

Dynamic Failure Characteristics in Sandwich


Structures: Basic Failure Modes Selection in
Heterogeneous Three-layer Systems, Luoyu Roy Xu,
Ares J. Rosakis

Debond-Resistance of Short Interface Cracks Near FreeEdges of Bimaterial Layers Under Differential
Expansion, Nathan W. Klingbeil, Srikanth Bontha

The Stress Field in a Cracked Laminated Composite


Plate, E. S. Folias

Mechanics of Crack Propagation Normal to a Ductile


Layer in a Brittle Material, Raman P. Singh, Gary
Rosene, Alains Gratien

Interface Stress Distribution And Strength Design Of


Adhesive Layers In A Sandwich Domain, Hong Yuan,
Jingyu Sun

Wednesday, June 27, 8:30-8:45


Introductory Remarks
Wednesday, June 27, 8:30-8:45
Pavilion
Chair: Sia Nemat-Nasser

Wednesday, June 27, 9:00-10:30


Composite Materials: Composites
Wednesday, June 27, 9:00-10:30
Spinnaker I
Chairs: Ajit Mal and N. Yu

A state space approach for the analysis of laminated


composite tubes, Yung-Ming Wang

Flexural Wave Propagation in Incompressible Prestressed Imperfectly Bonded Elastic Composites, Anil C.
Wijeyewickrema, Taizo Yamamoto, Somsak
Leungvichcharoen

New concepts in crankthrow bending process FEM


simulation and application, Sung Mo Lee, Won Jae Lee

Single Lap Joint Bonding, Joseph D. Melograna,


Joachim L. Grenestedt

Experimental Study Of CFRP & Steel Reinforced


Glulam Beams, Camille A. Issa, Ziad Kmeid

General Fluids, Hydrodynamics, Transport Processes and


Environmental Fluids: 1: Hydrodynamics I
Wednesday, June 27, 9:00-10:30
Coronado B
Chairs: Allen T. Chwang and Chin-Tsau Hsu

A Numerical Study of Resonance in Flow Induced Cable


Vibration, Chin-Tsau Hsu, Man-Kim Kwan, C.C. Chang

Interaction of Laminar Far Wake with Unsteady Viscous


Free-surface Waves, Dong-Qiang Lu, Allen T. Chwang

Dual Pontoon-Membrane Floating Breakwater, William


G. McDougal, Neil Williams, Alaa-Eldin Mansour

Modeling Free-Surface Flow Using A Volume of Fluid


Method, Keh-Han Wang, Ziping Dai

Some Steady-State Numerical Solutions for the


Incompressible Navier-Stokes Equations Using Artificial
Compressibility, Rajaa Nechad, Abdellatif El Marjani

Composites in Structures: 1
Wednesday, June 27, 9:00-10:30
Marina V
Chairs: Karim Quassim and Arup Maji

Composite Materials Research and Applications for


Space Structures, Tang-Tat Ng, Eugene Fosness, Peter
Wegner, Steve Buckley

Flight Test of the solar array concentrator on Mightysat


II.1, Ted Stern

Noncontact strain measurement, Stephie Vierkotter,


David Gregory, Suresh Menon

Seismic retrofit of civil structures using FRP, Scott F.


Arnold, Edward R. Fyfe

Evaluation of FRP reinforced concrete beams, Arup


Maji, Analilia Orozco

Inelastic Behavior of Geomaterials: 1: Computational


Geomechanics I
Wednesday, June 27, 9:00-10:30
Spinnaker II
Chairs: A. (Rajah) Anandarajah and Yacoub "Jacob"
Najjar

Risk Assessment of an Interacting Structure-Soil System


Due to Liquefaction, Jean H. Prevost, Phaedon S.
Koutsourelakis, George Deodatis

Template Elastic-Plastic Framework in Computational


Geomechanics, Boris Jeremic, Zhaohui Yang

Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis of a Single Pile, A. (Rajah)


Anandarajah, Jigang Zhang

Anisotropy and Its Relation to Liquefaction Resistance of


Granular Material, Isao Ishibashi, Omer Faruk Capar

Sand Boils and Liquefaction-Induced Lateral


Deformation, Zhaohui Yang, Ahmed El-Gamal

Creep Plasticity and Fracture: Session I- Low Stress


Exponent Creep (Diffusional)
Wednesday, June 27, 9:00-10:30
Point Loma A
Chair: T.G. Langdon

Creep At Very Low Rates, F.R.N. Nabarro

Denuded Zones and Diffusional Creep, O.A. Ruano, J.


Wadsworth, O.D. Sherby

Wednesday, June 27, 9:00-10:30

Jan D. Achenbach, SES William Prager Medalist


Symposium: Wave Motion and Dynamic Response of
Materials: 1
Wednesday, June 27, 9:00-10:30
Catalina Ballroom
Chairs: Zdenek P. Bazant and Ares J. Rosakis

Ductile fragmentation under high-strain-rate loading


conditions, L. B. Freund

Intersonic Shear Crack Growth Along Weak Paths, Ares


J. Rosakis

Microplane Constitutive Model With Effects Of


Fracturing Rate And Creep For Concrete Dynamics,
Zdenek P. Bazant, Ferhun C. Caner, Mark D. Adley,
Stephen A. Akers

Acoustic Emission from Strain-Determined Sources,


Franz Ziegler

Multi-Scale Modeling of Plastic Deformation Phenomena:


1-Experimental-Numerical Analysis
Wednesday, June 27, 9:00-10:30
Executive Conference Center 1
Chair: David L. McDowell

Distributions of Mesoscale Stretch and Rotation in


Polycrystalline OFHC Cu, David L. McDowell, John
Clayton, Brian Schroeter, Sam Graham

Microstructure Characterization of Dislocation Wall


Structure in Aluminum Using Transmission Electron
Microscopy, Jian Gan, John S. Vetrano, M. A. Khaleel

Planar Double-slip Model for Polycrystal Plasticity and


Micro Tension Tests of Pure Nickel and Copper, HongKi Hong, Chein-Shan Liu, Ya-Po Shiao, Bing-Chang
Shih

Multi-Scale Modeling of Materials Heterogeneity Using


Statistical Continuum Mechanics Analysis, Hamid
Garmestani, Adams Brent

Free-Surface Effects in 3D Dislocation Dynamics:


Formulation and Modeling, Tariq A. Khraishi, Hussein
M. Zbib

Material Response and Failure at Microstructural Levels:


1
Wednesday, June 27, 9:00-10:30
Executive Conference Center 1
Chairs: Tracy J. Vogler and Gustavo Gioia

Microstructural Aspects of Deformation in Sandwich


Core Materials at High-Strain-Rates, Murat Vural,
Guruswami Ravichandran

The Failure Of Metal-Ceramic Composites Under


Compression, Tension And Torsion, K.T. Ramesh,
Yulong Li, E.S.C. Chin

Mechanics and Mechanisms of Deformation and Failure


in Bulk Metallic Glasses, Jun Lu, William L. Johnson,
Guruswami Ravichandran

Failure of Impact Resistant Metallic Alloys by Adiabatic


Shear Bands, Janusz R. Klepaczko

Effect of Microstructure on the Dynamic Failure


Resistance of TiB2/Al2O3 Composites, Min Zhou,
Andrew R. Keller

Sia Nemat-Nasser Symposium: Experiments and Modeling


of Failure of Modern Materials: 1: Models for Concrete
and Rock
Wednesday, June 27, 9:00-10:30
Point Loma B
Chairs: Ghatu Subhash and Morteza M. Mehrabadi

Micromechanics-Based Prediction of Creep Failure of


Hard Rock for 10,000-year Safety of High-Level
Radioactive Waste Disposal System, (Keynote) Hideyuki
Horii, Yoshiaki Okui, Kazuhiko Miura

A Micromechanical Constitutive Model For The


Behavior Of Concrete: Theory, Morteza M. Mehrabadi,
Norma J. Mattei

A Micromechanical Constitutive Model For The


Behavior Of Concrete: Validation, Norma J. Mattei,
Morteza M. Mehrabadi

A Constitutive Model For Concrete Confined With


Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics, Yeou-Fong Li, ChihTsung Lin

Mechanics and Materials Issues in Thin Films and


Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS): 1: Bio-MEMS
and Applications
Wednesday, June 27, 9:00-10:30
Executive Conference Center 2B
Chair: Cengiz S. Ozkan

Biomimetics: Nanomechanical Design of Materials


through Biology, (Keynote) Mehmet Sarikaya

Recent Advances in Surface Micromachining


Technology at Sandia, Murat Okandan, Paul Galambos,
Sita Mani, Jay Jakubczak

Particle Manipulation By Optical And Electronic Means


In Microfluidics, Erhan Ata, Mark Wang, Mihrimah
Ozkan, Aaron Birkbeck

Characterizing Cell-Substrate Adhesion, Kuo Kang Liu,


Hong-Gang Wang, Kai Tak Wan, Tianzheng Liu

Stochastic Mechanics: 1: Computational stochastic


mechanics
Wednesday, June 27, 9:00-10:30
Executive Conference Center 3B
Chairs: Roger Ghanem and Lambros S. Katafygiotis

Fundamentals of Uncertainty Propagation Using the


Stochastic Finite Element Method, John R Red-Horse,
Roger Ghanem

Stochastic System Identification for Identifiable and


Unidentifiable Models, James L. Beck, Siu-Kui Au, KaVeng Yuen

Fault Detection in Vehicles with Nonlinear Suspension


Characteristics, Prodromos Metallidis, George Verros,
Sotirios Natsiavas, Costas Papadimitriou

Wednesday, June 27, 11:00-12:30

Adaptive Conical Importance Sampling (ACIS) for


Robust and Efficient Reliability Analysis., Lambros S.
Katafygiotis
Energy Operator Approach to the Analysis of Structural
Acoustics of Stochastic Systems, Abhijit Sarkar, Roger
Ghanem

Structural Control, Identification and Monitoring: Session


1. Structural Control I: Smart Structural Systems and
Devices
Wednesday, June 27, 9:00-10:30
Marina II
Chairs: Satish Nagarajaiah and Erik A. Johnson

Smart Stay Cable Damping Experiment, Richard E.


Christenson, Billie F. Spencer, Erik A. Johnson

Design, Testing, and Modeling of ER and MR devices,


Henri Gavin, Mark Dobossy

Smart Tuned Mass Damper Control using Empirical


Mode Decomposition and Hilbert Transform Algorithm,
Satish Nagarajaiah, Nadathur Varadarajan

Active Control of Seismically Excited Benchmark


Problem with Peak-Response Constraints, Jann N. Yang,
Silian Lin, Faryar Jabbari

Seismic Control of a Nonlinear Benchmark Building


Using Magnetorheological Dampers, Shirley Dyke,
Osamu Yoshida

Low-Velocity Impact Damage of Curved Laminate


Composites, Oh-Yang Kwon, Jung-Kyu Jun
Failure Mechanics at Two- and Three-Dimensional
Bimaterial Interface Corners, Paul E. W. Labossiere,
Martin L. Dunn
Ballistic failure mechanisms during high velocity
penetration of finite thickness Alumina tiles, Sai Sarva, S.
Nemat-Nasser, Jon B Isaacs, David W Lischer
Fracture in Aluminum Bicrystals Joined with Ductile
Interlayer, Jeffrey W. Kysar, Clyde L. Briant

General Fluids, Hydrodynamics, Transport Processes and


Environmental Fluids: 2: Hydrodynamics II
Wednesday, June 27, 11:00-12:30
Coronado B
Chairs: Keh-Han Wang and Michelle Teng

Measurements of Velocity Field at a Circular Pier by


Particle Image Velocimetry, Francis C. K. Ting, Kent K.
R. Johnson

Nanofluid Viscosity Calculated by the Kinetic Theory


and Molecular Dynamics Simulations, Xiao-Bing Mi,
Allen T. Chwang

Effect of Body Disturbances on Wrist-pulse Contours,


Elizabeth O.Y. Lau, Allen T. Chwang

On the Spreading of Bottom Dense Liquid under Surface


Waves, Sau-Chung Fu, Chiu-On Ng

T.H. Lin 90th Birthday Symposium: 1


Wednesday, June 27, 9:00-10:30
Coronado A
Chair: J. W. Ju

High-Cycle Fatigue in Single Crystals, (Keynote) Tung


H. Lin

On the Problem of PSBs, Pavlos Sapalidis, Markos


Avlonitis, Elias C. Aifantis

Inelastic Behavior of Geomaterials: 2: Computational


Geomechanics II
Wednesday, June 27, 11:00-12:30
Spinnaker II
Chairs: Yacoub "Jacob" Najjar and Amy L.
Rechenmacher

Quantifying Anisotropy in Asphalt Mixtures Using


Micromechanics Analysis, Eyad Masad, Laith Tashman,
Dallas Little

Relating the Microstructure of Asphalt Mixtures to their


Constitutive Behavior, Tom Papagiannakis, Ala Abbas,
Eyad Masad

Pavement Performance Prediction Models via ANN


Approach, Yacoub "Jacob" Najjar

Modeling Soft Soil Behavior under Vehicle Loads, Sally


A. Shoop, Rosa T. Affleck, Vincent C. Janoo, Robert B.
Haehnel

Wednesday, June 27, 11:00-12:30


Creep Plasticity and Fracture: Session II- Low Stress
Exponent Creep (Harper-Dorn)
Wednesday, June 27, 11:00-12:30
Point Loma A
Chair: F.R.N. Nabarro

Predictive Capabilities Of The Dislocation Network


Theory Of Harper-Dorn Creep, M. A. Przystupa, A. J.
Ardell

Identifying The Rate-Controlling Mechanisms In High


Temperature Creep, T.G. Langdon

Jan D. Achenbach, SES William Prager Medalist


Symposium: Wave Motion and Dynamic Response of
Materials: 2
Wednesday, June 27, 11:00-12:30
Catalina Ballroom
Chairs: Gregory Kriegsmann and Gerard A. Maugin

Electromagnetic Propagation in Periodic Porous


Structures, Gregory Kriegsmann

One-Dimensional Wave Propagation in a Genuinely


Nonlinear Elastic Media, Jianmin Qu, Thomas Meurer,
Laurence Jacobs

Multiwave Nonlinear Couplings In Elastic Structures,


Gerard A. Maugin, D.A. Kovriguine, Alexander Potapov

Fracture of Multi-Layered Material Systems: 2


Wednesday, June 27, 11:00-12:30
Executive Conference Center 3A
Chair: Vikas Prakash

Stress singularities in the core and face sheet interface


of structural sandwich panels, Joerg Hohe, Sanjib
Goswami, Wilfried Becker

Wednesday, June 27, 11:00-12:30

How a Rayleigh Wave Turns a Corner, Arthur K.


Gautesen
Focussed acoustic beams applied to guided wave
dispersion analysis in plates, Dale E. Chimenti, Dong Fei

Multi-Scale Modeling of Plastic Deformation Phenomena:


2-Modeling
Wednesday, June 27, 11:00-12:30
Executive Conference Center 1
Chairs: Brian D. Wirth and Tariq A. Khraishi

Atomistic Simulation of Dislocation-Defect Interactions


in Cu, Brian D. Wirth, Vasily V. Bulatov, Tomas Diaz de
la Rubia

A discrete dislocation analysis of cyclic plasticity,


Vikram S Deshpande, Alan Needleman, Erik van der
Giessen

Nanoscale Evaluation of Stress States in the Presence of


Defects, Mark Horstemeyer, Phil Gullett, Mike Baskes,
Steve Plimpton

Atomic and Microscale Finite Element Modeling of Void


Nucleation, Growth, and Coalescence, Mark
Horstemeyer, Phil Gullett, Mike Baskes, Steve Plimpton

A Multiscale Model of Plasticity: Deformation


Patterning and Localization, Hussein M. Zbib, Tomas
Diaz de la Rubia

Material Response and Failure at Microstructural Levels:


2
Wednesday, June 27, 11:00-12:30
Executive Conference Center 2A
Chairs: K.T. Ramesh and Min Zhou

The Dynamic Growth of Voids, T.W. Wright, Xiaoyi


Wu, K.T. Ramesh

Crystal-Plasticity of Titanium with Varying Slip


Anisotropies, Tracy J. Vogler, Hyunis T. Hussain, S.E.
Schoenfeld

Folding of Thin-film Diaphragms: Experiments and


Finite Elements, Gustavo Gioia, Alberto M. Cuitino,
Moises Smart, Fehmi Cirak

Gradient Elasticity: Implications On Indentation And


Size Effects, Jean Sulem, Elias C. Aifantis

Constitutive Models For Finite Deformation RateIndependent Elasto-Plasticity Based On Logarithmic


Rate And Logarithmic Strain, Said Gomaa

Sia Nemat-Nasser Symposium: Experiments and Modeling


of Failure of Modern Materials: 2: Micromechanical
Modeling of Composite Materials
Wednesday, June 27, 11:00-12:30
Point Loma B
Chairs: Mohammed Zikry and Emmanuel Gdoutos

Micromechanical Aspects of Brittle Failure in


Unidirectional Fiber Reinforced Composites, (Keynote)
Guruswami Ravichandran, Kenji Oguni

Experimental Verification of the Desktop Kolsky Bar


Apparatus at Strain Rates Above 104 s-1 using the
LORD Approach, Yulong Li, Dexin Jia, K.T. Ramesh

Micromechanical Damage Modeling of Evolutionary


Particle Cracking in Metal Matrix Composites, Lizhi
Sun, J. W. Ju

Relationship between Intrinsic and Total Toughness of


an Interface, Vijay Gupta

Response of Glass Fiber and Carbon Fiber Reinforced


Vinyl Ester Composites under Combined Loading,
Anthony M. Waas, Chandra S. Yerramalli

Materials for Infrastructure and Development: A


Wednesday, June 27, 11:00-12:30
Spinnaker I
Chairs: W.O. Soboyejo and Elbert Marsh

Overview of U.S./Africa Sessions on Materials and


Infrastructure, W.O. Soboyejo

US Research in Civil Infrastructure Systems, Elbert


Marsh

Holistic Design of Costruction for Sustainable


Infrastructure and a Better Quality of Life., R. Narayan
Swamy

New Approach and Technologies for Desert Architecture


in Egypt, Sherif Algohary, F.H. Hammad
Mechanics and Materials Issues in Thin Films and
Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS): 2: Optical
MEMS and Applications
Wednesday, June 27, 11:00-12:30
Executive Conference Center 2B
Chair: Robert Welstand

Design for Reliability of MEMS /MOEMS for Lightwave


Telecommunications, (Keynote) Susanne Arney

Packaging Issues in MOEMS:Epoxy Seal, Sohrab


Habibi, Josh Malone, Seth Miller, Josh Jacobs

Heterogeneous integration of polymer microlenses with


inorganic substrates by use of the hydrophobic effect,
Daniel M. Hartmann, Osman Kibar, Sadik C. Esener

Mechanics of Optical Pumping of Micromechanical


Oscillators, Alan T Zehnder, Maxim Zalalutdinov,
Anatoli Olkhovets, Bojan Ilic

Stochastic Mechanics: 2: Micromechanical models of


random materials
Wednesday, June 27, 11:00-12:30
Executive Conference Center 3B
Chairs: Lori L. Graham and Sarah C. Baxter

Micromechanics Based Material Property Fields for


Particulate Reinforced Composites, Sarah C. Baxter,
Mohammed Imran Hossain

Statistical Geometric Similarity Of Growing Planar


Cracks, Paul L. Leath, B.Q. Wu

Incorporating stochastic aspects in the simulation of


failure in solids, Miguel A. Gutierrez, Rene de Borst

Micromechanical Investigations and Stochastic Failure


in Composites Under Creep Conditions., Irene Beyerlein,
Linda Schadler, Chaohui Zhou, Leigh Phoenix

Wednesday, June 27, 1:30-3:00

Structural Control, Identification and Monitoring: Session


2. Structural Identification I
Wednesday, June 27, 11:00-12:30
Marina II
Chairs: Raimondo Betti and Andrew W. Smyth

A New Methodology for the Identification of Reduced


Order Models of Structural Systems, Maurizio De
Angelis, Hilmi Lus, Raimondo Betti

Exact Finite Element Response Sensitivity Analysis for


Inelastic Frame Structures, Joel P. Conte, Sebastien
Jacquet

Surveillance of Mechanical Systems on the Basis of


Vibration Signature Analysis, Andrew W. Smyth, Sami
F. Masri, Thomas K. Caughey, N.F. Hunter

System Identification of Nonlinear Dynamical Systems


using Wavelets, Roger Ghanem, Francesco Romeo

System Identification on the Seismic Behavior of an


Isolated Bridge Structure, Zheng-Kuan Lee, ChinHsiung Loh

Wednesday, June 27, 1:30-3:00


Creep Plasticity and Fracture: Session III- Low Stress
Exponent and Recovery Creep
Wednesday, June 27, 1:30-3:00
Point Loma A
Chair: M.J. Mills

The Role Of Impurities During High Temperature


Deformation, F.A. Mohamed

Power-Law Fits Always Work, and So What?, Glenn S.


Daehn

Continuous Recrystallization and Elevated Temperature


Deformation in a Superplastic Aluminum Alloy, Terry R.
McNelley, D. L. Swisher
Dynamics and Control of Tensegrity Structures: Dynamics
and Control of Tensegrity Structures
Wednesday, June 27, 1:30-3:00
Executive Conference Center 3A
Chair: Robert E. Skelton

Planar Self-Similar Tensegrity Structures, Robert E.


Skelton, Chan Waileung

Static And Dynamic Characterization Of Regular


Truncated Octahedral And Cubic Tensegrity Modules,
Hidenori Murakami, Yoshitaka Nishimura

Design of a Class 1 Tensegrity Plate, Robert E. Skelton,


M Masic

Stiffness Optimization In Tensegrity Structures, Bram de


Jager, Robert E. Skelton

Tensegrity Structures: Path Tracking Using Neural


Networks, Darrell Williamson, Narongsak
Kanchanasaratool

Structural Stability: 1
Wednesday, June 27, 11:00-12:30
Marina V
Chairs: Edmundo Corona and John A. Shaw

Buckling of Steel Bars with Luders Bands, John A.


Shaw, Edmundo Corona, Mark A. Iadicola

A simple approach incorporating thickness effects in


tensile instability problems, Lars P. Mikkelsen

Buckle Propagation in Pipe-in-Pipe Systems, Stelios


Kyriakides, Tracy J. Vogler

Stability of the Shanley Column Under Cyclic Loading,


Edmundo Corona
T.H. Lin 90th Birthday Symposium: 2
Wednesday, June 27, 11:00-12:30
Coronado A
Chair: George J. Weng

Modelling rate-dependent effects in heterogeneous


materials, Andr Zaoui

New micro-macro Models for Inelastic Materials based


on Translated Fields., Marcel Berveiller, veronique
Favier, Hafid Sabar, stephane Berbenni

On the Critical Temperatures of Finitely Strained Alloy


Epifilms, Chien H. Wu

Micromechanics Simulation of Spontaneous Polarization


in Ferroelectric Crystals, Wenfang Li, George J. Weng

Response And Modeling Of Emerging Materials, Akhtar


Khan

Experimental Techniques: Experimental Techniques


Wednesday, June 27, 1:30-3:00
Executive Conference Center 2A
Chairs: Erhard Krempl and Alan T Zehnder

Laser-interferometric creep measurements as a new tool


for physical research, Pavel Yakushev, Nina
Peschanskaya, Vladimir Bershtein

Component Based Test Specimen Design, Stephanie A.


Wimmer, Virginia G. DeGiorgi

A New Method for Dynamic Triaxial Hopkinson Bar


Testing, Jacob Rome, Jon B Isaacs, Jeff McGee, S.
Nemat-Nasser

The Research of North-Finder Using Fiber Optic


Gyroscope, Xiqing Guo, Tao Chen, Keyong Wu

Dynamic Full Field Measurements of Crack Tip


Temperatures, Pradeep R. Guduru, Alan T Zehnder, Ares
J. Rosakis, Guruswami Ravichandran

Wednesday, June 27, 1:30-3:00

General Fluids, Hydrodynamics, Transport Processes and


Environmental Fluids: 3: Sediment Transport
Wednesday, June 27, 1:30-3:00
Coronado B
Chairs: A. N. Papanicolaou and Francis C. K. Ting

An Integrated Hydrologic, Hydraulic, and Sediment


Transport Modeling with the Implementation of GIS,
H.M. Hu, Selena M. Forman, Leo Kreymborg

Seasonal Variations of Flow Velocities and Suspended


Sediment Concentrations in Lake Okeechobee, Keh-Han
Wang, Kang-Ren Jin, Mehrdad Tehrani

Modeling of Hydrodynamics and Sediment in Lake


Okeechobee under Storm Events, Kang-Ren Jin, ZhenGang Ji

Instrumentation for the Measurement of Suspended


Sediment Transport in a Flume, David A. Smith, A. N.
Papanicolaou

Prediction of Sediment Transport in Littoral Zones, a


Case Study in Anzali Port in Iran, Nasser
Talebbeydokhti, M. R. Nikmanesh

Materials for Infrastructure and Development: B


Wednesday, June 27, 1:30-3:00
Spinnaker I
Chairs: Daniel Davis and F.H. Hammad

Reinforcement Corrosion and the Deflection of RC


Beams: An experimental Critique of Current Test
Methods, Yunus Ballim, James C Reid

Fatigue of Concrete Subjected to Biaxial Loading in the


Tension Region, Kolluru V. Subramaniam, Surendra P.
Shah

A Probabilistic Multiparameter Framework for the


Modeling of Fatigue Crack Growth in Concrete, K.
Bhalerao, W. Shen, A.B.O. Soboyejo, W.O. Soboyejo

An Investigation of Fracture and Resistance-Curve


Behavior in Concrete, J. Lou, K. Bhalerao, A.B.O.
Soboyejo, W.O. Soboyejo
Mechanics and Materials Issues in Thin Films and
Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS): 3: Mechanics
of Thin Films and MEMS (I)
Wednesday, June 27, 1:30-3:00
Executive Conference Center 2B
Chair: Guanshui Xu

Micromechanical Testing of Free-Standing Thin Films


for MEMS Applications, (Keynote) John C. Bravman,
Ping Zhang, Hoo-Jeong Lee

Fracture Behavior of an Amorphous Alloy Thin Film,


Kazuki Takashima, Ryuichi Tarumi, Akio Ogura,
Yakichi Higo

Acoustic Measurements for Nanomechanical Test


Instruments, Antanas Daugela

Study Of Interface Debond At The Edge Of A Thin Film


On A Substrate, B. Erdem Alaca, Taher Saif, Huseyin
Sehitoglu

Inelastic Behavior of Geomaterials: 3: Constitutive


Modeling of Soils I
Wednesday, June 27, 1:30-3:00
Spinnaker II
Chairs: Yannis F. Dafalias and Majid T. Manzari

Microstructural Constitutive Model for Sands, A.


(Rajah) Anandarajah

Discrete Element Modeling of Three-Dimensional


Assemblies of Ellipsoidal Particles, Lijian Gong, Stein
Sture

An Anisotropic Parameter for Critical State Modeling of


Sand Response, X.S. Li

Modeling Of Granular Soils At Low And Moderate


Effective Stresses Using A Critical State Stress-Ratio
Plasticity Model, Yannis F. Dafalias, Majid T. Manzari

UW-Sand: A Simple Constitutive Model for Liquefiable


Soils, Pedro Arduino, Steven L. Kramer, Dave Baska

Multi-Scale Modeling of Plastic Deformation Phenomena:


3-Continuum/Gradient Theories
Wednesday, June 27, 1:30-3:00
Executive Conference Center 1
Chairs: Mark Horstemeyer and Xin-Lin Gao

Crack initiations and propagation of FCC metals from


crystal plasticity modeling, Osamu Watanabe, Tomomi
Nakajima

On the validity of regular void distribution in


coalescence modelling, Amine A. Benzerga, Jacques
Besson, Andre Pineau

An inelastic formulation of generalized continua as a


multi-scale method, Carlo Sansour

Multiscale formulation of a micromechcnicallymotivated phenomenological plasticity model, Krishna


Garikipati, Richard A. Regueiro, Esteban Marin, Douglas
J. Bammann

Size Effect In Dislocation-Based Gradient Plasticity On


Sub-Micron Scale, Zdenek P. Bazant, Zaoyang Guo

Jan D. Achenbach, SES William Prager Medalist


Symposium: Wave Motion and Dynamic Response of
Materials: 3
Wednesday, June 27, 1:30-3:00
Catalina Ballroom
Chairs: Thomas C. T. Ting and Mao-Kuen Kuo

Explicit Secular Equations for Surface Waves in


Monoclinic Materials with the Symmetry Plane at x1=0,
x2=0 or x3=0, Thomas C. T. Ting

Some Special Supersonic Non-Radiating Dislocations in


Anisotropic Linear Elastic Solids, David M. Barnett

Exact transient study of plane wave diffraction by a


crack in an orthotropic or transversely isotropic solid,
Louis M. Brock, Mark T. Hanson

Transient dynamic Green's function for piezoelectric


solids, Mao-Kuen Kuo, K.C. Wu, J.H. Wu

Wednesday, June 27, 3:30-5:00

Sia Nemat-Nasser Symposium: Experiments and Modeling


of Failure of Modern Materials: 3: Failure of Composite
Laminates
Wednesday, June 27, 1:30-3:00
Point Loma B
Chairs: Xanthippi Markenscoff and Isaac Daniel

Modeling of Damage Evolution in Elastic and


Viscoelastic Composite Laminates, (Keynote) Ramesh
Talreja, Rajesh Kumar, Rami Haj-Ali

Compression Facing Wrinkling of Composite Sandwich


Structures, Isaac Daniel, Emmanuel Gdoutos

The effect of stress on surface waves in an elastic


incompressible layer overlying a compressible halfspace, Dimitrios Sotiropoulos

Mechanical Model For Red Blood Cells Skeletons,


Ramdane Ami Saada, J.C. Lelievre, Jafar Moumni

Structural Stability: 2
Wednesday, June 27, 1:30-3:00
Marina V
Chairs: Srinivasan Sridharan and Joachim L. Grenestedt

Postbuckling Progressive Failure Analysis, Charles C.


Rankin, Norman Knight, Jr.

Elastic-plastic wrinkling of sandwich- analysis and


experiments, Joachim L. Grenestedt

Imperfection-sensitivity of Sandwich Structures,


Srinivasan Sridharan, Sami El-Sayed

Finite Element Analysis of Post-Buckling Delamination


in Thin Polymer Films Bonded to Ceramic Substrates,
Herman F. Nied
T.H. Lin 90th Birthday Symposium: 3
Wednesday, June 27, 1:30-3:00
Coronado A
Chair: Ajit Mal

Elasticity of Porous and Particulate Materials, Nicolaie


D. Cristescu

Elastoplastic Damage Behavior of Particle-Reinforced


Composites with Evolutionary Interfacial Debonding,
Lizhi Sun, J. W. Ju

Elasto-Plastic Response of Whisker-Reinforced MetalMatrix Composites under Complex Loading, Hongqiu


Liu, Naigang Liang

Investigating Cumulative Damage in a Highly Filled


Polymeric Material, Chi T. Liu

Stochastic Mechanics: 3: Monte Carlo simulation of


stochastic systems
Wednesday, June 27, 1:30-3:00
Executive Conference Center 3B
Chairs: Gerhart Schueller and Masanobu Shinozuka

Stochastic simulation of functionally graded materials


with random micro-structure, Lori L. Graham, Fernando
J. Ferrante

Error Estimation in Stochastic Computational


Mechanics, Roger Ghanem, Manuel Pellissetti

Simulation of Highly Skewed Non-Gaussian Stochastic


Fields With Applications to Modeling Uncertain
Dynamic Soil Systems, George Deodatis, Jean H. Prevost,
Steve Koutsourelakis, James Tantala

Monte Carlo Simulation of Expected Maintenance Cost


of Deteriorating Structures, Dan M. Frangopol, Jung S.
Kong

Use of Discrepancy Sensitivity in Optimization and


Uncertainty, Erik A. Johnson, Steven F. Wojtkiewicz,
Lawrence A. Bergman

Wednesday, June 27, 3:30-5:00


Creep Plasticity and Fracture: Session IV- Recovery
Creep (Fundamentals and Modeling)
Wednesday, June 27, 3:30-5:00
Point Loma A
Chair: A. J. Ardell

Understanding Creep; A Review Of Mechanisms And


Constitutive Laws, Wolfgang Blum, F. Brutinger, P.
Eisenlohr

On The Mechanisms Controlling Steady State


Deformation Of Metals And Alloys, E. Nes

Dislocation Microstructure And Internal Stress


Measurements By CBED On Creep Deformed Cu AND
Al, Maria-Teresa Perez-Prado, Michael E. Kassner,
Michael Long, Kenneth S. Vecchio

Structural Control, Identification and Monitoring: Session


3. Health Monitoring I
Wednesday, June 27, 1:30-3:00
Marina II
Chairs: S.-L. James Hu and Amjad J. Aref

Health Monitoring Of Frp Bridge Superstructure Using


Vibration Characteristics, Amjad J. Aref, Sreenivas
Alampalli

Structural Damage Detection Using Spatially Intensive


Data, Gongkang Fu, Adil Moosa, Upendra Poudel, Jian
Ye

Development Of Wavelet-Based Approach For System


Identification And Structural Health Monitoring, Zhikun
Hou, Adriana Hera, Mohammad Noori

Introduction of Matched Damage Processing for


Structural Health Monitoring, S.-L. James Hu

General Fluids, Hydrodynamics, Transport Processes and


Environmental Fluids: 4: Environmental Fluid Mechanics
Wednesday, June 27, 3:30-5:00
Coronado B
Chairs: Pei-Fang Wang and James Martin

Coupling of Hydraulic and Environmental Quality


Models: Issues and Approaches, James Martin, Mark
Dortch

Effect of Surface Waves on Pollutant Dispersion, Hui


Loo, Allen T. Chwang

Wednesday, June 27, 3:30-5:00

Lagrangian Drifts in the Tide and Wind-Driven Dyes


Inlet, WA, Pei-Fang Wang, Bob Johnston, Brad
Davidson, Bart Chadwick
Bubble-Entrained Turbulent Mixing From Free-Falling
Jets in The Plunge Zone, Pei-Fang Wang, Ken Richter,
Brian Skahill, James Uyloan
The Use of Water-Filled Geomembrane Tubes as
Temporary Flood-Fighting Devices, Tung C. Huong,
Brendan T. FitzPatrick, David B. Nevius, Raymond H.
Plaut

Mechanics and Materials Issues in Thin Films and


Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS): 4: Mechanics
of Thin Films and MEMS (II)
Wednesday, June 27, 3:30-5:00
Executive Conference Center 2B
Chair: John C. Bravman

Effect Of Nanotexturing On Interfacial Adhesion In


Mems, (Keynote) Maarten P. de Boer, James A. Knapp,
Peggy J. Clews

Characterization of MEMS-Type Devices: HDD Head


Gimble Assembly Stiffness Measurements, Antanas
Daugela, Warren Oden

Air-damping Effects on Micro- and Nano-machined


Beam Resonators, Guanshui Xu, Chuanli Zhang, Qing
Jiang

A Micro-Plasticity Study of Micro-electro-mechanical


Systems, Taher Saif, Zhenyu Xue, Yonggang Huang

Inelastic Behavior of Geomaterials: 4: Constitutive


Modeling of Soils II
Wednesday, June 27, 3:30-5:00
Spinnaker II
Chairs: Stein Sture and A. (Rajah) Anandarajah

Issues on the Elastoplastic Constitutive Modeling of


Clays, Yannis F. Dafalias

Seepage Effects on Flow Deformation of Earth Dam,


X.S. Li, H.Y. Ming

The Influence of Consolidation History of Sands on


Critical State Line Position, Amy L. Rechenmacher,
Richard J. Finno

Behavior of Anisotropically Consolidated Layered Silty


Sands under Liquefaction Conditions, Farshad Amini

Multi-Scale Modeling of Plastic Deformation Phenomena:


4-Non-Local Plasticity
Wednesday, June 27, 3:30-5:00
Executive Conference Center 1
Chairs: Hamid Garmestani and Hussein M. Zbib

Elasto-Plastic Solution of a Borehole Problem Using


Gradient Plasticity, Xin-Lin Gao, Elias C. Aifantis

Can Dislocations "diffuse"?, Elias C. Aifantis

Jan D. Achenbach, SES William Prager Medalist


Symposium: Wave Motion and Dynamic Response of
Materials: 4
Wednesday, June 27, 3:30-5:00
Catalina Ballroom
Chairs: David Bogy and Subhendu K. Datta

Application of random walk methods to wave


propagation, Bair Budaev, David Bogy

Application of The Reverberation-Ray Matrix to The


Propagation of Elastic Waves in a Multilayered Solid,
Yih-Hsing Pao, Xian-Yue Su

On the Transient Response of a Plate with Thin


Anisotropic Layers due to a Line Source, A.J. Niklasson,
Subhendu K. Datta

Elastic Waves from Localized Sources in Composite


Laminates, Ajit Mal, Yoseph Bar-Cohen

A nonlocal phenomenological anisotropic plasticity


model accounting for dislocation defects, Richard A.
Regueiro, Douglas J. Bammann, Esteban Marin
Taylor-based Nonlocal Theory (TNT) of Plasticity,
Young Huang, Huajian Gao
Instability analysis and shear band spacing in gradientdependent thermoviscoplastic materials, L. Chen, R. C.
Batra

Piezoelectrics: Piezoelectrics
Wednesday, June 27, 3:30-5:00
Executive Conference Center 2A
Chairs: Roberta Massab and Jiangyu Li

On the Nonlinear Behaviour of Dielectric Cracks in


Piezoelectric Media, X. D. Wang, L. Y. Jiang

Exact Solution for Rectangular Sandwich Plates with


Embedded Piezoelectric Shear Actuators, Senthil Vel,
Romesh Batra

Finite Element Analysis of Piezo-Laminated Composite


Shells using Higher Order Theory, Sudhakar A.
Kulkarni, Kamal M. Bajoria

Fully Coupled, Multi-axial, Symmetric Constitutive Laws


for Polycrystalline Ferroelectric Ceramics, Chad M
Landis

Materials for Infrastructure and Development: C


Wednesday, June 27, 3:30-5:00
Spinnaker I
Chairs: A.B.O. Soboyejo and R. Narayan Swamy

Evaluation and Repair of Algiers New Airport Building,


Kenai Said, Bahar Ramdane

Potential Of Alternative Fibre-Cements As Building


Materials For Developing Areas, Holmer Savastano, Jr.,
Peter Graeme Warden, Robert Stephen Patrick Coutts

Characterization of Tannin Resin Blends for


Particleboard Applications, E.T.N. Bisanda, W.O. Ogola

Austempered Ductile Iron: An Alternative Material for


Earth Moving Components, Josephat Zimba, David
Simbi, Erik Navara

Processing and Manufacturing: Processing and


Manufacturing
Wednesday, June 27, 3:30-5:00
Executive Conference Center 3A
Chairs: Hamid Garmestani and Huseyin Sehitoglu

A Study on Precision Forging of Supr Gear by Upper


Bound Method, Hung-Hsiou Hsu

10

Wednesday, June 27, 5:10-6:10

Cutting Performance of BN-based Ceramic Inserts


Correlated to their Hot Hardness Properties, Ali S.
Alwatban
A Study on Equivalent Model for Prediction of the
Distortions Caused by Line Heating with Flame Torch,
H. T. Lee, Sang Beom Shin, G. G. Byun
A New Workability Criterion and Ductile Fracture
Prediction in the Forging of Sintered Powder Compacts,
Cheng-Chao Huang, Jung-Ho Cheng

T.H. Lin 90th Birthday Symposium: 4


Wednesday, June 27, 3:30-5:00
Coronado A
Chair: Erhard Krempl

A New Integral Equation Formulation for Inclusion


Problems in Unbounded Solids, Ajit Mal, Jungki Lee

On the interaction between an edge dislocation and a


wedge-shaped inhomogeneity, Zhongmin Xiao, Bingjin
Chen, Hui Fan

A Singularity Method for Displacing Particles in Elastic


Solids and Viscous Fluids, H. Y. Yu

Stress Field of an Arbitray Polygon-Shaped Inclusion in


a Semi-infinite Elastic Plane, Lizhi Sun, MSC.Software
Corporation Nastran Development

A Fracture Mechanics Based Damage Model for


Composites with Micro-cracks, Haeng-Ki Lee, Srdan
Simunovic

Sia Nemat-Nasser Symposium: Experiments and Modeling


of Failure of Modern Materials: 4:Damage Mechanics
Wednesday, June 27, 3:30-5:00
Point Loma B
Chairs: Morteza M. Mehrabadi and Ghatu Subhash

Viscoplasticity As A Context For Damage Mechanics,


(Keynote) T.W. Wright, M. Scheidler

Development of geometric instabilities in thermal


barrier systems due to thermal cycling, Anette M.
Karlsson, Anthony G. Evans

Characteristics Of Granular Fabric And Void Shape In


Cyclic Loading, Zong-Lian Qiu

Hydrostatic Interaction of a Wetting Fluid and a


Circular Crack in an Elastic Material, Adlade FerailleFresnet, Huy Duong Bui, Alain Ehrlacher

Ted Nicholas Symposium: Innovative Experiments in


Impact Problems: 1
Wednesday, June 27, 3:30-5:00
Executive Conference Center 3B
Chairs: Arunachalam M. Rajendran and W.N. Sharpe, Jr.

Some Thoughts on the lightweight Armor for Personal


Protection, Shun-chin Chou

A Novel Specimen Design for the Torsional Kolsky Bar:


Application to an A359/SiCp MMC, Yulong Li, K.T.
Ramesh, E.S.C. Chin

Shatter Waves in Relation to the Performance of


Ceramic Armor, Sol R. Bodner

Theory Critical Experiments for Shock and High Strain


Rate Modeling, Arunachalam M. Rajendran

Structural Control, Identification and Monitoring: Session


4. Structural Control II: Semi-Active Seismic Isolation
Wednesday, June 27, 3:30-5:00
Marina II
Chairs: Henri Gavin and Satish Nagarajaiah

Semiactive Control of Sliding Isolated Buildings with


MR Dampers, Sanjay Sahasrabudhe, Satish Nagarajaiah

"Smart" Base Isolation Strategies Employing


Magnetorheological Dampers, Billie F. Spencer,
Hirokazu Yoshioka, Juan Carlos Ramallo

Simulation Studies of a Smart Base Isolation System,


Erik A. Johnson, Juan Carlos Ramallo, Billie F. Spencer

Optimal Semi-Active Seismic Isolation, Henri Gavin,


Unal Aldemir

A Novel Semi-Active Friction Controller for BaseIsolated Buildings, Wan L. He, Anil Kumar Agrawal

Wednesday, June 27, 5:10-6:10


Jan Achenbach: SES William Prager Medalist Lecture
Wednesday, June 27, 5:10-6:10
Pavilion
Chairs: Zdenek P. Bazant and Jianmin Qu

Wave Motion and Dynamic Response of Materials

Structural Stability: 3
Wednesday, June 27, 3:30-5:00
Marina V
Chairs: Sergio Pellegrino and Anthony M. Waas

Folds and Wrinkles in Pressurized Membranes, Sergio


Pellegrino, B. Andrew Lennon

The Effects Of Imperfections On The Nonlinear


Response And Buckling Of Composite Shells, Mark W.
Hilburger, James H. Starnes, Jr.

Damage Mechanisms of Carbon Fiber Braided Textile


Composite Laminates, Anthony M. Waas, Shuching
Quek, Khaled W Shahwan, Venkatesh Agaram

11

Thursday, June 28, 8:00-9:00

Elasticity: Elasticity
Thursday, June 28, 9:00-10:30
Executive Conference Center 1
Chairs: Arunachalam M. Rajendran and Yozo Mikata

Contrary to Mooney's Classical Result, a Mooney-Rivlin


Type Response is not to be Expected for Rubber
Undergoing Small Strain, John C. Criscione

An Inclusion Problem in Bending of Plates with


Microstructure, Peter Schiavone

Micromechanical Modeling of Two-Dimensional


Elastic Solids with Irregularly Shaped Holes, Igor
Tsukrov, Jindrich Novak

Three-Dimensional Stress Analysis of A Symmetric


Adhesive Plate under A Uniform Axial Tension, Peter W
Hsu

On Methods of Solutions to Problems with Axial


Symmetry in Nonlinear Solid Mechanics, Elena Croitoro

Thursday, June 28, 8:00-9:00


Karl Pister: General Lecture
Thursday, June 28, 8:00-9:00
Pavilion
Chair: Sia Nemat-Nasser

Mechanics as a Liberal Art and Science

Thursday, June 28, 9:00-10:30


Below Macro: Driving Forces of Micromechanics: IFundamentals of Micro-to-Macro Approaches
Thursday, June 28, 9:00-10:30
Executive Conference Center 3B
Chair: Franz-Josef Ulm

Homogenization and application to porous media, JeanLouis Auriault

Mechanics of Composite Systems, Stephen Whitaker

Optimization of Microstructure and Effective Properties


of Heterogeneous Materials, Salvatore Torquato

Micromechanical approach to the non linear behavior of


poroelastic materials, Luc Dormieux, Alain Molinari,
Djimdo Kondo

Real porous media: local geometry and transports, Pierre


M. Adler

Failure Due to Environmental Degradations: 1


Thursday, June 28, 9:00-10:30
Spinnaker I
Chair: Toshio Nakamura

Degradation of Thermal Barrier Coatings by Thermal


Exposure: Microstructure, Properties, Implications,
Mark Walter, Hyungjun Kim

Using Moir Interferometry for Fatigue Testing of


Microelectronics Solder Joints, Cemal Basaran, Terry
Dishong, Ying Zhao, Alex Cartwright

Effects of Thermal and Hygrothermal Degradation on


Failure Processes in Carbon/Epoxy Composites, Toshio
Nakamura, Raman P. Singh

Precipitate Size Effect In Alloys: A Numerical Study By


The Mechanism-Based Strain Gradient Plasticity Theory,
Zhenyu Xue, Yonggang Huang, Ming Li

Coupled Phenomena in Polymers: Electroactive Polymers


1
Thursday, June 28, 9:00-10:30
Executive Conference Center 2A
Chair: Toshihiro Hirai

Electrically induced huge and swift deformation of


conventional non-ionic polymer materials, Toshihiro
Hirai, Md. Zulhash Uddin, Masashi Watanabe, Hirofusa
Shirai

Electroactive Polymer Actuators (EAP) - Current State


of the Art, Yoseph Bar-Cohen

A study on the gel actuator material imitating the action


plant, Hirohisa Tamagawa, Toru Nakano, Fumio Nogata

A Transparent And Flexible Smart Polymer, Ahmed AlJumaily, Suad Jassim, David Dodd

Mechanics and Materials Issues in Thin Films and


Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS): 5: Mechanics
of Thin Films and MEMS (III)
Thursday, June 28, 9:00-10:30
Executive Conference Center 2B
Chair: Maarten P. de Boer

MEMS Materials Issues for High-Sensitivity Force


Measurements, Thomas Kenny

A simple wall shear stress sensor in polycrystalline


silicon : electrical and thermal considerations, Laurence
Michelutti, Sedat Tardu, Jumana Boussey

Analytic Solutions of Stress Distribution Under A Thin


Film Edge In Isotropic Substrates, S.P. Wong, H.J. Peng,
Shounan Zhao

Limitations of the Thin Shell and Beam Models for


Carbon Nanotubes, Vasyl Michael Harik, Michael P.
Nemeth, Thomas S. Gates

Analytical modeling and global optimization method for


micro heat sink design, Jumana Boussey, Corinne Perret,
Christian Schaeffer, Yvan Avenas

Creep Plasticity and Fracture: Session V- Recovery Creep


(Fundamentals and Modeling)
Thursday, June 28, 9:00-10:30
Point Loma A
Chair: E. Nes

Subgrain Formation In Creep: Between Contiuum And


Dislocations, R. Sedlacek, J. Kratochvil, Wolfgang Blum

Mechanisms Of High Temperature Creep In Gamma


TiAl Alloys And Alpha/Beta Ti Alloys, M.J. Mills, G. B.
Viswanathan, S. Karthikeyan, R. W. Hayes

Steady State Creep Of Alpha Zirconium, T.A. Hayes,


Michael E. Kassner

12

Thursday, June 28, 9:00-10:30

Particulate Materials: 1
Thursday, June 28, 9:00-10:30
Spinnaker II
Chairs: Jin Y. Ooi and Matthew R. Kuhn

The Formation of Shear Bands in Granular Materials:


New Experiments and Results, Matthew R. Kuhn

Revisiting the 1954 Rheological Experiments of R.A.


Bagnold, Melany Hunt, Roberto Zenit, Charles
Campbell, Christopher Brennen

Measurement of Stress Profiles During Bulk Friction


and Adhesion Testing Using Pressure Sensitive Pads,
Kerry Johanson

Micromechanical analysis of soil-structure interface


using DEM simulations of direct shear tests, Bertrand
Baylac, Samuel Masson, Juan Martinez

Stress Inversion Method for Identifying Local


Constitutive Relations, Muneo Hori
Failure Evolution and Global Failure in Porous
Crystalline Aggregates, Mohammed Zikry, Waeil
Ashmawi
The Finite Deformations of Compliant Active Materials:
Experiments and Modeling, K.T. Ramesh, Steven P.
Marra, A.S. Douglas
Experimental Characterization of EAPs, Minoru Taya,
Suzana Popovic, Chunye Xu, Mikio Uchida

Steve Davis, G.I. Taylor SES Medalist Symposium: Session


1
Thursday, June 28, 9:00-10:30
Coronado B
Chair: Tony Chen

Evolution of Local Microstructure, (Keynote) Martin E.


Glicksman, Ke-Gang Wang

Interface tracking Algorithm for Dendritic Solidification


Using Finite Elements, Juan C. Heinrich, Pinghua Zhao

A Delta-function Model of Facets, Harris Wong, Tinghui


Xin

Global Instabilities and Limiting-State Selection of


Dendritic Growth with Anisotropic Kinetic Attachment,
Jian-Jun Xu

Recent Advances in Stability of Structural Components


and Systems: Session 1: Computational Methods in
Structural Stability
Thursday, June 28, 9:00-10:30
Marina V
Chairs: Dewey H. Hodges and Amir Mirmiran

Effect of Geometric and Loading Conditions on Stability


of Prestressed Arches, Amir Mirmiran, Amde Amde,
Zefang Xu

Lateral-Torsional Flutter of a Deep Cantilever Loaded


by a Lateral Follower Force at the Tip, Dewey H.
Hodges

Creep Buckling Of Panels Under Non-Uniform


Temperatures And Variable Loading, Hamdy A. Ashour

Local buckling, imperfections, and global buckling in


tanks with boundary perturbations in the plane of the
shell, J. Mark F.G. Holst, J. Michael Rotter

Structural Control, Identification and Monitoring: Session


5. Structural Identification II
Thursday, June 28, 9:00-10:30
Marina II
Chairs: C G Koh and Darryll Pines

Large-Scale Structural Identification by Distributed


Computing, C G Koh, C Y Liaw, L P Wu

System Identification via Hilbert Transform Using


Forced Vibration Measurements, Jann N. Yang, Ying Lei

System Identification using Empirical Mode


Decomposition and Hilbert Transform, Nadathur
Varadarajan, Satish Nagarajaiah

Health Monitoring of Structures Using Empirical Mode


Decomposition and Phase Dereverberation, Darryll
Pines, Liming Salvino

Identification of Inelastic Response of RC Structures and


Seismic Demand to Near-Fault Ground Motion, ChinHsiung Loh, Shung-Tsair Chung

SES Student Paper Session: I


Thursday, June 28, 9:00-10:30
Executive Conference Center 3A
Chairs: Nancy Sottos and Assimina Pelegri

On the Elastic Behavior of Scission Materials (SES),


Markus Zimmermann, Alan Wineman

Hygro-thermal Effects on the Physical Aging Response


of Glassy Polymers, Yong Zheng, Gregory B. McKenna

Effects of curvature on the elastic modulus of carbon


nanotube-reinforced polymers, Frank T Fisher, Cate
Brinson

Combined Finite Element and Experimental Method for


Material Characterization of Woven Co-Mingled
Glass/Thermoplastic Composites, Jennifer L. Gorczyca,
James A. Sherwood, Julie Chen, Darin S. Lussier

T.H. Lin 90th Birthday Symposium: 5


Thursday, June 28, 9:00-10:30
Coronado A
Chair: Thomas C. T. Ting

Phenomenological material models for inelastic


deformation. A mere exercise in curve fitting?, Erhard
Krempl

Evaluation of Inelastic Structural Energy During


Earthquake, Kevin K. F. Wong

On the Finite Plastic Deformation of Anisotropic


Metallic Materials, Han-Chin Wu

Sia Nemat-Nasser Symposium: Experiments and Modeling


of Failure of Modern Materials: 5: Modeling of Material
Microstructure Evolution
Thursday, June 28, 9:00-10:30
Point Loma B
Chairs: Ghatu Subhash and Gustavo Gioia

Polycrystalline Shape-Memory Materials: Effect of


Crystallographic Texture, (Keynote) Lallit Anand

13

Thursday, June 28, 11:00-12:30

Effect of a Rippling Mode on Resonances of Carbon


Nanotubes, Q.-S. Zheng, Zhe Liu, Qing Jiang
Plane wave solutions and modal analysis in higherorder shear and normal deformable plate theories, R. C.
Batra, S. Vidoli, F. Vestroni

Creep Plasticity and Fracture: Session VI-Creep


(Unconventional Conditions)
Thursday, June 28, 11:00-12:30
Point Loma A
Chair: Wolfgang Blum

Elevated Temperature Deformation At Forming Rates Of


0.01 - 100 Per Sec., H. J. McQueen

Constitutive Equation For Creep And Plasticity Of


Aluminium Alloys Produced By Powder-Metallurgy And
Aluminum-Based Metal Matrix Composites, Stefano
Spigarelli, Enrico Evangelista

Dislocation Processes During Low Temperature Creep


Of Alpha And Alpha/Beta Titanium Alloys, M.J. Mills, T.
Neeraj, M.F. Savage, J. Tatalovich

Ted Nicholas Symposium: Innovative Experiments in


Impact Problems: 2
Thursday, June 28, 9:00-10:30
Catalina Ballroom
Chairs: T.W. Wright and S. E. Schoenfeld

A Model for Shear Bands Applied to Notched Tension


Tests in Ti-6Al-4V, S.E. Schoenfeld, T.W. Wright

Analysis of Failure Modes in an Impact Loaded


Thermoviscoplastic Prenotched Plate, R. C. Batra, N.A.
Jaber, M.E. Malsbury

Crack tip behavior under pulsed electro-magnetic


loading, Sikhanda Satapathy

Effect of rate dependence in cohesive zones under


dynamic crack propagation, Dhirendra V. Kubair,
Philippe H. Geubelle, Yonggang Huang

Experimental And Numerical Simulations Of Dynamic


Deformation Of Ni-Based Super-Alloys, Vivek Katiyar,
Jeffrey DeMange, Vikas Prakash

Failure Due to Environmental Degradations: 2


Thursday, June 28, 11:00-12:30
Spinnaker I
Chair: Raman P. Singh and Katerina D. Papoulia

Dynamic Failure Characterization of Microballoon


Dispersed Epoxy: Implications for Modeling Porosity,
Hareesh Tippur, Medhat El-Hadek

Mechanical Effects Of Reinforcing Steel Corrosion In


Concrete, Beatriz Martn-Prez, Stavroula J.
Pantazopoulou, Katerina D. Papoulia, Michael D.A.
Thomas

Effect of De-Icing Agents on Corrosion of Automobile


Components, Yun Ping Xi, Zhaohui Xie

Faceplate Debonding In High-Temperature Sandwiches,


Kenneth Liechti, Balazs Marton

Thursday, June 28, 11:00-12:30


Below Macro: Driving Forces of Micromechanics: IIMicro-hydro-mechanics and Micro-chemo-mechanics of
porous media
Thursday, June 28, 11:00-12:30
Executive Conference Center 3B
Chair: Luc Dormieux

Microgeomechanics, James G. Berryman

Films and Multilayers: Thin Films and Coatings


Thursday, June 28, 11:00-12:30
Executive Conference Center 2B
Chairs: John W. Hutchinson and Zhiliang Zhang

Stress in thin films from substrate curvature


observations: Building on Stoney ground, (Keynote) L.
B. Freund

Ratcheting and related phenomena in layered materials


subject to temperature cycling, Zhigang Suo, Min Huang,
Qing Ma

Delamination of thin film strip, Honghui Yu

Influence of substrate compliance on buckling


delamination of thin films, John W. Hutchinson

Micromechanics Of Unsaturated Granular Media,


Xavier Chateau, Pascal Moucheront, Olivier Pitois
Beyond the Crack-Size Criterion: Similarity Properties
of Demineralization of Cracked Porous Materials, FranzJosef Ulm, Marc Mainguy
Review of the hierarchical organization of bone in the
framework of continuum mechanics, Christian Hellmich,
Franz-Josef Ulm

Coupled Phenomena in Polymers: Electroactive Polymers


2
Thursday, June 28, 11:00-12:30
Executive Conference Center 2A
Chair: Yoseph Bar-Cohen

The Mechanism of Ionic Polymer-Metal Composites,


Swelling or Electrostatic, Jiangyu Li

Design of color changeable electroactive polymers,


Chunye Xu, Hirohisa Tamagawa, Minoru Taya

Design of arrayed EAP actuators, Minoru Taya, Marie


Leguilly, Mikio Uchida

Multi-Scale Modeling of Materials: 1


Thursday, June 28, 11:00-12:30
Executive Conference Center 1
Chairs: George Voyiadjis and Zdenek P. Bazant

Multi-Scale Gradient Damage-Plasticity, (Keynote)


George Z. Voyiadjis, Robert J. Dorgan

Macroscopic damage modeling based on


micromechanical considerations, Jianfu Shao, Djimdo
Kondo, Vincent Pensee

Orthotropic modelling of Alkali-Aggregate Reaction in


concrete : numerical simulations, Bruno Capra, Alain
Sellier

14

Thursday, June 28, 11:00-12:30

Micro-Mechanical Modeling of Dual Phase Steels,


James A. Nemes, Fawzi M. Alabbasi

Sia Nemat-Nasser Symposium: Experiments and Modeling


of Failure of Modern Materials: 6: Modeling of Material
Instabilities and Coupled Processes
Thursday, June 28, 11:00-12:30
Point Loma B
Chairs: Alberto M. Cuitino and Xanthippi Markenscoff

2001 Gradient Theory Update, (Keynote) Elias C.


Aifantis

Instabilities in Coupled Mechano-Thermal Diffusion


Processes, Xanthippi Markenscoff

Estimation of the Stress and Electric Fields of


Dislocations by Three Stress Functions, Sitiro Minagawa

Phase transformations in soft condensed matter: the


case of compressed open-cell solid foams, Gustavo
Gioia, Alberto M. Cuitino

A Model of Anisotropic Deformation in Metals, Douglas


J. Bammann

Particulate Materials: 2
Thursday, June 28, 11:00-12:30
Spinnaker II
Chairs: Melany Hunt and Eric Ragneau

Random voids and constitutive relations for twodimensional dense granular materials, Hayley H. Shen

Numerical Simulation of Granular Materials Subjected


to Cyclic Loading under Constant Volume by Modified
Distinct Element Method, Kazuyoshi Iwashita, Masanobu
Oda

DEM analysis of the behavior of a granular confined


embankment subject to the action of an expansive clay
plug., Samuel Masson, Juan Martinez, Jean-Claude
Robinet

A Sequential Approach For The Simulation Of Granular


Flow Within Full Scale Silos Using The Distinct Element
Method, Daniel Parisi, Samuel Masson, Miguel Laborde,
Juan Martinez

Steve Davis, G.I. Taylor SES Medalist Symposium: Session


2
Thursday, June 28, 11:00-12:30
Coronado B
Chair: Peter Voorhees

Solidification, dissolution and convection in a reactive


porous medium, (Keynote) Herbert E. Huppert

Numerical treatment of the free-boundary problem for


covecting mushy zones., Tim Schulze

Salt-finger convection generated by lateral heating of a


solute gradient, C. F. Chen

Taylor-Couette Instabilities with a Crystal-Melt


Interface, Geoffrey McFadden

Recent Advances in Stability of Structural Components


and Systems: Session 2: Stability of Composite Systems
and Materials
Thursday, June 28, 11:00-12:30
Marina V
Chairs: Hayder Rasheed and J.Geoffrey Chase

Design of MEMS-based Stabilization for Buckling


Constrained Structures, J. Geoffrey Chase, Bram W.
Smith

Buckling of Anisotropic Laminated Composite Rings


under External Pressure, Hayder Rasheed, Omer Yousif

Compressive Failure Prediction from Nonlinear Finite


Element Analysis of Notched 0 Degree Composite
Specimen, Melanie G. Violette

Predictionof Instability-induced Delamination Growth in


Composite Structures, Sami El-Sayed, Srinivasan
Sridharan

Structural Control, Identification and Monitoring: Session


6. Health Monitoring II
Thursday, June 28, 11:00-12:30
Marina II
Chairs: James L. Beck and Dionisio Bernal

A Subspace Approach for the Localization of Damage in


Output-Only Systems., Dionisio Bernal

Time-Varying Modal Identification of Damaged


Structures, Arata Masuda, Akira Sone, Mohammad
Noori

Locating structural damage using wavelet packet


transform and neural network classifer, C.C. Chang, Zhi
Sun

Sensor placement Technique for Structural Damage


Identification, Hong Hao, Yong Xia

SES Student Paper Session: II


Thursday, June 28, 11:00-12:30
Executive Conference Center 3A
Chairs: Assimina Pelegri and Nancy Sottos

Fabrication and Characterization of Porous Shape


Memory Alloys, Eric L. Vandygriff

Evolution of Microstructures and Domain Dynamics,


Yanfei Gao

Effect of rate dependence in cohesive zones under


dynamic crack propagation (SES student competition),
Dhirendra V. Kubair, Philippe H. Geubelle, Yonggang
Huang

Neural Network and Finite Element Modeling of NanoIndentation Tests, Anastasia Muliana, Rejanah Steward,
Rami Haj-Ali, Ashok Saxena

T.H. Lin 90th Birthday Symposium: 6


Thursday, June 28, 11:00-12:30
Coronado A
Chair: Chien H. Wu

New Axioms of Biomechanics, (Keynote) Y.C. Fung

15

Stress Distribution through an Anatomically Shaped


Meniscal Prosthetic: A Possible Bio-Material
Application, Jackie J. Li, Elliot Posner, Eric Lima, Peter
S. Walker

Thursday, June 28, 1:30-3:00

The application of random speckle method to studying


regional functions of the heart, Fu-pen Chiang, Glenn
Gaudette, Joseph Todaro, Irvin B. KrukenKamp
Explicit boundary element method for nonlinear solid
mechanics, David W. Nicholson, Irina M. Ionescu, Alain
J. Kassab

Ted Nicholas Symposium: Innovative Experiments in


Impact Problems: 3
Thursday, June 28, 11:00-12:30
Catalina Ballroom
Chairs: K.T. Ramesh and Nachhatter S. Brar

The Use of High-Speed Digital Laser Photography for


Interrogating the Impact Resistances/Crack Projection of
Composite Panels, Robert L. Sierakowski, Donald R.
Snyder, Jon W. Aus, Eugene R. Chenette

Strain Rate/Temperature sensitivity of Valox and


Cycolac Polymer Composites, Nachhatter S. Brar, Izhar
H. Syed, Anil Saigal, R. Grief

Evaluation of brittleness measures during single-grit


scratching using data dependent systems approach,
Ghatu Subhash, Josh E. Loukus, Sudhakar M. Pandit

Characterization of Polymer Melts Using Kolsky Torsion


Bar Rheometer, Ruqiang Feng, Yungui Hu

A Spinning Rubber Cylinder Undergoing Thermally


Activated Scission and Cross Linking, Alan Wineman,
John A. Shaw
Mechanical And Optical Behavior Of Double Network
Rubbers, Peter H. Mott, C. M. Roland
On the Elastic Behavior of Scission Materials, Markus
Zimmermann, Alan Wineman

Creep Plasticity and Fracture: Session VII- Creep


Fracture
Thursday, June 28, 1:30-3:00
Point Loma A
Chair: O.A. Ruano

Some Aspects Of High Temperature Cavity Growth,


Terry J. Delph

Recent Advances In High Temperature Fracture


Research, James C. Earthman
Fatigue of Advanced Materials: A
Thursday, June 28, 1:30-3:00
Executive Conference Center 3A
Chairs: R.O. Ritchie and W.N. Sharpe, Jr.

Fatigue of Polysilicon - A Review, W.N. Sharpe, Jr., J.


Bagdahn

High-Cycle Fatigue of Silicon-Based MEMS Structures,


C.L. Muhlstein, S.S. Brown, R.O. Ritchie

Surface Morphology Evolution During Fatigue of


Polysilicon MEMS Structures, Seyed M. Allameh,
Pranav Shrotriya, Stuart Brown, Brian Gally

Thermal Cycling Response of Layered Gold/Polysilicon


MEMS Structures, Ken Gall, Martin L. Dunn, Brian
Corff, Yanhang Zhang

Thursday, June 28, 1:30-3:00


Below Macro: Driving Forces of Micromechanics: IIIMicromechanics of irreversible phenomena
Thursday, June 28, 1:30-3:00
Executive Conference Center 3B
Chairs: Franz-Josef Ulm and Luc Dormieux

Failure Properties of Fractured Rock Masses as


Anisotropic Homogenized Media, Patrick de Buhan,
Denis Garnier, Samir Maghous

Multiscale analysis of brittle damage and related issues,


Djimdo Kondo

Use of micromechanics to homogenize the overall


behavior of porous plastic or viscoplastic materials,
Gilles Perrin

Micromechanics based continuum modelling of dry and


saturated (partially/fully) porous media, Anjani K
Didwania

Friction and Interfaces: Friction and Interfaces


Thursday, June 28, 1:30-3:00
Executive Conference Center 2B
Chairs: R. C. Batra

Dynamic of Friction and Surface Roughness, Jamil


Abdo, Kambiz Farhang

Diamond-Like Carbon Nanocontacts, Robert W Carpick,


Kumar Sridharan, Jeffrey R VanLangendon

Friction Effects on the Bearing Performance of Bolted


Composite Joints, Hung-Shyong Chen

Comparison of Coatings Produced Using ElectroPlasma and Traditional Methods, Paul Herrington, Paul
J. Schilling

Characterization of Coefficient of Friction in Dry


Contact, Jamil Abdo, Diana Manasra

Coupled Phenomena in Polymers: Thermo-ChemoDiffuse-Electrical Effects in Elastomers


Thursday, June 28, 1:30-3:00
Executive Conference Center 2A
Chairs: Alan Wineman and Gregory B. McKenna

Limitations on the Strain Energy Function of Rubber


Imposed by the Observed Swelling Dependence of the
Shear Modulus, Gregory B. McKenna

Controlling the Thermally Induced Inhomogeneities in


StressStrain Fields of a Sheared Elastomeric Slab via
Functional Grading, Barry. Bernstein, Ecevit Bilgili,
Hamid Arastoopour

Multi-Scale Modeling of Materials: 2


Thursday, June 28, 1:30-3:00
Executive Conference Center 1
Chairs: Rami Haj-Ali and George Z. Voyiadjis

Numerical Analysis of Macrocrack Propagation Along a


Bimaterial Interface under Dynamic Loading Processes,
(Keynote) Piotr Perzyna, Wojciech Dornowski

16

Thursday, June 28, 1:30-3:00

Multiscale Modeling For Multi-Interacting Inclusion


Problems Including Edge Effects, Valeriy Buryachenko,
Nickolas Pagano
Three-Dimensional Micromechanics-Based Modeling of
Pultruded Composites, Rami Haj-Ali, Hakan Kilic,
Anastasia Muliana
On the physical basis of a mesomodel for laminates:
micro-meso relations, Gilles Lubineau, Pierre Ladeveze

Particulate Materials: 3
Thursday, June 28, 1:30-3:00
Spinnaker II
Chairs: Hayley H. Shen and Colin Thornton

Modelling of silo phenomena for wall pressure


prediction, Jin Y. Ooi

Experiment and modelling of discharge pressure in a full


scale silo, Eric Ragneau, Dominique Guines, Abdel
Monem Sanad, Jin Y. Ooi

Numerical Investigation Of Statistical Properties Of


Micro Slips In Silos, Oleg Vinogradov, Yuri Leonenko

Investigation On The Boundary Of The Flow Area In A


Silo During Discharge, Eric Ragneau, Dominique
Guines, Brahim Kerour

Recent Advances in Stability of Structural Components


and Systems: Session 3: Analysis Methods for Design in
Structural Stability
Thursday, June 28, 1:30-3:00
Marina V
Chairs: Ben Schafer and J.Mark F.G. Holst

Failure mechanisms in metal silo shells supported on


discrete brackets, Martin Gillie, J. Michael Rotter, J.
Mark F.G. Holst, Miriam Muench

Spline Finite Member Element Method For Lateral


Buckling Of Thin-Walled Members With Openings,
Quanfeng Wang

The stability of roof-to-wall junctions in thin metal tanks,


J. Mark F.G. Holst, Christoph Mahrenholtz, J. Michael
Rotter

Direct Strength Prediction of Thin-Walled Beams and


Columns, Ben Schafer

Nonlinear Analysis of a Parametrically Excited


Cantilever Beam (The Effect of the Moment of Inertia of
the Tip Mass), Tomohiko Murakami, Hiroshi Yabuno,
Nobuharu Aoshima

Poster Session:
Thursday, June 28, 1:30-3:00
Executive Conference Center 4
Chair:

Development and characterization of high strength FeMn-(AL, Si) TRIP/TWIP steels, Udo Brx, Grssel
Oliver, Georg Frommeyer

Development of a Test Method for Measuring In-Plane


Modulus and CTE of Supported Thin Films, Martin Y.
Chiang, C.K. Chiang, Wenli Wu

Application of smeared crack model for simulating


alkali-silica reaction in concrete, Eduardo M. Fairbairn,
Michele C. Farage, Jose L. Alves

A Model Of Sensitivity Analysis For Optimum Design Of


Elastic Structures, Yaghob Gholipour

Convective Cahn-Hilliard Models, Alexander Golovin

Normal and Oblique Particle-Wall Collisions in a Fluid,


Gustavo G. Joseph, Melany Hunt
Numerical Modeling of Elastic-plastic Behavior of
Polycrystalline Material, Marko Kovac, Leon Cizelj
Dynamic stability of fluid-conveying cylindrical shells
using a hybrid finite element, Aouni A. Lakis
Parameter Calibration Of 3-D Network Model
Simulating Short-Fiber Reinforced Composites, Naigang
Liang, Xiaoyu Liu, Min Li
Influence of mass variation of impacting body on
response of system containing shock absorber such as
passive and semi-active one, Ken-ichi Maemori, Reiko
Koganei
Experimental Study of Instabilities in Co-extrusion and
Polymer Structure, Mohammad Ranjbaran
Micromechanics of PS/PB/PS Triblock-Copolymer Films
with Lamellar Morphology, Theodora Tzianetopoulou,
Mary C. Boyce, Reshma C. Patil, Jason R. Modzelewski

Fracture Process Zone in Concrete, Hadda Hadjab, Jean


-Franois Thimus, Mohamed Chabaat
Dowel fastener yield theory for timber rivets, Erica
Hansen, Christopher Qualle, Douglas C. Stahl, Marshall
Begel
Assessment of Sandwich Beam in Three-Point Bending
for Measuring Adhesive Shear Modulus, Jianmei He,
Martin Y. Chiang, Donald L. Hunston
Steel Fiber Effects as Shear Reinforcement in Deep
Beams, Ikpyo Hong
A New Approach To Structural Reliability In Fatigue
Failure Based On Automatic learning, Jun Huang
Dynamic Stress Intensity Factors Around A Rectangular
Crack In An Infinite Elastic Layer Between Two
Dissimilar Elastic Half-Spaces Under Impact Load,
Shouetsu Itou

Recent Development in Geomechanics: 1


Thursday, June 28, 1:30-3:00
Spinnaker I
Chairs: K. T. Chau and Leon M. Keer

Stresses between 3D Fractures in Infinite and Layered


Elastic Solids, Leon M. Keer, Chad S. Korach

Analytical solution for finite and transversely isotropic


cylinders under the diametral point load test, K.T. Chau,
X.X. Wei

An upper limit for the longitudinal Poisson's ratio of the


spherically isotropic spheres, X.X. Wei, K.T. Chau

Fracture Mechanics of Rocks, a R-Curve Analysis of


Thougness and Load Relaxation in Bending Tests, Luiz
E. T. Ferreira, Ravindra Gettu, Tlio N. Bittencourt, Jos
L. A. O. Sousa

17

Thursday, June 28, 3:30-5:00

Two-Yield Surface Model for Compacting Porous Rock,


Kathleen A. Issen

T.H. Lin 90th Birthday Symposium: 7


Thursday, June 28, 1:30-3:00
Coronado A
Chair: Marcel Berveiller

An Explicit Secular Equation for Surface Waves in


Elastic Materials of General Anisotropy, Thomas C. T.
Ting

The Limiting Speeds of Dislocations - Revisited, John J.


Gilman

Nonlinear Analysis of Fatigue Laminated Composites


Using a Modified MMB Fixture, Assimina Pelegri, I-Ju
Chen

Fracture in Mechanism-based Strain Gradient Plasticity,


Keh-chih Hwang, Mingxing Shi, Hanqing Jiang,
Yonggang Huang

Effective Moduli of Interfacial Debonded ParticleReinforced Composites, Yinghua Zhao, George J. Weng

Sia Nemat-Nasser Symposium: Experiments and Modeling


of Failure of Modern Materials: 7: Experiments and
Modeling of Fast Growing Cracks
Thursday, June 28, 1:30-3:00
Point Loma B
Chairs: Philippe H. Geubelle and Muneo Hori

High Speed, Two Dimensional, Infrared Observations of


Transient Temperature Vortical Microstructures in
Solids During Adiabatic Shear Banding, (Keynote) Ares
J. Rosakis, Guruswami Ravichandran, Pradeep R.
Guduru

Intersonic Crack Propagation, Young Huang, Huajian


Gao

Combined Numerical and Analytical Weight Function


Method for a Crack Problem, Yoichi Sumi

Crack propagation in a viscoelastic medium under


transient loads, John R. Willis, Yuri Antipov

Ted Nicholas Symposium: Innovative Experiments in


Impact Problems: 4
Thursday, June 28, 1:30-3:00
Catalina Ballroom
Chairs: Guruswami Ravichandran and Wayne Chen

Comments on Rate Sensitivity in Dynamic Plasticity


Problems, Sol R. Bodner

Novel Plate Impact Experiments at High Temperatures - A Study on Temperature Dependent Dynamic
Spallation of Ti-6Al-4V, Horacio D. Espinosa, Hernan V.
Arrieta

Dynamic Constitutive Testing of Metals at Large Strains,


Daniel Rittel, Sangwook Lee, Guruswami Ravichandran

Soft Material Testing with a Split Hopkinson Pressure


Bar, Wayne Chen

Influence of Stress-State and Microstructure on the


Deformation and Failure Behavior of Tungsten Heavy
Alloys, Tusit Weerasooriya

Steve Davis, G.I. Taylor SES Medalist Symposium: Session


3
Thursday, June 28, 1:30-3:00
Coronado B
Chair: George M. Homsy

Dewetting of patterned surfaces by thin liquid films,


Alexander Oron

Dynamics and Rupture of Planar Electrified Fluid


Sheets, Burt S. Tilley, Peter G. Petropoulos, Demetrius T.
Papageorgiou

Steady Vapor Bubbles in Rectangular Microchannels,


Vladimir S. Ajaev, George M. Homsy

Dynamics & Stability of Van der Waals Driven Thin


Film Rupture, Andrew J. Bernoff, Thomas P. Witelski

Feedback Control of Weakly Nonlinear RayleighBenard-Marangoni Convection, Robert E. Kelly, Arthur


C. Or

Thursday, June 28, 3:30-5:00

Structural Control, Identification and Monitoring: Session


7. Benchmark on Health Monitoring I
Thursday, June 28, 1:30-3:00
Marina II
Chairs: Dionisio Bernal and Lambros S. Katafygiotis

Structural Health Monitoring Benchmark Using


Simulated Data, Paul H.F. Lam, Erik A. Johnson,
Lambros S. Katafygiotis, James L. Beck

Damage Detection for the Benchmark Structure Using a


Probabilistic Approach, Ka-Veng Yuen, Siu-Kui Au,
James L. Beck

Localization And Quantification Of Damage In A


Benchmark Structure, Dionisio Bernal, Burcu Gunes

Damage Identification of a 4 Story Benchmark Structure,


Juan M. Caicedo, Shirley Dyke, Erik A. Johnson

Fatigue of Advanced Materials: B


Thursday, June 28, 3:30-5:00
Executive Conference Center 3A
Chairs: Paul Bowen and T.S. Srivatsan

Characterization, Assessment and Modeling of Fibre


Reinforced TiMMCs Under Fatigue Loading, Paul
Bowen

Effects of Temperature on the Fatigue Crack Growth


Behavior of Cast, Lamellar, Gamma-Based Titanium
Aluminides, Christopher Mercer, Jun Lou, Seyed M.
Allameh, W.O. Soboyejo

A Probabilistic Framework for the Modeling of Fatigue


in two Lamellar Gamma Titanium Aluminide Alloys --Ti-47Al-2Mn-2Nb+0.8vol%TiB2 and Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb,
Weimin Shen, A.B.O. Soboyejo, W.O. Soboyejo, Jun
Lou

Study of small fatigue crack growth within notch plastic


field, Wenfong Li

18

Thursday, June 28, 3:30-5:00

Integration and Reliability of New Materials in Integrated


Circuit Fabrication: Copper Interconnects and Low K.
Dielectrics: 1
Thursday, June 28, 3:30-5:00
Executive Conference Center 2B
Chairs: Robert F. Cook and Barry N. Lucas

Adhesion and Mechanical Reliability of New Low-K


Materials for Interconnect Structures, (Keynote)
Reinhold H. Dauskardt

Adhesion of Dielectrics: Porosity and Chemistry Effects,


Michael Lane

Fracture Toughness and Adhesion of Low K Dielectric


Thin Films, Alex A. Volinsky, Joseph B Vella, Burt W
Fowler, Indira S Adhihetty

Environmental Effects On Stress-Corrosion Cracking Of


Organosilicate Glass (Osg) Low-K Dielectric Films,
Ting Tsui, Andrew Mckerrow, Dylan Morris

observations., Ina Schmidt, Andrey Vishnevsky, Rolf


Lammering, Cate Brinson
Influence of the Post-Deformation Annealing Heat
Treatment on the Low-Cycling Fatigue of NiTi Shape
Memory Alloys, Vladimir Brailovski, Patrick Terriault,
Sergei D. Prokoshkin, Bernhard Leuenberger
Development of Ferromagnetic Shape Memory Alloys
Based on FePd System, Robert Liang, Horoyuki Kato,
Minoru Taya, Yuanchang Liang
Vickers Micro-Indentation of NiTi Shape Memory
Alloys, Ken Gall, Kevin Juntunen, Hans J Maier, Huseyin
Sehitoglu
The Thermo-Mechanical Response to a General Loading
Path of a Martensitically Transforming Steel, Franz D.
Fischer, Thomas Antretter, Georges Cailletaud, Peter
Fratzl

Recent Advances in Stability of Structural Components


and Systems: Session 4: Experimental Methods in
Structural Stability
Thursday, June 28, 3:30-5:00
Marina V
Chairs: Edmondu Corona and Melanie G. Violette

Experiments on Braced Thin-Walled Cold-Formed Steel


C and Z Beams in Flexure, Ben Schafer

Buckling of I-beams Under Cyclic Bending, Edmundo


Corona, Shengjun Yin

Dynamic response and buckling of steel columns to


strong vertical ground excitations, Hong Hao, Shijie Cui,
Hee Kiat Cheong

Stability and Saint Venants Principle in Hypoelastic


Materials, Baruch Karp

Multi-Scale Modeling of Materials: 3


Thursday, June 28, 3:30-5:00
Executive Conference Center 1
Chairs: Robert P. Lipton and Raymond Parnes

Buckling Of Nano-Fibre Reinforced Composites : A ReExamination Of Elastic Buckling, (Keynote) Raymond


Parnes, Alexander Chiskis

Modelling of a Thick Laminated Composite, JeanFrancois Caron, alain Ehrlacher

Design of functionally graded composite shafts for


maximum torsional rigidity subject to stress constraints,
Robert P. Lipton, Ani P. Velo

Stress Distribution Around the Anisotropic Interface


Corner, Chyanbin Hwu, Masaki Oomiya, Kikuo
Kishimoto

Recent Development in Geomechanics: 2


Thursday, June 28, 3:30-5:00
Spinnaker I
Chairs: Ching S. Chang and K. T. Chau

Fracture Modeling of Concrete Using Two Different


Microstructural Mechanics Approaches, Tai K. Wang,
Ching S. Chang, Jan G. M. Van Mier, L.J. Sluys

A coupled "Weibull theory - damage mechanics"


approach to model crack induced anisotropy in concrete,
Benot Bary, Alain Sellier

Splitting failure in brittle rocks containing pre-existing


flaws under uniaxial compression, Robina H.C. Wong, P.
Lin, C.K. Au, C.A. Tang

Model-based Simulation of Microcracking Diffusion in


Brittle Solids under Impact Loading, Zhen Chen,
Wenqing Hu

Interaction of cracks with centers of dilatation in an


elastic half-plane, K.T. Chau, X. Yang, R.C.K. Wong

Particulate Materials: 4
Thursday, June 28, 3:30-5:00
Spinnaker II
Chairs: Nicolaie D. Cristescu and Brian Scarlett

A new viscoelastic model for describing


compressibility/dilatancy in particulate systems, Oana
Cazacu, Nicolaie D. Cristescu

Testing and Modeling of Dry Cohesive Particulate


Materials, Ali I. Abdel-Hadi, Nicolaie D. Cristescu

A Novel Micro-Rheometer for Characterizing Cohesive


Powders, James F. Klausner, Christopher Velat, W.
Gregory Sawyer

On Constitutive Models for Powder Compaction at High


Relative Densities, Pia Redanz

Critical State Determination Using a Jenike Shear


Tester, Brent A. Buchine, Kerry Johanson, Brian Scarlett
Physics, Mechanics and Modeling of Phase
Transformations: 1
Thursday, June 28, 3:30-5:00
Executive Conference Center 3B
Chairs: Cate Brinson and David L. McDowell

Studies of SMA response to cyclic loading: strain rate


and cycle dependence with microstructural

19

Thursday, June 28, 5:10-6:10

Sia Nemat-Nasser Symposium: Experiments and Modeling


of Failure of Modern Materials: 8: Failure Mechanisms in
Polycrystalline Materials
Thursday, June 28, 3:30-5:00
Point Loma B
Chairs: Hideyuki Horii and Horacio D. Espinosa

Grain Boundary Resistance To Cleavage Fracture In


Fe-3% Si Alloy And Fe Polycrystals: Experiments And
Modeling, (Keynote) Ali S. Argon, Y Qiao

Creep Mechanisms in a Ni-Co-Cr Based Superalloy,


Fernand D.S. Marquis

Dynamic Fracture Of Tungsten Base Heavy Alloys,


Daniel Rittel, Gil Weisbrod

Quantification of deformation twinning and its


application to modeling of dynamic events, Thomas A.
Mason, John F. Bingert, Paul J. Maudlin, George T. Gray

Application of a Statistical Approach on a Benchmark


Damage Detection Problem, Lambros S. Katafygiotis,
Heung Fai Lam
Identification of the Benchmark Model by the ASCE
Health Monitoring Task Group, Hilmi Lus, Raimondo
Betti, Maurizio De Angelis
Introducing an Experimental Benchmark Problem in
Structural Health Monitoring, Shirley Dyke, Dionisio
Bernal, James L. Beck, Carlos E. Ventura
Experimental Benchmark Problem in Structural Health
Monitoring - Results of Ambient Vibration Studies,
Mehdi Kharrazi, Carlos E. Ventura, Houman Ghalibafian

T.H. Lin 90th Birthday Symposium: 8


Thursday, June 28, 3:30-5:00
Coronado A
Chair: Fu-pen Chiang

Materials/Mechanics Interface and Innovative Materials


Systems, Chine I Chang

Fatigue Behavior of Stitched Stiffened Composite


Panel*, Nanlin Han, Sung Suh, Jenn-Ming Yang,
Thomas Hahn

Micromechanics Based Composites Failure Prediction,


Sheng-Rong Lin

A Review of Micromechanics based Models of


Transformation and Twinning Induced Plasticity,
Mohammed Cherkaoui

Stress Analysis of Brittle Materials: experimental


investigation and numerical modelling, Hadda Hadjab,
Jean -Franois Thimus, Mohamed Chabaat

Smart Materials: Smart Materials


Thursday, June 28, 3:30-5:00
Executive Conference Center 2A
Chairs: Minoru Taya and Dimitris C. Lagoudas

Micromechanics of Composites Consisting of Simple


Machines Embedded in a Matrix, Michael J. O'Brien,
Rafael J Zaldivar, Juliet N. Schurr, Gary F. Hawkins

Elastic Wave Propagation in Electromechanical


Structures Induced by Piezoelectric Actuators, X. D.
Wang, G. L. Huang

Self-Regulating Polymers For Room Temperature


Applications, Ahmed Al-Jumaily, Hussein Kadhum, Paul
Seakins

On Enhancement of Microstructure in Intelligent


Materials, Krystyna Majorkowska-Knap

Ted Nicholas Symposium: Innovative Experiments in


Impact Problems: 5
Thursday, June 28, 3:30-5:00
Catalina Ballroom
Chairs: Michael J. Forrestal and Thomas L. Warren

Predicting Burst Response Of Impacted Pressure


Vessels, Donald A. Shockey, Andreas Brgel, Takao
Kobayashi

Penetration of Limestone Targets by Ogive-Nosed Steel


Projectiles at Oblique Angles, Thomas L. Warren,
Stephen Hanchak, Kevin Poormon, Michael J. Forrestal

Dynamic Shearing Resistance of Molten Metal Films at


High Pressures, Vikas Prakash, Okada Makoto

Performance Evaluation of Accelerometers Used for


Penetration Experiments, Michael J. Forrestal, Thomas
Togami, William Baker, Danny Frew

Steve Davis, G.I. Taylor SES Medalist Symposium: Session


4
Thursday, June 28, 3:30-5:00
Coronado B
Chair: Harris Wong

Modeling and Simulation for Epitaxial Growth with


Elastic Strain, (Keynote) Russel Caflisch

The Morphological Evolution of Thin Films and the


Formation of Quantum Dots, Peter Voorhees, Joshua
Eggleston

A Numerical Study of Electro-migration, Hongkai Zhao,


Zhilin Li, Huajian Gao

A Model for a Spreading and Melting Droplet on a


Heated Substrate, Daniel M Anderson, Gregory Forest,
Richard Superfine

Thursday, June 28, 5:10-6:10

Structural Control, Identification and Monitoring: Session


8. Benchmark on Health Monitoring II
Thursday, June 28, 3:30-5:00
Marina II
Chairs: Shirley Dyke and Dionisio Bernal

Application Of Wavelet Approach For ASCE Structural


Health Monitoring Benchmark Studies, Adriana Hera,
Zhikun Hou

Steven H. Davis: G.I. Taylor SES Medalist Lecture


Thursday, June 28, 5:10-6:10
Pavilion
Chairs: Richard J. Braun and Joe D. Goddard

Contact-Line Mechanics

20

Friday, June 30, 8:00-9:00

Friday, June 30, 8:00-9:00

Robert Hecht-Nielsen: General Lecture


Friday, June 29, 8:00-9:00
Pavilion
Chair: Sia Nemat-Nasser

Thinking: Its all Associative Memory

Material Forces on Singular Surfaces in Thermoelastic


Media, Alexandru Danescu, Cristian Dascalu
Explicit Determination of Piezoelectric Eshelby Tensors
for a Spheroidal Inclusion, Yozo Mikata

Fatigue of Advanced Materials: C


Friday, June 29, 9:00-10:30
Executive Conference Center 3A
Chairs: Reinhold H. Dauskardt and W.O. Soboyejo

Fatigue and Fracture in Thin-Film Structures and


Devices, Reinhold H. Dauskardt

Microelectromechanical Systems for Studying Fatigue


Cracking of Interfaces, J.K. Shang, X. Tan, Z. Xu

Effects of Plastic Constraint on the Cyclic and Static


Fatigue Behavior of Metal/Ceramic Layered Structures,
J.J. Kruzic, J.M. McNaney, R.M. Cannon, R.O. Ritchie

Ratcheting and Hertzian Contact Damage in Model


Dental Multilayers, Pranav Shrotriya, Anette M.
Karlsson, Anthony G. Evans, W.O. Soboyejo

A Dissipated Energy Theory of Fatigue Crack Growth,


Nathan W. Klingbeil

Friday, June 29, 9:00-10:30


Current Development in Micromechanics of Random
Heterogeneous Materials and Bodies: Session 1. Random
Heterogeneous Materials and Non-Local Effects
Friday, June 29, 9:00-10:30
Executive Conference Center 4
Chair: Iwona Jasiuk

Random Heterogeneous Materials: Bridging the


Microscopic and Macroscopic Worlds, (Keynote)
Salvatore Torquato

Micromechanics Of Nonlocal Effects In Heterogeneous


Materials, Valeriy Buryachenko

Micromechanics-Based Nonlocal Constitutive Equations


and Determination of Optimal Effective Moduli for
Random Elastic Composite Materials, Walter J. Drugan

Non-local constitutive equations for functionally graded


materials, Raimondo Luciano, John R. Willis

Geo Dynamics: Geo Dynamics


Friday, June 29, 9:00-10:30
Spinnaker II
Chairs: Jorge F. Meneses-Loja and Ahmed-Waeil Elgamal

Input and System Identification of the Hualien SoilStructure Interaction System Using Earthquake Response
Data, Jun S. Choi, Jong S. Lee

Prediction of ground transmitted vibrations using input


identification techniques from soil-rail interaction
systems, J.H. Lee, J.B. Yun, Jun S. Choi, Jong S. Lee

Diffraction of SH-Waves Around a Arbitrary-Shaped


Rigid Foundation in a Wedge-Shape Half-Space, Nazaret
Dermendjian

Surface Motion Due To The Scattering Of Incident Sh


Waves As Affected By Underground Topography Of
Arbitrary Shape, Michael E. Manoogian

Durability of Elastomeric Material Systems: session 1:


durability and chemical aging
Friday, June 29, 9:00-10:30
Fairbanks A
Chair: X. Allan Zhong

Aspects of Durability of Elastomeric Structures, X. Allan


Zhong, Thomas G. Ebbott

A Constitutive Model for Elastomers Undergoing


Scission and Cross-linking at High Temperatures, Alan
Wineman, John A. Shaw, Alan Jones

Aging Of Natural Rubber In Air And Seawater, Peter H.


Mott, C. M. Roland

Elastomers for Tracked Vehicles, Development of


Rubber Compounds for Bushings, Gumersindo
Rodriguez

Service Life & Durability of Elastomeric Composites,


Zhenhang Liu, Tau C. Fan

Health Monitoring and Retrofitting of Large Civil


Engineering Structures: Session (1)
Friday, June 29, 9:00-10:30
Marina II
Chairs: Urs Sennhauser and A. Emin Aktan

Structural Health Monitoring with a Fresh Perspective,


Aftab A. Mufti, Bakht Baidar, John P. Newhook

Health Monitoring and Management of Highway


Bridges, Darryll Pines, A. Emin Aktan, Mesut
Pervizpour

Health Monitoring of the Confederation Bridge Dynamic Characteristics of the Bridge, Moe Cheung,
Nove Naumoski, Simon Foo

Health Monitoring of Retrofitted Bridges by Fiber Optic


Sensors, Eric Udd, Whitten Schulz, Marty Laylor,
Daniele Inaudi

Eshelbian Mechanics of Materials: EMM-I


Friday, June 29, 9:00-10:30
Coronado A
Chairs: Gerard A. Maugin and Marcelo Epstein

The Eshelby tensor and the theory of continuous


distributions of inhomogeneities, Marcelo Epstein

On Eshelbian Variations and Migrating Control


Volumes, Paolo Podio-Guidugli

Growth & Balance, Antonio Di Carlo, Sara Quiligotti

21

Friday, June 29, 9:00-10:30

Acoustic Emission Monitoring of CFRP Cables for


Cable Stayed Bridges, Francesco Lanza di Scalea,
Piervincenzo Rizzo, Vistasp Karbhari, Frieder Seible

Integration and Reliability of New Materials in Integrated


Circuit Fabrication: Copper Interconnects and Low K.
Dielectrics: 2
Friday, June 29, 9:00-10:30
Executive Conference Center 2B
Chairs: Reinhold H. Dauskardt and Ting Tsui

Fracture and Reliability of Low-Dielectric-Constant


Thin Films, Robert F. Cook

Thermal reliability of CVD low-dielectric thin and


ultrathin film, Hong Zhou, Kim Hyungkun, Frank Shi,
Bin Zhao

Mechanical aspect of ultra low-k materials, Atsushi


Shiota, Eiji Hayashi, Michinori Nishikawa, Kinji
Yamada

Frequency Specific, Depth-Sensing Indentation Testing


of low-k, low-modulus Films, Barry N. Lucas, Jack C.
Hay, Jennifer L. Hay, Erik G. Herbert

Nanostrucutres And Micromechanical Properties Of


Low-Dielectric Organosilicate Thin Films Modified By
Plasma Treatment, Kookheon Char, Sang-Hyon Chu, S.
H. Kim, H. S. Sim

Automated Measurement of Constitutive Material


Properties of Textiles: Direct and Mixed NumericalExperimental Techniques, Prasad Potluri

Multi-Physical Length Scale Modeling Simulation and


Design of Materials and Systems: I
Friday, June 29, 9:00-10:30
Executive Conference Center 2A
Chairs: Ken P. Chong and Daniel Davis

Research And Challenges Of Engineering Mechanics


And Materials In The Twenty First Century, (Keynote)
Ken P. Chong, Daniel Davis

A Multi-Scale Approach Toward Understanding of the


Interphase in Polymer Matrix Composites, Lidvin
Kjerengtroen, William M. Cross, Jon J. Kellar

Multiscale effects in the constitutive behavior of


ferroelectric materials, Christopher Lynch, Wan Shan

Strain Effects on the Activation Energy for Adatom


Migration, Alonso D. Peralta
Multi-Scale Modeling of Materials: 4
Friday, June 29, 9:00-10:30
Executive Conference Center 1
Chairs: Elefterios Lidorikis and Eli Altus

Multiscale Atomistics-Continuum Simulations: Stress


Distributions in Si/Si3N4 Nanopixels., Elefterios
Lidorikis, Martina E. Bachlechner, George Z. Voyiadjis,
Rajiv K. Kalia

Atomistic Simulations of Elastic-Plastic Deformation of


an Amorphous Polymer, Franco M. Capaldi, Mary C.
Boyce, Gregory C. Rutledge

Mechanics of Statistically Heterogeneous Microbeams,


Eli Altus

Equivalent Continuum Modeling of Nano-Structured


Materials, Gregory M. Odegard, Thomas S. Gates, Lee
M. Nicholson, Kristopher E. Wise

Mechanics of Advanced Composites: 1: Mechanics of


Advanced Composites: dynamic fracture
Friday, June 29, 9:00-10:30
Fairbanks B
Chairs: Costas Soutis and Roberta Massab

Dynamic Fracture in Multi-Layered Materials Subjected


to Low-Speed Impact, (Keynote) Luoyu Roy Xu, Ares J.
Rosakis

An Experimental And Numerical Study Of Dynamic


Fiber Push-Out In Composite Materials, John Lambros,
Xiaopeng Bi, Philippe H. Geubelle

Crack bridging in 3D composites under dynamic loads,


Brian N Cox

Thermal Analysis of Crack Tearing, Alan T Zehnder,


Kavi Bhall, Xiaoyan Han, Yingxia Wang

Physics, Mechanics and Modeling of Phase


Transformations: 2
Friday, June 29, 9:00-10:30
Executive Conference Center 3B
Chairs: Sanjay Govindjee and C. Lexcellent

Thermodynamical modeling of the shape memory alloys,


Levente Juhasz, Heiko Andrae

Finite Element Simulation of a Shape Memory Beam


under Static and Dynamic Loading, Franz D. Fischer,
Thomas Antretter, Eduard R. Oberaigner, Olga
Pushtshaenko

A Constitutive Theory of Porous Shape Memory Alloys,


Yi-chao Chen, Guansuo Dui

The Use of Averaging Schemes to Estimate the


Macroscopic Constitutive Behavior of Porous Shape
Memory Alloys, Dimitris C. Lagoudas, Pavlin B. Entchev

Phase Field Theory of Martensitic Transformation in


Inelastic Materials, Valery I. Levitas

Mechanics of Textile Materials: Session 1: Yarn


Mechanics / Experimental Techniques
Friday, June 29, 9:00-10:30
Point Loma A
Chairs: Mary Lynn Realff and Thomas A. Godfrey

Modeling the Mechanical Behavior of Blended Yarns,


Mary Lynn Realff

On the Stress Concentration in Blended Yarns near a


Fiber Break, John N. Rossettos, Thomas A. Godfrey

Mechanics of Hybrid Braided Preforms, Matthew W.


Dunn, Eileen Armstrong-Carroll, Krasi Hristov, Yasser
Gowayed

Online Characterization Of Fabric Compressional


Behavior, Tushar K. Ghosh, Wensheng Huang

22

Friday, June 29, 11:00-12:30

Recent Development in Geomechanics: 3


Friday, June 29, 9:00-10:30
Spinnaker I
Chairs: Jin Y. Ooi and Anil Misra

Scale-Dependent Failure Model For Rocks Based On


Fracture Mechanics, Marte S. Gutierrez

Theoretical analysis of friction effect for finite


transversely isotropic cylinders under the uniaxial
compression test, X.X. Wei, K.T. Chau

Friction Behavior Of Single Fracture Subjected To


Oscillating Loads, Anil Misra

Quantification of the Interrelationship of Surface


Roughness and Hardness on Interface Strength Through
Laboratory Tests and DEM Modeling, David Frost, Jason
DeJong

A higher-order continuum theory for granular media


with application to wave propagation and fracture,
Ching S. Chang, H. Askes, L.J. Sluys

Structural analysis: Structural analysis


Friday, June 29, 9:00-10:30
Marina V
Chairs: Hidenori Murakami and Yeou-Fong Li

Further Investigations And A New Application Of The


belt-Rib Concept:Influence Of The t Solid State
Joints And Numerical Results., Valerio Carli, Lucio
Flavio Campanile, Delf Sachau

Mechanical Integrity Evaluation of Blade Steeple with


Asymmetric Geometry under Centrifugal Loading in
Steam Turbines, Yau-Pin Chyou

A Study on the Control technology of Welding Distortion


During Manufacturing of the Curved Panel, Sang Beom
Shin, Ha Keun Kim

Junction of Thin Shells, Paola Nardinocchi

Optimal Arrangement of Transversal Force-Carrying


Components Within Wing Box Structures, Ji Shen,
Frederick Ferguson

Sia Nemat-Nasser Symposium: Experiments and Modeling


of Failure of Modern Materials: 9: Smart Composite
Materials
Friday, June 29, 9:00-10:30
Point Loma B
Chairs: Burhanettin S. Altan and Mohammed Zikry

Intelligent Design Of Woven Composites, (Keynote)


Joseph Zarka, Thierry Doux

Mechanics of Smart Electrostrictive Composite


Materials, N. Yu, Thada Somphone

Advanced Experimental Techniques For Impact Testing


of Composites, Janusz R. Klepaczko

Micromechanical Modeling of Thermal Residual


Stresses in Polymer Based Composite Materials, Ryszard
Pyrz

Numerical Solution of Shear Localization in JohnsonCook Materials, W. Edward Olmstead, James DiLellio

Vibration and Wave Motion: Vibration and Wave Motion


Friday, June 29, 9:00-10:30
Catalina Ballroom
Chair: Franz Ziegler

Position Control of an Under-Actuated Two-Link


Manipulator with High Frequency Excitation, Kazukuni
Goto, Hiroshi Yabuno, Nobuharu Aoshima

Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) Simulation: A Case-study


for Liquid Dampers, Swaroop K. Yalla, Ahsan Kareem

Remarks on the Behavior of Slewing Flexible Structures,


Jos M. Balthazar, A. Fenili, D. T. Mook

On the Solution of the Equation of Motion Containing


Fractional Derivatives, Moustafa El Shahed

Wave propagation for a finite-spans beam using


propagating and non-propagating waves approach, PeiTai Chen, Wen-Chey Chang

Friday, June 29, 11:00-12:30

Steve Davis, G.I. Taylor SES Medalist Symposium: Session


5
Friday, June 29, 9:00-10:30
Coronado B
Chair: Vladimir S. Ajaev

Dynamics of a Dry Spot, (Keynote) Michael J. Miksis,


S. George Bankoff, M.F.G. Johnson, Gilberto Lopez

Thermocapillary Migration of Bubbles in


Microchannels, George M. Homsy, Ali Mazouchi, Eric
Lajeunesse

Topology of the flows adjacent to a moving contact line


at the limit of dynamic wetting, Peter Ehrhard, Aude
Royon

Modulation as a Probe of Instabilities in


Electroconvection, Michael Dennin

Current Development in Micromechanics of Random


Heterogeneous Materials and Bodies: Session 2.
Micromechanics of Granular Materials
Friday, June 29, 11:00-12:30
Executive Conference Center 4
Chair: Tungyang Chen

Anisotropy in granular materials at different scales,


(Keynote) Philippe Dubujet, Bernard Cambou

Three-Dimensional Micromechanical Modeling of


Particle-Modified Materials, Mats Danielsson, Mary C.
Boyce, David M Parks

Influence of the Gravity and Inertia Forces on the Mean


Stress Tensor of a Granular Medium in Dynamics, Gry
de Saxc

Kinematic and static assumptions for homogenization in


micromechanics of granular materials, Niels P. Kruyt,
Leo Rothenburg

23

Friday, June 29, 11:00-12:30

Durability of Elastomeric Material Systems: session 2:


fracture
Friday, June 29, 11:00-12:30
Fairbanks A
Chair: Guruswami Ravichandran

Mixed-Mode, Time-Dependent Rubber/Metal


Debonding, Kenneth Liechti, Jenq Da Wu

Fracture Mechanics as a Tool for Predicting the


Durability of Elastomeric Components, John Harris

Deformation and Fracture Analysis of the Pure Shear


Test Piece, Oon Hock Yeoh

Quasi-Static and Fatigue Crack Growth of an


Elastomeric Material Using a Modified DCB, Joseph
South, Scott Case, Kenneth Reifsnider

Approximate Energy Release Rate Factorization for the


Analysis of Small Cracks under Finite Strain, Multiaxial
Loading, Will V. Mars

Experimental Techniques for Evaluation of Repaired and


Retrofitted Structures: 1: Nondestructive Evaluation of
Repaired Structures
Friday, June 29, 11:00-12:30
Marina V
Chairs: Laurence Jacobs and Asadul Chowdhury

Nondestructive Measurements of Fracture Energy in


Concrete, Eric Landis, Lucie Baillon

The reassigned Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT)


for damage detection in composites, Christine Valle

Sensing of Structural Peeling of CFRP Fabrics in


Repaired Reinforced Concrete Elements, Ming Zhao,
Farhad Ansari

Ultrasonic Inspection, Acceptance, and Repair of


Earthquake-Damaged Welds, Glenn M. Light, George
Gruber

Damage Detection in Concrete by Experimental


Vibration Analysis, Hani Melhem, Hansang Kim,
Frederick Sheffield

Dynamic Response to Transient Loads: 1:Wind Response


Friday, June 29, 11:00-12:30
Catalina Ballroom
Chairs: Tim Whalen and Steen Krenk

Experimental study of a building model incorporating


viscous-damping walls, Austin D.E. Pan, Ngai Yeung,
Fang Zhang

Optimal Marginal Probability Distribution Of Wind


Effects For Database-Assisted Design Of Low-Rise
Buildings, Fahim Sadek, N. Alan Heckert

The dynamic response of flexible porous membranes,


Chris W. Letchford, A. Vitale

Flow Characteristics over Bluff Bodies Using the Vortex


Lattice Method, Muhammad R. Hajj, L. Qin, D. T. Mook

Determination of Flutter Derivatives from Extended


State Space Representation, Steen Krenk, J. R. Hogsberg,
F. Rudinger

Fatigue of Advanced Materials: D


Friday, June 29, 11:00-12:30
Executive Conference Center 3A
Chairs: Huseyin Sehitoglu and J.K. Shang

Cyclic Deformation Behavior of Single Crystal NiTi,


Huseyin Sehitoglu, Demircan Canadinc, Ibrahim
Karaman, X Zhang

Cyclic Deformation Behavior of Haynes HR-120


Superalloy under Low-Cycle Fatigue Loading, Peter K.
Liaw, Lijia Chen, Yuehui He, Robert L. McDaniels

An Investigation Of The Cyclic Fatigue And Final


Fracture Behavior Of Dispersion Strengthened Copper
And Copper-Niobium Microcomposite., T.S. Srivatsan,
Meslet Al-Hajri, J.D. Troxell

High-cycle Fatigue and Nondestructive Evaluation


(NDE) of Ceramic Matrix Composites, Jeongguk Kim,
Peter K. Liaw, Hsin Wang

Fabric Orientation Effects on the Fatigue Behavior of


CFCCs, Narendernath Miriyala, Peter K. Liaw

Eshelbian Mechanics of Materials: EMM-II


Friday, June 29, 11:00-12:30
Coronado A
Chairs: Reinhold Kienzler and Gerard C. Herman

Need We Postulate A Configurational Force Balance?,


Morton E. Gurtin

Configurational Forces, Morphology Evolution and


Finite Elements, Dietmar Gross, Ralf Mueller, Thomas
Kolling

Eshelby stress: The driving force behind local structural


rearrangements, Gerard A. Maugin

A Constitutive Model For Material Growth And Finite


Element Analysis Of Structural Reorganization, Shoji
Imatani, Gerard A. Maugin

Health Monitoring and Retrofitting of Large Civil


Engineering Structures: Session (2)
Friday, June 29, 11:00-12:30
Marina II
Chairs: Glauco Feltrin and Helmut Wenzel

Dynamic Tests on real Bridges till Failure, Helmut


Wenzel

Damage Assessment Using Vibration Analysis On The


Z24-Bridge, Johan Maeck, Guido De Roeck

The Dynamic Mearsurement of The Full Scale Large


Structure, Zonggong Wang, Zhipeng Chen, Zong-Lian
Qiu

Damage Detection on a Highway Bridge by Modal


Analysis Testing, Glauco Feltrin, Jens P. Ulfkjaer

24

Friday, June 29, 11:00-12:30

Integration and Reliability of New Materials in Integrated


Circuit Fabrication: Copper Interconnects and Low K.
Dielectrics: 3
Friday, June 29, 11:00-12:30
Executive Conference Center 2B
Chairs: John C. Bravman and Matthew R. Begley

Microstructure of Ultra-High Vacuum Sputtered Cu and


Cu-Al Alloy Films, (Keynote) Dirk Weiss, Oliver Kraft,
Eduard Arzt

Constitutive Response of Passivated Copper Films:


Experiments, Analyses and Implications, Yu-Lin Shen,
Upadrasta Ramamurty

Quantifying Mechanical Stresses in Copper


Interconnects, Paul Besser, Matthew Herrick

Characterization of Interfacial Fracture Properties for


Thin Films, T.-C. Chiu, V. Sundararaman, A. HernandezLuna, C. Hartfield

Mechanics of Textile Materials: Session 2: Mechanics of


Woven Fabrics
Friday, June 29, 11:00-12:30
Point Loma A
Chairs: Mohammed Zikry and Thomas A. Godfrey

Deformation Of Plain Weave Fabrics Under Biaxial


Loading, Faruk Taban, Shen-Yi Luo

The Large Deformation Elastic Response Of Woven


Kevlar Fabric, William E. Warren

Multiscale modelling of fabric, Jean-Francois


Ganghoffer, Bernard Haussy

Shear Deformation Analysis of Woven Fabric


Composites during Forming, Anuradha Bulusu, Julie
Chen

Failure Modes in 3D Woven Composites, Jared N.


Baucom, Mohammed Zikry, Yiping Qiu
Multi-Physical Length Scale Modeling Simulation and
Design of Materials and Systems: II
Friday, June 29, 11:00-12:30
Executive Conference Center 2A
Chairs: Raman P. Singh and Daniel Davis

Fracture Of Brittle Polymer Reinforced With Micron


And Nanometer Sized Metal Particles, (Keynote) Raman
P. Singh, Mei Zhang

Elastic Models for Carbon Nanotubes, C.Q. Ru

Optimal Functionally Graded Materials for Transient


Problems, Sergio Turteltaub

Effects of Friction Stir Welding on Composite


Microstructure: Particle Size Distribution, Sarah C.
Baxter, Anthony Reynolds

Mechanics of Advanced Composites: 2: Mechanics of


Advanced Composites: fiber reinforced composites,
sandwich plates, 3D laminates
Friday, June 29, 11:00-12:30
Fairbanks B
Chairs: Joseph Zarka and Brian N Cox

Designing delamination resistant laminates - an


experimentalist's view, (Keynote) Ivana K Partridge

Modelling The Compressive Response Of Woven Fabric


Face-Sheet Honeycomb Sandwich Panels, Costas Soutis,
Mark S. Spearing

Mixed mode delamination in 3D laminates, Roberta


Massab, Brian N Cox

On penny shaped equilibrium cracks in materials


reinforced by fibers, Mikhail Grekov, Nikita Morozov,
Nikolai Ponikarov

Multi-Scale Modeling of Materials: 5


Friday, June 29, 11:00-12:30
Executive Conference Center 1
Chairs: J. W. Ju and Akrum Abdul-Latif

Effective Elastoplastic Damage Model for Fiber


Reinforced Metal Matrix Composites with Evolutionary
Complete Fiber Debonding, J. W. Ju, Huaining Ruan

On The Role Of Higher Order Gradients In Damage And


Fatigue, Rodrigue Desmorat, Elias C. Aifantis

Plastic Fatigue Prediction With Multiscale Modeling,


Akrum Abdul-Latif

Approximate Models for Ductile Sheets with Anisotropic


Plasticity: Theory and Applications, Amine A. Benzerga,
Jacques Besson

An Analogical Model for Microstructural Fatigue


Thresholds, Omar M Ahmad

Mechanics of Soil-Structure Interaction: Mechanics of


Soil-Structure Interaction - Session I
Friday, June 29, 11:00-12:30
Spinnaker II
Chairs: Rudolf F. Stark and Euclides Mesquita

A Time Domain Boundary Element Formulation for


Inelastic Solids, Martin Schanz

A Discontinuous Galerkin Method for Modeling


Transient Wave Propagation in Unbounded Media, SiHwan Park, John L. Tassoulas

Impedance of a Rigid Inclusion in a Transversely


Isotropic Medium, Nimal Rajapakse, Yaoping Wang

Vertical Compliances of Plane and Axisymmetric Rigid


Foundation Embedded in a Transversely Isotropic Half
Space, Euclides Mesquita, Persio L.A. Barros, Renato M.
Barros

Physics, Mechanics and Modeling of Phase


Transformations: 3
Friday, June 29, 11:00-12:30
Executive Conference Center 3B
Chairs: Dimitris C. Lagoudas and Franz D. Fischer

Modeling of the Multi-Axial Behavior of Shape Memory


Alloys, Patrick Terriault, Vladimir Brailovski, Francois
Trochu

25

Friday, June 29, 1:30-3:00

A Multi-Variant Martensitic Phase Transformation


Model: Formulation and Numerical Implementation,
Sanjay Govindjee
Duality Theory and Analytic Solutions in Phase
Transitions with Applications, David Y. Gao
The Macroscopic Behavior of Ferroelectic Polycrystals:
Transformation Strains and Spontaneous Polarization,
Jiangyu Li, Kaushik Bhattacharya
Domain Switch and hysteresis Behavior in Ferroelectric
Ceramics, Jackie J. Li, George J. Weng

Friday, June 29, 1:30-3:00


Current Development in Micromechanics of Random
Heterogeneous Materials and Bodies: Session 3. Continua
with Microstructure
Friday, June 29, 1:30-3:00
Executive Conference Center 4
Chair: Qi-Chang He

Thermodynamic Of Damage Evolution In Disordered


Materials, (Keynote) Dusan Krajcinovic

Micromechanics of Deformation in Particle-Toughened


Semi-Crystalline Polymers, Ethan M. Parsons, Mary C.
Boyce, David M. Parks

Effects of size, shape and anisotropy of single crystals on


representative volume elements of polycrystals -Numerical experiments and theoretical verification, Q.-S.
Zheng, Z.-Y. Ren

Texture evolution of continua with single crystal


microstructure, Philippe Tamagny, Maurizio Brocato,
Alain Ehrlacher

Recent Development in Geomechanics: 4


Friday, June 29, 11:00-12:30
Spinnaker I
Chairs: Tang-Tat Ng and Zhen Chen

Experimental Study On Damage Around An Opening In


Jointed Rock Mass, Robina H.C. Wong, P. Lin, K.T.
Chau

Fabric of Ellipsoidal Assemblies, Tang-Tat Ng

The Modelling of Gas Outburst, Sing Ki Choi

Bounded Film Evolution with Nonlinear Surface


Properties, Richard J. Braun, Cynthia A. Spade, Steven
A. Snow

Measurement of coal handling properties for industrial


applications, Jin Y. Ooi, Z. Zhong, J. Michael Rotter
Energy Dissipation and Dilation during Shear
Localization of Granular Assembly, Takashi
Matsushima, Kazuo Konagai

Sia Nemat-Nasser Symposium: Experiments and Modeling


of Failure of Modern Materials: 10: Modeling of Wave
Phenomena in Advanced Materials
Friday, June 29, 11:00-12:30
Point Loma B
Chairs: Lawrence Kabacoff and David L. McDowell

Grain Level Analysis Of Ceramic Microstructures


Subjected To Dynamic Loading, (Keynote) Horacio D.
Espinosa, Pablo Zavattieri

Simulation of single-grit high-speed scratch test in


ceramic materials, Philippe H. Geubelle, Spandan Maiti

Mixed-Mode Interfacial Failure of Thin Films Using


Laser Generated Stress Waves, Nancy Sottos, Junlan
Wang, Richard Weaver

On Scattering of an SH-Wave by a Corner Comprised of


Two Different Elastic Materials, Arthur K. Gautesen

Durability of Elastomeric Material Systems: session 3:


Damage & Fatigue
Friday, June 29, 1:30-3:00
Fairbanks A
Chair: Kenneth Liechti

Micro In-situ SEM Study of Abrasive Wear of


Elastomeric Materials, Hang Qi, Mary C. Boyce

Fatigue Failure of Filled Elastomers: Cumulative


Damage and Failure Envelope Approaches, Gregory B.
McKenna

Damage Mechanics as Applied to Prediction of Damage


Evolution and Fatigue Lifetime of Elastomers, Hongbing
Lu, Bo Wang

Residual-Strength-Based Life Prediction of Elastomeric


Materials, Scott Case, Joseph South

Fracture Behavior of Particulate Reinforced


Elastomeric Composites under Superposed Pressure,
Guruswami Ravichandran, Eric Burcsu, Chi T. Liu

Steve Davis, G.I. Taylor SES Medalist Symposium: Session


6
Friday, June 29, 11:00-12:30
Coronado B
Chair: Burt S. Tilley

On the gravity-driven draining of a rivulet of


viscoplastic material down a slowly-varying substrate,
(Keynote) Stephen K. Wilson, Brian R. Duffy, Andrew
B. Ross

Material Instability with Stress Localization, Joe D.


Goddard

Hydrodynamic coupling at an air/water interface in the


presence of an insoluble monolayer, Juan M. Lopez,
Amir H. Hirsa

Dynamic Response to Transient Loads: 2: Impact and


Blast
Friday, June 29, 1:30-3:00
Catalina Ballroom
Chairs: Steven J. Smith and Dennis Parsons

Computational Simulations of Blast Effects on Civil


Infrastructure Systems, Dennis Parsons, A. Acharya, P.
Alavilli, J. Jiao

Architectural Design of Blast Resistant Glazing, H. Scott


Norville, Edward J. Conrath

Occupant Protection From Injurious Window Debris


Caused By A Terrorist Bomb, John E. Crawford, Daniele
Pelessone, Brian W. Dunn

26

Friday, June 29, 1:30-3:00

Blast Indicators and Damage Assessment for Ford


Rouge Powerhouse Number 1- Dearborn, Michigan,
Jeffrey L. Garrett, R. Thomas Long, Steven J. Smith
Use of Non-Standard Materials to Upgrade Masonry
Walls Against Blast Loads, David R. Coltharp

Health Monitoring and Retrofitting of Large Civil


Engineering Structures: Session (3)
Friday, June 29, 1:30-3:00
Marina II
Chairs: Kenneth W. Neale and Masoud Motavalli

Finite Element Modelling of Concrete Structures


Strengthened with Fibre Reinforced Plastics, Geir
Horrigmoe, Bjornar Sand

Numerical Simulations of Deteriorated and Repaired


Concrete Structures, Geir Horrigmoe

A Novel Approach to Model Delamination Failure in


FRP Strengthened Concrete Beam, Christopher K.
Leung, Marcus Klenke, W.K. Tung, Herman C. Luk

Inelastic Analysis of Concrete Beams Strengthened with


Cross-ply FRP, Hayder Rasheed, Shariq Pervaiz

Eshelbian Mechanics of Materials: EMM-III


Friday, June 29, 1:30-3:00
Coronado A
Chairs: Paolo Podio-Guidugli and Morton E. Gurtin

The Conjugate Roles of Eshelby Stress and


Eigentransformation in Composition-Generated and
Stress-Assisted Diffusion, Chien H. Wu

A Thermodynamic Theory of Damage in Elastic Solids


and Effect of Microstructure, George Herrmann

Eshelbian Mechanics of Structural Changes in Inelastic


Materials, Valery I. Levitas

Stresses And Momenta In Electromagnetic Materials,


Carmine Trimarco

Integration and Reliability of New Materials in Integrated


Circuit Fabrication: Copper Interconnects and Low K.
Dielectrics: 4
Friday, June 29, 1:30-3:00
Executive Conference Center 2B
Chairs: William W. Gerberich and Paul Besser

In-Situ Dynamic Studies of Electromigration in Copper


Metallizations, (Keynote) John C. Bravman, Jonathan
Doan, Seok-Hee Lee, Nicole Meier

In-Situ X-Ray Microdiffraction Observation Of Strain


Evolution In Cu Damascene Lines Under The Influence
Of Electromigration On A One Micron Scale, Ralph
Spolenak, Nobumichi Tamura, Bryan Valek, Dave L.
Barr

Thermo-mechanical Stability in Elastic/Elastic-plastic


Multi-layer Systems, Matthew R. Begley, Joseph M.
Ambrico, Edward E. Jones, Anthony G. Evans

Thermomechanical Failures In Interconnects: Metal Pad


Crawling And Passivation Film Cracking, Zhigang Suo,
Min Huang, Qing Ma, Harry Fujimoto

Experimental Techniques for Evaluation of Repaired and


Retrofitted Structures: 2: Sensor Technology
Friday, June 29, 1:30-3:00
Marina V
Chairs: Farhad Ansari and Ming Wang

Scanning White Light Fiber Optic Interferometric Sensor


for Large Structural Systems, Yang Zhao, Farhad Ansari

Lamb Wave Technique to Characterize Repaired


Concrete, Laurence Jacobs, Kritsakorn Luangvilai,
Wonsiri Punurai

A New Stress Sensor for Cables in Cable-Stayed Bridges


Using Magnetoelastic Measurements, Ming Wang

The Strengthening of RC Flexural Members by Attaching


Steel Plates Laterally, Chuan-Wei Wu, Sing-Tai Hsiao
Fatigue of Advanced Materials: E
Friday, June 29, 1:30-3:00
Executive Conference Center 3A
Chairs: Ken P. Chong and Peter K. Liaw

An Investigation of Short and Long Fatigue Crack


Growth in Ti-6Al-4V with Colony and Equiaxed
Microstructures, W.O. Soboyejo

A Mechanics Modeling Framework for the Prediction of


Fatigue Crack Growth in Ti-6Al-4V with Colony
Microstructures, S. Shademan, A.B.O. Soboyejo, W.O.
Soboyejo

An Investigation of the Effects of Microstructure on


Fatigue Crack Growth in Ti-6242, Weimin Shen, A.B.O.
Soboyejo, W.O. Soboyejo

Characterization of the Temperature Evolution during


Fatigue of ULTIMET Alloy: Experiment and Theoretical
Modeling, Peter K. Liaw, Liang Jiang, Charlie R. Brooks,
Hsin Wang

High Temperature, High Frequency Fatigue Crack


Propagation Thresholds in a Nickel-Base Turbine Disk
Alloy, Amit Shyam, Santo A. II Padula, Sotiris Marras,
Walter W. Milligan

Mechanics of Advanced Composites: 3: Mechanics of


Advanced Composites: fracture models
Friday, June 29, 1:30-3:00
Fairbanks B
Chairs: David B. Marshall and Roberta Massab

Porous-Matrix All-Oxide Ceramic Composites:A New


Paradigm In Matrix-Enabled Damage Tolerance,
(Keynote) Frank W. Zok

Characterization of Interlaminar Tension Strength and


Failure in CMC, Leif A. Carlsson, Ronald R. Cairo

Criterion of delamination initiation in composite


laminates, Jean-Francois Caron, Alberto Diaz-Diaz, Rui
Pedro Carreira

Effect of Bond Thickness on Damage Zone around a


Crack Tip in Adhesive Joint, Lee Deok-bo, Ikeda Toru,
MiyazakiNoriyuki

27

Friday, June 29, 1:30-3:00

Mechanics of Soil-Structure Interaction: Mechanics of


Soil-Structure Interaction - Session II
Friday, June 29, 1:30-3:00
Spinnaker II
Chairs: Martin Schanz and Nimal Rajapakse

A boundary element analysis for surface foundations on


non-homogeneous elastic soils, Rudolf F. Stark

Vibrations generated by moving trains: the effect of a


rail embankment, Auke Ditzel, Gerard C. Herman

An Analysis Of Frequency Domain Green And Influence


Functions For Horizontally Layered Transverse
Isotropic Viscoelastic Continuum., Euclides Mesquita,
Persio L.A. Barros, Renato M. Barros

Simplified Dynamic Soil-Structure Interaction Analyses


by Means of Boundary Differencial Equations, Toyoaki
Nogami, Harn Shean Chen

Micromechanical Modeling of Ceramic Composite


Durability, Howard G Halverson, Scott Case, William A
Curtin
The Use of Model Composites to Study Quasi-static and
Time-dependent Load-sharing, Tozer Bandorawalla,
Scott Case
Fracture behavior of softwood, Ian Smith, Svetlana
Vasic

Physics, Mechanics and Modeling of Phase


Transformations: 4
Friday, June 29, 1:30-3:00
Executive Conference Center 3B
Chairs: Stefan Seelecke and Krishna Garikipati

Evaluating Cyclic Actuation of Thin Film Shape Memory


Alloy, Daniel D. Shin, Gregory P. Carman, Adrienne
Lavine

Transformation Surfaces and Normality for Random and


Textured Pseudoelastic Cu-Zn-Al Shape Memory Alloys,
Douglas Aleong, Cyril Dumont, David L. McDowell,
Shabnam Arbab Chirani

In situ SEM & EBSD Observation of Variant Formation,


Detwinning and Reorientation in CuAlNi Single Crystals,
Xiujie Gao, Cate Brinson

Influence of Surface Modification on Indentation and


Wear Behavior in NiTi Shape Memory Alloy, Wendy C.
Crone, Lizhen Tan, Erik H. Wilson, Kumar Sridharan

Deformation of NiTiCu Shape Memory Single Crystals,


Huseyin Sehitoglu, Ibrahim Karaman, X Zhang, Yuriy
Chumlyakov

Mechanics of Textile Materials: Session 3: Non-Woven and


Knitted Materials
Friday, June 29, 1:30-3:00
Point Loma A
Chairs: Ning Pan and Thomas A. Godfrey

Symmetry Considerations in Mechanics of Textile


Structures, (Keynote) A.S. Abhiraman, Han Seong Kim,
Vinoo Sharma, Jeffrey Rice

Physical And Numerical Models For Fiber Networks,


Douglas C. Stahl, Martin Ostoja-Starzewski

Some Thoughts on Mechanics and Physics of Fibrous


Structures, Ning Pan
Multi-Physical Length Scale Modeling Simulation and
Design of Materials and Systems: III
Friday, June 29, 1:30-3:00
Executive Conference Center 2A
Chairs: Pedro Ponte Castaeda and Daniel Davis

Micromechanics-Based Nonlocal Constitutive Equations


for Elastic Composites Containing Non-Spherical
Inclusions, (Keynote) Ilaria Monetto, Walter J. Drugan

Multiscale modeling in biological nanocomposites for a


simulation-based materials design, Kalpana Katti,
Dinesh R. Katti, Jingpeng Tang, Jeffrey Sopp

Solute drag and segregation, properties of migrating


interfaces, Jiri Svoboda, Dieter Fischer, Ernst Gamsjger

On the Nature of Atomic and Molecular-Scale Stress in


Polymeric Systems, Catalin R. Picu

Recent Development in Geomechanics: 5


Friday, June 29, 1:30-3:00
Spinnaker I
Chairs: Kanthasamy K. Muraleetharan and Emir Jose
Macari

First Strain Gradient Elasto-Plastic Model for Strain


Localization Analysis, Ching S. Chang, Qingsong Shi,
Takashi Matsushima

Stress-Strain Behavior of Unsaturated Soils: An


Elastoplastic Approach, Kanthasamy K. Muraleetharan,
Yunming Yang

Constitutive Modeling of Cohesionless Granular


Materials Using Disturbed State Concept, Emir Jose
Macari, Prasad M. Samarajiva, G Wije Wathugala

Elastoplastic Modelling of Granular Materials under


Large Number of Cycles, Pierre-Yves Hicher, Derradji
Fedghouche

Element Free Galerkin Method for the Transient


Response of Saturated porous Elastic Solids, Md. Rezaul
Karim, Toyoaki Nogami, Jian-Guo Wang

Multi-Scale Modeling of Materials: 6


Friday, June 29, 1:30-3:00
Executive Conference Center 1
Chairs: Amjad J. Aref and Yacoub "Jacob" Najjar

A Genetic Algorithm-Based Approach for Design


Optimization of Fiber Reinforced Polymer Structural
Components, Amjad J. Aref, He Yihong

On the Use of Feed-back Neuro-Mechanistic Approach


in Characterizing the Stress-Strain Behavior of Canadian
River Sand, Yacoub "Jacob" Najjar, Xiaobin " Carol"
Zhang

28

Friday, June 29, 3:30-5:00

Sia Nemat-Nasser Symposium: Experiments and Modeling


of Failure of Modern Materials: 11: Multiscale
Experiments and Modeling of Materials
Friday, June 29, 1:30-3:00
Point Loma B
Chairs: Lawrence Kabacoff and Horacio D. Espinosa

Measurements at the Micron and Nanometer scales,


(Keynote) Wolfgang Knauss, Ioannis Chasiotis, Ying
Huang

On the Measurement of the Plasticity Length-Scale in


LIGA Nickel MEMS Structures, Pranav Shrotriya, Seyed
M. Allameh, Jun Lou, Tom Bucheit

Microstructure-Scale Modeling of HCF Deformation,


David L. McDowell, Ryan Morrissey, Chun-Hyun Goh

A Multiscale Modeling Approach for Ta Crystals,


Alberto M. Cuitino, Tahir agin, William A. III
Goddard, Michael Ortiz

Analytical And Computational Description Of Effect Of


Grain Size On Yield Stress Of Metals, Hsueh-Hung Fu,
David Benson, Marc Meyers

Optimization Problems, Nam Seo Goo, Young-Doo


Kwon, Soon Bum Kwon, Seung Jin
Comparing Classical and Neural regression Techniques
in Model oil Viscosity behavior, Adel Elsharkawy

Current Development in Micromechanics of Random


Heterogeneous Materials and Bodies: Session 4.
Micromechanics of Composite Materials
Friday, June 29, 3:30-5:00
Executive Conference Center 4
Chair: Raimondo Luciano

Multi-Scale Mechanics Analysis Of Trabecular Bone,


Iwona Jasiuk, Frederic Bouyge, Martin OstojaStarzewski

Neutral Coated Inhomogeneities in Torsion, Tungyang


Chen, Yakov Benveniste

Microgeometry-Independent Symmetry Conditions For


The Effective Moduli Of Heterogeneous Materials, QiChang He

High Strain Compression Of Random Open Cell Foams,


Amina Alaoui-Soulimani, Myriam Laroussi, Karam SAB

A Micromechanics Model to Predict the Response and


Failure of Concrete, Jacob Rome, S. Nemat-Nasser

Turbulence Measurement and Modeling: 1


Friday, June 29, 1:30-3:00
Coronado B
Chairs: Muhammad R. Hajj and Hamn-Ching Chen

Assessment of the Paul Wavelet for Analysis of Pressure


Peaks on Low-Rise Structures, Chris Chabalko, Donald
A. Jordan, Muhammad R. Hajj

Time-Domain Simulation of Ship Roll Motions Including


Capsizing, Hamn-Ching Chen, Tuanjie Liu, Erick T.
Huang

Effects of Time Variations on the Stability of a Swirling


Jet, Muhammad R. Hajj, Mark D. Carrara

Visualization of Magnetic Micro-sphere Mixing in


Biological Fluid Flow Using Color PIV, Sheng-Yuh Jaw,
Yousef Haik, Ching-Jen Chen

Turbulence Characteristics in a Gradual Channel


Transition, A. N. Papanicolaou, Robert Hilldale

Simulation of Combined Wave and Current Effects on


Submerged and Floating Sea Caches, Hamn-Ching
Chen, Tuanjie Liu, Erick T. Huang

Durability of Elastomeric Material Systems: session 4:


Characterization of elastomeric materials
Friday, June 29, 3:30-5:00
Fairbanks A
Chair: Hongbing Lu

Testing And Modeling Of Polypropylene Foams At


Dynamic High Strain, Amina Alaoui-Soulimani,
Sebastien Gervillers

Characterizing Viscoelastic Properties Of Thin


Elastomeric Membrane, Kuo Kang Liu, Bingfeng Ju

Effective Hyperelasticity of Magnetorheological


Elastomers: A Micromechanical Framework, Lizhi Sun,
Huiming Yin, J. S. Chen

Mixed-mode Fatigue Characterization of Elastomeric


Bushing Compounds, Joey Mead, Randall Kezar, Ross
Stacer, Gumersindo Rodriguez

Deformation and recovery behavior of soft roll cover


materials, Taina Vuoristo, Veli-Tapani Kuokkala, Erno
Keskinen

Friday, June 29, 3:30-5:00

Dynamic Response to Transient Loads: 3: Soil Dynamics


Friday, June 29, 3:30-5:00
Catalina Ballroom
Chairs: Ahmed El-Gamal and Zhaohui Yang

Dynamic Behavior of Pile Group Foundations, Boris


Jeremic, Zhaohui Yang

Earthquake-induced permanent deformation of


embankments, Jorge F. Meneses-Loja

Diffraction of P-waves by Underground Circular


Cylindrical Cavities In Fluid-Saturated Porous Medium,
Chi-Hsin Lin

Identification Analyses Of The Dynamic Response Of


Soil Systems, Mourad Zeghal, Caglar Oskay

Computational methods and analysis: Computational


methods and analysis
Friday, June 29, 3:30-5:00
Spinnaker II
Chairs: Geir Horrigmoe and Douglas J. Bammann

3-D Finite element simulation of dynamic ductile


fracture using tetrahedral element, Dong-Teak Chung,
Chan Hwang, Soo-Ik Oh, Soon-Nam Chang

Finite Element Analyses of Long cylinder Problems


Using Compatible/Incompatible Elements, Young-Doo
Kwon, Nam Seo Goo, Sang Mok Shin, Chan Bok Lee

Convergence Enhanced Genetic Algorithm with


Successive Zooming Method for Solving Continuous

29

Friday, June 29, 3:30-5:00

Shock Waves In De-Liquefying Soil, Bruce L Kutter,


Daniel W. Wilson

Eshelbian Mechanics of Materials: EMM-IV


Friday, June 29, 3:30-5:00
Coronado A
Chairs: Chien H. Wu and Gerard A. Maugin

Fracture criteria based on local properties of the


Eshelby tensor, Reinhold Kienzler

On the role of configurational-force balance in a phasefield theory for pure interface motion, Eliot Fried

Geometrical Modeling of Cold Drawing (Necking) in


Engineering Thermoplastics, Alexander Chudnovsky,
Serge Preston

Coupled Numerical Simulation of Crack Growth Under


Thermal Loading, Thomas Siegmund, Ashwin
Hattiangadi

A Study to Estimate Instantaneous Crack Length Using


the Separability Parameter Spb, Luis A. de Vedia,
Anbal N. Cassanelli, Jesica Wainstein

And Repair Materials, W. Jason Weiss, John D. Shane,


Thomas O. Mason, Surendra P. Shah
The Behavior of Fiber-Reinforced Polymer
Reinforcement in Low Temperature Environmental
Climates, Yunping Xi, Renee Cusson

Health Monitoring and Retrofitting of Large Civil


Engineering Structures: Session (4)
Friday, June 29, 3:30-5:00
Marina II
Chairs: Aftab A. Mufti and Christopher K. Leung

Behaviour of FRP Sheets Bonded to Concrete, Kenneth


W. Neale, Laurent Bizindavyi

Seismic Retrofit of a R/C Building with Carbon Fiber


Reinforced Polymers, Oguzhan Bayrak

Monitoring of CFRP structural elements in bridges, Urs


Sennhauser, Peter Anderegg

How To Make Better Use of the Strength, Urs Meier,


Iwan Stoecklin
Integration and Reliability of New Materials in Integrated
Circuit Fabrication: Copper Interconnects and Low K.
Dielectrics: 5
Friday, June 29, 3:30-5:00
Executive Conference Center 2B
Chairs: Ralph Spolenak and Dirk Weiss

Length Scale Factors in the Adhesion of Al and Cu


Films, William W. Gerberich, Alex A. Volinsky

A new halogen-free organometallic family of precursors


for CVD copper seed layers: design,characterization and
process development, Rolf U. Claessen

The effect of the IMD confinement architecture on the


electromigration in Al interconnect, Valeriy Sukharev

Solid solution strengthening effects in Pt-Ru thin films,


Richard P. Vinci

Experimental Investigations: Experimental Investigations


Friday, June 29, 3:30-5:00
Executive Conference Center 3A
Chairs: Guruswami Ravichandran and Ghatu Subhash

Use of the Hole Drilling and Spherical Indentation


Procedures to Determine Heat Treated Steel Material
Properties., Grard Mauvoisin, Rochdi El Abdi, Olivier
Bartier, Ali Nayebi

Time Dependent Properties of Steel Fiber Reinforced


Concrete., Vidya Sagar Batra

3D micro tomography (CT) of cellular metals using an


up to 320kV X-ray tube, Bernhard Illerhaus, Elena
Jasiuniene

Evaluation of diffusion coefficient of chloride in


concrete, Srividya Verma, Shantharaju Kumarappachar

The Effect of Nitrogen Alloying on Twinning and


Deformation Modeling of Hadfield Steel Single Crystals,
Ibrahim Karaman, Huseyin Sehitoglu, Yuriy
Chumlyakov, Hans J Maier

Mechanics of Advanced Composites: 4: Mechanics of


Advanced Composites: textile composites
Friday, June 29, 3:30-5:00
Fairbanks B
Chairs: Frank W. Zok and Brian N Cox

Integrally Woven Ceramic Composites for Active


Cooling, (Keynote) David B. Marshall, M. Berbon,
Brian N Cox, K. Rugg

Multidisciplinary Optimal Design Of Woven Composites,


Joseph Zarka, Thierry Doux

A New Generation Of 3-D Woven Composites:


Manufacturing, Properties And Applications, Alexander
E. Bogdanovich, James N. Singletary, Mansour H.
Mohamed

Textile Mechanics Approach to Predictive Modelling of


Composites, Prasad Potluri

Experimental Techniques for Evaluation of Repaired and


Retrofitted Structures: 3: Laboratory
Investigations/Techniques for Evaluating Repaired
Structures
Friday, June 29, 3:30-5:00
Marina V
Chairs: W. Jason Weiss and Gongkang Fu

Non-contact wave sensing for concrete structures, John


S. Popovics

Laser Profilometry for Concrete Roughness


Characterization for Externally Bonded Fiber Reinforced
Laminates, John Myers, Norbert Maerz, Xianlin Shen

Optical Measurement of Structural Displacement,


Gongkang Fu, Adil Moosa, Jian Ye, Poudel Upendra

Measuring Moisture Gradients With Electrical


Impedance: Potential Applications In Concrete Overlay

30

Multi-Physical Length Scale Modeling Simulation and


Design of Materials and Systems: IV
Friday, June 29, 3:30-5:00
Executive Conference Center 2A
Chairs: Wei Tong and Daniel Davis

Characterization of Material Length Scales by Plastic


Strain Mapping, (Keynote) Wei Tong

A Quasi-Continuum Approach for Poly-Disperse


Granular Systems, Alberto M. Cuitino, Shanfu Zheng,
Gustavo Gioia

Fracture Nucleation in Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes


under Tension: A Continuum Analysis Incorporating
Interatomic Potentials, Peng Zhang, Yonggang Huang,
Huajian Gao, Keh-Chih Hwang

Evolution of Hardening in Clays with Varying Strain


Rate, Dinesh R. Katti, Jingpeng Tang, Frank Yazdani
Effect of Fines Content on Soil Damping Using
Improved Transfer Function Estimators, Farshad Amini
Reliability Analysis of Excavation Slopes in Clayey Soils,
Devdas Menon, K Krishnan Nair, S R Gandhi
Stress Distribution in Geosynthetic Reinforced Soil
Retaining Structure, Sao-Jeng Chao

Sia Nemat-Nasser Symposium: Experiments and Modeling


of Failure of Modern Materials: 12: Advances in
Computations and Experiments
Friday, June 29, 3:30-5:00
Point Loma B
Chairs: N. Yu and Werner Goldsmith

Evolving strong and weak discontinuities and level sets


in finite elements, (Keynote) Ted Belytschko, Nicholas
Moes, Anthony Gravouil, Jack Chessa

A novel averaging scheme for heterogeneous


nanostructural materials, Burhanettin S. Altan, Ghatu
Subhash

Asymptotic crack tip stress, rotation pseudostress,


dislocation fields for mixed I & II mode cracks in elastic
perfectly plastic solids, Johannes Weertman

Momentum redistribution in projectile/target impact,


Werner Goldsmith, Gabriele Cipparrone, Benjamin C.
Bourne, Dennis Orphal

Multi-Scale Modeling of Materials: 7


Friday, June 29, 3:30-5:00
Executive Conference Center 1
Chairs: Ramesh Talreja and Janis Varna

A general 3-D micro-macro model for brittle materials :


construction and applications, Vincent Pensee, Djimdo
Kondo

Compressive Strength of Unidirectional Polymer


Composites Obtained from Test of Multidirectional
Laminates, Roberts Joffe, Janis Varna

Inelastic time-dependent response of continuos fiber


reinforced composites, Modris Megnis, Janis Varna

Elastic lattice distortion and yield criterion in crystals,


Andrzej Korbel

Dynamic compressive strength of SiC under multi-axial


loading, Sai Sarva, S. Nemat-Nasser
Physics, Mechanics and Modeling of Phase
Transformations: 5
Friday, June 29, 3:30-5:00
Executive Conference Center 3B
Chairs: Valery I. Levitas and Ken Gall

Explosive Crystallization in Thin Films, Sinisa Dj.


Mesarovic, Dana M. Elzey

Atomically-based continuum formulations for diffusional


transformations mediated by mechanics, Krishna
Garikipati

Self-similar Growth of Multiple Compound Layers in


Binary Diffusion Couples, Harris Wong, Wanxi Kan

Interactive WWW Page for the Simulation of Shape


Memory Alloys, Stefan Seelecke, Olaf Heintze

Nonlinear Dynamics of Martensitic Transformation and


Resonance Initiation of Supercompression in Convergent
Waves, Oleg Naimark
Recent Development in Geomechanics: 6
Friday, June 29, 3:30-5:00
Spinnaker I
Chairs: Pierre-Yves Hicher and Anil Misra

Inverse Analysis Applied to Soil Parameter


Identification, Pierre-Yves Hicher, Grard Moulin,
Damien Rangeard, Rachid Zentar

31

Abstracts of
Scheduled Presentations
Listed alphabetically according to symposia. See Table of
Contents for organization

33

Below Macro: Driving Forces of Micromechanics

small length scale, and a closure problem is developed to


determine these spatial deviation quantities. This leads to a
closed form representation for the stress in terms of the
deformation that contains effective coefficients to be
determined by the solution of the closure problem. Interfacial
effects are easily incorporated into the process of spatial
smoothing and the method of doing so is illustrated.
swhitaker@ucdavis.edu

Below Macro: Driving Forces of


Micromechanics
Session: I- Fundamentals of Micro-to-Macro Approaches
Thursday, June 28, 9:00-10:30
Executive Conference Center 3B
Chair: Franz-Josef Ulm
MMC2001-678 Thursday, June 28, 9:00 AM

MMC2001-808 Thursday, June 28, 9:36 AM

Homogenization and application to porous media

Optimization of Microstructure and Effective


Properties of Heterogeneous Materials

Jean-Louis Auriault, Lab. 3S, Univ. Joseph Fourier,


Grenoble, BP 53, Isere, France

Salvatore Torquato, Princeton Materials Institute, Princeton


University, Princeton, NJ, USA

An heterogeneous system may be modelled by an


equivalent macroscopic continuous system if the condition of
separation of scales is verified, l/L<<1, where l and L are the
characteristic lengths of th heterogeneities and of the
macroscopic sample or excitation, respectively. The
macroscopic model is obtained from the description at the
heterogeneity scale by: i) assuming the medium to be periodic;
ii) writting the local description in dimensionless form; iii)
evaluating the dimensionless numbers; iv) looking for the
unknowns in the form of asymptotic expansions; v) solving
the successive boundary value problems that are obtained. The
main advantages of the method rely on the possibility of: a)
avoiding prerequisites at the macroscopic scale; b) modelling
finite size macroscopic samples, macroscopically nonhomogeneous media or phenomena, problems with several
separations of scales; c) determining whether the system is
homogenisable or not; d) providing the domains of validity of
the macroscopic models. Three applications are presented :
transient viscoelastic flow through porous media, filtration law
in rotating porous media, acoustic waves in porous media
saturated by a bubbly fluid with phase change.
Jean-Louis.Auriault@hmg.inpg.fr

A heterogeneous material is one that is composed of


domains of different materials (phases), such as a composite
or porous medium, or the same material in different states,
such as a polycrystal. A central fundamental goal in the theory
of heterogeneous materials is to link the effective or
macroscopic properties of the material to its microstructure.
We discuss two different tasks that can be posed as
optimization problems. The first concerns the specific
determination of the microstructure that yields a targeted set of
effective properties (e.g., transport, electromagnetic and
mechanical properties). To illustrate this method, we show
that the well-known effective medium approximation for the
effective conductivity of a two-phase composite can be
achieved by simple single length-scale microstructures. The
second problem is concerned with the generation of
realizations of random heterogeneous materials with specified
but limited microstructural information: an intriguing inverse
problem of both fundamental and practical importance. This is
accomplished using stochastic optimization techniques.
torquato@electron.princeton.edu
MMC2001-758 Thursday, June 28, 9:54 AM

MMC2001-768 Thursday, June 28, 9:18 AM

Mechanics of Composite Systems

Micromechanical approach to the non linear


behavior of poroelastic materials

Stephen Whitaker, Chemical Engineering and Material


Science, University of California, Davis, CA, USA

Luc Dormieux, LMSGC, Ecole Nationale des Ponts et


Chaussees, Marne-la-Vallee, France

The mechanics of composite systems can be analyzed


using the method of volume averaging to produce spatially
smoothed equations, along with a method for predicting the
effective coefficients that appear in those equations. The
method requires that the characteristic length scales associated
with the individual phases be small compared to the process
length scale, and in this study, the case of a composite material
consisting of two linear, elastic solids is considered. The
analysis begins with the development of volume averaged
equations for the stress tensor in terms of the volume averaged
values of the displacement vector for each phase. When the
condition of local displacement equilibrium is valid, the
volume averaged displacement vectors are essentially equal
and the spatially smoothed equations for each phase can be
added to obtain a one-equation model of the elastic behavior
of a two-phase system. This one equation model contains area
integrals of spatial deviation quantities associated with the

Alain Molinari, Lab. Mechanics and Physics of Materials,


Faculte des Sciences de Metz, Metz, France
Djimdo Kondo, Lab. Mechanics, Universite des Sciences et
Technologies de Lille, Villeneuve d'Ascq, France
The micromechanical approach applied to porous media
aims at characterizing the tensorial quantities governing the
overall behavior, from information on the geometry of the
porous phase together with the knowledge of the mechanical
response of the solid phase constituting the skeleton. In the
case of a periodic microstructure, appropriate averaging
schemes have been developed by Auriault and SanchezPalencia (1977) for linear poroelastic materials. In the first
part of the paper, we present new ideas for a linear solid
phase with a disordered
microstructure. Second order
informations on the strain distribution within the solid phase
are obtained, by adapting to saturated porous medium a

35

Below Macro: Driving Forces of Micromechanics

method proposed by Kreher (1990) for composite linear


elastic materials. An important outcome is the existence of
two effective stresses controlling the strain distribution at the
microscopic level. The second part of the paper deals with
nonlinear
poroelastic behavior. The micromechanical
reasoning is
based on the hypothesis that the progressive
closure or opening of
cracks generated by the loading path
is responsible for the material nonlinearity. The discussion is
mainly focused on the existence -or not - of a hydraulic
connexion between cracks and pores and on the consequences
of such connexion.
dormieux@cermmo.enpc.fr

Session: II-Micro-hydro-mechanics and Micro-chemomechanics of porous media


Thursday, June 28, 11:00-12:30
Executive Conference Center 3B
Chair: Luc Dormieux
MMC2001-897 Thursday, June 28, 11:00 AM

Microgeomechanics
James G. Berryman, Energy and Environment, Lawrence
Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA, USA
This talk will focus on recent advances in the
geomechanical description of reservoirs as double-porosity
dual-permeability media. Micromechanics plays a very
significant role in the analysis needed to evaluate the various
elastic and poroelastic constants, and how these interact with
the porosities and fluid permeabilities that control fluid
storage and fluid flow in the earth as it is being mechanically
deformed due to tectonic or overburden forces. During
reservoir pump-down, the removal of pore fluids and
reduction of pore pressure often causes subsidence. Methods
for controlling this process depend on detailed understanding
of complicated interactions among porous earth materials
properties, stored fluid, and the amounts and types of fluid
withdrawn. The methods used to analyze these situations
include volume averaging methods, effective medium
techniques, some exact results available for multicomponent
media under the influence of multiple applied fields, rigorous
bounds whenever available, and computer simulation of the
dynamics.
berryman1@llnl.gov

MMC2001-726 Thursday, June 28, 10:12 AM

Real porous media: local geometry and transports


Pierre M. Adler, Laboratoire de Milieux Poreux et Fractures,
Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, Paris, France
The macroscopic properties of real porous media can be
addressed by the method of reconstructed media which
consists of measuring relevant statistical properties on real
samples and then to simulate on the computer threedimensional samples which possess the same statistical
properties. Then the macroscopic properties such as the
permeability, the macroscopic Young modulus, ... can be
obtained by solving the relevant partial differential equations
on the unit cell.
This methodology has been applied for about ten years to
porous media and the relevant publications can be found at our
web site whose address is given below.
In this talk, after a general presentation of the
methodology, we would like to emphasize our recent progress
in the following areas.
First many real porous media are not homogeneous at the
pore scale and the initial generation of media had to be
modified in order to take this feature into account.
Second multiphase flows have been addressed recently in
a systematic way; macroscopic properties such as the relative
permeabilities can now be computed in a routine way.
Moreover, the resistivity indices and the dispersion tensor of a
partitioning tracer could be recently calculated.
Third some emphasis will be given to coupled phenomena.
The coupling tensor between convection, electric phenomena
and diffusion can be obtained for arbitrary media.
adler@ipgp.jussieu.fr

MMC2001-748 Thursday, June 28, 11:18 AM

Micromechanics Of Unsaturated Granular Media


Xavier Chateau, UMR 113 CNRS-LCPC, Laboratoire des
Materiaux et des Structures du Genie Civil, Champs sur
Marne, France
Pascal Moucheront, Laboratoire des Materiaux et des
Structures du Genie Civil, Cahmps sur Marne, France
Olivier Pitois, LPMDI, Universite de Marne la Vallee, Champ
sur Marne, France
Upscaling technics provide a helpful tool to study the
behaviour of unsaturated granular media. In this framework,
we aim at characterizing the macroscopic behaviour from the
description of the physics and the morphology of the
microscopic level. Of course, the validity of this kind of
approach relies upon the relevancy of the description of the
medium at the microscopic scale. The mechanical response of
a liquid bridge axially strained between two moving spheres is
investigated. An experimental setup allows the measurement
of capillary and viscous forces exerted on the spheres as a
function of the distance between the spheres, the rate of
growth of the gap, the volume of the liquid bridge, etc. A
simple closed-form expression summing a static capillary term
and a rate-dependant viscous term is sufficient to accurately
describe the experimental results over a large range in gap
velocity and liquid viscosity. Then, the formulation of the
macroscopic strength criterion for an unsaturated granular

36

Below Macro: Driving Forces of Micromechanics

material is derived. At the microscopic level the studied


medium is made up of grains in contact, of two liquid phases
occupying two separated domains and of the capillary
interfaces. The macroscopic strength criterion is obtained
through the resolution of a yield design problem posed on an
elementary cell of the medium. For the situations where one of
the two liquid phases is discontinuous, the problem is
simplified and can be solved more easily.
chateau@lcpc.fr

the microlevel (i.e. trabecular versus compact bone) are still


relatively scarce. Nevertheless, demineralization tests,
transmission electron micrographs, Brillouin light scattering
techniques and the nanoindentation method have considerably
contributed to the revelation of both the organization and the
mechanical properties of the bone ultrastructure.
The goal of the present contribution is to assign the
different experimental data to description scales of continuum
micromechanics. Comparable micromechanical approaches
from the microlevel up can be found in the existing literature.
Application of homogenisation techniques for associating
physical quantities from different observation scales (i.e.
levels of hierarchical organization) helps both to validate
measured data and proposed morphologies for various
microstructures and to give first values for physical variables
which could not be quantified so far. Special emphasis is laid
on the tasks of the elementary components of bone at the
ultralevel, i.e. of hydroxyapatite, collagen, proteins, water.
hellmich@mit.edu

MMC2001-804 Thursday, June 28, 11:36 AM

Beyond the Crack-Size Criterion: Similarity


Properties of Demineralization of Cracked Porous
Materials
Franz-Josef Ulm, Marc Mainguy, Civil & Environmental
Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,
Cambridge, MA, USA
The paper analysis the similarity properties of
demineralization processes in cracked porous materials,
coupled with diffusive and advective mass transfer through
fractures. The aim is to find out, whether, when and how
fractures accelerate or magnify the overall chemical
degradation process. A dimensional analysis of a simplified
dissolution process around a fracture channel reveals different
self-similar properties for diffusion and advection dominated
mass transport in the fracture. For a pure diffusive transport,
the fracture degradation length develops with the quadratic
root of time; while it evolves with the square root of time
when advection dominates. These asymptotic behaviors are
confirmed by model-based simulations of `real calcium
leaching in cracked cement-based materials. It is shown, that a
diffusion dominated mass transport in a fracture does not
significantly accelerate the overall chemical degradation, since
the 1D-degradation through the porous material catches up
with the initially faster diffusion through the fracture. In turn,
advection dominated mass transfer in fractures can
significantly accelerate the overall calcium depletion for
`high fluid velocities in the fracture. Finally, diffusive
dominated mass transport in a crack network may also
accelerate the calcium leaching process for small values of
crack spacing factors. A rough analytical solution for
estimating this effect of a crack network is derived and
validated through model-based simulations.
ulm@mit.edu

Session: III- Micromechanics of irreversible phenomena


Thursday, June 28, 1:30-3:00
Executive Conference Center 3B
Chairs: Franz-Josef Ulm and Luc Dormieux
MMC2001-679 Thursday, June 28, 1:30 PM

Failure Properties of Fractured Rock Masses as


Anisotropic Homogenized Media
Patrick de Buhan, Denis Garnier, Samir Maghous,
CERMMO, Ecole Nationale des Ponts et Chausses,
Marne-la-Valle, France
The concept of homogenization applied to fractured rock
masses stems from the intuitive idea that, from a macroscopic
point of view, a rock matrix intersected by a regular network
of joint surfaces, may be perceived as a homogeneous, but
strongly anisotropic, continuum. The failure criterion of such
an equivalent medium may be theoretically determined from
the knowledge of the strength condition of its individual
components, namely rock matrix and joint interfaces. Owing
to the existence of privileged directions associated with the
joint orientation distribution, this criterion turns out to be of
the anisotropic cohesive-frictional type.
Conceived as a computational time saving alternative to
traditional failure design approaches, such as for instance the
well-known distinct element method, this homogenization
concept is well suited for densely fractured rock masses. In the
case of structures involving a relatively low number of joints
however, a scale or size effect may prevail. A possible
way of capturing such a scale effect, while still keeping
advantage of a homogenization technique, is to resort to a
micropolar or Cosserat continuum description. This may be
achieved by deriving a macroscopic failure condition
expressed in terms of stresses and couple-stresses, to be
incorporated in a structure-oriented computing procedure.
Application of such a generalized homogenization method will
be illustrated on some relevant examples.
debuhan@cermmo.enpc.fr

MMC2001-776 Thursday, June 28, 11:54 AM

Review of the hierarchical organization of bone in


the framework of continuum mechanics
Christian Hellmich, Franz-Josef Ulm, Department of Civil
and Environmental Engineering, Massachusetts Institute
of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
Bone material exhibits several levels of hierarchical
organization, starting from the molecular structure in the
nanometer range up to the whole bone in the centimeter to
meter range. Standardly, these levels are referred to as the
macrolevel, the microlevel, and the ultralevel. Still, tests
revealing classical Newtonian mechanical properties below

37

Composite Materials

materials, most authors have assumed that the behavior of the


matrix follow the simple Norton power law. In the present
paper, we propose a homogenized model for the case of a
Bingham viscoplastic matrix.
gilles.perrin@ifp.fr

MMC2001-967 Thursday, June 28, 1:48 PM

Multiscale analysis of brittle damage and related


issues
Djimdo Kondo, Fundamental Mechanics, University Lille 1,
Villeneuve d'Ascq, Nord, France

MMC2001-710 Thursday, June 28, 2:24 PM


The inelastic response of quasi brittle geomaterials
subjected to mechanical loads is generally attributed to
nucleation and oriented growth of microcracks. The resultant
anisotropic behavior can be model by using the classical
phenomenological approach. But, none of the choices
necessary in this approach (internal variables, energy and
dissipation potentials) are not straightforward in the case of
anisotropic damage. A more fundamental approach consists in
a 3-D micromechanical approach of an elastic medium
weakened by microcracks. In the present study, the
macroscopic free energy for open and closed microcracks is
built through a micro-macro transition. Moreover, a
microcracks opening/closure criterion as well as the moduli
recovery condition (unilateral effect) are established. Thanks
to the micro - macro approach, a damage macroscopic yield
condition is proposed on the basis of the thermodynamics
force associated to damage and properly interpreted as the
microcracks energy release rate in different modes. The last
part of the paper is devoted to the study of brittle damage in
fluid saturated media and to some computational issues of the
damage model.
Keywords : Anisotropic damage; Micromechanics;
Microcracks; Friction - Fluid-filled materials
kondo@univ-lille1.fr

Micromechanics based continuum modelling of dry


and saturated (partially/fully) porous media
Anjani K Didwania, Department of Mechanical and
Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San
Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA
Continuum modeling of porous media from a
micromechanical approach often employs simple models of
porous media together with well-known principles of
statistical ensemble averaging, effective medium (mean-field)
approximations and other relevant techniques from condensed
matter physics.
Some recent applications of this approach to partially and
fully saturated porous media modeling will be discussed
including the issues of uplift, effective stress, friction and
capillarity.
Simplified statistical mechanical models in conjunction
with extensive computer simulations have been used
successfully to obtain estimates of Reynolds dilatancy and
shear strength of idealized granular media (rigid-sphere
assemblies). Detailed shape and evolution of dilatancy and
yield surfaces as a function of various microstructural
parameters and loading have been computed, linking the
effective continuum plasticity to particulate microstructure
and micromechanics. More recently, we have developed a
very promising meso-level description in terms of evolution
equations governing contact normal, simplex statistics etc.
In summary, developments in continuum modeling of
mechanics of dry, partially/fully saturated porous media from
a micromechanical ansatz will be reviewed and future research
trends will be discussed.
adidwania@ucsd.edu

MMC2001-899 Thursday, June 28, 2:06 PM

Use of micromechanics to homogenize the overall


behavior of porous plastic or viscoplastic materials
Gilles Perrin, Mcanique Applique, Institut Franais du
Ptrole, Rueil Malmaison, France
The process of ductile fracture of metals is commonly
considered as the succession of three stages. Firstly, cavities
appear in the material by debonding of the matrix from hard
inclusions. Secondly, the cavities grow by flow of the matrix.
Thirdly, when the void volume fraction reaches some critical
value, the cavities coalesce and form a macroscopic crack.
The phase of growth of cavities is paramount in the
quantification of fracture ; so is its dependency on stress
triaxility. It can be studied by homogenization of a
representative volume element compound of incompressible
matrix and containing a void. Classically, cylindrical and
spherical void geometries are studied. Elastic strain is
neglected because its contribution to total strain is very small
in the process of ductile failure. The method which is used is
to recast the homogenization problem as a minimization
property of some macroscopic potential over all admissible
strain fields ; then to approximate the minimum by its value
over a restricted, hopefully representative, family of strain
fields.
Study of the case of a perfectly plastic matrix leads to the
well-known Gurson criterion. In the case of viscoplastic

Composite Materials
Session: Composites
Wednesday, June 27, 9:00-10:30
Spinnaker I
Chairs: Ajit Mal and N. Yu
MMC2001-514 Wednesday, June 27, 9:00 AM

A state space approach for the analysis of laminated


composite tubes
Yung-Ming Wang, Department of Civil Engineering,
National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan, ROC
We present a state space approach to the problem of
extension, torsion, bending, shearing and pressuring of
laminated composite tubes. The formalism suggests a
systematic way using the transfer matrix to determine the

38

Composite Materials

stress and deformation in a multilayered cylindrically


anisotropic tube subjected to loads that do not vary in the axial
direction. The transfer matrix transmits the state variables
from the inner surface to the outer surface and accounts for the
interfacial continuity conditions without recourse to a
layerwise treatment. The state space approach makes it easy to
analyze the stress and deformation in a multilayered circular
tube under the condition that the stresses are independent of z.
It is not restrictive to the generalized plane deformation. The
formalism clearly indicates that the extension, torsion and
pressuring of the tube are interacting, and the uniform
shearing causes pure shears in the laminated tube regardless of
the number of layers; these deformations uncouple with the
biaxial bending.
mingwang@mail.ncku.edu.tw

folded by the use of a press. This forging process, offering


high yield rate of material and a favorable relationship
between the properties of steel ingot and characteristics, is
widely used. However, when a crankthrow was bended by the
present method, forging defects such as the lap and the
reduction of wing thickness were happened. Also a lot of extra
volume around the pin area of the crankthrow should be
removed. In order to reduce the manufacturing time, costs, and
forging defects, a new forging process was developed by using
Finite Element Method. To remove the forging defects, a new
preform was designed by using unbending concept that two
wings of the crankthrow were unbended reversely from the
final shape of the forged crankthrow. The simulation results
were confirmed by manufacturing trial crankthrows.
leesm12@hhi.co.kr

MMC2001-522 Wednesday, June 27, 9:18 AM

MMC2001-796 Wednesday, June 27, 9:54 AM

Flexural Wave Propagation in Incompressible Prestressed Imperfectly Bonded Elastic Composites

Single Lap Joint Bonding


Joseph D. Melograna, Joachim L. Grenestedt, Mechanical
Engineering and Mechanics, Lehigh University,
Bethlehem, PA, USA

Anil C. Wijeyewickrema, Taizo Yamamoto, Somsak


Leungvichcharoen, Department of Civil Engineering,
Tokyo Institute of Technology, O-okayama, Meguro-ku,
Tokyo, Japan

Adhesive single lap joints between composites are simple


to manufacture, but suffer from load eccentricity, relatively
high stress concentrations, and non-uniform shear stress along
the bond line. Investigations of a wavy, single lap joint were
inspired by the work of C.T. Sun at Purdue University. Sun
recently proposed a wavy single lap joint in which the two
adherends are aligned, the stress concentrations at the ends of
the adherends are reduced, the shear stress in the adhesive is
more uniform, and the adhesive peel stress is reduced. Carbon
fiber specimens were made by vacuum bagging unidirectional
T700/SE84HT carbon fiber/epoxy prepreg from SP Systems.
Both conventional and wavy specimens were tested and a
finite elemental analysis performed to determine failure modes
of the specimens. Further experimentation dealing with the
bonding of stainless steel and GFRP by way of a vinyl ester
resin transfer has been performed. Design of a perforated steel
plate has been created in an attempt to minimize the mismatch
of the materials' elastic moduli. Testing and finite elemental
analysis have been carried out in trying to design a high
performance single lap joint between stainless steel and
GFRP. Related Paper: Melograna, J.D., Grenestedt, J.L.,
"Revisiting a Wavy Bonded Single Lap Joint" (Submitted to
the AIAA Journal on February 15, 2001).
jdm6@lehigh.edu

Layered composites are being widely used in many areas


such as the aerospace industry for lightweight, high-strength
panels and in the field of structural engineering in the
development of layered composite plate and shell structures.
In this analysis, flexural wave propagation in incompressible
pre-stressed 4-ply laminated composites is investigated. The
imperfect interface is simulated by a spring type resistance
model that can also accommodate the extreme cases of a
perfect bond or a sliding interface. Making use of the
propagator matrix the dispersion relation for the propagation
of flexural waves is obtained. The dispersion relation for the
perfectly bonded composite (Rogerson and Sandiford, 1997) is
obtained as a special case. The dispersion relation is further
analyzed for the long and short wave limits. For the short
wave limit there are four possible cases that depend on the
material constants of the bi-material composite. The effect of
the imperfect interface can be clearly seen in the dispersion
curves that are presented.
Rogerson, G. A. and Sandiford, K. J., 1997, "Flexural
waves in incompressible pre-stressed elastic composites",
Quarterly Journal of Mechanics and Applied Mathematics,
Vol. 50, Part 4, 597-624.
anil@cv.titech.ac.jp

MMC2001-976 Wednesday, June 27, 10:12 AM

MMC2001-612 Wednesday, June 27, 9:36 AM

Experimental Study Of CFRP & Steel Reinforced


Glulam Beams

New concepts in crankthrow bending process FEM


simulation and application

Camille A. Issa, Ziad Kmeid, Department of Civil


Engineering, Lebanese American University, Byblos,
Lebanon, Lebanon

Sung Mo Lee, Won Jae Lee, Material Research Department,


Hyundai Industrial Research Institute, Ulsan, South
Korea

The main objective of this experimental study is the


determination of the flexural properties of reinforced and
unreinforced glued-laminated beam. Why reinforcing glulam
beam? Reinforced glulam beams cost less because the use of
reinforcement will reduce the need of a top grade laminate on

Large size ingot for the crankthrow of large marine


engines is forged to a bloom having proper dimension and
then the middle of the roughly shaped forging is pressed and

39

Composites in Structures

the extreme tension face (less high grade material can be


used); moreover the volume of wood is reduced. Also,
reinforced glulam beams have lower product variability, they
are not affected by natural growth characteristics, and the
manufacture of reinforcement is consistent and controlled.
Two types of reinforcement were investigated: steel plate
and carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP). The wood part
of all the beams were made by laminating three wood beams
of 6 by 3.6 by 176 cm. The unreinforced beams are made only
from wood having a finished dimension equal to 6 by 11 by
176 cm. The steel reinforced beams were glulam wood beams
fully covered on one side using steel plate of thickness equal
to 1.5 mm.The CFRP reinforced beams were glulam wood
beams covered with CFRP of thickness of 1.2 mm and width
of 5cm and the length of 176 cm .
The comparision between the load-deflection curves of the
three type of beams displays that the behavior of reinforced
beams is totally different from that of unreiforced one. The
reinforcement has changed the mode of failure from brittle to
ductile and has increased the load carrying capacity of the
beams. In conclusion, CFRP is a better choice for the
reinforcement of glulam beams. The only drawback is the cost
involved.
cissa@lau.edu.lb

MMC2001-637 Wednesday, June 27, 9:18 AM

Flight Test of the solar array concentrator on


Mightysat II.1
Ted Stern, 9617 distribution Avenue, Composite Optics Inc.,
San Diego, CA, USA
As part of the experiment suite on the satellite Mightysat
II.1, a Solar Array Concentrator (SAC) panel was flown. The
SAC uses an orthogrid arrangement of ultra-lightweight
composite mirror strips to form an array of rectangular mirror
troughs that reflect light onto standard, high-efficiency solar
cells. The solar cells are mounted onto a flat, highconductivity composite laminate with a co-cured Kapton flexcircuit. The mirror strips also provide structural rigidity,
essentially replacing the honeycomb substrate usually used on
planar photovoltaic panels with an orthogrid superstrate.
Several test modules using this design were fabricated and
populated with gallium arsenide solar cells, culminating in the
Mightysat II.1 flight panel. Ground testing demonstrated the
pointing tolerance of the design, verifying the optical
raytracing that was used to evaluate pointing performance, as
well as durability in thermal cycling, thermal vacuum, launch
vibration, and launch acoustic environments. Mightysat II.1
was launched in July 2000. Data is presented showing the
correlation of the electrical output and temperatures of the
SAC module to pre-launch predictions and its stability after
months in Low Earth Orbit.
tstern@coi-world.com

Composites in Structures
Session: 1
Wednesday, June 27, 9:00-10:30
Marina V
Chairs: Karim Quassim and Arup Maji

MMC2001-638 Wednesday, June 27, 9:36 AM

Noncontact strain measurement

MMC2001-636 Wednesday, June 27, 9:00 AM

Stephie Vierkotter, 7740 Kenamar Court, Quantum


Magnetics Inc., San Diego, CA, USA

Composite Materials Research and Applications for


Space Structures

David Gregory, Suresh Menon


The talk will describe our recent work aimed at
developing a non-contact method for measuring strain in
composite structures. The approach is based on the principle
of Quadrupole Resonance (QR). The QR strain gauge
employs radio frequency pulses to evoke a strain dependent
signal from small additive crystals embedded in the
investigated composite structure. Strain measurements can be
made at any point on the part since the additive is present
everywhere. The QR strain gauge is expected to be a valuable
tool for the in-service inspection of composite structures. Inservice inspectors and repair engineers can use the gauge to
locate strained areas. The measured data will help in the
decision whether to repair or replace a composite structure.
Some features of the QR method include the ability to
measure strain throughout the volume of a composite (internal
and surface strains) and the ability to map strain.
Furthermore, strain measurement via QR is non-intrusive.
The strain gauge itself does not contact or alter the composite
part, and shear and tensile tests show that the embedded
additive does not alter the material properties.
STEPHIE@qm.com

Tang-Tat Ng, Eugene Fosness, AFRL/VSSV, building 472,


Air Force Research Laboratory, Albuquerque, NM, USA
Peter Wegner, Steve Buckley
The Integrated Structural Systems Team at the Air Force
Research Laboratory (AFRL/VSSV) is developing innovative
structures using fiber reinforced polymer composite materials
that will enhance the performance and cost effectiveness of
future Air Force missions. The application of these materials
is being directed at Air Force requirements that will enable
these systems to perform to higher levels, while decreasing the
cost associated with space missions. This paper discusses the
applications, innovative concepts used in the designs, and the
performance of these new materials to several Air Force
systems.
tang-tat.ng@kirtland.af.mil

40

Computational methods and analysis

MMC2001-639 Wednesday, June 27, 9:54 AM

Computational methods and analysis

Seismic retrofit of civil structures using FRP


Session: Computational methods and analysis
Friday, June 29, 3:30-5:00
Spinnaker II
Chairs: Geir Horrigmoe and Douglas J. Bammann

Scott F. Arnold, 6310 Nancy Ridge Dr., Suite 103, Fyfe co.
LLC, San Diego, CA, USA
Edward R. Fyfe

MMC2001-476 Friday, June 29, 3:30 PM

Seismic retrofitting of any structure requires the use of


materials that best suit the specific demands of the individual
application. Until now, engineers have been limited to
conventional repair materials such as concrete and steel. The
use of fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composite materials
was thought to be limited to the aerospace industry for many
years. Only through intense structural testing has it been
realized that FRP materials can provide a tool that efficiently
meets the seismic performance goals of structural engineers
and building owners.
scott@fyfeco.com

3-D Finite element simulation of dynamic ductile


fracture using tetrahedral element
Dong-Teak Chung, School of Mechatronics, Korea
University of Technology & Education, Chonan,
Chungnam, Korea
Chan Hwang, Soo-Ik Oh, School of Mechanical and
Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University,
Seoul, Korea
Soon-Nam Chang, Ground Systems development Center,
Agency for Defense Development, Taejon, Chungnam,
Korea

MMC2001-640 Wednesday, June 27, 10:12 AM

Evaluation of FRP reinforced concrete beams

A three-dimensional explicit time integration finite


element code of Lagrangian description for analyzing the
dynamic ductile fracture problems was developed. Velocitypressure mixed formulation with four-node tetrahedral
element was used. Finite element approximations using mixed
formulation with velocity and pressure variables are limited to
those satisfying Babuska-Brezzi stability condition. Fractional
step method which is applicable to nearly incompressible
situations thus allows arbitrary interpolation for both the
velocity and pressure variables is adopted to overcome the
restriction. The defense node contact algorithm for accurate
contact force calculation is implemented and can handle
complex contact situations involving high velocity multiple
collisions and self-contact of severely deformed bodies
effectively. Eroding algorithm, which allows highly strained
elements to be eroded and redefines mesh and boundary
surfaces, was included to simulate dynamic ductile fracture
problems such as long-rod penetration. An oblique penetration
problem of stacked metal block by long-rod penetrator was
simulated and the result exhibited the key generic features
observed experimentally.
dtchung@kut.ac.kr

Arup Maji, AFRL/VSSV, building 472, Air Force Research


Laboratory, Albuquerque, NM, USA
Analilia Orozco, Civil Engineering, University of New
Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, USA
Pultruded carbon/epoxy rods with carbon fiber overwraps
were used to reinforce concrete beams. The primary focus of
this study was to investigate the failure mechanisms and
ductility of FRP beams with different reinforcements. It was
shown that ductility is due to the large strain to failure of the
rebar, which ensures distributed cracking in the concrete.
Strain gages were used to monitor the rebar strains along with
load displacement behavior of the beams. Analytical methods
were used to interpret the test data.
amaji@unm.edu

MMC2001-526 Friday, June 29, 3:48 PM

Finite Element Analyses of Long cylinder Problems


Using Compatible/Incompatible Elements
Young-Doo Kwon, Nam Seo Goo, Sang Mok Shin, School of
Mechanical Engineering, Kyungpook National
University, Taegu, South Korea
Chan Bok Lee, Department of nuclear fuel manufacturing
research, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute,
Taejun, South Korea
Long cylinder subjected to internal pressure is important
in the analysis and design of nuclear fuel rod structures.
Generally, long cylinder problems have been considered as a
plane strain condition. However, strictly speaking long

41

Coupled Phenomena in Polymers

calculations, evaluation of hydrocarbon reserves, planning


thermal methods of enhanced oil recovery, and designing
production equipment and pipelines. The study presents, for
the first time, a comparsion among several models developed
using both classical regression techniques (CRT) and neural
regression techniques (NRT). These models are developed in
this study from viscosity data collected from different oil
fields. The models have also been tested using another
collection of viscosity data that was not used before in the
development phase. Results show that viscosity models
developed using NRT were more accurate than viscosity
models developed using CRT. Based on this comparison, a
viscosity model is therefore presented which uses stock-tank
oil API gravity, gas gravity, pressure(s), and temperature(s) to
predict crude oil viscosity. The model was developed using
General Regression Neural Network algorithm.
asharkawy@kuc01.kuniv.edu.kw

cylinder problems are not plane strain problems, but rather a


uniform strain condition, which is a combination of a plane
strain state and a uniform strain state. The magnitude of the
uniform axial strain is required to make the summation of the
axial force zero. Although there have been the generalized
plane strain element, this paper proposes a simpler technique
to solve long cylinder problems using several uniform strain
element models: incompatible axisymmetric uniform strain
element (IA3), compatible axisymmetric uniform strain
element (CA8), incompatible 2-D uniform strain element
(I10), compatible 3-D uniform strain element (C20), and
reduced dof element (RCA6, RC16). In particular, compatible
elements (CA8, C20, RCA6, RC16) can be applied in periodic
structure problems. These finite elements are tested using
several kinds of example, thereby confirming the validity of
the proposed finite element model.
ydkwon@knu.ac.kr
MMC2001-909 Friday, June 29, 4:24 PM

Coupled Phenomena in Polymers

Convergence Enhanced Genetic Algorithm with


Successive Zooming Method for Solving Continuous
Optimization Problems

Session: Electroactive Polymers 1


Thursday, June 28, 9:00-10:30
Executive Conference Center 2A
Chair: Toshihiro Hirai

Nam Seo Goo, Young-Doo Kwon, Soon Bum Kwon, Seung


Jin, School of Mechanical Engineering, Kyungpook
National University, Taegu, South Korea

MMC2001-933 Thursday, June 28, 9:00 AM

Sang Woo Choo

Electrically induced huge and swift deformation of


conventional non-ionic polymer materials

A new approach, referred to as a successive zooming


genetic algorithm (SZGA), is proposed for identifying a global
solution for continuous optimization problems. A genetic
algorithm (GA) approaches the optimum rapidly in the early
stage, but the convergence performance is not good when the
solution is near the optimum value. In order to improve the
local fine-tuning of GA, we introduced a new method whereby
the search space is zoomed around the design variable with the
best fitness per 100 generation to improve the convergence.
Furthermore, the reliability of the optimized solution is
determined based on the theory of probability. To demonstrate
the superiority of the proposed algorithm, a simple genetic
algorithm, micro genetic algorithm, and the proposed
algorithm were tested using the minimization of a
multiminima function. The results confirmed that the proposed
SZGA significantly improved the ability of the algorithm to
identify a global minimum. As an example of structural
optimization, the SZGA was applied to the optimal location of
support points for weight minimization in the radial gate of a
dam structure. The proposed algorithm identified a more exact
optimum value than the conventional genetic algorithms.
nsgoo@knu.ac.kr

Toshihiro Hirai, Dept. of Materilas Chem., Faculty of Textile


Sci. & Technol., Shinshu University, Ueda-shi, Naganoken, Japan
Md. Zulhash Uddin, Masashi Watanabe, Hirofusa Shirai
Some non-ionic polymers can be actuated by applying a
d.c. electric field. The deformation can be huge and swift. The
deformations are stretching, bending, crawling, and creeping.
90 degree bending is attained within ten milliseconds. The
polymers we investigated contains large amount of solvent or
plasticizer. The mechanism proposed for the deformation is
"charge-injected-solvent drag". We will demonstrate how the
material deforms, particularly on "creeping" induced swift
bending, which is a new type deformation.
When we applied an electric field to a sample of
poly(vinyl chloride) gel, the gel tends to extend over the anode
electrode surface by creeping like an ameba. Charges injected
from cathode migrate and accumulate on anode before
discharging. Accumulated charges promote the stickiness to
the anode and tend to spread onto the anode. By turning off
the field, the stickiness disappears and the gel restores its
original shape. The deformation is reversible.
tohirai@giptc.shinshu-u.ac.jp

MMC2001-949 Friday, June 29, 4:42 PM

Comparing Classical and Neural regression


Techniques in Model oil Viscosity behavior
Adel Elsharkawy, Petroleum Emgineering, Kuwait university,
Kuwait, Kuwait, Kuwait
The importance of crude oil viscosity makes its accurate
determination necessary for reservoir performance

42

Coupled Phenomena in Polymers

MMC2001-938 Thursday, June 28, 9:18 AM

MMC2001-601 Thursday, June 28, 9:54 AM

Electroactive Polymer Actuators (EAP) - Current


State of the Art

A Transparent And Flexible Smart Polymer


Ahmed Al-Jumaily, Suad Jassim, David Dodd, Diagnostics
and Control Research Centre, Auckland University of
Technology, Auckland, New Zealand

Yoseph Bar-Cohen, 82-105, JPL, Pasadena, CA, USA


For many years, electroactive polymers (EAP) received
relatively little attention due to the small number of available
materials and their limited actuation capability. The recent
emergence of EAP materials with large displacement response
changed the potential capability and paradigms of these
materials. The main attractive characteristic of EAP is their
operational similarity to biological muscles, particularly their
resilience and ability to induce large actuation strains. Even
though the actuation force of existing EAP materials and their
robustness require further improvement, there has already
been a series of reported successes. The successful
applications that were demonstrated include catheter steering
element, miniature manipulator, dust-wiper, miniature robotic
arm, and grippers. Some of the currently considered
applications may be difficult to accomplish and it is important
to scope the requirements to the level that current materials
can address. Using EAP to replace existing actuators may be
a difficult challenge and therefore it is highly desirable to
identify a niche application where it would not need to
compete with existing capabilities. The application of these
materials as actuators to drive various manipulation, mobility
and robotic devices involves multidiscipline including
materials, chemistry, electro-mechanics, computers,
electronics, etc. This paper reviews the current efforts and the
expectations for the future.
yosi@jpl.nasa.gov

This research focuses on developing a flexible transparent


piezoelectric polymer that could be used to change focal
lengths in optical applications with small voltage/strain
constant. Four compositions were prepared by mixing a
commercial polyethylene glycol diepoxypropyl ether
(PEGDE) polymer with one of four types of salt. These were
potassium chloride KCl (with dry ethanol), potassium
perchlorate KClO4, Sodium sulfate Na SO4 and magnesium
sulfate MgSO4. In all four composites the salt dissolved
completely. However, the first one showed a transparent
liquidised complex, which became opaque at temperatures
over 150 oC. The second composite was homogenous and
transparent over a limited temperature range (50 oC-100 oC).
The third complex was transparent but transparency started to
disappear at temperatures over 150 oC. The fourth complex
was transparent and the salt dissolved easily. Using long heat
treatment periods, over a temperature range of (50 oC-150
oC), the fourth complex viscosity increased dramatically. This
indicates a good possibility of a piezoelectric semicrystalline
elastic polymer, which is an optimum goal of this research.
Analytical testing was carried out to investigate the actual
molecular shape, structure and formula. Infrared and NMR
spectroscopy are the conventional analytical techniques for
investigating the polymer structures. Before such tests are
conducted, it is decided to synthesise this polymer to avoid
any impurity effect and the possibility of wide dispersion of
the chain lengths of this polymer.
ahmed.al-jumaily@aut.ac.nz

MMC2001-945 Thursday, June 28, 9:36 AM

A study on the gel actuator material imitating the


action plant

Session: Electroactive Polymers 2


Thursday, June 28, 11:00-12:30
Executive Conference Center 2A
Chair: Yoseph Bar-Cohen

Hirohisa Tamagawa, Toru Nakano, Fumio Nogata,


Department of Mechanical and Systems Engineering,
Faculty of Engineering, Gifu university, 1-1 Yanagido,
Gifu, Gifu, Japan

MMC2001-966 Thursday, June 28, 11:00 AM

Mimosa pudica is known for the fast bending behavior of


its branches upon the small environmental stimuli. Our
investigation on this phenomenon suggested that the cause of
it stems from the concurrent occurrence of the swelling and
the shrinking of cells at the upper and the lower part of main
pulvinus, respectively. With this phenomenon in our mind, the
acrylamide-based gel actuator material, which imitates the
bending behavior of mimosa pudica, was designed, since the
broad property similarity between plants' cells and gels has
been well known. The acrylamide-based gel was designed so
as to have heterogeneous structure between its upper and
lower part, namely, it was expected to exhibit bending as
mimosa pudica does. Then we could successfully achieve its
bending behavior induced by the similar mechanism to
mimosa pudica's .
tmgwhrhs@cc.gifu-u.ac.jp

The Mechanism of Ionic Polymer-Metal Composites,


Swelling or Electrostatic
Jiangyu Li, Division of Engineering and Applied Science,
California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, USA
An ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC), consisting of
a thin ionic polymer sheet sandwiched between two metallic
layers, undergoes large bending motion when an electric field
is applied across its thickness. Conversely, a voltage is
produced when it is suddenly bent. Although the actuation of
IPMC offers much excitement in the design and application of
new soft actuators, its underlying mechanism is not clear,
which could limits its performance improvement and
optimization.
While it is agreed that the bending of IPMC under an
electric field is due to the transport of cations in Nafion, there
are quite debates on whether the process is swelling or
electrostatic in nature. This paper tends to address this

43

Coupled Phenomena in Polymers

question. The transport equations for water and cations under


an applied electric field are presented and solved, from which
the internal stress and strain due to the water and cations
redistribution are analyzed. As a result the relative
contributions to the bending of IPMC due to the swelling and
electrostatic force could be compared. Some experimental
observations, which could used to support or contradict either
explanation, are also discussed. Further experiments, which
could validate the theoretical analysis, are also proposed.
jjli@its.caltech.edu

Session: Thermo-Chemo-Diffuse-Electrical Effects in


Elastomers
Thursday, June 28, 1:30-3:00
Executive Conference Center 2A
Chairs: Alan Wineman and Gregory B. McKenna

MMC2001-948 Thursday, June 28, 11:18 AM

Gregory B. McKenna, Chemical Engineering, Texas Tech


University, Lubbock, TX, USA

MMC2001-496 Thursday, June 28, 1:30 PM

Limitations on the Strain Energy Function of


Rubber Imposed by the Observed Swelling
Dependence of the Shear Modulus

Design of color changeable electroactive polymers

It is often observed that swelling in crosslinked rubber


scales as the 1/3 power of the polymer concentration. When
this is true, it places severe limits on the form allowed for the
Helmholtz free energy function (strain energy density
function). Here we examine the limitations and how swelling
experiments can be used to discriminate between the free
energy functions from different molecular models, e.g., FloryErman, affine network, Gaylord-Douglas, etc.
greg.mckenna@coe.ttu.edu

Chunye Xu, Department of mechanical Engineering,


University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA
Hirohisa Tamagawa, Mechanical Engineering, Gifu
Univerisisty, Gifu, Gifu-ken, Japan
Minoru Taya, Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA
Color changeable electroactive polymer gels are designed
with the aim of enhancing its color change speed under
modest applied electric field. Our gel is a vinyl derivative of
Malachite green. Our color changeble gel consists of ITO
electrode, color changeable copolymer gel swollen with
Na2SO4 and Nafion membrane. The speed of the color change
is about 10 second and it is reversible. Some applications of
this gel are also discussed.
chunye@u.washington.edu

MMC2001-587 Thursday, June 28, 1:48 PM

Controlling the Thermally Induced Inhomogeneities


in StressStrain Fields of a Sheared Elastomeric Slab
via Functional Grading
Barry. Bernstein, Ecevit Bilgili, Hamid Arastoopour,
Department of Chemical and Environmental
Engineering, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago,
Illinois, USA

MMC2001-970 Thursday, June 28, 11:36 AM

In the present study, we investigate the shearing


deformation of a functionally graded elastomeric slab
subjected to a thermal gradient across its thickness. Within the
context of finite thermoelasticity with entropic origin for the
stress, we solve for the temperature and the stressstrain fields
in a non-homogeneous isotropic incompressible slab. Our
thermoelastic model predicts the usual linear temperature
dependence of the stress in elastomeric materials. It also
incorporates the finite chain extensibility (FCE) of an
elastomeric network, which leads to strain-induced stiffening
(hardening). It is well known that the small-strain shear
modulus and the FCE are strongly dependent on the crosslink
density of elastomeric networks. Hence, it is possible to
manufacture an elastomeric material with spatially varying
mechanical properties through a spatially non-uniform
crosslinking reaction (functional grading). We have obtained
that the spatial variation of the material parameters can
effectively reduce the thermally induced inhomogeneities in
the stressstrain fields.
barry@cepse.iit.edu

Design of arrayed EAP actuators


Minoru Taya, Marie Leguilly, Mikio Uchida, Mechanical
Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle,
Washington, USA
Arrayed electroactive polymer(EAP) actuators are
demanded as this become a key component of several
microelectronic applications, ranging from smart antenna to
digital window. We are currently involved in desiging a EAP
based arrayed actuator where the requirements are each
actuator can operate independently of others and its longer use
life. We attempted to design a 4 arrayed Nafion based actuator
with axail displacement mode. Some preliminary data and
design issues are discussed in this talk.
leguilly@u.washington.edu

44

Creep Plasticity and Fracture

MMC2001-583 Thursday, June 28, 2:06 PM

MMC2001-584 Thursday, June 28, 2:42 PM

A Spinning Rubber Cylinder Undergoing Thermally


Activated Scission and Cross Linking

On the Elastic Behavior of Scission Materials


Markus Zimmermann, Mechanical Engineering, MIT,
Cambridge, MA, USA

Alan Wineman, John A. Shaw, Mechanical Engineering,


University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA

Alan Wineman, Mechanical Engineering, University of


Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA

When an elastomeric material is at a sufficiently high


temperature, macromolecular network junctions can undergo
time dependent scission. In a deformed material, the
molecules can recoil and cross link to form a new network
with a new reference configuration. The material system then
consists of molecular networks with different reference states.
A constitutive equation is presented, based on the
experimental work of Tobolsky (1960), which accounts for
this temperature dependent microstructural change on the
mechanical response.
The constitutive equation is used to determine the
deformation of a solid rubber cylinder spinning at constant
angular velocity and at a temperature high enough for there to
be time dependent scission and cross linking. For neoHookean molecular networks, there may be a critical finite
time when the radius grows infinitely fast, i.e. the cylinder
blows up. This time depends on the angular velocity and the
rate of cross linking. Such behavior does not occur for
Mooney-Rivlin network response.
lardan@engin.umich.edu

Constitutive equations have recently been developed


which account for changes in the mechanical response of an
elastomer due to changes in its macromolecular structure. The
changes consist of scission of macromolecular network
junctions, recoiling of macromolecules and their subsequent
cross linking to form new networks with new stress free
reference configurations. These changes are caused by large
deformations or high temperature.
For each deformation or temperature history, there is a
range of deformations and temperatures in which the
microstructure is fixed, with further no scission or cross
linking. The elastomer has a modified elastic behavior and a
new stress free reference configuration. The constitutive
equation for this range is developed and its strain energy
density function is derived. It is shown how the new material
symmetry is determined from the preceding deformation or
temperature history and the scission and cross linking
processes.
markusz@mit.edu

MMC2001-598 Thursday, June 28, 2:24 PM

Creep Plasticity and Fracture

Mechanical And Optical Behavior Of Double


Network Rubbers

Session: Session I- Low Stress Exponent Creep


(Diffusional)
Wednesday, June 27, 9:00-10:30
Point Loma A
Chair: T.G. Langdon

Peter H. Mott, C. M. Roland, Chemistry Division, Naval


Research Laboratory, Washington, DC, USA
Stress, strain, and optical birefringence were measured for
a series of peroxide-cured natural rubbers, having both
isotropic and double network structures. The residual stretch
(permanent set) for the latter ranged from 2.0 to 4.5, with
elastic moduli that were an increasing function of this residual
strain, as was found in other double network rubbers. A small
birefringence, ca.10-5, was observed for the unstressed double
networks, and its magnitude also increased with increasing
residual strain. The sign of this birefringence corresponded to
extension of the (undeformed) double networks. Under stress,
the birefringence followed the stress optical law. The double
network properties were interpreted using the constrainedchain model of rubber elasticity, with the assumption of
independent, additive contributions from the two component
networks. The calculated results differed from the
experimental findings, by underestimating the residual strain.
This resulted from the over-prediction of the stresses during
compression, a limitation common to molecular theories of
rubber elasticity. The modeling of the double networks does
account qualitatively for the sign of their unstressed
birefringence, which is due to the stress-optical coefficient
being larger in tension than in compression. This particular
deviation from the stress optical law is known from both
theory and experiment.
phm@xbt.nrl.navy.mil

MMC2001-116 Wednesday, June 27, 9:00 AM

Creep At Very Low Rates


F.R.N. Nabarro, Physics, Univ. of the Witwatersrand,
Johannesburg, --, South Africa
The creep rate in a land-based power station must be less
than 10-11.s-1. At these low rates of deformation the transport
of matter occurs by the migration of vacancies rather than by
the glide of dislocations. A quantitative understanding of
these diffusional processes is therefore important. First type of
diffusional creep (Nabarro, Herring), the sources and sinks of
vacancies are grain boundaries. The vacancies may diffuse
through the bulk of the grain or along the grain boundaries
(Coble). Second type (Harper-Dorn) the vacancies diffuse
from edge dislocations with their Burgers vectors parallel to
the major tensile axis to those with Burgers vectors
perpendicular to this axis. The coherence of the polycrystalline
aggregate is maintained by sliding along the grain boundaries.
The three mechanisms of vacancy migration, grain boundary
sliding, and dislocation glide may all interact. The theories of
Nabarro-Herring and Coble creep in pure metals are
established and confirmed, but grain-boundary sliding is less
well understood. Practical engineering materials are usually

45

Creep Plasticity and Fracture

strengthened by precipitates which accumulate on grain


boundaries and slow down creep in complicated ways.
dobson@physnet.phys.wits.ac.za

lengths. An empirical equation is required for describing the


kinetics of dislocation network coarsening, but once this
equation is chosen there are no adjustable parameters. The
theory also correctly predicts several distinctive features of HD creep, such as the stress for the transition to power-law
creep, invariance of the scaled link length distribution function
with creep time and the insensitivity of the dislocation density
to the applied stress. In this work we review the details of the
theory and compare its predictions with experimental data on
the evolution of the dislocation network distribution,
dislocation densities, creep rates and creep curves for Al
single crystals deformed in the H-D creep regime. To extend
the predictive capabilities of the theory for the purpose of
predicting creep curves, it needs at present to be supplemented
with data on the variation of the dislocation density with time
during primary creep. The possible ways of removing this
dependency, and the improvement of its predictive capabilities
through refinement of the law describing the growth of
individual dislocation links in the network, will be also
addressed.
ardell@seas.ucla.edu

MMC2001-163 Wednesday, June 27, 9:45 AM

Denuded Zones and Diffusional Creep


O.A. Ruano, Physical Metallurgy, Centro Nacional de
Investigatciones Metal., Madrid, Avda. Gregorio del
Amo, 8, Spain
J. Wadsworth, Deputy Director, Lawrence Livermore Nat.
Lab., Livermore, CA, USA
O.D. Sherby, Materials Science and Eng., Stanford Univ.,
Stanford, CA, USA
The appearance of denuded zones following low stress
creep in particle-containing crystalline materials is both a
microstructural prediction and observation often cited as
irrefutable evidence for the Nabarro-Herring mechanism of
diffusional creep. Furthermore, the denuded zones are
predicted to be at grain boundaries that are orthogonal to the
direction of the applied stress, and their dimensions should
account for the accumulated plastic flow.
In the present paper, the evidence for such denuded zones
is critically examined. These zones have been observed
during creep of magnesium, aluminum, and nickel-base alloys.
The investigation casts serious doubts on the apparently
compelling evidence for the link between denuded zones and
diffusional creep. Specifically, denuded zones are not
uniformly observed under conditions believed to correspond to
diffusional creep; and, denuded zones are clearly observed
under conditions that are explicitly not diffusional creep.
Additionally, the denuded zones are often found in directions
that are not orthogonal to the applied stress, and their
dimensions can rarely account for the accumulated strain.
Mechanisms that can account for the observations of denuded
zones, that do not invoke diffusional creep, are discussed. It is
likely that denuded zones during creep are created by
dissolution of precipitates at stress-directed moving grain
boundaries.
wadsworth3@llnl.gov

MMC2001-162 Wednesday, June 27, 11:45 AM

Identifying The Rate-Controlling Mechanisms In


High Temperature Creep
T.G. Langdon, Mechanical Eng., Univ. of Southern
California, Los Angeles, CA, USA
It is now recognized that several different flow
mechanisms may contribute to the plasticity of polycrystalline
materials under conditions of high temperature creep.
Generally, these mechanisms are identified through
experimental measurements of the dependence of the creep
rate on stress, temperature and grain size. This paper
examines recent developments in interpreting the occurrence
of specific creep mechanisms with special reference to (i) the
nature of grain boundary sliding over a range of experimental
conditions and (ii) the questions arising concerning the
occurrence and interplay between diffusion creep and HarperDorn creep.
langdon@mizar.usc.edu

Session: Session II- Low Stress Exponent Creep (HarperDorn)


Wednesday, June 27, 11:00-12:30
Point Loma A
Chair: F.R.N. Nabarro

Session: Session III- Low Stress Exponent and Recovery


Creep
Wednesday, June 27, 1:30-3:00
Point Loma A
Chair: M.J. Mills

MMC2001-176 Wednesday, June 27, 11:00 AM

MMC2001-119 Wednesday, June 27, 1:30 PM

Predictive Capabilities Of The Dislocation Network


Theory Of Harper-Dorn Creep

The Role Of Impurities During High Temperature


Deformation

M. A. Przystupa, A. J. Ardell, Materials Science and Eng.,


Univ. California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA

F.A. Mohamed, Chemical and Biochemical and Materials


Science, Univ. of Clifornia, Irvine, Irvine, CA, USA

The dislocation network theory of Harper-Dorn (H-D)


creep is the only theory capable of predicting creep rates based
on microstructural information. The instantaneous creep rates
are determined from the distributions of dislocation link

It is well-documented that impurities play an important


role in the deformation and fracture of polycrystalline
materials. For example, the results of a number of studies
have demonstrated that the presence of a very small of amount
of impurities in polycrystalline materials can explain many

46

Creep Plasticity and Fracture

phenomena such as temper embrittlement in steels, creep


embrittlement, and enhancement of ductility in the
intermetallic compound Ni3Al. It is the purpose of this paper
to review the details of two high-temperature deformation
phenomena whose characteristics are, according to very recent
experimental evidence, influenced or controlled by impurities.
The first phenomenon, micrograin superplasticity) deals with
the ability of fine-grained materials (d < 10 m, where d is the
grain size) to exhibit extensive neck-free elongations during
deformation at elevated temperatures above 0.5 Tm, where Tm
is the melting point. The second phenomenon, Harper-Dorn
creep, refers to the anomalous creep behavior of large-grained
materials at very low stresses and temperatures near the
melting point.
famohame@uci.edu

be shown to give realistic power-law behavior. Such models


are important in relating macroscopic plastic response to
dislocation-level deformation mechanisms.
daehn@eng.ohio-state.edu
Session: Session IV- Recovery Creep (Fundamentals and
Modeling)
Wednesday, June 27, 3:30-5:00
Point Loma A
Chair: A. J. Ardell
MMC2001-121 Wednesday, June 27, 3:30 PM

Understanding Creep; A Review Of Mechanisms


And Constitutive Laws
Wolfgang Blum, F. Brutinger, P. Eisenlohr, Inst. f.
Werkstoffwissenschaften LS 1, Univ. ErlangenNurnburg, Erlangen, Martensstr. 5, Germany

MMC2001-113 Wednesday, June 27, 2:35 PM

Continuous Recrystallization and Elevated


Temperature Deformation in a Superplastic
Aluminum Alloy

By definition as plastic deformation after loading to a


given stress , creep of crystalline materials usually takes
place near the steady state of deformation. Normalization of
the creep rate by DGb/kT with a suitable diffusion coefficient
D (G: shear modulus, b: Burgers vector length, k: Botzmann
constant, T: temperature) and of by G leads to a master
curve for pure materials in the normalized strain-rate-stress At
the low-stress end of the master curve natural creep behavior
(normalized creep rate (/G)3) with a slope ( -exponent of
strain-rate) of n = 3 seems to represent the ideal case, rather
than the Harper-Dorn creep with n = 1 frequently reported in
the literature. At the high-stress end spontaneous annihilation
of dislocations must be taken into account as an important
mechanism of dynamic recovery of the dislocation structure
limiting the flow stress at low T. It is discussed how these
findings affect the traditional interpretation of the intermediate
central part of the master curve with n 5 (five-power-law
creep) in terms of climb-controlled creep.

Terry R. McNelley, D. L. Swisher, Mechanical Engineering,


Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA, USA
Al-Cu-Zr materials the presence of fine (10-50 nm)
second-phase particles may hinder the migration of high-angle
boundaries during annealing or elevated temperature
deformation after thermomechanical processing. Continuous
recrystallization is a description of the recovery-dominated
processes that tend to occur uniformly throughout the
microstructure. Orientation images confirm the presence of
deformation bands of alternating lattice orientation
corresponding to the symmetric variants of the B texture
component (<112>(110) in rolled material). The high-angle
grain boundaries are predominantly the interfaces between
such bands while the lower-angle boundaries separate cells
within the bands. Further OIM results show that the bands
remain prominent features of the microstructure during either
annealing alone or during deformation under superplastic
conditions. Slip apparently predominates in the initial stages
of elevated temperature deformation although grain boundary
sliding becomes progressively easier as grain boundaries
evolve during straining
tmcnelley@nps.navy.mil

Wolfgang.Blum@ww.uni-erlangen.de
MMC2001-134 Wednesday, June 27, 4:15 PM

On The Mechanisms Controlling Steady State


Deformation Of Metals And Alloys

MMC2001-874 Wednesday, June 27, 2:15 PM

E. Nes, Materials Technology and Electrochemistry,


Norwegian Univ. of Science and Tech., Trondheim,
Alfred Getz vei 2b, Norway

Power-Law Fits Always Work, and So What?


Glenn S. Daehn, Materials Science and Eng., Ohio State
University, Columbus, OH, USA

The fundamental problems of work hardening and steady


state deformation relate to: (i) How to calculate the flow stress
at a constant microstructure? (ii) How to define the
mechanism of athermal storage of dislocations? And (iii) how
to treat dynamic recovery? These are difficult questions,
which have stimulated extensive research efforts over many
decades. In an effort to reach an improved understanding, a
new approach towards these problems has recently been
proposed by the present author and co-workes [1-5]. The
model presented is based on a statistical analysis of athermal
storage of dislocations. By combining the solution for the
dislocation storage problem with models for dynamic recovery

Power-law relations abound in plasticity. Another place


they abound are in the "Critial Phenomena" that are well
studied by the physics and statistical mechanics communities.
This presentation will try to make the case that power-law
relations are more than convenient fitting forms and that the
values of the exponents are related to the complex interactions
of the many agents of plastic deformation which are typically
coupled by load-shedding. Specific models of deformation
that include the stochastic elements of plastic deformation will

47

Creep Plasticity and Fracture

of network dislocations and sub-boundary structures, a general


internal state variable description is obtained. The model
includes effects due to variations in: stacking fault energy,
grain size, solid solution content, and particle size and volume
fraction. The result is a work hardening model, which in
principle is capable of providing the stress-strain behavior for
a given metal or solid solution alloy under condition ranging
from deformation in the ambient temperature range to high
temperature creep. In this presentation, the basic model
concepts will be discussed and contrasted in relation to
alternative interpretations found in the creep literature.
References

Session: Session V- Recovery Creep (Fundamentals and


Modeling)
Thursday, June 28, 9:00-10:30
Point Loma A
Chair: E. Nes
MMC2001-122 Thursday, June 28, 9:00 AM

Subgrain Formation In Creep: Between Contiuum


And Dislocations
R. Sedlacek, Wolfgang Blum, Inst. f. Werkstoffwissenschaften
LS 1, Univ. Erlangen-Nurnburg, Erlangen, Martensstr.
5, USA

[1] E. Nes, Prog. Materials Sci., 41, 129 (1998).


[2] E. Nes, T. Pettersen, K. Marthinsen, Scripta mater. 43,
55 (2000).
Erik.Nes@matek.sintef.no

J. Kratochvil, Faculty of Civil Eng., Dept. of Physics, Czech


Technical Univ., Prague, Thakurova 7, Czech Republic
The role played by the subgrains in the course of
deformation is twofold: (i) the subgrain boundaries serve as
sinks for incoming dislocations of one sign and as obstacles
for dislocation of the opposite sign, thus contributing to
dynamic recovery and to the development of long-range
internal stresses, respectively, and (ii) the misorientation
between subgrains enables to locally reduce the number of slip
systems, thus decreasing the flow stress of the deforming
material. Creep is especially suitable to study the subgrain
formation from the basic point of view, for the dislocation
content of the boundaries reduces almost completely to the
geometrically necessary one. Thus, the dislocation patterning
which involves formation of dipolar walls does not interfere.
The subgrain formation in both pure metals nad strongly solidsolution hardened alloys is treated in a unified way in the
framework of continuum crystal plasticity as a bifurcation
from a uniform to a non-homogeneous mode of plastic
deformation. In general, the main reason for the instability is
a certain anisotropy of the uniform plastic flow. In pure
metals, the anisotropy is due to strong secondary hardening in
solid solution, it is due to the climb of dislocations.
sedlacek@ww.uni-erlangen.de

MMC2001-103 Wednesday, June 27, 5:00 PM

Dislocation Microstructure And Internal Stress


Measurements By CBED On Creep Deformed Cu
AND Al
Maria-Teresa Perez-Prado, Avda. Gregorio del Amo, 8,
Centro Nacional de Investigatciones Metalurgicas,
Madrid, Spain
Michael E. Kassner, Michael Long, Mechanical Engineering,
Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR
Kenneth S. Vecchio, Mechanical and Aerospace Eng ., Univ.
Calif San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA
Creep experiments were performed on aluminum single
crystals and copper polycrystals that were creep deformed
within the five-power-law regime. One objective of the work
was to characterize the dislocation substructure of creepdeformed copper. The dislocation structure has not been
adequately characterized in the past. In contrast to most of the
earlier work, well defined subgrains were formed with a Frank
network of dislocations within the subgrains. Another
objective of this work was to probe the subgrains from one
subgrain boundary to another in copper and aluminum using
convergent beam electron diffraction (CBED). This allowed a
determination of any changes in the lattice parameter which
would indicate the presence of any internal stresses. Earlier
investigations by others suggested that internal stresses may
be high in the vicinity of the "hard" subgrain boundaries based
on a variety of techniques, including x-ray diffraction, stressdip tests as well as some preliminary CBED. It was
determined in this work that the lattice parameter was
unchanged at the equilibrium or stress-free value within the
interior of the subgrains and along (within one beam diameter)
the subgrain boundaries. The implications of these findings
are discussed.
kassner@engr.orst.edu

MMC2001-139 Thursday, June 28, 9:45 AM

Mechanisms Of High Temperature Creep In


Gamma TiAl Alloys And Alpha/Beta Ti Alloys
M.J. Mills, G. B. Viswanathan, S. Karthikeyan, Materials
Science and Eng, Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH, USA
R. W. Hayes, 19801 Nordhoff, Metals Technology Inc.,
Northridge, CA, USA
Y.W. Kim
This talk will focus on the high temperature creep
properties and deformation mechanisms in two important alloy
systems: commercial / Ti alloys and the emerging alloys
based on -TiAl. Perhaps surprisingly, creep deformation in
the intermetallic compound -TiAl and the solid solution phase present in commercial Ti alloys share striking
similarities at the dislocation level. In neither case is subgrain
formation observed at strains near the minimum creep rate.
Instead, in both cases, deformed microstructures are
dominated by the presence of near-screw dislocations which
are frequently jogged. In -TiAl, 1/2<110> unit dislocations

48

Creep Plasticity and Fracture

are common, while in the -phase of Ti-6242, a-type


dislocations are predominant. These jogs are on average much
taller than atomic dimensions and are believed to evolve
naturally in the course of dislocation motion. A modification
of the conventional jogged-screw model will be presented
which appears to be provide reasonable prediction of creep
rates and stress exponents. The key parameters and
limitations of this model will be discussed, as well as its
extension to the fine-scale the / 2 lamellar structures which
can be developed in hypostoichiometric TiAl alloys.
mills.108@osu.edu

a substructure which remains equiaxed and constant in spacing


of subboundaries and of dislocations in both walls and
subgrains. All these spacings become larger at higher T and
lower & as well as with lower stress, being fully consistent
with the relationships established in creep. Because hot
working can proceed to much higher true strain, in torsion
(~100) and compression (~2) as well as extrusion (~20) and
rolling (~5), it is possible to confirm that grains continue to
elongate while the subgrains within them remain equiaxed and
constant in size. When the thickness of grains reaches about 2
subgrain diameters (d), the grain boundaries with serrations
(~d) begin to impinge and the grains pinch off becoming
somewhat undistinguishable from the subgrains; this has been
called geometric dynamic recrystallization (DRX). In
polycrystals as at 20C, deformation bands form and rotate
during hot working according to Taylor theory developing
textures very similar to those in cold working. In metals of
lower dynamic recoverability such as Cu, Ni and Fe, new

MMC2001-118 Thursday, June 28, 10:30 AM

Steady State Creep Of Alpha Zirconium


T.A. Hayes, Michael E. Kassner, Mechanical and Aerospace
Eng., Univ. of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA

grains nucleate and grow (discontinuous DRX) leading to a


steady state related to frequently renewed equiaxed grains
containing an equiaxed substructure that develops to a
constant-character and defines the flow stress.

Cumulative zirconium creep data over a broad range of


stresses (0.1 to 115 MPa) and temperatures (300 to 850C)
were analyzed based on an extensive literature review.
Zirconium obeys traditional power-law creep with a stress
exponent of approximately 6.4 over stain-rates and
temperatures usually associated with the conventional fivepower-law regime. Thus, dislocation climb, rather than the
often assumed glide mechanism, may be rate controlling.
Power-law breakdown occurs at values of & ss D greater than
9

mcqueen@vax2.concordia.ca
Session: Session VI-Creep (Unconventional Conditions)
Thursday, June 28, 11:00-12:30
Point Loma A
Chair: Wolfgang Blum

-2

approximately 10 cm , consistent with most traditional fivepower-law materials. The creep rate of zirconium at low
values of /G varies proportionally to the applied stress. The
rate-controlling mechanism(s) for creep within this regime is
unclear. A grain size dependency may exist, particularly at
small (<90 m) sizes, suggesting a diffusional mechanism. A
grain size independence at larger grain sizes supports a
Harper-Dorn mechanism, but the low observed activation
energy (~90 kJ/mol) is not consistent with those observed at
similar temperatures at higher stresses in the 5-power-law
regime (270 kJ/mol) where creep is also believed to be lattice
self-diffusion controlled. The stress dependence in this regime
is not consistent with traditional grain boundary sliding
mechanisms.
tttshayes@iname.com

MMC2001-133 Thursday, June 28, 11:45 AM

Constitutive Equation For Creep And Plasticity Of


Aluminium Alloys Produced By Powder-Metallurgy
And Aluminum-Based Metal Matrix Composites
Stefano Spigarelli, Enrico Evangelista, Mechanics, Univ. of
Ancona, Ancona, Via Brecce Bianche, Italy
The constitutive relationships between stress, strain rate
and temperature were analysed in order to obtain a unified
description of creep and plasticity of aluminum alloys
produced by powder metallurgy and aluminum-based metal
matrix composites. Both these classes of materials are
characterised by the existence of a threshold stress ( th); on
this basis a unified description of creep (low strain rate
regime) and plasticity (high strain rate regime) was obtained
by substituting the conventional power law equation with the
sinh relationship, where the applied stress is substituted by the
difference between the applied stress and a threshold stress.
The stress exponent was n = 3 or 5, and the activation energy
was equivalent to the activation energy for self-diffusion or to
the activation energy of solute elements in the matrix. The
model was applied to unreinforced alloys (2014PM, 2024PM)
and composites (2024PM+15%SiC, 2618+20%Al 2 O3,
6061+20%Al2O3) tested in tension (under constant load) or in
torsion (at constant strain rate), in the temperature range
between 250 and 500C. The data obtained by the authors of
the present study were also compared with other results
available in the literature.

Session: Session VI-Creep (Unconventional Conditions)


Thursday, June 28, 11:00-12:30
Point Loma A
Chair: Wolfgang Blum
MMC2001-148 Thursday, June 28, 11:00 AM

Elevated Temperature Deformation At Forming


Rates Of 0.01 - 100 Per Sec.
H. J. McQueen, Mechanical Eng., Concordia, Montreal,
Quebec, Canada
In the hot working at constant strain rate & of Al and
Fe alloys at 0.5-0.9 TM (absolute melting temperature) steady
state deformation is achieved in similarity to creep which is
usually at constant stress. After an initial strain hardening
transient, the flow stress becomes constant in association with

49

Current Development in Micromechanics of Random Heterogeneous Materials and Bodies

spiga@popcsi.unian.it

M.J. Mills, T. Neeraj, M.F. Savage, J. Tatalovich, Materials


Science and Eng., Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH, USA

sensitivity noted in the elevated temperature creep failure of


certain metals.
3. The spatially inhomogeneous grow of cavities, in which
cavitation is distributed more or less at random along the grain
boundary. Such a situation contributes to marked scatter in
the predicted rupture times. We outline the considerable
amount of experimental and analytical work in this area.
tjd1@lehigh.edu

G. B. Viswanathan, Glenn S. Daehn

MMC2001-105 Thursday, June 28, 2:15 PM

Commercial a/b-titanium alloys such are known to exhibit


creep at low homologous temperatures and at stress levels
significantly below the yield strength. Phenomenologically,
this unusual behavior may be traced to the extraordinarily low
strain hardening exponents of these alloys: a characteristic
which has its microstructural origins in the planar nature of
deformation in the a-phase and the manner in which a/b
interfaces are traversed by dislocations. Ambient temperature
creep proceeds in the a-phase by the propagation of extended,
planar arrays of dislocations which are thought to form due to
short-range ordering (SRO) effects. We will describe our
studies of SRO using both TEM and neutron diffraction, as
well as the effect of thermal treatment to the creep behavior
and SRO state. With regards to slip transmission between a
and b phases, we have conducted testing of single colony
crystals of the near-a alloy Ti-6242. The creep response of
these crystals is remarkably anisotropic with respect to colony
orientation for both basal and prism slip systems. The
dislocation-level processes responsible for this anisotropy will
be discussed, and the implications of these results with respect
to the macroscopic deformation of polycrystals will also be
described.
mills.108@osu.edu

Recent Advances In High Temperature Fracture


Research

MMC2001-141 Thursday, June 28, 12:05 PM

Dislocation Processes During Low Temperature


Creep Of Alpha And Alpha/Beta Titanium Alloys

James C. Earthman, Chemical and Biochemical and


Materials, Univ. California, Irvine, Irvine, CA, USA
Recent research accomplishments in the area of high
temperature fracture will be reviewed. Numerical models will
be discussed which simulate mechanisms that control high
temperature fracture for a range of materials and conditions.
Experimental studies will also be reviewed which provide
much insight into the nature of high temperature fracture. For
example, data for specimens tested under multiaxial stresses
will be presented that can be used to indicate the principal
damage mechanism. Results from both modeling and
experimental activities will be compared and contrasted in
order to identify new insight and future research directions
that will lead to better methods for predicting failure and
improved materials performance at elevated temperatures.
earthman@uci.edu

Current Development in Micromechanics of


Random Heterogeneous Materials and
Bodies

Session: Session VII- Creep Fracture


Thursday, June 28, 1:30-3:00
Point Loma A
Chair: O.A. Ruano

Session: Session 1. Random Heterogeneous Materials and


Non-Local Effects
Friday, June 29, 9:00-10:30
Executive Conference Center 4
Chair: Iwona Jasiuk

MMC2001-104 Thursday, June 28, 1:30 PM

Some Aspects Of High Temperature Cavity Growth

MMC2001-502 Friday, June 29, 9:00 AM

Terry J. Delph, Mechanical Eng., Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem,


PA, USA

Random Heterogeneous Materials: Bridging the


Microscopic and Macroscopic Worlds

The nucleation and growth of intergranular cavitation is


one of the major contributors to high-temperature failure. We
focus here on three developments in this area.
1. Models for the coupled diffusive/strain controlled
growth of creep cavities. There exist several approximate
models intended to describe this situation, along with a set of
detailed finite element simulations (Needleman and Rice,
1980). We give a critical review of the available models.
2. Environmental influences upon cavity growth.
Bricknell and Woodford (1982) have demonstrated
experimentally that exposure of carbon-containing nickel to an
oxygen environment at 1000 C results in the formation of
numerous intergranular cavities near the surface of the
specimen. We review models of cavity growth that attempt to
link this phenomenon with the marked environmental

Keynote
Salvatore Torquato, Princeton Materials Institute, Princeton
University, Princeton, NJ, USA
Heterogeneous materials abound in nature and in manmade situations. Examples of such natural materials include
geologic media, animal and plant tissue, bone, blood and
lungs. Synthetic examples include all types of fiber-reinforced
and particulate composites, colloids, concrete, packed beds
and gels. It is a challenge to relate the macroscopic transport
and mechanical properties to the underlying structure at the
"microscopic" scale, especially when randomness enters the
picture, as it often does. Indeed, an outstanding fundamental

50

Current Development in Micromechanics of Random Heterogeneous Materials and Bodies

question is: How can we quantitatively characterize


randomness in a meaningful and efficient way? We discuss a
quantitative means of characterizing important features of
random microstructures and how such information can be used
to predict macroscopic properties. Recent results on the
intriguing inverse problem of reconstructing materials
microstructures (given specified statistical correlation
functions) is discussed. We also show that the 40-year concept
of random close packing of spheres is ill defined and replace it
with an entirely new notion, namely, the "maximally random
jammed" state.
torquato@electron.princeton.edu

first for an arbitrary comparison medium. Then, a new


approach is outlined and applied which employs the nonlocal
term to select the comparison medium that gives the optimal
constant effective modulus tensor for the amount of statistical
information employed. Completely explicit, quantitative
results are presented for some matrix-inclusion and matrixvoid composites, and comparisons are made with published
experimental data on effective moduli.
drugan@engr.wisc.edu
MMC2001-413 Friday, June 29, 10:12 AM

MMC2001-606 Friday, June 29, 9:36 AM

Non-local constitutive equations for functionally


graded materials

Micromechanics Of Nonlocal Effects In


Heterogeneous Materials

Raimondo Luciano, DiMSAT, University of Cassino,


Cassino, Frosinone, Italy

Valeriy Buryachenko, Dep. Civil & Environmental Engng,


The University of Dayton, Dayton, OH, USA

John R. Willis, Department of Mathematical Sciences,


University of Bath, Bath, Bath, UK
Functionally graded materials (FGMs) are used in space
structures and fusion reactors as superheat-resistive materials.
The FGMs considered in this work have two distinct material
phases and are considered as non-uniform statistically
heterogeneous materials characterised by local geometrical
and constitutive properties which vary continuously in space.
In this paper, the non-local effective constitutive properties of
FGMs will be estimated by extending methodology proposed
in Luciano and Willis (2000) to non-statistically uniform
heterogeneous materials. Several examples will be presented,
to show the capability of the proposed procedure to estimate
non-local properties of FGMs in the real-space domain.
REFERENCE
R. Luciano, J. R. Willis Bounds on non-local effective
relations for random composites loaded by configurationdependent body force. Journal Mechanics and Physics of
Solids, vol. 48(9), pp. 1827-1850, 2000.
luciano@unicas.it

We consider a linearly thermoelastic composite medium,


which consists of a homogeneous matrix containing either
deterministic (periodic and non-periodic) and random
(statistically homogeneous and inhomogeneous, so-called
graded) field of inclusions. For Functionally Graded Materials
when the concentration of the inclusions is a function of the
coordinates, the micromechanical approach is based on the
generalization of the ``multiparticle effective field'' method,
previously proposed for statistically homogeneous random
structure composites by the author (see for references and
details Buryachenko, 2001). Both the Fourier transform
method and iteration method are analyzed. The nonlocal both
the integral and differential effective operator of elastic
effective properties are estimated. The nonlocal dependences
of the effective elastic moduli as well as of conditional
averages of the strains in the components on the concentration
of the inclusions in a certain neighborhood of point considered
are detected; the scale effect is discovered.
Buryachenko V. A. Multiparticle effective field and
related methods in micromechanics of composite materials.
Applied Mechanics Review. 2001, 54(1), 1-47.
burach@aol.com

Session: Session 2. Micromechanics of Granular Materials


Friday, June 29, 11:00-12:30
Executive Conference Center 4
Chair: Tungyang Chen

MMC2001-243 Friday, June 29, 9:54 AM

MMC2001-415 Friday, June 29, 11:00 AM

Micromechanics-Based Nonlocal Constitutive


Equations and Determination of Optimal Effective
Moduli for Random Elastic Composite Materials

Anisotropy in granular materials at different scales


Keynote

Walter J. Drugan, Engineering Physics, University of


Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, USA

Philippe Dubujet, Bernard Cambou, LTDS UMR 5513,


Ecole Centrale de Lyon, Lyon, Rhone, France

We derive a micromechanics-based, explicit nonlocal


constitutive equation relating the ensemble averages of stress
and strain for random linear elastic composite materials via a
generalization of the Hashin-Shtrikman variational
formulation. The constitutive equation describes two-phase
composites with any isotropic and statistically uniform
distribution of phases (which themselves may have arbitrary
shape and anisotropy), within a formulation accounting for
one- and two-point probabilities. The analysis is carried out

Granular materials show important anisotropy which can


be linked to the deposit process of the material (initial
anisotropy) or to the stress history which has been applied to
this material (induced anisotropy). This anisotropy can be
measured at different scales, the local scale is defined at the
particle level, and the global scale at a representative volume
in which an equivalent continuum can be defined. At the local
scale, two variables measuring the anisotropy can be
proposed, the first one, well established, is linked to the

51

Current Development in Micromechanics of Random Heterogeneous Materials and Bodies

distribution of contact orientations, and can be defined by the


usual fabric tensor. The second one is linked to the distribution
of contact forces, it is described by a second rank tensor and
can be considered as a measure of the static anisotropy .
At the global scale the anisotropy can be measured from the
results obtained from isotropic loading (governed by stress or
strain). Different numerical simulations using 2D discrete
element method will be performed and analysed. The
definition of a yielding surface will be proposed from a
statistic homogeneisation and compared with the numerical
results. This yielding surface is essentially governed by a
kinematic hardening which is defined by a back stress tensor
directly related to the anisotropy.
philippe.dubujet@ec-lyon.fr

MMC2001-750 Friday, June 29, 11:54 AM

Influence of the Gravity and Inertia Forces on the


Mean Stress Tensor of a Granular Medium in
Dynamics
Gry de Saxc, Laboratoire de Mcanique de Lille,
Universit des Sciences et Technologies de Lille,
Villeneuve d'Ascq, France
To define the stresses in a granular medium considered as
a continuum, Weber has calculated a tensor at a point by
averaging the contact forces in the vicinity. However this
tensor is not symmetric. Besides, Weber formula neglects the
body forces, that does not allow to describe dynamical
problems. In the present work, it is proposed to use a general
expression of the mean stress tensor based not only on the
contact reactions but also on the body forces. It is proved this
tensor is automatically symmetric and invariant by translation.
Next, the pertinence of this approach is illustrated by an
analytical example of a rigid cylindrical bead rolling without
sliding by gravity on an inclined plane. It can be clearly
ascertained that accounting for the contribution of the gravity
and inertia effects is essential to ensure the symmetry of the
stress tensor, according to Cauchy theory.
Finally, numerical simulations with a large number of
grains are performed using the software MULTICOR
developed in our laboratories and based on the Contact
Dynamics and the bipotential approach. The attention is
particularly focused on the motion of ensiled matters. The
mean stress distribution of the homogenized material is
compared to the network of force chains associated to the
strong contacts. The calculus of the mean stresses enables to
put a prominent position to the vault effect characterizing the
granular media.
gery.desaxce@univ-lille1.fr

MMC2001-516 Friday, June 29, 11:36 AM

Three-Dimensional Micromechanical Modeling of


Particle-Modified Materials
Mats Danielsson, Mary C. Boyce, David M Parks,
Mechanical Engineering, Mass. Inst. of Technology,
Cambridge, MA, USA
Micromechanical modeling is a powerful tool for
understanding deformation mechanisms in particle-modified
materials. Recently, a fully three-dimensional one-particle cell
model based on a Voronoi tesselation of a staggered particle
array was proposed (Danielsson, et al., 2000). In this model,
interactions between neighboring particles are taken into
account through periodic boundary conditions. The Voronoi
cell model has been used to study the micro- and
macromechanics of rubber-filled polycarbonate for the cases
of plane strain, simple shear and arbitrary principal stress
states. The Voronoi cell model enables a detailed study of the
underlying deformation mechanisms, as well as calculation of
the macroscopic stress-strain response. Although the Voronoi
cell model captures important features of the microstructure
and its mechanical response, it is still a periodic idealization of
the actual random microstructure. In this work, threedimensional multi-particle cell models, based on spatially
random distributions of particles, are developed. We compare
the predictions of the multi-particle models to those of the
Voronoi cell model, in order to ascertain the effects of a
random particle arrangement on the microscopic and
macroscopic material response. We then discuss the use of
these results in the development of continuum level
constitutive models for this class of materials.
Danielsson, M., Parks, D.M. and Boyce, M.C., "Threedimensional micromechanical modeling of particle-toughened
polymeric materials", submitted to J. Mech. Phys. Solids,
October, 2000.
mats@mit.edu

MMC2001-248 Friday, June 29, 12:12 PM

Kinematic and static assumptions for


homogenization in micromechanics of granular
materials
Niels P. Kruyt, Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands
Leo Rothenburg, Department of Civil Engineering, University
of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada
An objective of micromechanics of heterogeneous
granular materials is to derive a macroscopic (continuum)
constitutive relation from the microscopic (contact)
constitutive relation. To accomplish this, a kinematic or static
homogenization assumption is required for the relation
between contact quantities (relative displacement or force) and
macroscopic quantities (strain or stress). Two alternatives are
considered, generalized uniform strain and generalized
uniform stress. The first kinematic assumption is well known
in the literature, while the latter static assumption is new. It is
based on a general construction of force fields that leads to
force equilibrium for all particles. For the case of isotropic
assemblies of non-rotating particles with an elastic contact
constitutive relation, this construction of equilibrated contact

52

Current Development in Micromechanics of Random Heterogeneous Materials and Bodies

forces is employed to derive lower bounds to the effective


elastic moduli, using a minimum complementary energy
principle. The selected field of contact forces is based on a
local adjustment to the uniform stress field. An analogous
local adjustment to the uniform strain field is employed to
derive upper bounds to the moduli, using a minimum potential
energy principle. Results of Discrete Element simulations
show that the actual moduli are tightly bracketed by these
upper and lower bounds. Finally, the relative displacement and
force fields resulting from the local adjustment fields are
analysed.
n.p.kruyt@wb.utwente.nl

MMC2001-607 Friday, June 29, 2:06 PM

Micromechanics of Deformation in ParticleToughened Semi-Crystalline Polymers


Ethan M. Parsons, Mary C. Boyce, David M. Parks,
Mechanical Engineering, MIT, Cambridge, MA, USA
J.A.W. van Dommelen
It is well known that semi-crystalline polymers can be
toughened by the addition of well-dispersed second phase
particles. A dramatic improvement in toughness occurs when
the particle size and volume fraction combine to produce an
average interparticle spacing, , less than a matrix material
dependent critical value, c. The particle surface provides a
site from which highly oriented crystalline lamellae of length
c /2 grow. Plastic deformation occurs more readily along
specific planes within these anisotropic layers than in the
isotropic neat polymer. A series of unit cell micromechanical
models are constructed to determine how the change in matrix
morphology toughens rubber-filled and calcium carbonate
(CaCO3)-filled high-density polyethylene (HDPE). The
cavitating spherical rubber particles are modeled as voids, and
the mineral fillers are modeled as rigid spheres with an
interface potential function controlling debonding. It is found
that the local mode of deformation and macroscopic response
depend on the matrix morphology, the type of loading, and the
degree of adhesion. When c, the oriented crystallites
span the entire interparticle distance, and shear yielding along
preferentially oriented easy-slip planes percolates throughout
the primary phase.
ethan33@mit.edu

Session: Session 3. Continua with Microstructure


Friday, June 29, 1:30-3:00
Executive Conference Center 4
Chair: Qi-Chang He
MMC2001-968 Friday, June 29, 1:30 PM

Thermodynamic Of Damage Evolution In


Disordered Materials
Keynote
Dusan Krajcinovic, Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering,
Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, USA
Primary objective of the damage mechanics is to estimate
the effect of microcracks and their propagation on the
structure deformation and failure. A crack is a microcrack if
its length is equal to the length of the material disorder. For
the damage mechanics to reach its objective it must be based
on the principles of thermodynamics of dissipative processes
fracture mechanics and physics of disordered solids.
Moreover, the micro-cause and macro-result are intrinsically
coupled they require an analytical model that seamlessly move
from one scale to the other. The parameters of such model
must be defined and must be measurable.
This study will consider the thermodynamic of states and
their change as the microcracks nucleate, propagate and form
clusters. The affinity, which drives the process, will be
defined from the principles of fracture mechanics. The second
law of thermodynamics is used to demonstrate the role of the
material disorder in damage evolution. The applicability of
the thermodynamic with internal variable will be interrogated
using the statistical physics concept of avalanche.
Since the statistical input (on the fine scale) does not
always induce a deterministic output (on the course scale) it is
to be expect that the most important phase of damage
evolution, close to the failure, will require in general a
probabilistic treatment. Scatter of test data is large and the
role of averages of stresses, strains, and microcracks length is
insignificant. In other words, the statistics of extremes must
be used.
dusan@asu.edu

MMC2001-722 Friday, June 29, 2:24 PM

Effects of size, shape and anisotropy of single


crystals on representative volume elements of
polycrystals -- Numerical experiments and
theoretical verification
Q.-S. Zheng, Z.-Y. Ren, Department of Engineering
Mechanics, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China
The concept of representative volume element (RVE)
plays a key role in correlating microscopically heterogeneous
materials with their macroscopically homogenized ones.
However, up to now we have rare quantitative knowledge on
RVE scales or sizes of various engineering materials, which
have been becoming a necessity due to the recently rapid
development of, for instance, the microelectromechanical
systems (MEMS). In this work, effects of size, shape and
anisotropy of single crystals on RVEs of polycrystaline
materials are numerically tested. Firstly, the forming of a
polycrystalline material is modeled by the use of an equivelocity growth technique starting from randomly distributed
initial points. With this approach we get a large number of
polycrystalline samples. Secondly, the shape factor of a single
crystal is defined in terms of its inertia ellipsoid. Finally, we
numerically test more than five hundreds of cubic
polycrystalline materials in the plane stress state. The major
finding from these numerical experiments is that the RVE
sizes for the effective Youngs and shear moduli depend

53

Current Development in Micromechanics of Random Heterogeneous Materials and Bodies

linearly upon the degree of anisotropy of single crystal. One


the other hand, any material volume could plays as a RVE for
the effective area modulus. Besides, it is shown that the shape
distribution of single crystals is the normal distribution with
the average value 0.625 and the variance 0.260. 2, and the size
distribution of single crystals is Rayleigh type with the
average value 0.994
zhengqs@tsinghua.edu.cn

each scale. We determine effective material response either


analytically (using micromechanics theory) or numerically at
several scales, with each level being homogenized. The
macroscopic structure of bone is analyzed in a "descending"
order by considering finer and finer details of substructures,
which are decomposed into further substructures. The bone
properties are determined at each level.
iwona.jasiuk@me.gatech.edu

MMC2001-656 Friday, June 29, 2:42 PM

MMC2001-293 Friday, June 29, 3:48 PM

Texture evolution of continua with single crystal


microstructure

Neutral Coated Inhomogeneities in Torsion


Tungyang Chen, Department of Civil Engineering, National
Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan, Republic of
China

Philippe Tamagny, Alain Ehrlacher, LAMI, ENPC-LCPC,


Champs sur Marne, France

Yakov Benveniste, Department of Solid Mechanics, Materials


and Systems, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel

Maurizio Brocato, IEI, CNR, Pisa, Italy


We put forward a model of continuum with microstructure
representing a material body the elements of which are single
crystals. Crystals may deform with elasto-plastic behavior,
with the plastic rules given through a multiple slip approach.
The field of local orientation of the crystal lattice is a
microscopic kinematic descriptor of the system,
correspondingly the lattice spin is a kinematic unknown,
which we handle, as customary in the theory of continua with
microstructure, through a fit balance condition for the
associated micro-momentum. The aim is the determination of
the evolution of the related orientation distribution function.
We give the balance and constitutive equations for the threedimensional model. We tackle the problem of the simple
compression of a polycrystal with 12 possible slip directions,
under some restrictive assumption which allows a complete
analytical solution. This solution is then compared with the
direct solution of the two-dimensional polylamellae with 3 slip
directions.
tamagny@lami.enpc.fr

We study the Saint-Venant torsion of composite


cylindrical bars and derive exact solutions in two stages. In the
first stage, we show the existence of thickly coated
inhomogeneities of various shapes which leave the vanishing
warping function in the host circular bar undisturbed. These
are called ''partially neutral'' inhomogeneities. If the torsional
rigidity of the host bar is left unchanged as well, they are
called ''completely neutral''. The topological properties of such
coated inhomogeneities are studied, and a rich class of
examples of is given. The method of analysis is based on
complex function theory and conformal mapping. In the
second stage, we make use of partially neutral coated circular
inhomogeneities and derive here, for the first time, an exact
solution to a circular cylindrical bar in torsion which is filled
up by the renowned Composite Cylinder Assemblage of
Hashin and Rosen (1964). We show that the torsional rigidity
of such a composite bar depends on the size distribution of the
composite cylinders which fills completely the circular rod.
The torsional rigidity becomes independent of this size
distribution if a certain condition is obeyed between the
volume fraction of a typical composite cylinder and the shear
moduli of the core and coating.
tchen@mail.ncku.edu.tw

Session: Session 4. Micromechanics of Composite


Materials
Friday, June 29, 1:30-3:00
Executive Conference Center 4
Chair: Qi-Chang He

MMC2001-491 Friday, June 29, 4:06 PM

Microgeometry-Independent Symmetry Conditions


For The Effective Moduli Of Heterogeneous
Materials

MMC2001-547 Friday, June 29, 3:30 PM

Multi-Scale Mechanics Analysis Of Trabecular Bone

Qi-Chang He, Seine et Marne, LGCU, Universite De MarneLa-Vallee, Champs Sur Marne, France

Iwona Jasiuk, Frederic Bouyge, The G.W.W. School of


Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of
Technology, Atlanta, GA, USA

The symmetry exhibited by the effective elastic behavior


of a material depends not only on the symmetry of the
microscopic elastic behavior of its constituents but also on its
microgeometry, i.e., the geometrical way that the constituents
are distributed. When all the constituents are elastically
isotropic, the symmetry of the macroscopic elastic properties
is entirely determined by the microgeometry. However, it is
shown by Hill (1963, 1964) that, for a composite made of two
linearly elasctic isotropic phases sharing the same shear
modulus, the effective elastic behavior is isotropic,

Martin Ostoja-Starzewski, Institute of Paper Science and


Technology, Atlanta, GA, U.S.A.
In this paper we study trabecular bone as a multi-scale
material. We evaluate its mechanical properties at each scale
accounting for microstructural features at each level of
observation. In particular, we are interested in differences in
mechanical response of normal and osteoporotic bone. In the
analysis, for simplicity, we assume a linear elastic response at

54

Durability of Elastomeric Material Systems

irrespective of the micogeometry. As a benchmark, this result


is quite useful for evaluating the correctness of analytical and
numerical schemes elaborated for the prediction of the
effective elastic moduli of heterogeneous materials. Based on
the notion of uniform strain and stress fields, the present work
presents a general method allowing to extend the Hill result to
various anisotropic cases and multiphase situations.
he@univ-mlv.fr

MMC2001-649 Friday, June 29, 4:42 PM

A Micromechanics Model to Predict the Response


and Failure of Concrete
Jacob Rome, S. Nemat-Nasser, Mechanical and Aerospace
Engineering, University of California, San Diego, La
Jolla, CA, USA
A micromechanics model is developed to estimate the
modulus of concrete. Eshelby's inclusion theorem is used as
the basis for the model. The concrete is treated as a two-phase
material, the mortar (aggregate) and limestone (inclusion). The
interfacial transition zone (ITZ) between the mortar and
limestone is treated as a crack. Cracks may also be included in
the mortar and limestone phases. The additional strain caused
by each embedded crack is calculated based upon the average
stress in the mortar or limestone. The additional strain caused
by the ITZ is calculated based upon a weighted average of the
stress. The influences of the cracks, including the ITZ, are
accounted for in a self-consistent manner, and the model as a
whole is self-consistent. Results are presented for a sample
case. The results show that from the measured modulus of the
mortar and limestone, the modulus of the concrete can be
predicted. This model builds on the work of Eshelby, MoriTanaka, Nemat-Nasser and others. It focuses on the primary
features of the concretethe mortar, aggregate, and
cracksso the modulus can be found numerically. The model
can be used for any material with similar features; in fact, if
some features are removed, the model can be reduced to
different well-known models such as the self-consistent or
double inclusion model.
jrome@ucsd.edu

MMC2001-363 Friday, June 29, 2:42 PM

High Strain Compression Of Random Open Cell


Foams
Amina Alaoui-Soulimani, Myriam Laroussi, Laboratoire
Analyse des Matriaux et Identification, Ecole Nationale
des Ponts et Chausses, 6 & 8 avenue Blaise Pascal, Cit
Descartes, Champs sur Marne, Marne la Valle Cedex 2,
France
Karam SAB, Laboratoire Central des Ponts et Chausses
(L.C.P.C), 58, boulevard Lefebvre, Paris Cedex 15,
France
Structural foams are widely used as energy absorbing
materials for impact protection. These materials
microstructure is often modeled as a periodic cell structure
with various unit cell shapes [1]. However, in reality, there are
always imperfections during the foaming process, that lead to
a random distribution of the constitutive material in the cell
edges.
Our study, based on results obtained in a previous periodic
approach [3], intends to extend the generalized Voigt-Reuss
bounds obtained by Huet [4] and Sab [5] in the case of elastic
random structures. In fact, we want to check, numerically, the
applicability of the results established by these authors when it
comes to the behavior of elastic structures under high strain
levels, taking into account the geometric non-linearity.
We consider a foam unit cell geometry defined by a
tetrakaidecahedron, in which we randomly suppress some
struts. The boundary conditions applied on the cell are either
strain controlled or imposed stresses. Calculations are first
performed for one "representative" cell, and then on clusters of
the initial cell made by the superposition along the loading
axis.
1. L. J. Gibson, M. F. Ashby, 1988 Cellular Solids ,
Pergamon, Oxford.
2. K. Sab, M. Laroussi, A. Alaoui, 2000 Scale effects in
high strain compression of periodic open cell foams ,
ICTAM 2000, Chicago, USA.
3. C. Huet, 1990 "Application of variational concepts to
size-effects in elastic heterogeneous bodies", J. Mech. Phys.
Solids, vol.38, pp. 813-841.
alaoui@lami.enpc.fr

Durability of Elastomeric Material Systems


Session: session 1: durability and chemical aging
Friday, June 29, 9:00-10:30
Fairbanks A
Chair: X. Allan Zhong
MMC2001-449 Friday, June 29, 9:00 AM

Aspects of Durability of Elastomeric Structures


X. Allan Zhong, Thomas G. Ebbott, P.O. Box 3531, D431A,
The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company, Akron, OH, USA
Some aspects of research activities related to durability of
elastomeric structures are presented. Subjects reviewed
include material characterization, fracture mechanics and
nuemrical modeling.
azhong@goodyear.com

55

Durability of Elastomeric Material Systems

MMC2001-579 Friday, June 29, 9:18 AM

MMC2001-451 Friday, June 29, 9:54 AM

A Constitutive Model for Elastomers Undergoing


Scission and Cross-linking at High Temperatures

Elastomers for Tracked Vehicles, Development of


Rubber Compounds for Bushings

Alan Wineman, John A. Shaw, Alan Jones, Mechanical


Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor,
Michigan, USA

Gumersindo Rodriguez, Weapons Materials Research


Directorate, Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen
Proving Grounds, Maryland, USA

When an elastomeric material is at a sufficiently high


temperature, macromolecular network junctions can undergo
time dependent scission. In a deformed material, the
molecules can recoil and cross link to form a new network
with a new reference configuration. The material system can
then consist of molecular networks with different reference
states. These microstructural events affect the stiffness of the
material system, create anisotropy and lead to permanent set.
A constitutive equation is presented, based on the
experimental work of Tobolsky (1960), which accounts for
this temperature dependent microstructural change on the
mechanical response.
Tobolskys experiments were carried out under conditions
of constant uniaxial stretch and temperature. The constitutive
equation can be used to determine the response when the
deformation and temperature vary with time. The constitutive
equation is used to simulate the response of an elastomer for a
number of deformation and temperature histories. Simulations
are compared with available experimental results.
lardan@engin.umich.edu

The primary failure mode of US military track systems is


degradation of the rubber bushings molded on the track pins.
The function of these bushings is to allow quiet rotation of the
pin in the track shoe along with providing the required
stiffness and damping for the track.
After development of HNBR12 a patented formulation
that doubled the service life of track pads, it has become
necessary to improve the service life of bushings and
roadwheels. The research goal was to increase the service life
of bushings and close the gap in service life between pads and
bushing.
A group of natural rubber compounds for bushings were
developed to improve the reversion resistance of the
conventional cure systems typically used in this application. In
order to optimize performance and properties a factorial
experimental design of six factors at two levels for the curing
and the antioxidant system was used. Properties deemed of
importance for performance were selected and desirability
functions defined for each one, after which a regression
analysis was performed on the matrix to optimize the best
features. The model was used to develop a set of formulations
with enhanced properties. The optimization matrix produced a
series of optimized formulations with improved performance
properties.
grodrigu@arl.army.mil

MMC2001-257 Friday, June 29, 9:36 AM

Aging Of Natural Rubber In Air And Seawater


Peter H. Mott, C. M. Roland, Chemistry Division, Naval
Research Laboratory, Washington, DC, USA

MMC2001-283 Friday, June 29, 10:12 AM

The present study was motivated by the U.S. Navy's


development of an elastomeric disk to serve as the torpedo
launcher on Virginia-class submarines. The disk material is a
sulfur-vulcanized compound, employing deproteinized natural
rubber (DPNR). Since DPNR absorbs less water than more
conventional grades (e.g., SMR-10), it is preferred for
applications involving extended exposure to seawater. While
unfilled DPNR has reduced crystallizability, and thus poorer
failure properties, when compared to other grades of natural
rubbers, this difference is absent in carbon black reinforced
compounds. To predict the service life of a rubber component
subjected to a variety of environments, it is necessary to
account for all modes of degradation. This can be difficult in a
complex environment such as seawater, where different
processes, such as oxidation, swelling, leaching, and even
biodegradation, occur simultaneously. Accelerated aging
experiments were carried out on a natural rubber vulcanizate
exposed to air and to seawater. Failure strain, shown to
correlate well with the fatigue lifetime, was used to monitor
the extent of degradation. The effect of temperature on the rate
of aging followed an Arrhenius law, with activation energies
equal to 90 " 4 and 63 " 3 kJ/mol for air and seawater aging
respectively. The difference can be accounted for by the
difference in oxygen concentration for the two environments.
phm@xbt.nrl.navy.mil

Service Life & Durability of Elastomeric Composites


Zhenhang Liu, Material Science, Beijing University of
Chemical Technology, Beijing, N/A, China
Tau C. Fan, Int'l Open University, Palos Verdes Estates, CA,
USA
Elastomeric composites are subject to the treatment of
micromechanics and quantum mechanical consideration when
the environment includes radiation and over-heated
conditions. As expected the induced cross-linking reduces the
elongation. Thus, the low cycle fatigue of subject materials if
for tire application is critical in failure criteria. A strain matrix
of {3x13} with a new moisture in hydration, and quantum
related parameters besides the suitable terms in a generalized
Hookes relation is derived for the governing compatibility
equations.
The failure criteria used the fracture mechanics approach
for debonding flatwise, transverse and interlaminar shearing
etc.Griffith fracture consideration for failure is adopted. In
conclusion the service life is critically associated with low
cycle fatigue while the durability is dependent upon the
fracture toughness of composites.
diner23@aol.com (Tau C. Fan)

56

Durability of Elastomeric Material Systems

jharris@merl-ltd.co.uk

Session: session 2: fracture


Friday, June 29, 11:00-12:30
Fairbanks A
Chair: Guruswami Ravichandran

MMC2001-308 Friday, June 29, 11:36 AM

Deformation and Fracture Analysis of the Pure


Shear Test Piece

MMC2001-860 Friday, June 29, 11:00 AM

Mixed-Mode, Time-Dependent Rubber/Metal


Debonding

Oon Hock Yeoh, Mechanical Products Division, Lord


Corporation, Erie, PA, USA

Kenneth Liechti, ASE/EM, WRW 217, UT Austin, Austin, TX,


USA

The pure shear test piece featured prominently in


classical studies of elasticity and fracture mechanics of rubber.
It consists of a thin, rectangular strip of rubber held by rigid
clamps along its long edges. When the clamps are pulled
apart, the deformation in the rubber is a close approximation
to pure shear, except in regions near the free edges. Deviation
from pure shear is usually neglected. In this paper, the effects
of neglecting deviation from pure shear in the end regions
were evaluated using non-linear finite element analysis.
The pure shear test piece is commonly used for studies
of fracture in rubber because it is amenable to a simple
fracture mechanics analysis provided the crack length is long
relative to its height. An analysis for short cracks has also
been accomplished but this solution is less well established.
Finite element analysis results for the strain energy release rate
reported here agreed with the published solution for long
cracks. However, they disagreed with the solution for short
cracks. Also, differences were found between a short crack
located at the free edges and one located at the center.
Submitted for the Symposium on Durability of
Elastomeric Material Systems in conjunction with the 2001
Joint Applied Mechanics and Materials Summer Conference
organized by ASME, ASCE and Society of Engineering
Science, June 27-29, 2001, San Diego.
oh_yeoh@lord.com

Jenq Da Wu
This paper examines the need to incorporate a ratedependent traction-separation law in order to model quasistatic debonding between rubber and metal. A pseudo stress
model was used to account for the nonlinear, multi axial and
time-dependent nature of the filled rubber that was used in the
experiments. The parameters for the traction-separation law
were extracted on the basis of measurements of load, crack
length and crack opening displacements in an opening mode
experiment at one applied displacement rate. The form of the
traction-separation law was consistent with observations of
ligament content on the metal fracture surface. Additional
experiments were then conducted in opening mode at different
rates and in mixed-mode with positive and negative shear so
that comparisons with predictions from the calibrated cohesive
zone model could be made. The crack length history proved
to be the most discriminating measure of the validity of the
model, which was most effective at higher loading rates.
kml@mail.utexas.edu
MMC2001-191 Friday, June 29, 11:18 AM

Fracture Mechanics as a Tool for Predicting the


Durability of Elastomeric Components

MMC2001-175 Friday, June 29, 11:54 AM


John Harris, Tamworth Rd, MERL Ltd, Hertford, Herts., UK

Quasi-Static and Fatigue Crack Growth of an


Elastomeric Material Using a Modified DCB

In the 1950s Tearing energy was established as a


geometry independent fracture criterion for the strength of
elastomeric materials. Since that time, fracture mechanics has
developed as a valuable approach for evaluating the fatigue
and fracture properties of elastomeric materials and for
durability assessment of components.
A fracture mechanics approach requires (i) a damage
model for the elastomeric material of interest, based on tearing
energy, and (ii) the ability to calculate the tearing energy level
in the component of interest for a given system of loading.
Various aspects of fatigue material model generation will
be discussed including test methods, factors affecting material
response and considerations for data reduction and evaluation
of model coefficients. Material aging can be accounted by the
material model and aging effects on model coefficients will be
considered. The relationship between crack initiation and
crack growth will also be discussed.
Calculation of tearing energy for components using
modern computational methods will be illustrated with
examples. The validity of the approach will be demonstrated
by comparison between analysis predictions and component
fatigue test data.

Joseph South, Scott Case, Kenneth Reifsnider, Department


of Engineering Science and Mechanics, Virginia Tech,
Blacksburg, VA, USA
In the present research, the crack growth of an elastomeric
material was studied under quasi-static and fatigue conditions
using a modified double cantilever beam specimen [1]. To
form the DCB specimen a thin layer of a carbon black filled
natural rubber compound was cured between two rigid
adherends. The strain energy release rate of the elastomer was
calculated from the quasi-static crack growth. Under quasistatic conditions the crack front demonstrated a stick-slip
crack growth. Unlike conventional crack growth testing for
elastomers, such as the edge crack, the DCB arrangement
imposes a plane strain condition within the elastomer. For the
fatigue data the crack growth rate as function of the change in
the strain energy release rate was calculated. It was found that
the fatigue data were well represented by a Paris-Law
expression. The plane strain crack growth rate was found to
be two orders of magnitude higher than the plane stress crack
growth rate. Interpretations of the data will be presented.

57

Durability of Elastomeric Material Systems

[1] Lefebvre D.R., Dillard D.A., Brinson H.F. The


Development of a Modified Double-Cantilever Bean
Specimen for Measuring the Fracture Energy of Rubber to
Metal Bonds, Experimental Mechanics, 28, No. 1, March
1988, pp. 38-44
jsouth@vt.edu

addressed this phenomenon, the mechanisms controlling the


formation of abrasive patterns and their dependence on
material properties remain unclear. In this paper, an innovative
experimental technique developed by the authors is
introduced. In this new technique, micro-indentation and
micro-scratching by a knife, which is used to simulate an
abrasive particle, are conducted within a scanning electronic
microscope (SEM). The indentation load due to indentation
and the tangential load due to scratching are measured and
recorded. Since the technique provides in-situ observations,
detailed information about the abrasive wear process is
obtained. Filled and unfilled rubber and polyurethane
materials are tested under different testing parameters, such as
cutting depth, knife radius, etc. Observations then are
summarized to determine the mechanisms for abrasive wear.
qih@mit.edu

MMC2001-271 Friday, June 29, 12:12 PM

Approximate Energy Release Rate Factorization for


the Analysis of Small Cracks under Finite Strain,
Multiaxial Loading
Will V. Mars, Research and Technology, Cooper Tire and
Rubber Company, Findlay, Ohio, USA
Fatigue failure involves the growth of small flaws under
the action of mechanical forces. Two distinct approaches are
commonly employed to rationalize such failures. Crack
initiation approaches focus upon continuum mechanical
quantities defined at a point, without explicit consideration of
flaw growth (i.e. strain-based theories). Fracture mechanics
approaches focus upon quantities defined for a given crack
(i.e. theories based on energy release rate).
Here, the energy release rate is factored approximately
into energy density available to be released by virtue of crack
growth, and crack size. The available energy density, here
called Cracking Energy Density (CED), is a continuum
mechanical quantity that depends on the strain state and crack
orientation. The crack initiation plane for a given loading is
predicted by the hypothesis that CED is maximized on the
failure plane.
The ability of CED to rationalize results of multiaxial
fatigue tests on filled natural rubber is compared with other
failure criteria, including strain energy density, octahedral
shear strain, and maximum principal strain.
wvmars@coopertire.com

MMC2001-497 Friday, June 29, 1:48 PM

Fatigue Failure of Filled Elastomers: Cumulative


Damage and Failure Envelope Approaches
Gregory B. McKenna, Chemical Engineering, Texas Tech
University, Lubbock, TX, USA
Carbon black filled rubber cycled in tension-tension
fatigue modes shows fatigue failure that is accelerated by
multiple orders of magnitude relative to either time-dependent
cumulative damage or cycle-dependent cumulative damage
rules. We have found that a very good predictive capability
for the tension-tension fatigue behavior is obtained by using a
modification of the Thor Smith failure envelope approach to
rubber failure. The results are also consistent with the
observation that creep in cyclic loading is very much
accelerated relative to static creep. In this work we show
results for which frequency and waveform effects on lifetime
of carbon black filled rubber can be predicted to within a
factor of two from short-term creep data and the modified
failure envelope. The creep experiments are performed for
less than 10 % of the total lifetime which provides a potential
tool for accelerated testing.
greg.mckenna@coe.ttu.edu

Session: session 3: Damage & Fatigue


Friday, June 29, 1:30-3:00
Fairbanks A
Chair: Kenneth Liechti

MMC2001-456 Friday, June 29, 2:06 PM

MMC2001-186 Friday, June 29, 1:30 PM

Damage Mechanics as Applied to Prediction of


Damage Evolution and Fatigue Lifetime of
Elastomers

Micro In-situ SEM Study of Abrasive Wear of


Elastomeric Materials
Hang Qi, Mary C. Boyce, Mechanical Engineering, M.I.T.,
Cambridge, MA, USA

Hongbing Lu, Bo Wang, Mechanical and Aerospace


Engineering, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater,
Oklahoma, USA

Elastomeric materials are often used in applications where


abrasive wear is the dominant failure mechanism. A prominent
feature of the abrasive wear of an elastomeric material is the
formation of abrasion patterns (or Schallamach patterns),
which are sets of parallel ridges found on the surface of the
elastomeric samples normal to the direction of motion. These
patterns grow gradually to a final periodical form rather than
form suddenly and there exists a characteristic spacing
between ridges. The characteristic spacing evolves with cyclic
loading until reaching a critical spacing at which point the
wear rate is stable and high. Although much research has

In the present paper, the fatigue behavior of elastomers is


investigated using the damage mechanics approach. Following
the Ogden model, the strain energy potential is formulated and
the nominal stress-strain relation is constructed for
hyperelastic materials. Experiments on a carbon filled natural
rubber were conducted to obtain the nominal stress-strain
curve. The damage mechanics model is applied to investigate
damage evolution and fatigue life for elastomers. A new
damage variable is defined through the ultimate strain of the
material. The elastic strain energy of a damaged material is

58

Durability of Elastomeric Material Systems

expressed and the damage strain energy release rate is derived


according to damage mechanics theory. A form of dissipation
potential is assumed and the damage evolution equation is
established to develop a formula to predict the fatigue life
under cyclic loading and a formula to predict the damage
extent after certain number of loading cycles on an elastomer.
Experiments on the fatigue and damage of rubber samples
were performed to find fatigue life versus the nominal strain
amplitude curve under strain-controlled loading. The extent of
fatigue damage for the rubber material after certain number of
cycles was measured through the ultimate strain of a damaged
specimen. Experimental data are in reasonably good
agreement with theoretical results. Thus, the proposed damage
model and the two formulas to predict fatigue life and damage
evolution have been demonstrated to be viable for elastomers.
hongbin@ceat.okstate.edu

the relaxation modulus of the undamaged material which can


be determined from uniaxial tests. Crack growth is simulated
using a finite element formulation and node release technique
with critical volume dilatation as the fracture criteria. The
effect of superposed pressure on crack initiation and growth at
various loading rates is illustrated. The predictions from the
model are compared with laboratory experiments on a highly
filled elastomeric composite. Modeling together with
experimental observations is used to gain insights into failure
and to develop fracture criteria for particulate reinforced
elastomeric composites under superposed pressure.
ravi@aero.caltech.edu
Session: session 4: Characterization of elastomeric
materials
Friday, June 29, 3:30-5:00
Fairbanks A
Chair: Hongbing Lu

MMC2001-194 Friday, June 29, 2:24 PM

Residual-Strength-Based Life Prediction of


Elastomeric Materials

MMC2001-364 Friday, June 29, 3:30 PM

Testing And Modeling Of Polypropylene Foams At


Dynamic High Strain

Scott Case, Engineering Science and Mechanics, Virginia


Tech, Blacksburg, VA, USA

Amina Alaoui-Soulimani, Sebastien Gervillers, Laboratoire


Analyse des Matriaux et Identification, Ecole Nationale
des Ponts et Chausses, 6 & 8 avenue Blaise Pascal, Cit
Descartes, Champs sur Marne, Marne la Valle Cedex 2,
France

Joseph South, Materials Response Group, Virginia Tech,


Blacksburg, VA, USA
The goal of the present work is to develop and validate a
residual strength approach to the life prediction of elastomeric
materials. The experimental approach taken is to perform
creep rupture tests as a function of temperature and applied
stress level, as well as fatigue tests as a function of stress level
at a specified temperature. The results from these tests, along
with the residual strength analysis, are used to predict the
fatigue test results as a function of temperature and R-ratio.
The predicted residual strength values are compared with
experimentally determined residual strength values at two
different fatigue load levels, and the predicted fatigue lifetimes
are compared with experimentally measured ones at two
different temperatrues.
scase@vt.edu

Structural foams are widely used as energy absorbing


materials for impact protection. Indeed, they can undergo very
large deformations at low stress levels. Among the variety of
polymeric foams, polypropylene ones show a good resilience
even at high strain levels. Testing and modeling of these
materials is of great interest for safety applications.
We have performed series of static and dynamic
compression tests on foams of various densities and at various
testing conditions (compression speed, testing temperature,
impactor shape). Most experiments were filmed in order to
determine the displacement field of the specimen during the
test, using an image-processing tool we developed, and
especially the lateral deformations during a compression test.
For dynamic tests, we used a high-speed camera.
Then from this database, we modeled the material
response with the HYPERFOAM model of ABAQUS.
Determination of material parameters was performed using inplane compression tests, and the influence of foam density and
testing conditions is studied. Simulations of the material inplane compression were in good agreement with experiments.
But the validation of this modeling is performed by
comparison of simulations and impact compression tests with
cylinders of various diameters. The variation is less than ten
percent even at compression strain up to 70 %.
alaoui@lami.enpc.fr

MMC2001-597 Friday, June 29, 2:42 PM

Fracture Behavior of Particulate Reinforced


Elastomeric Composites under Superposed Pressure
Guruswami Ravichandran, Eric Burcsu, Aeronautics and
Mechanical Engineering, California Institute of
Technology, Pasadena, California, USA
Chi T. Liu, PRSM, Air Force Research Laboratory, Edwards,
California, USA
A phenomenological viscoelastic constitutive model
motivated by micromechanics of deformation is used to model
fracture behavior in particulate composites undergoing
damage. Such composites exhibit non-linear constitutive
response due to various factors such as damage (debonding,
cavity or vacuole formation, cracking), hysteresis during
loading-unloading and viscoelasticity (time dependence). The
constitutive model consists of two damage functions that
govern the degradation of the bulk and the shear moduli and

59

Durability of Elastomeric Material Systems

lizhi-sun@uiowa.edu

MMC2001-171 Friday, June 29, 3:48 PM

Characterizing Viscoelastic Properties Of Thin


Elastomeric Membrane

MMC2001-591 Friday, June 29, 4:24 PM

Mixed-mode Fatigue Characterization of


Elastomeric Bushing Compounds

Kuo Kang Liu, Bingfeng Ju, Centre for Mechanics of


Microsystems, School of Mechanical and Production
Engineering, Nanyang Technological University,
Singapore, Singapore

Joey Mead, Randall Kezar, Ross Stacer, Plastics


Engineering, University of Massachusetts Lowell,
Lowell, MA, USA

This paper reports a new method to characterize the


viscoelastic properties, such as the elasticity and creeping
constant, of a thin elastomeric film. A sensitive microscope
visualization instrument has been developed for measuring the
deformation of the circular membrane of thickness less than
100 mm, under a constant load. A theoretical model is applied
to quantitatively correlate the elasticity to the deformation
profile of the membrane. The model is derived based on the
large deformation of Mooney materials. Several advantages,
such as the instrumental simplicity and the self-alignment
loading for creeping test, have been demonstrated in using this
technique. The good agreement between the experimental and
theoretical results described facilitates the determination of the
elasticity of elastomeric membrane. The result is consistent
with other published data. The method can be potentially
applied for the prediction of durability of these thin films
under a constant load.
mkkliu@ntu.edu.sg

Gumersindo Rodriguez, U.S. Army Research Laboratory,


Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD
Military tank track bushings are subject to a complex
stress state requiring a balance of dynamic properties to
provide the targeted life span. This stress state includes
compression as a result of track tension and torsion as the
track passes over the sprockets. Bushings are often plagued by
low lifetimes due to the combination of heat build-up (as a
result of hysteretic heating) and high stresses. Predictive
techniques to aid in the development of new bushing materials
are needed. Laboratory techniques for the measurement of the
dynamic and fatigue properties of elastomers in mixed mode
conditions are currently either of limited scope or application
specific. Standardized dynamic tests generally provide data
under a single state of stress and do not consider the effects of
fatigue on the properties.
The fatigue and dynamic properties of bushing materials
under the combined effect of compressive load and dynamic
shear strain were studied in this research. A specialized test
fixture was developed to provide combined loading and to
measure the dynamic properties of the materials during
testing. Elastomer samples were subjected to a constant
compressive stress and a sinusoidal shear displacement
simulating tank track bushing service conditions. Dynamic
properties of the elastomer samples as a function of fatigue
were measured and correlated to bushing lifetimes.
Joey_Mead@uml.edu

MMC2001-307 Friday, June 29, 4:06 PM

Effective Hyperelasticity of Magnetorheological


Elastomers: A Micromechanical Framework
Lizhi Sun, Huiming Yin, Civil and Environmental
Engineering, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA
J. S. Chen, Mechanical Engineering, The University of Iowa,
Iowa City, IA, USA
There is an increasing emphasis on practical development
of magnetorheological (MR) Fe particle-reinforced elastomer
composites in automotive industry. However, fundamental
understanding and quantitative modeling of their effective
magneto-mechanical behavior are rather limited. The purpose
of the present presentation is to develop an effective
hyperelastic constitutive model for MR elastomers based on
micromechanics framework. Microstructural deformation and
physical mechanisms of magnetostrictive particles embedded
in the hyperelastic elastomer matrix are first considered. Two
types of applied loading conditions act on the composites magnetic field and mechanical load. Magnetic eigenstrains are
prescribed on the particles due to magnetostriction effect. The
effective constitutive relation of composites during small
deformation is established based on Eshelby's micromechanics
approach and homogenization procedure. Since the elastomers
normally exhibit finite hyperelastic deformation, MullinsTobin's approximation is adopted; i.e., the effective
constitutive behavior of composites can be estimated by
amplifying those material constants from the matrix and
reinforcement. Therefore, the effective constitutive
formulation is finally constructed for the elastomers reinforced
with magnetorheological particles.

MMC2001-383 Friday, June 29, 4:42 PM

Deformation and recovery behavior of soft roll cover


materials
Taina Vuoristo, Veli-Tapani Kuokkala, Institute of Materials
Science, Tampere University of Technology, Tampere,
Finland
Erno Keskinen, Laboratory of Machine Dynamics, Tampere
University of Technology, Tampere, Finland
Polymer covered rolls are used in paper machines to
extend the contact area between two mating rolls and also to
damp vibrations excited in the roll systems. On the other hand,
viscoelastic covers can also be a source of vibration problems
because of incomplete recovery of time dependent
deformation between two consecutive compression cycles.
In this study, the viscoelastic behavior of relatively hard
particle reinforced epoxy-based calender roll covers as well as
soft polyurethane-based coater roll cover materials was
studied at different loading rates and temperatures. Because
the high loading rates common in modern paper machine

60

Dynamic Response to Transient Loads

operation cannot normally be achieved using servohydraulic


testing machines, a compressive Hopkinson Split Bar
technique was applied. In a roll cover, the stress-state is
multiaxial, including also shear components, and therefore the
compressive HSB tests do not fully simulate the nip loading
but provide, however, a good basis for comparison of different
materials. Also long duration creep tests at different
temperatures were made using servohydraulic testing
machines to construct master-curves, which extend the timescale of creep data up to hundreds of hours.
taina.vuoristo@tut.fi

MMC2001-460 Friday, June 29, 11:18 AM

Dynamic Response to Transient Loads

For design and structural reliability estimates, it is


necessary to estimate the largest peaks of the fluctuating windinduced internal forces in low-rise building frames. The
observed largest peak is not reliable since it has significant
variability and more stable estimates are needed. An essential
step for the development of procedures for estimating largest
peaks is the determination of the marginal probability
distribution of time-histories of wind effects. Earlier studies
have shown that internal force time-histories in low-rise
buildings are non-Gaussian.
The objective of this paper is to identify the optimal
probability distribution of wind effects on low-rise buildings.
The distributions considered include the normal, the Extreme
Value Type I, and the gamma distributions. Selecting the
optimal distribution is accomplished using the probability plot
correlation coefficient (PPCC) technique, a tool for identifying
the shape parameter for a distributional family that best
describes the data (e.g., the gamma distribution). The shape
parameter that maximizes the correlation coefficient of the
probability plot is considered optimal for this distribution
family. For two-parameter distributions such as the normal
and Extreme Value Type I, the correlation coefficient is
computed and compared with that of the gamma distribution.
The study indicates that the gamma distribution may be
viewed as the optimal probability distribution for windinduced forces in low-rise buildings.
fahim.sadek@nist.gov

Optimal Marginal Probability Distribution Of Wind


Effects For Database-Assisted Design Of Low-Rise
Buildings
Fahim Sadek, Building and Fire Research Laboratory,
National Institute of Standards and Technology,
Gaithersburg, Maryland, USA
N. Alan Heckert, Statistical Engineering Division, National
Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg,
Maryland, USA

Session: 1:Wind Response


Friday, June 29, 11:00-12:30
Catalina Ballroom
Chairs: Tim Whalen and Steen Krenk
MMC2001-458 Friday, June 29, 11:00 AM

Experimental study of a building model


incorporating viscous-damping walls
Austin D.E. Pan, Department of Civil Engineering, The
University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR
Ngai Yeung, Ove Arup & Partners Hong Kong Ltd., Kowloon
Tong, Hong Kong SAR
Fang Zhang, Institute of Vibration Engineering Research,
Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics,
Nanjing, China
A viscous-damping wall unit consists of high-viscosity
fluid sandwiched by three wall plates. The inner plate is
attached to the upper floor of a building story while the two
outer plates are mounted on the lower floor. When a building
is subjected to dynamic forces induced by wind or earthquake,
each story experiences relative horizontal displacements
between the upper and lower floors which causes the inner
plate to move relative to the outer plates. This action, due to
the presence of the viscous fluid between the plates, generates
viscous-damping forces. This paper presents an experimental
study on the effectiveness of viscous-damping walls in
controlling the wind-induced vibrations of a building model.
A simple four-story building model, square in plan, was
constructed for wind tunnel study. The description of the
model, its instrumentation, and the experimental set-up and
methodology are reported. The effectiveness of viscousdamping walls in reducing vibrations was investigated at
different fluid levels in the walls, and at varying wind speeds
and attack angles. The results show that viscous-damping
walls are highly effective in most cases. Following the wind
tunnel tests, cyclic force-displacement tests of viscousdamping wall units were conducted to identify its dynamic
parameters. Damping was measured against varying frequency
and amplitude. The effects of out-of-plane displacement of the
inner plate were also investigated.
austinp@hkusua.hku.hk

MMC2001-461 Friday, June 29, 11:36 AM

The dynamic response of flexible porous membranes


Chris W. Letchford, Wind Engineering Research Center,
Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas, USA
A. Vitale, Department of Civil Engineering, University of
Queensland, Brisbane, Australia
Porous fabric roofs are a cost-effective means for covering
outdoor areas. The main applications of these structures are
for sun and hail protection for humans, animals and plants.
Failures of these structures during strong wind events, and the
lack of design data prompted this research. They also
represent an interesting aeroelastic structure whose dynamic
response under wind loading deserved further study.
A sectional model wind tunnel study of flat profile fabric
roofs identifies two possible types of wind-induced response:
a static response which is exhibited by impervious fabrics only
and a dynamic response which is exhibited by both impervious

61

Dynamic Response to Transient Loads

and porous fabrics. It is found that the wind-induced fabric


tensions for the static response are an order of magnitude
greater than for the dynamic response and thus fabric porosity
is responsible for causing a significant reduction in wind
loading for flat profile fabric roofs.
Classical potential flow theories for wind flow around
aerofoils and sails are reviewed and extended to allow
prediction of the wind loading and response of flat profile
fabric roofs. Comparison with the experimental results
demonstrates that these analytical methods facilitate a
reasonable prediction of the static response characteristics, but
provide a poor theoretical model for the dynamic response.
Chris.Letchford@wind.ttu.edu

that the time scales may be selected corresponding to an


equivalent ideal airfoil. Thus, the motion of the bridge deck
can be formulated in the time domain in terms of the extended
state space. The extended state space format turns out to give a
very accurate representation of available flutter derivatives for
streamlined bridge deck sections with only two exponential
terms. Furthermore, use of the time scales from an ideal airfoil
reduces the determination of the parameters to a simple least
squared fit. When the problem is cast in the form of a set of
first order time differential equations in terms of the extended
state space vector z, the flutter problem takes the form of a
linear, but unsymmetric, eigenvalue problem, easily solved by
the standard QZ-algorithm. The extended state space format
also leads to an experimental procedure for determination of
the flutter derivatives from ambient vibration records. While
current experimental procedures work with a formulation
containing frequency dependent terms, the extended state
space formulation reduces the problem to a set of linear
differential equations with constant coefficients.
sk@bkm.dtu.dk

MMC2001-462 Friday, June 29, 11:54 AM

Flow Characteristics over Bluff Bodies Using the


Vortex Lattice Method
Muhammad R. Hajj, L. Qin, D. T. Mook, Department of
Engineering Science and Mechanics, Virginia
Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg,
Virginia, USA

Session: 2: Impact and Blast


Friday, June 29, 1:30-3:00
Catalina Ballroom
Chairs: Steven J. Smith and Dennis Parsons

Prediction of aerodynamic loads on structures, such as tall


buildings or bridges requires interactive solutions of the fluid
flow as well as the structures motion. As for the flow field
and because of the highly unsteady characteristics of the
vorticity-dominated flow around these structures, the
modeling requires either Direct Numerical Simulation or
Large Eddy Simulation. On the other hand, one can use the
discrete-vortex, or point-vortex, method (DVM), which was
shown to be capable of predicting the large structures in the
flow. DVM may be thought of as the two-dimensional version
of the vortex-lattice method. The use of DVM is justified since
the interest in these flows is usually in the pressure forces
acting on the structure.
In this work, we investigate the use of DVM to predict
flow characteristics around a surface-mounted prism. With
DVM, we track the vorticity in the flow field and hence
predict the stages in the development of the large-scale
structures. We discuss the interaction of positive and negative
vorticity regions and their effects on the surface pressures. The
results show that the computed surface pressures match those
obtained with experiments.
mhajj@vt.edu

MMC2001-545 Friday, June 29, 1:30 PM

Computational Simulations of Blast Effects on Civil


Infrastructure Systems
Dennis Parsons, A. Acharya, P. Alavilli, J. Jiao, Civil and
Environmental Engineering, University of Illinois at
Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, USA
A. Namazifard
We describe numerical techniques for simulating the
deformation and collapse of buildings subjected to blast loads.
A complete simulation requires consideration of different
physics (e.g., fluid flow, structural deformation, crack
propagation, etc.), careful treatment of the interface between
these zones and efficient parallel numerical algorithms. In this
paper, we outline a preliminary implementation of a parallel
code that couples the structural deformations with the fluid
flow using a partitioned numerical approach.
A code that will perform coupled multi-physics
simulations can be designed using either a monolithic or a
partitioned strategy. The monolithic approach requires that a
single new code be developed by the various researchers who
work in the different physics groups. Global iterations are
performed that simultaneously update all of the variables in
the different physics zones. The interface conditions are
enforced as part of the global iterations. In contrast, the
partitioned approach uses existing application codes that may
have been developed by the different groups independently of
any integration effort. Interface conditions are enforced by
iteration between these different physics modules. Thus, the
partitioned approach provides a relatively straightforward path
for integration of the physics demanded by a complete
simulation of the blast response of a structure.
idp@uiuc.edu

MMC2001-463 Friday, June 29, 12:12 PM

Determination of Flutter Derivatives from Extended


State Space Representation
Steen Krenk, J. R. Hogsberg, F. Rudinger, Department of
Civil Engineeing, Technical University of Denmark,
Lyngby, Denmark
Within linear theory for small vibrations the aeroelastic
force and moment on a bridge deck section are described by
the flutter derivatives depending on the reduced frequency of
motion. For streamlined bridge decks it turns out that the
convolution kernel can be approximated quite well by only
two terms of exponential form. Current experience indicates

62

Dynamic Response to Transient Loads

MMC2001-553 Friday, June 29, 1:48 PM

MMC2001-600 Friday, June 29, 2:24 PM

Architectural Design of Blast Resistant Glazing

Blast Indicators and Damage Assessment for Ford


Rouge Powerhouse Number 1- Dearborn, Michigan

H. Scott Norville, Edward J. Conrath, Civil Engineering,


Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX, USA

Jeffrey L. Garrett, R. Thomas Long, Steven J. Smith,


Civil/Structural, Exponent Failure Analysis Associates,
Chicago, IL, USA

When an explosion occurs near an urban area, it usually


fractures window glass lites. The shards from fractured
windows fly and fall from the lites at high speeds, producing
severe hazard to anyone nearby. This paper presents
observations concerning window glass fractured in the
Oklahoma City bombing. It continues with a discussion of
injuries in the Oklahoma City bombing that resulted directly
from window glass fractured by air blast pressure. The paper
discusses blast resistant glazing materials commonly used in
building construction. It concludes by advancing a simplified
methodology that allows architects and engineers to design
blast resistant glazing and window glass constructions that
employ laminated glass to resist a specified explosive threat.
The methodology relates charge weight and standoff distance
to an equivalent static loading. Using the equivalent static
loading with methodologies presented in ASTM E 1300 "Standard Practice for Determining Load Resistance of Glass
in Buildings allows architects and engineers to design blast
resistant glazing that mitigates the hazards posed by flying
window glass shards.
scott.norville@coe.ttu.edu

On February 1, 1999, an explosion, and subsequent fires,


occurred in Boiler Number 6 at the Ford Rouge Powerhouse
Number 1 causing 6 deaths and numerous injuries. As part of
the investigation into the cause of the accident, engineers from
Exponent Failure Analysis Associates documented blast and
fire indicators throughout the powerhouse and adjoining
structures for the purpose of isolating the location of the initial
detonation. Through the systematic evaluation of the observed
blast indicators, the location, intensity, duration, and fuel
content of the initial detonation was determined. Furthermore,
the blast indicators were instrumental in evaluating the
intensity of the deflagration as it spread throughout the
powerhouse and the adjoining structures. The accident caused
extensive damage to the exterior of the facility as all of the
windows of the 80,000 square foot facility had been blown
out. Portions of the unreinforced brick faade were blown out
and numerous structural steel beams and columns exhibited
inelastic deformations. Precast concrete roof tiles on the
generator building adjacent to the powerhouse were blown
from the building and landed 50 yards away. The building
interior suffered major blast and fire damage. The subject of
this paper is the discussion of the types and numbers of blast
indicators observed at the Ford Rouge Powerhouse and their
usefulness in determining blast and pressure intensities
throughout the facility.
jgarrett@exponent.com

MMC2001-557 Friday, June 29, 2:06 PM

Occupant Protection From Injurious Window


Debris Caused By A Terrorist Bomb
John E. Crawford, Daniele Pelessone, Brian W. Dunn,
Engineering Mechanics and Analysis Methods,
Karagozian and Case, Glendale, CA, USA

MMC2001-755 Friday, June 29, 2:42 PM

Typically, a terrorist bombing causes widespread window


damage. For buildings expected to be targets of such attacks,
the load on the windows is likely to be beyond the capacity of
all but the most expensive and robust window systems. To
provide a cost effective means for providing protection from
window debris, several classes of window retrofits were
developed. These systems use a combination of window
strengthening and debris catching systems to prevent injurious
debris from entering the occupied spaces of a building over a
range of expected threats. Designs for up to 500 psi and 1.2
psi-sec have been developed. Analytic studies using highfidelity physics based finite element models were performed
to quantify the various design parameters. Full-scale tests of
these systems indicates they can be highly effective at
stopping injurious debris, and still fit with the esthetics of the
existing building.
crawford@kcse.com

Use of Non-Standard Materials to Upgrade Masonry


Walls Against Blast Loads
David R. Coltharp, Waterways Experiment StationGeotechnical and Structures Laboratory, U.S. Army
Engineer Research and Development Center, Vicksburg,
MS, USA
In-fill concrete masonry unit (CMU) walls of frame
buildings are highly vulnerable to blast loads typical of those
from vehicle bombs. They can easily become hazardous
flying debris at blast levels far below those that would cause
significant structural damage or building collapse.
Research on upgrading existing masonry walls to mitigate
damage from blast loading began in the early to mid nineties
with the use of typical construction materials and techniques
such as the addition of a reinforced concrete layer on the
inside face of the wall or the use of additional reinforced CMU
walls. These methods were shown to be effective in blast tests
of full-scale buildings but they add significant additional
weight to the structure and are disruptive during construction.
Methods using high strength fabrics such as fiberglass or
aramid glue-bonded to the interior face of the CMU to
increase the bending strength of the wall have also been
shown effective. However, newer techniques have used high

63

Dynamic Response to Transient Loads

Static and dynamic stress analyses are performed using the


finite element technique to calculate the stress conditions of
the soil before and during earthquake shaking. Static and
dynamic shear stresses are applied to hollow-cylindrical soil
specimens using the torsional shear apparatus under drained
conditions to obtain the parameters that define the stressresidual strain relationship. Once this relationship is
established for each material composing the embankment, the
strain potentials are computed for each soil element. The
original moduli of soil used in the initial static analysis are
reduced by the softening parameters calculated from the strain
potentials, and a second static analysis is performed. The
difference in displacements obtained from these two static
analyses is considered as the earthquake-induced permanent
deformation of the embankment.
This procedure was applied to an embankment located at
Kushiro airport, Japan and satisfactory results were obtained.
jfmenese@ucsd.edu

ductility materials such as geotextiles or elastomeric


polyurethanes placed behind the wall to catch wall debris.
Small scale and full scale blast tests have proved these
techniques to be lightweight, highly effective, and fairly
economical. Coupled with methods for retrofitting windows,
these techniques provide designers with several options for
mitigating the debris hazard to building occupants.
David.R.Coltharp@erdc.usace.army.mil
Session: 3: Soil Dynamics
Friday, June 29, 3:30-5:00
Catalina Ballroom
Chairs: Ahmed El-Gamal and Zhaohui Yang
MMC2001-380 Friday, June 29, 3:30 PM

Dynamic Behavior of Pile Group Foundations


Boris Jeremic, Zhaohui Yang, Department of Civil and
Environmental Engineering, University of California,
Davis, California, USA

MMC2001-444 Friday, June 29, 4:06 PM

Diffraction of P-waves by Underground Circular


Cylindrical Cavities In Fluid-Saturated Porous
Medium

It is widely believed that the soil-foundation-structure


(SFS) interaction is beneficial to the behavior of the
structural system under earthquake loading. The Applied
Technology Council's development of seismic regulations
propose simple formulae for computing fundamental period
and the effective dumping ratio of structures founded on
mat foundations on a homogeneous half-space. All codes
today use an idealized envelope response spectra which
attain constant acceleration values up to certain period and
then decrease monotonically with period. As a consequence,
SFS interaction leads to smaller accelerations and stresses in
the structure and thereby smaller forces onto the foundation.
Eventhough design spectra are derived on a conservative
basis there are case histories that show that the perceived
role of SFS interaction is an over-simplification and may
lead to unsafe design.
In this paper we investigate the role SFS interaction has
on seismic behavior of bridges founded on deep
foundations. We perform a series of time domain, fully 3D,
elastic-plastic finite element simulations of seismic
behavior of SFS pile groups
subjected
to various
earthquake events and draw conclusions on what role SFS
interaction has on behavior of bridge systems during strong
earthquake events.
jeremic@ucdavis.edu

Chi-Hsin Lin, Civil Engineering, University of Southern


California, Los Angeles, CA, USA
The dynamic responses of underground circular
cylindrical cavity in fluid-saturated porous medium have been
investigated in this paper. First, the wave equations derived by
Biot (1956a) are employed for modeling fluid-saturated
porous medium. In this case, if boundaries are present, an
additional highly attenuated P-wave will be induced by solidfluid interaction besides the diffracted P and SV waves. As
results, the responses near the boundaries are different from
those in elastic media. Secondly, in order to study the wave
propagation effects by an underground cylindrical cavity, both
polar coordinate and Cartesian coordinate are employed to
model the configurations of the problems. Thus, Bessel
functions have been formulated in both series and integral
representations to approach the boundary conditions. A special
transformation has been also developed for these two
representations of Bessel functions. In conclusion, responses
of displacements at the flat ground surface and cavity surface
are analyzed. This study can be applied on the seismic
responses of underground tunnels or pipes in fluid-saturated
stratum.
chihsinl@usc.edu

MMC2001-381 Friday, June 29, 3:48 PM

Earthquake-induced permanent deformation of


embankments

MMC2001-941 Friday, June 29, 4:24 PM

Identification Analyses Of The Dynamic Response


Of Soil Systems

Jorge F. Meneses-Loja, Structures, University of California


San Diego, San Diego, California, USA

Mourad Zeghal, Caglar Oskay, Civil Engineering,


Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY, U.S.A.

This research deals with a methodology that includes


hollow-cylindrical torsional shear test results and the
definition of a stress-residual strain relationship for the
assessment of earthquake-induced permanent deformation of
embankments.

Failure of soil systems such as sites and earth dams during


seismic excitations may have costly and disastrous
consequences in terms of structural damage and human losses.
Mathematical models are required in design of these systems,

64

Dynamics and Control of Tensegrity Structures

as well as in evaluation of their dynamic response to


environmental and other external excitations. System
identification and inverse problem theories provide
appropriate mathematical and computational tools to translate
and use the information contained in experimental data and
earthquake records in model development, refinement, and
calibration. This study presents two classes of soil-system
identification approaches. Point-wise identification techniques
are proposed to assess local dynamic response mechanisms of
soil systems using the motion recorded by a cluster of closely
spaced accelerometers. These local techniques are
complemented by global identification approaches formulated
in a Bayesian setting as a combination of a priori and
experimental information with theoretical knowledge. Such a
formulation is effective in reducing the indeterminacies
associated with the identification of distributed-parameter
geotechnical systems using a limited number of experimental
records.
zeghal@rpi.edu

Dynamics and Control of Tensegrity


Structures
Session: Dynamics and Control of Tensegrity Structures
Wednesday, June 27, 1:30-3:00
Executive Conference Center 3A
Chair: Robert E. Skelton
MMC2001-858 Wednesday, June 27, 1:30 PM

Planar Self-Similar Tensegrity Structures


Robert E. Skelton, Chan Waileung, Mechanical & Aerospace
Engineering, University of California San Diego, La
Jolla, California, USA
Skelton's definition of tensegrity of class k is a structure
composed of compressive and tensile members, where only k
compressive members touch at a node, and all members are
axially loaded. This paper describes equilibrium conditions for
planar tensegrity structures of class 1 or class 2. The stiffness
of these structures is computed to show how the local
topology influences the global mechanical properties.
bobskelton@mae.ucsd.edu

MMC2001-942 Friday, June 29, 4:42 PM

Shock Waves In De-Liquefying Soil


Bruce L Kutter, Daniel W. Wilson, Civil and Environmental
Engineering, University of California, Davis, Davis,
California, U.S.A.

MMC2001-857 Wednesday, June 27, 1:48 PM

Static And Dynamic Characterization Of Regular


Truncated Octahedral And Cubic Tensegrity
Modules

It is well known that during undrained cyclic loading,


medium density saturated sands exhibit cyclic mobility with a
tangent shear modulus that increases with shear strain during
loading. The strain-stiffening is caused by a reduction in pore
water pressures (caused by dilatancy); we call this phenomena
"de-liquefaction." In centrifuge model tests involving
simulation of the propagation of seismic shear waves up
through a deposit of liquefying soil, de-liquefaction has been
observed to be associated with large magnitude short duration
spikes in acceleration time histories. It is concluded that slow
travelling (5 to 30 m/s) but spatially sharp shock waves cause
these spikes. The shock front is a propagating singular surface
across which shear deformation is continuous, but shear stress,
transverse velocity and shear strain are discontinuous.
Interestingly, in the model tests we did not observe the shock
waves to be reflected back down into the soil deposit after
they reach the surface; they almost die out at the ground
surface. This paper describes the conditions for formation of
the shock waves and explains the demise of the waves at the
ground surface.
blkutter@ucdavis.edu

Hidenori Murakami, Yoshitaka Nishimura, Mechanical &


Aerospace Engineering, University of California San
Diego, La Jolla, California, USA
Static and dynamic properties of a pair of dual spherical
tensegrity modules invented by Buckminster Fuller were
investigated. They are regular truncated octahedral and cubic
tensegrity modules. The computation of the Maxwell number
and the use of Calladine's relation reveal that regular truncated
octahedral and cubic tensegrity modules possess nineteen
infinitesimal mechanism modes. A reduced equilibrium matrix
was presented for the initial shape finding to economically
impose the existence of a pre-stress mode. From the reduced
equilibrium matrix both the initial shape and the
correspoinding pre-stress mode were analytically obtained by
using graphs of the octahedral group. From the pre-stress
modes it was found that the cable tension is less than the
absolute value of bar compression. In order to classify a large
number of infinitesimal mechanism modes, modal analyses
were conducted. Infinitesimal mechanism modes have the
stiffness due to pre-stress and are associated with lowest
natural frequencies. It was found that there are only nine
distinct natural frequencies associated with the infinitesimal
mechanism modes.
murakami@mae.ucsd.edu

65

Elasticity

MMC2001-863 Wednesday, June 27, 2:06 PM

Elasticity

Design of a Class 1 Tensegrity Plate


Session: Elasticity
Thursday, June 28, 9:00-10:30
Executive Conference Center 1
Chairs: Arunachalam M. Rajendran and Yozo Mikata

Robert E. Skelton, M Masic, Mechanical & Aerospace


Engineering, University of California San Diego, La
Jolla, California, USA
Kenneth Snelson invented the shell class of tensegrity
structures as an artform. UCSD has developed a different
class of tensegrity structures which is described in this paper
as the plate class. This structure has equilibria that fixes all
the nodes of the structure on two planes to form a plate-type
configuration. The requirements for a stable equilibria are
given for the infinite plate with symmetric elements. Next the
paper computers of finite dimensional plate using a NewtonRaphson method. The application of these new structures to a
wing design is discussed.
bobskelton@mae.ucsd.edu

MMC2001-469 Thursday, June 28, 9:00 AM

Contrary to Mooney's Classical Result, a MooneyRivlin Type Response is not to be Expected for
Rubber Undergoing Small Strain
John C. Criscione, Bioengineering, University of California
San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA
An incompressible isotropic elastomer with strainenergy
W=C1(I1-3)+C2(I2-3) is often assumed for rubber undergoing
small stain because Mooney (1940, J. Appl. Phys., 11:582592) shows that W must be such if shear stress goes as shear
strain. Yet, Treloar (1976, Proc. R. Soc. A, 351:301-330)
shows that an Ogden material (1984, Non-linear Elastic
Deformations, Halsted Press, New York) has behavior in
small strain that deviates from that of a Mooney-Rivlin
material. Specifically, the mixed partial of W with respect to
I1 and I2 is increasingly non-zero as the strain decreases. To
resolve this, we analyzed small strain and kept terms that are
quartic order or lower. Whereby, a term C3(I1+I2-6)^3/2 is
needed in W if W is to depend on the cube of the strain
magnitude. The mixed partial of this term goes to infinity as
the strain decreases. Since the error in calculating the I1 and I2
response functions goes to infinity, one cannot rule out the
existence of this singular mixed partial. This appears contrary
to Mooney's result. Yet, Mooney defines the shear strain as the
difference of the principal stretches. For other strain
definitions, W(I1,I2) has a singular mixed partial.
jcriscione@ucsd.edu

MMC2001-864 Wednesday, June 27, 2:24 PM

Stiffness Optimization In Tensegrity Structures


Bram de Jager, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering,
Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The
Netherlands, The Netherlands
Robert E. Skelton, Dept. of Mechanical & Aerospace
Engineering, University of California San Diego, La
Jolla, California, USA
Tensegrity structures are composed of sticks and strings
connected in a stable equilibrium. This paper illustrates with
p[lanar examples how the local topological properties of
tensegrity structures dictate the global stiffness properties.
A.G.de.jager@wfw.wtb.tue.nl
MMC2001-832 Wednesday, June 27, 2:42 PM

MMC2001-484 Thursday, June 28, 9:18 AM

Tensegrity Structures: Path Tracking Using Neural


Networks

An Inclusion Problem in Bending of Plates with


Microstructure

Darrell Williamson, Narongsak Kanchanasaratool,


Engineering, Australian National university, Canberra,
ACT, AUSTRALIA

Peter Schiavone, Mechanical Engineering, University of


Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada

A tensegrity structure is a special truss in which particular


members (elastic cables) are always in tension while other
members (rigid bars) are in compression in such a way that the
tension members form a continuous network, which separates
the compression members. The kinematics of such networks
have been described in terms of a system of nonlinear
differential equations, which give the positions and velocities
of the ends of the rods using the method of constrained
particle dynamics. The control of such tensegrity systems can
be achieved by the adjustment of the lengths of the rods and/or
the rest lengths of the cables. Regulation about a stable
equilibrium has been achieved using linearization techniques.
In this paper, we employ neural networks as a means of
achieving control along a predetermined path from one given
(stable) equilibrium position to another.
darrell@faceng.anu.edu.au

In this paper we discuss the weak solvability of the


problem of the bending of a homogeneous elastic plate with a
homogeneous inclusion composed of a different elastic
material. The plate model incorporates the effects of
microstructure as introduced by Eringen in [1] and transverse
shear deformation [2]. The inclusion is assumed to be
perfectly bonded to the surrounding material. We reduce the
problem to boundary integral equations and investigate the
existence, uniqueness and continuous dependence on the data
of the weak solutions to the latter. The analysis is performed
for both infinite and finite plates. The distributional setting is
not only more general than the classical one but is also better
suited to numerical approximations since error estimates are
expressed naturally in terms of Sobolev space norms.
[1] A.C. Eringen, Theory of Micropolar Plates, J. Appl.
Math Phys. 18, 12 - 30 (1967)

66

Eshelbian Mechanics of Materials

[2] P. Schiavone and C. Constanda, Existence Theorems


in the Theory of Bending of Micropolar Plates, Int. J. Engng.
Sci, 27, 4, 463 - 468 (1989).
P.SCHIAVONE@UALBERTA.CA

analysis (in a least-square sense)appears to be satisfactory for


a qualitative and quantitative analysis.
eknrpw@aol.com
MMC2001-778 Thursday, June 28, 10:12 AM

MMC2001-501 Thursday, June 28, 9:36 AM

On Methods of Solutions to Problems with Axial


Symmetry in Nonlinear Solid Mechanics

Micromechanical Modeling of Two-Dimensional


Elastic Solids with Irregularly Shaped Holes
Igor Tsukrov, Jindrich Novak, Mechanical Engineering,
University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH, USA

Elena Croitoro, Department of Mathematics and Statistics,


University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia,
Canada

Pores and defects in real materials often have irregular


shapes. The objective of this paper is to present a
computational procedure to calculate the contribution of the
irregularly shaped defects into the effective moduli of twodimensional elastic solids.
Analytical predictions of the effective elastic properties of
porous solids are limited by existing analytical solutions of
elasticity, which are available for regular pore shapes only
spherical or ellipsoidal in the 3-D analysis, and circular,
elliptical or right polygons in 2-D. Numerical simulations can
be used for all kinds of shapes, but they require substantial
computational power and are not universal. Our analysis
combines numerical and analytical techniques: the elasticity
problem for each type of defect is solved numerically, and this
solution is used in the potential-based analytical procedure of
micromechanical modeling proposed in.
The contribution of each defect into effective moduli is
defined in terms of a hole compliance tensor. Two
computational methods are used to calculate the components
of this tensor: finite element analysis (FEA) and numerical
conformal mapping (NCM). NCM approach has proven to be
more accurate, but FEA is a more universal tool since it allows
easy generalization to anisotropic materials and threedimensional problems. Application of the presented procedure
to the regular hole shapes produces results that are in good
correspondence with known analytical predictions.
igor.tsukrov@unh.edu

The equations that model material structures undergoing


large elastic deformations are usually sets of coupled, highly
nonlinear partial differential equations. The number of known
exact solutions is very limited. In this work a systematic
method of solutions within successive approximation theory is
developed. In the method developed by Spencer [3] and
Selvaduray and Spencer [4], by making use of a displacement
function, the problem can be reduced to a Stokes 4th-order
partial differential equation. An alternative approach is
presented here. The resulting equations are Poisson and
Laplace types. By using Hankel transforms and Extended
Hankel transforms, families of solutions in terms of Bessel
functions are obtained. The solutions apply to general
incompressible materials, regardless of the functional form of
the strain-energy.
References: [1] Ogden, R.W., Nonlinear Elastic
Deformations, Ellis Horwood Series in Mathematics and its
Applications, 1984. [2] Fertis, D.G., Nonlinear Mechanics,
CRC Press, 1993. [3] Spencer, A.J.M., IMA Journal of
Applied Mathematics, 1970, Vol.6, pp. 164-200. [4]
Selvaduray, A.P.S. and Spencer, A.J.M., International Journal
of Engineering Science, 1972, Vol.10, pp. 97-114. [5]
Croitoro M.E. and Lindsay, K.A., Hoop Stress Calculations,
Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics, ZAMP, 1984,
Vol. 35, pp. 858-869. [6] Davies B., Integral Transforms and
their Applications, 2nd edition, Springer Verlag, 1985.
croitoro@math.uvic.ca

MMC2001-774 Thursday, June 28, 9:54 AM

Eshelbian Mechanics of Materials

Three-Dimensional Stress Analysis of A Symmetric


Adhesive Plate under A Uniform Axial Tension

Session: EMM-I
Friday, June 29, 9:00-10:30
Coronado A
Chairs: Gerard A. Maugin and Marcelo Epstein

Peter W Hsu, Engineering Research, Ekoneer Co., Redondo


Beach, California, USA
This paper presents a three-dimensional elastic stress
analysis for an adhesive plate. A product form of three 8-term
nonlinear functions in ascending powers of the three spatial
variables is assumed for the three shear stress components.
These shear stresses are substituted into the exact equilibrium
equations to obtain the three normal stress components. The
unknown coefficients in the assumed functions are then
determined by the minimization of the total potential energy.
Results of two sample problems show some interesting
features of the solution such as mirror image and sign reversal
of the out-of-plane normal stress for a reversed stacking
sequence at a specific cross section which confirms the results
of many previous researchers. In conclusion, this approximate

MMC2001-135 Friday, June 29, 9:00 AM

The Eshelby tensor and the theory of continuous


distributions of inhomogeneities
Marcelo Epstein, Mechanical and Manufacturing
Engineering, The University of Calgary, Calgary,
Alberta, Canada
The purpose of this presentation is to show that there
exists a natural connection between Noll's theory of
inhomogeneities and the Eshelby tensor. One way to expose
this connection consists in allowing the inhomogeneity pattern

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Eshelbian Mechanics of Materials

to evolve in time and then exploring the thermodynamic


implications. In 1965, Noll formulated a rigorous theory of
continuous distributions of inhomogeneities within the realm
of continuum mechanics. Although the results are in some
respects similar to those obtained earlier by Kondo, Kroener
and others, there is a substantial difference in point of view in
that Noll's approach is based solely on the form of the
macroscopic constitutive law of the body, without the need for
extra information about the microscopic level. Although not
explicitly noticed by Noll, the continuum approach implicitly
contains, in a completely natural way, the Eshelby tensor as
the ``force'' behind the evolution of the inhomogeneity
distribution in the body. This fact was shown in a number of
papers by Epstein and Maugin starting in 1990. The purpose
of this talk is to present the basic ideas and results contained
therein.
epstein@enme.ucalgary.ca

MMC2001-216 Friday, June 29, 9:36 AM

Growth & Balance


Antonio Di Carlo, Dipartimento di Scienze dell'Ingegneria
Civile, Universit degli Studi di Roma Tre, Rome, Italy
Sara Quiligotti, Laboratoire de Modlisation en Mcanique,
UPMC & CNRS, TMR Network on "Phase Transitions in
Crystalline Solids", Paris, France
The modelling of growth phenomena stands as a major
challenge to continuum physics today, issued by many active
fields of application, such as biomechanics and materials
science. In particular, a critical issue is the continuum
treatment of bulk growth, whereas surface growth is
comparatively much better understood.
To be able to discriminate growth from deformation, one
should first enrich kinematics. We do so by attaching to each
body element, at any given instant, not only its actual
configuration, but also the configuration it "would like" to
have - its relaxed configuration. We make this idea clean and
precise, resorting to routine paraphernalia of calculus on
manifolds (lifts and bundle maps), but the idea itself goes back
basically to Krner (1960). It has already been used in growth
mechanics by Rodriguez et al. (1994) and Epstein & Maugin
(2000).
We depart from these authors in dynamics. Instead of
concocting the evolution law for growth as an extra ad hoc
assumption, we obtain it as a basic balance law - the balance
of accretive forces - additional to the balance of standard
forces, and independent of it. As standard force balance
governs motion, accretive force balance governs growth. The
peculiar structure of our working functional brings forth an
Eshelby-like contribution of the standard forces to the
accretive force balance, independently of any special
constitutive assumption.
adc@uniroma3.it

MMC2001-213 Friday, June 29, 9:18 AM

On Eshelbian Variations and Migrating Control


Volumes
Paolo Podio-Guidugli, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile,
Universita' di Roma "Tor Vergata", Roma, Italy
As it often happens when a new branch of continuum
physics is first investigated, the mathematical format used by
Eshelby in his study of lattice defects was variational, in the
framework of elasticity theory. It took a while to achieve a
complete understanding of what variations of the energy
functional actually produce physical information on the statics
of defects that does not amount to a mere rephrasing of
standard information deduced from standard variations [1-3].
However, as is well known, a variational approach cannot
render all the features of a general dynamical theory with
dissipation. In a series of papers and in his book [2], Gurtin
has proposed to base that theory on a notion of working
performed on control volumes migrating through a bodys
reference shape. I here discuss the connections between
Eshelbian variations and migrating control volumes.
[1] G.A. Maugin, Material Inhomogeneities in Elasticity.
Chapman and Hall, London (1993).
[2] M.E. Gurtin, Configurational Forces as Basic Concepts
of Continuum Physicis. Springer, Berlin (2000)
[3] P. Podio-Guidugli, Configurational balances via
variational arguments. Interfaces and Free Boundaries 3,
(2001) 1-10.
ppg@uniroma2.it

MMC2001-166 Friday, June 29, 9:54 AM

Material Forces on Singular Surfaces in


Thermoelastic Media
Alexandru Danescu, Mecanique des Solides, Ecole Centrale
de Lyon, Ecully, France
Cristian Dascalu, Institute of Applied Mathematics, Romanian
Academy, Bucharest, Romania
The aim of the present contribution is the evaluation of an
Eshelby-like theory for thermally dissipative materials with
special emphasis on the evolution of singular surfaces as
inhomogeneities in the material manifold.
Motivated by a material force description of fracture,
Dascalu and Maugin (1995)proposed a general form of the
material momentum balance for thermoelastic bodies. The
essential property of this new balance law was its
compatibility with the energy equation with respect to their
consequences for the propagation of cracks, in the sense that
the provided thermoelastic driving force at the tip of the
mouving crack was related to the rate of energy released
during fracture.

68

Eshelbian Mechanics of Materials

The present analysis continues this previous work by


analysing the driving tractions on singular surfaces in thermal
conductors. Our general aim is to obtain the "natural" balance
of material momentum, suggested by some consequences of
the basic thermomechanical laws. On surfaces with strain and
temperature discontinuities, we deduce a dissipation inequality
compatible with the driving force provided by the
pseudomomentum balance in Dascalu and Maugin (1995).
danescu@ec-lyon.fr

Eshelby. Eshelby defines such forces as variational derivatives


of an energy. For that reason he does not postulate a
concomitant balance, a law I believe needed to describe
dissipative phenomena. In theories involving defects
(interfaces, cracks, etc.) an additional relation is needed to
describe defect motion. This relation is typically deduced by
identifying a driving force and constitutively relating this
force to the defect velocity. This is nontrivial for a defect
endowed with energy and stress, for then this constitutive
relation takes the form of a pde, suggesting a missing balance
law. Basic to continuum physics is the distinction between
physical laws and constitutive relations. Here I outline a
theory of configurational forces that preserves this distinction.
This theory treats such forces as primitive objects, subject to a
balance and endowed with the ability to expend power in the
evolution of defects. This framework yields evolution
equations for defect motion and shows that certain constructs
such as the Eshelby tensor are unrelated to whatever
constitutive prescriptions one might wish to impose.
mg0c@andrew.cmu.edu

MMC2001-616 Friday, June 29, 10:12 AM

Explicit Determination of Piezoelectric Eshelby


Tensors for a Spheroidal Inclusion
Yozo Mikata, Structural Mechanics Development, Lockheed
Martin, Schenectady, NY, USA
In this paper, by systematically treating the integrals
involved in the piezoelectric inclusion problem, we have
obtained explicit results for the piezoelectric Eshelby tensors
for a spheroidal inclusion aligned along the axis of the
anisotropy in a transversely isotropic piezoelectric material.
This problem was first treated by Dunn and Wienecke (1996)
using a Green's function approach, which closely follows
Withers' approach (1989) for an ellipsoidal inclusion problem
in a transversely isotropic elastic medium. The same problem
was recently treated by Michelitsch and Levin (2000) also
using a Green's function approach. In this paper, we also
obtain the piezoelectric Eshelby tensors for a spheroidal
inclusion explicitly, but using a different approach. The
method is a direct extension of a more unified approach,
which has been recently developed by Mikata (2000), which is
based on Deeg's results (1980) on a piezoelectric inclusion
problem. The main advantage of this method is that it is more
straightforward and simpler than Dunn and Wienecke (1996),
or Michelitsch and Levin (2000), and the results are a little bit
more explicit than their solutions. The key step of this paper
is an analytical evaluation of several integrals, which was
made possible after a careful treatment of a certain bi-cubic
equation.
Deeg, W.F. (1980). The analysis of dislocation, crack,
and inclusion problems in piezoelectric solids. Ph.D.
Dissertation, Stanford University.
aquarius_ym@hotmail.com

MMC2001-150 Friday, June 29, 11:18 AM

Configurational Forces, Morphology Evolution and


Finite Elements
Dietmar Gross, Ralf Mueller, Thomas Kolling, Department
of Mechanics, Darmstadt University of Technology,
Darmstadt, Germany, Germany
Presented is a theoretical description and computational
method allowing the numerical simulation of shape evolution
and equilibrium of phase separating alloys. Both, the
precipitate and the matrix are modelled as different arbitrary
anisotropic elastic materials. Taking the interfacial energy and
eigenstrains into account the basic equations are derived by
applying the concept of configurational forces. 3D results are
presented for isolated and interacting particles. Similarly,
based on generalized configurational forces a macroscopic
material model is proposed which captures the effects of
microstructural changes. A FEM implementation and
numerical analysis of different structures demonstrates the
applicability of the constitutive description. Finally it is shown
how configurational forces can be calculated by the FEM and
that they may be used to improve discretization meshes. As
examples inhomogeneous precipitates, cracked structures and
thin layers are discussed.
gross@mechanik.tu-darmstadt.de

Session: EMM-II
Friday, June 29, 11:00-12:30
Coronado A
Chairs: Reinhold Kienzler and Gerard C. Herman

MMC2001-129 Friday, June 29, 11:36 AM

Eshelby stress: The driving force behind local


structural rearrangements

MMC2001-195 Friday, June 29, 11:00 AM

Need We Postulate A Configurational Force


Balance?

Gerard A. Maugin, Laboratoire de Modelisation en


Mecanique, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris,
Paris, France

Morton E. Gurtin, Mathematics, Carnegie-Mellon U,


Pittsburgh, PA, USA

Local structural rearrangments are responsible for many of


the macroscopically observed irreversible behaviors of solidlike materials. All such phenomena take place directly on the
material manifold. The associated driving forces, also called
configurational forces or material forces, require a general

Mechanics is described by Newtonian forces. That


additional configurational forces are needed to describe
phenomena associated with the material follows from work of

69

Eshelbian Mechanics of Materials

setting that emphasizes this material peculiarity. Such a setting


is mainly geometrical and thermodynamical, via the inclusive
notions of inhomogeneity maps and material transplants. The
essential kinetic argument here is the so-called Eshelby
material stress. Configurational forces built from it acquire a
true physical meaning only in so far the associated expended
power is none other than a dissipation. Accordingly, these
configurational forces are essentially used to formulate criteria
of progress of defects or "material inhomogeneities" in
accordance with the second law of thermodynamics. Various
applications are given from this viewpoint which unifies the
views of Kroener (geometry of anelasticity), W.Noll (theory
of uniformity and homogeneity) , and J.D.Eshelby
(configurational forces) in a common thermomechanical
framework.
gam@ccr.jussieu.fr

Session: EMM-III
Friday, June 29, 1:30-3:00
Coronado A
Chairs: Paolo Podio-Guidugli and Morton E. Gurtin
MMC2001-391 Friday, June 29, 1:30 PM

The Conjugate Roles of Eshelby Stress and


Eigentransformation in Composition-Generated and
Stress-Assisted Diffusion
Chien H. Wu, Civil and Materials Engineering, University of
Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA
The chemical potential used in interdiffusion analysis was
derived by Li, Oriani and Darken (1966), and Larche and
Cahn (1982). It contains the trace of the stress tensor as the
essential elasticity contribution to the configurational force
conjugate to the material composition. As a result, the
underlying diffusion equation is totally independent of any
accompanying elastic field. However, it is perhaps intuitively
clear by now--almost fifty years since Eshelby published his
first paper on energy momentum tensor in 1951--that the trace
of the (canonical) Eshelby stress tensor should be the total
elasticity contribution to the desired configurational force.
This conjecture is formally established in this paper for an ncomponent substitutional solid. Since the elastic energy
density is now involved in the chemical potential, the interplay
between a composition-generated deformation and another
elastic field may become important via the interaction energy.
cwu@uic.edu

MMC2001-107 Friday, June 29, 11:54 AM

A Constitutive Model For Material Growth And


Finite Element Analysis Of Structural
Reorganization
Shoji Imatani, Department of Energy Conversion Science,
Kyoto University, Kyoto, Kyoto, Japan
Gerard A. Maugin, Laboratoire de Modelisation en
Mecanique, University Paris 6/CNRS, Paris, Paris,
France
Materials in growth have specific features such that they
grow up in a particular direction while re-organizing
themselves to the surroundings. Both the magnitude and the
direction in growth depend on various circumstances. The
structural reorganization is described as the rearrangement of
anisotropy. Two models are considered; one is that the
anisotropic vector is embedded just as in fiber-reinforced
materials, and the other is that the vector behaves like a float.
In the latter case, the model describes the adaptation behavior,
in which the material changes the preferred orientation so as to
fit the surrounding circumstances. In order to apply the
present model to boundary-value problems, the finite element
formulation is obtained with reference to the total-Lagrangain
approach. Here we evaluate the validity of the model in terms
of circumferential growth/resorption behavior. The present
model predicts that, even when a material shows a quasiisotropy in the initial state, it grows up in a particular direction
so as to relax the stress distribution subjected to the
surrounding pressure boundary condition.
imatani@energy.kyoto-u.ac.jp

MMC2001-212 Friday, June 29, 1:48 PM

A Thermodynamic Theory of Damage in Elastic


Solids and Effect of Microstructure
George Herrmann, Division of Mechanics and Computation,
Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA
This contribution presents the foundations of a novel
thermodynamic theory of damage in elastic solids developed
in collaboration with E. Honein and T. Honein. The theory is
rooted in the so-called "Conservative or Conventional
Thermodynamics of Irreversible Processes", where the
concept of a local thermodynamic state plays a prominent role.
An elastic body prone to damage is regarded as a
thermodynamic system characterized by a set of extensive
variables that can be defined in both equilibrium and
nonequilibrium states and assigned approximately the same
values in both the physical space and the abstract state space.
The theory captures many features of real material behaviour
such as loading/unloading paths, quasi-ductility, dependence
on the straining or loading rates, transition from brittleness to
ductility with temperature rise and dependence on some global
geometric parameters (size and shape) of the structure. As a
further illustration of the theory, we consider the case of
microcracks propagating in an elastic body (one-dimensional
bar) and we include the effect of microstructure and the
associated toughening mechanisms by considering a power
law for the toughness curve. The stress-strain curves obtained
are compared with data from experiments performed by other

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Eshelbian Mechanics of Materials

authors on alumina specimens and an excellent qualitative as


well as quantitative agreement is achieved.
rkienzler@uni-bremen.de

energy-stress tensor (an Eshelby-like tensor). In this respect, a


Lagrangian density can be introduced, from which the
classical electromagnetic energy-stress tensor can be derived.
The latter is a Cauchy-like tensor, as it is naturally related to
the traction. Along with such an energy-stress tensor, the
corresponding canonical momentum stems in a natural way
and is identified with the electro-mechanical momentum.
However, additional canonical momenta and additional stress
tensors emerge from the proposed variational procedure. A
suitable combination of these canonical quantities leads to the
material energy-stress tensor, and to the material momentum.
trimarco@dma.unipi.it

MMC2001-154 Friday, June 29, 2:06 PM

Eshelbian Mechanics of Structural Changes in


Inelastic Materials
Valery I. Levitas, Mechanical Engineering, Texas Tech
University, Lubbock, Texas, USA
We define a structural change (SC) in inelastic materials
as a thermomechanical process of change in some region of
material properties (elastic moduli, entropy, yield strength), as
well as a transformation strain from initial to final values. A
theory developed includes a thermodynamic nonlocal SC
criterion and a kinetic equation, an extremum principle for
determination of all variable parameters (e.g. position and
shape of transforming region), and an extremum principle for
the choice of a stable solution (when competition between
several SC occurs). Instead of path-independent integrals used
for the description of SC in Eshelbian mechanics of elastic
media, the theory suggests region-independent integrals,
which represent a dissipation increment due to the SC during
the complete SC in the transforming region. A number of
examples, related to phase transitions, strain-induced
chemical reactions, and ductile fracture are considered and
used for the description of experimental phenomena.
1. Levitas V.I. Int. Plasticity, Part J. I & II, 2000 , 16,
No. 7-8, 805-849 and 851-892.
2. Levitas V.I. Int. J. Solids and Structures, 1998, 35,
No. 9-10, 889-940.
3. Levitas V.I. J. Mech. Phys. Solids, 1997, 45, No. 6,
923-947; No. 7, 1203-1222.
4. Levitas V.I. et al. Part I& II. Acta Materialia, 1998, 46,
No. 16, 5929-5946 and 5947-5963.
valery.levitas@coe.ttu.edu

Session: EMM-IV
Friday, June 29, 3:30-5:00
Coronado A
Chairs: Chien H. Wu and Gerard A. Maugin
MMC2001-211 Friday, June 29, 3:30 PM

Fracture criteria based on local properties of the


Eshelby tensor
Reinhold Kienzler, FB4 /15, University of Bremen, Bremen,
./., Germany
One peculiarity associated with the Eshelby tensor bij is
that it is used primarily as an integrand in global
representation of path-independent integrals, such as the J, L
and M integrals. The properties and the physical interpretation
of the components of this tensor itself, however, have been
discussed only quite recently [1]. Due to the fact that bij is not
symmetric, the principal values turned out not to be extremal
values and can be either real or imaginary. The associated
principal directions are not normal to each other, in general. It
appears that the maximum value of a component of the
Eshelby tensor in plane elasticity is a shear component bnt
occurring in cross-sections where associated normal
component bnn vanishes (n and t are the normal and tangential
directions of the cross-section, respectively). In this
contribution, fracture criteria based on properties of the
Eshelby tensor evaluated at the crack tip are discussed for a
plane crack under mixed mode conditions. From the nearcrack-tip solution it turns out that the eigenvalues of bij are
real, but they have no physical significance in describing a
fracture criterium or predicting a crack kinking angle. The
maximum value bnt, however, delivers interesting results that
compare well with those existing in the literature.
[1] R. Kienzler, G. Herrmann: On the properties of the
Eshelby tensor. Acta Mechanica 125 (1997) 73-91
rkienzler@uni-bremen.de

MMC2001-181 Friday, June 29, 2:24 PM

Stresses And Momenta In Electromagnetic Materials


Carmine Trimarco, Applied Mathematics 'U. Dini',
University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy
To the memory of Ekkehart Krner.
The notion of energy-momentum, or energy-stress,
pertains typically to electromagnetism. Eshelby transferred
such a notion into elasticity in 1951 and, afterward, into
continuum mechanics, in order to account for the force acting
on a material defect. The Eshelbys main idea was based on
the similar role played, respectively, by the electric charge in
electromagnetism and by a defect in a solid body. In fact, the
electric charge can be viewed as an inhomogeneity in the
Maxwell-Faradays electromagnetism. Similarly, a defect can
be regarded as due to an inhomogeneous response of a
medium.
In an electromagnetic material it is of primary importance
to distinguish between the classical electromagnetic energystress tensor (which is a Cauchy-like tensor) and the material

MMC2001-894 Friday, June 29, 3:48 PM

On the role of configurational-force balance in a


phase-field theory for pure interface motion
Eliot Fried, Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, University
of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, USA
We consider a theory that describes the evolution of a
diffuse interface separating two material phases. The sole

71

Eshelbian Mechanics of Materials

unknown of this theory is a scalar phase-field that varies


smoothly across the interface. Associated with variations of
this field are power-conjugate forces and a scalar forcebalance. Granted thermodynamically consistent constitutive
equations, this balance gives rise to a generalization of the
scalar Ginzburg--Landau equation---a generalization that
accounts for anisotropy and nonlinear transition kinetics. A
simple consequence of this generalized Ginzburg--Landau
equation is a vectorial identity that can be identified as the
configurational-force balance of the phase-field theory. Insofar
as the phase-field is concerned, this derived balance carries no
information beyond that available from the generalized
Ginzburg--Landau equation. However, when we invoke a
conventional scaling and pass to the limit of decreasing
interfacial thickness, we find that the configurational-force
balance yields the equation that governs the evolution of the
surface separating the phases in the sharp-interface theory.
More standard asymptotic analyses work only with the
generalized Ginzburg--Landau equation and rely on the
Fredholm alternative to obtain the evolution equation for the
sharp-interface. Our approach not only maintains a physical
connection between the diffuse- and sharp-interface
descriptions but also highlights the central importance of the
configurational-force balance in the latter description.
e-fried@uiuc.edu

MMC2001-552 Friday, June 29, 4:24 PM

Coupled Numerical Simulation of Crack Growth


Under Thermal Loading
Thomas Siegmund, Ashwin Hattiangadi, School of
Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, West
Lafayette, IN, USA

Geometrical Modeling of Cold Drawing (Necking) in


Engineering Thermoplastics

Cracks are discontinuities that impede heat flow and


redistribution temperature. Local thermal stresses are induced
and promote crack growth. To perform fully coupled thermomechanical analyses for non-uniform and non-steady heat
flow conditions with arbitrarily growing cracks, a
methodology accounting for both material separation and the
heat transfer problem with moving boundaries due to crack
growth is presented. The approach uses coupled material
separation - heat transfer decohesive constitutive relations for
cracks that are embedded in interface elements for use with
the finite element method. This allows one to obtain solutions
for coupled thermal-mechanical problem including the
creation of new surfaces and continuously changing heat flow
conditions. The model is used to study crack growth under
thermal gradient loading of a homogeneous rectangular plate.
The results obtained are discussed within the parametric space
set by the Biot number characterizing the influence of the heat
transfer across the process zone relative to the heat transfer
through the intact solid, and the ratio of the cohesive zone
characteristic length to the lengthscale introduced by heat
transfer.
siegmund@ecn.purdue.edu

Alexander Chudnovsky, Civil and Material Engineering,


University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA

MMC2001-448 Friday, June 29, 4:42 PM

Serge Preston, Mathematical Sciences, Portland State


University, Portland, OR, USA

A Study to Estimate Instantaneous Crack Length


Using the Separability Parameter Spb

Necking constitutes the yielding process in many


thermoplastics. It starts as strain localization associated with
micro shear banding and/or cavitations and appears as a
domain of oriented (drawn) material separated from the
original (isotropic) one by a distinct boundary. On further
increase of displacement, the boundary propagates under
constant draw stress. The necking is manifested in significant
changes in a characteristic length scale, i.e., the distance
between equally spaced marks in the reference state may
increases by factor of 5 to 10. There is also a time scale
change during the necking. 4-D intrinsic (material)
Riemannian metric tensor of a material space-time imbedded
into four-dimensional Newtonian (laboratory) space-time with
a Euclidean metric is introduced to model the scale
transformation. Kinetic equation for material metric tensor
evolution is derived using classical Extremal Action principle.
A traveling wave solution is obtained for neck propagation in
one-dimensional bar and compared with experimental
observations. True Stress-Strain-Temperature Diagrams are
presented as an adequate way for characterization of polymers
undergoing necking.
achudnov@uic.edu

Luis A. de Vedia, Anbal N. Cassanelli, Jesica Wainstein,


Mechanics, Engineering School - UNMdP, Mar del
Plata, Bs.As., Argentina

MMC2001-252 Friday, June 29, 4:06 PM

The variable separability property is the theoretical base


for J fracture mechanic determination and the incremental
methodology used to obtain J-R and JM-R curves. It let write
the load that bearing a body during a test as a product of two
independent function, one depending on the body geometry
and the other one on material deformation properties. The
separability parameter Spb was used in this work to estimate
the instantaneous crack length in pre-cracked specimen during
fracture mechanic test. A set of pre-cracked compact ASTM
C(T), three point bending ASTM SE(B) and a non standard
geometry A(B) were included in the test matrix. Materials
were a 2.25Cr-1.0Mo ASTM 387-Gr22 steel, an API Gr.N80
and a set of steel welded joints. The result values of crack
length obtained for each specimen were very close to those
estimated by mean of standard elastic unloading and the
difference between them was less than 15% of crack growth.
Initial, final and crack extension length were compared for
each specimen with those measure on the crack surfaces and
the difference observed was less than those suggested in
ASTM E1820-96 for alternative methods of measuring crack
extension.
marchcap@arnet.com.ar

72

Experimental Investigations

fracture toughness and limited resistance to impact and shock


loading.
This limitation of the material led to the innovation of
reinforcing the weak matrix with a stiff and strong material to
produce a composite of superior properties.Steel fiber
reinforced concrete is one of the material which overcomes a
number of shortcomings of plain concrete.A great deal of
work has been done on the time dependent properties of plain
and reinforced cement concrete particularly in the areas of
creep and shrinkage.The information available on the time
dependent properties of fiber reinforced concrete,however,is
limited and scanty.The time dependent properties of concrete
are of vital importance as they influence the stability of
concrete structures.All these properties were studied under
controlled conditions of temperature of 272(degrees
centigrade)and relative humidity of 90.5(percent).
Broad conclusions drawn on the basis of the experimental
investigations undertaken at this institute would be discussed
in this paper.
dipeshbatra@hotmail.com

Experimental Investigations
Session: Experimental Investigations
Friday, June 29, 3:30-5:00
Executive Conference Center 3A
Chairs: Guruswami Ravichandran and Ghatu Subhash
MMC2001-130 Friday, June 29, 3:30 PM

Use of the Hole Drilling and Spherical Indentation


Procedures to Determine Heat Treated Steel
Material Properties.
Grard Mauvoisin, Rochdi El Abdi, Olivier Bartier, Ali
Nayebi, Gnie Mcanique, Laboratoire de Recherche en
Mcanique Applique de Rennes, Rennes, Ille et Vilaine,
France
Different techniques are available to carry out superficial
heat treatment. Some non-destructive techniques were
developed to check the quality of such treatments. Moreover,
these methods give the depth treatment with a good precision
for sudden transition, but they do not give the whole hardness
profile.
We propose two new approaches to determine the
hardness profile of superficially heat treated steels. These
simple and reliable techniques are detailed in this work:
- The hole drilling method uses a test based on the well
known proportionality between the cutting forces measured
during a drilling test and the hardness of the material tested.
By discretizing the drilled thickness, we have developed an
algorithm yielding the hardness of each elemental thickness
which allows to obtain the hardness profile.
- The indentation technique is based on the applied loaddisplacement curve of an indenter during indentation test. This
approach gives a relationship between load, displacement,
flow stress and strain hardening exponent and is based on
minimization of the error between the experimental curve
(load-displacement of the indenter) and the theoretical curve
which is a function of the mechanical and geometrical
properties of the studied materials.
Results for carbo-nitriding steels obtained by the standard
Vickers micro hardness technique are very close to those
obtained by each suggested method.
gerard.mauvoisin@univ-rennes1.fr

MMC2001-523 Friday, June 29, 4:06 PM

3D micro tomography (CT) of cellular metals using


an up to 320kV X-ray tube
Bernhard Illerhaus, Elena Jasiuniene, PG
Computertomography, Bundesanstalt fr
Materialforschung und -prfung, Berlin, Germany
Cellular metals, which are produced as foams or with
regular structures, will be used more and more in aircraft and
car industry. Due to the very complex structure of cellular
metals CT is the best method to test their inner integrity.
Most of the cellular metals are made from aluminium and
thus have a high penetration depth for X-rays. But they are
often used to produce objects of non-regular shapes (with an
outer cover of a different material or the foam skin itself). This
produces artefacts due to the high attenuating parts. In some
applications foams of high attenuating materials (up to iron)
could also be used. In these cases the choice of an as high as
possible X-ray energy reduces the artefacts from beam
hardening and exponential edge gradient effects. Some first
results as well as measured parameters of the tube will be
shown.
For the description of the mechanical behaviour and
failure mechanisms of the cellular metals 3D software tools
were generated. Relevant features of the foams are: localised
mean density, pore size and pore size distributionThe
dislocation paths and failure mechanisms can be found by
fitting small parts from 3D CT images of foams before and
after stepwise strength tests. Comparisons with other local
properties in 3D are possible.
bernhard.illerhaus@bam.de

MMC2001-471 Friday, June 29, 3:48 PM

Time Dependent Properties of Steel Fiber


Reinforced Concrete.
Vidya Sagar Batra, Civil Engineering, Thapar Institute of
Engineering and Technology(deemed university),
Patiala, Punjab, India
Microcracks are inherently present in the plain cement
concrete which further propagate due to loading,eventually
leading to brittle fractures.On the application of load,
microcracks start developing at about 30 to 40(percent) of the
ultimate compressive strength and subsequent loading leads to
uncontrolled growth of cracks.This phenomenon results in low

73

Experimental Techniques

together with their interaction are revealed in terms of the


critical stress levels, the shape of the stress-strain curves and
the strain hardening coefficients in the light of mechanical
experiments, TEM and in-situ optical microscopy
observations. Stress-strain responses of Hadfield steel are
modeled using a viscoplastic self-consistent approach. A
unique hardening formulation is proposed in the constitutive
model incorporating length scales associated with spacing
between twin lamellae. The responses of single crystals are
captured closely with the model. The effect of nitrogen on the
strain-hardening coefficient is predicted as well. Based on
simulations, it was possible to explain unequivocally the
upward curvature in stress-strain response of Hadfield steel.
ikaraman@mengr.tamu.edu

MMC2001-631 Friday, June 29, 4:24 PM

Evaluation of diffusion coefficient of chloride in


concrete
Srividya Verma, Reliability Engg Group, Indian Institute of
Technology Bombay, Mumbai, Maharastra, India
Shantharaju Kumarappachar, Civil Engg, Dr Ambedkar
Institute of Technology, Bangalore, Karnataka, India
The deterioration of reinforced concrete (RC) structures
due to corrosion of steel reinforcement because of chloride
ingress is a growing problem all over the world. Service life is
the duration between the time of construction to initiation of
corrosion of steel reinforcement embedded in concrete. The
predictions of service life are of great importance for the
existing structures and new RC structures. The exposure to
aggressive marine environment of RC structures results in
ingress of chloride. A fundamental parameter describing the
resistance of a particular concrete to the transportation of
chlorides is the coefficient of diffusion (D). The kinetics of
chloride ingress have shown that the diffusion coefficient of
chloride ions is greatly influenced by a range of concrete
characteristics; grade of concrete, water/ cement ratio, type of
cement, pore structure, curing etc. The corrosion initiation
starts when the chloride content reaches the threshold value
(0.15 % to 0.4 % of cement content) at the level of steel.
The movement of chloride ion in concrete is dependent on
diffusion coefficient of chloride. In this paper the effects of
curing and pore structure on diffusion coefficient of chloride
are studied. The diffusion coefficient of chloride in concrete
has been established based on the compressive strength and
water/ cement ratio of the concrete. The variations of diffusion
coefficient of chloride with the age of concrete are also
presented.
asvidya@ee.iitb.ernet.in

Experimental Techniques
Session: Experimental Techniques
Wednesday, June 27, 1:30-3:00
Executive Conference Center 2A
Chairs: Erhard Krempl and Alan T Zehnder
MMC2001-190 Wednesday, June 27, 1:30 PM

Laser-interferometric creep measurements as a new


tool for physical research
Pavel Yakushev, Nina Peschanskaya, Vladimir Bershtein,
Solid State Physics, Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute,
Saint Petersburg, Russia
This research allows to transform a Creep from an object
of investigations into a precision instrument for physical study
of such solids as polymers, metals and ceramics. This method
is based on the use of a laser interferometer for the creep rate
measuring. The creep rate may be measured directly in the
course of an experiment with an accuracy of 1% on the basis
of 0.001% deformation increment within the range from 10^10 to 10^-4 m/s. One of numerous applications of this
technique is an original approach to measuring a
microplasticity of solids at the stresses much below yielding
point as a function of temperature&#8211; the Creep Rate
Spectroscopy low frequency method. This method
demonstrates the obvious superiority in resolution over
conventional techniques. Another advantage of this technique
is its ability to reveal heterogeneous, step-like creep at
microscale levels and the relation of the creep characteristics
to material macrostructure and structural heterogeneity.
1. Peschanskaya N.N., Yakushev P.N., Sinani A.B.,
Bershtein V.A..Thermochimica Acta, 238 (1994) 429&#8211;
452
2. Bershtein V.A., Yakushev P.N. et.al. J.Macromol.Sci.Phys.,B40(1), 109, 2001
yak@pav.ioffe.rssi.ru

MMC2001-668 Friday, June 29, 4:42 PM

The Effect of Nitrogen Alloying on Twinning and


Deformation Modeling of Hadfield Steel Single
Crystals
Ibrahim Karaman, Mechanical Engineering, Texas A&M
University, College Station, TX, USA
Huseyin Sehitoglu, Mechanical and Industrial Engineering,
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL,
USA
Yuriy Chumlyakov, Siberian Physical-Technical Institute,
Tomsk, Russia
Hans J Maier, Lehrstuhl f. Werkstoffkunde, University of
Paderborn, Paderborn, Germany
The stress-strain behavior of Hadfield steel (Fe, 12.3%
Mn, 1.0% C) single crystals with nitrogen alloying (0.2, 0.4
and 1.0% in wt.) is studied for selected orientations ([001],
[111], [123], [144], and [15 10]) under tension and
compression. The overall stress-strain response is strongly
dependent on the crystallographic orientation and applied
stress direction. The effect of twinning, slip and stacking faults

74

Experimental Techniques

The simultaneous loading in the radial and axial directions


is assured by the design of the bar. The stress waves in the
incident bar and the incident tube are generated at the same
time. The bar and the tube are made of the same material and
they have nearly the same length. Thus, the stress wave in the
incident bar reaches the sample (loading it axially) at the same
time as the stress wave in the incident tube reaches the Teflon
(loading the sample radially).
This method has been used to test several samples. The
method and results will be presented.
jrome@ucsd.edu

MMC2001-549 Wednesday, June 27, 1:48 PM

Component Based Test Specimen Design


Stephanie A. Wimmer, ., Nova Research, Inc., Alexandria,
Virginia, USA
Virginia G. DeGiorgi, Multifunctional Materials Branch,
Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC, USA
The determination of multiaxial material constitutive
relations is traditionally done using a series of single stress
state experiments. This requires many test specimens and
various testing machines. The use of a test specimen that
generates a wide range of multiaxial stress states (and
therefore more data per test) would be advantageous and could
replace a series of conventional specimens. Recent work at
NRL has led to novel test specimen designs that produce
multiple stress states in tension test specimens. Features used
to generate multiple stress states are stress concentration
factors (SCFs). SCFs like through-thickness holes and partial
thickness indentations are arranged to obtain the desired stress
states. Finite element analysis (FEA) is used to determine the
stress states of interest in a component and is then used to
custom design a specimen to produce these stress states. This
custom design is able to utilize standard testing machines. The
current work examines the use of FEA to identify the
triaxiality of typical pressure vessel geometries and to custom
design test specimens that would be more appropriate than
traditional test specimens. Stress states for thin and thick wall
cylindrical sections are compared with those of standard and
customized test specimens. An improved match between
component and test specimen generated stress states is seen
for the custom design specimen.
wimmer@anvil.nrl.navy.mil

MMC2001-658 Wednesday, June 27, 2:24 PM

The Research of North-Finder Using Fiber Optic


Gyroscope
Xiqing Guo, Tao Chen, Keyong Wu, Chinese Academy of
Sciences, Changchun Institute of Optics/Fine Mechanics,
Changchun, Jilin, China
The orientating problem exists in project measuring, such
as mining,geological survey,forest exploration,tunnel
penetration, etc. With the improvement of industrial
mechanization and automation, higher efficiency and precision
are required in engineering measurement. This paper presents
a dynamic north-finding scheme based on the modulation
output of fiber optic gyroscope, which is the north component
of the earth rotation angular. In this scheme, the sine output
signal of the FOG is sampled and disposed, and then the real
north of surveyed point on the surface of earth is calculated
with the least square estimation method. Thus the random
coordinate azimuth is determined. Furthermore, the deviation
caused by base tilt and axle mounting can be compensated by
the accelerometer, by which the precision of north-finding can
be greatly improved. The north-finding system can be applied
in various fields because of its simple structure,short operation
time, high precision,stable performance,direct digital signal
output (which is easy to be connected with computer) and low
cost. Moreover, it also lays foundation for the application and
development of engineering measurement.
wuky@ciomp.ac.cn

MMC2001-650 Wednesday, June 27, 2:06 PM

A New Method for Dynamic Triaxial Hopkinson Bar


Testing
Jacob Rome, Jon B Isaacs, Jeff McGee, S. Nemat-Nasser,
Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of
California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA
The classical Hopkinson Bar can be modified to allow
dynamic triaxial compressive loading of a sample. This
technique simultaneously loads the sample in the axial and
radial directions. The striker impacts the first incident bar,
generating the incident pulse. The wave is transmitted to the
second incident bar and the incident tube. The sample is inside
a Teflon tube, which in turn is inside an aluminum sleeve.
The confinement is provided by the Teflon, which is
dynamically compressed between the incident tube and the
transmission tube. Restrained laterally by the aluminum
sleeve, a large hydrostatic stress is produced in the Teflon.
This pressure creates a large radial stress on the sample. The
hoop strain in the aluminum sleeve is measured, and the radial
confining stress is calculated. The radial stress can be
controlled independently from the axial stress and strain to a
limited extent, by, e.g., altering the thickness of the aluminum
sleeve to control when the sleeve yields.

MMC2001-747 Wednesday, June 27, 2:42 PM

Dynamic Full Field Measurements of Crack Tip


Temperatures
Pradeep R. Guduru, Division of Engineering, Brown
University, Providence, RI, USA
Alan T Zehnder, Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, Cornell
University, Ithaca, New York, USA
Ares J. Rosakis, Guruswami Ravichandran, Aeronautics,
California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California
Crack tip temperature rise during dynamic deformation is
known to alter the fracture mechanisms and consequently the
fracture toughness of a material. However, no direct
experimental measurements have ever been made to determine
the same because of limited diagnostic tools. Further, the
temperature rise in the vicinity of the crack tip could

75

Experimental Techniques for Evaluation of Repaired and Retrofitted Structures

landis@maine.edu

potentially be used as a direct measure of loading and could


serve as a diagnostic tool in order to extract appropriate
fracture parameters. Such a measurement would reflect crack
tip loading more accurately than other conventional quantities
such as the boundary loads and the crack mouth opening
displacement, under dynamic loading conditions. By
transcending the existing experimental limitations, this
investigation presents detailed, real time evolution of the
transient crack tip temperature fields in two different steels
(C300 and HY100 steels), using the 2-D high speed infrared
camera, recently developed at Caltech. The crack tip
temperature rise at initiation in C300 steel was found to be
about 55K. Experimental results are compared with the
predictions of some analytical models. In case of HY100,
which is a highly ductile steel, the crack tip temperature rise
was above 200K and was seen to be a strong function of
loading rate. HRR elastic-plastic singular field has been used
to extract J integral evolution from the measured temperature
field. Critical value of J integral at initiation was seen to
increase with loading rate.
guduru@engin.brown.edu

MMC2001-249 Friday, June 29, 11:18 AM

The reassigned Short Time Fourier Transform


(STFT) for damage detection in composites
Christine Valle, Mechanical Engineering, University of
Maine, Orono, ME, USA

Session: 1: Nondestructive Evaluation of Repaired


Structures
Friday, June 29, 11:00-12:30
Marina V
Chairs: Laurence Jacobs and Asadul Chowdhury

Lightweight, high temperature composite materials have


the potential to provide significant economic and performance
benefits to aerospace structures. However, one problem
inherent in using composites within complex structures in
harsh environments is the variety of damage mechanisms
experienced by the composite itself. Therefore, conventional
NDE techniques that are sensitive to only one kind of damage,
can give an overly optimistic assessment of the health of the
composite. A global measure that takes into consideration all
of the different damage mechanisms better addresses the
nondestructive evaluation needs of composites used in critical
applications.
This study investigates the relationship between the
composites dispersion relationships, obtained 1) analytically
by the classic partial wave technique, and 2) numerically with
the reassigned STFT representation of transient ultrasonic
signals, for various types of composite damage (delaminations
and fiber cracking). The reassigned STFT was recently
proven to be capable of localizing flaws in metals. Therefore,
the present study is a logical extension of the technique to
transversely isotropic composites.
valle@umeme.maine.edu

MMC2001-367 Friday, June 29, 11:00 AM

MMC2001-428 Friday, June 29, 11:36 AM

Nondestructive Measurements of Fracture Energy in


Concrete

Sensing of Structural Peeling of CFRP Fabrics in


Repaired Reinforced Concrete Elements

Experimental Techniques for Evaluation of


Repaired and Retrofitted Structures

Eric Landis, Civil and Environmental Engineering,


University of Maine, Orono, Maine, USA

Ming Zhao, Farhad Ansari, Civil & Materials Engineering,


University of Illinois @ Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA

Lucie Baillon, Laboratory for Construction Materials, Swiss


Federal Institute of Technology, Lausanne, Switzerland

FRP composites are increasingly employed in the


strengthening and retrofitting of existing concrete structures.
Review of literature reveals that a conservative estimate of
increase in flexural capacity of members strengthened with
FRP fabrics range from 5% to 40%. However, strength
increases of more than 100% have been reported. A major
concern in retrofitting and strengthening applications pertains
to ductility and failure mode of the strengthened member. The
flexural capacity of retrofitted members depends on the failure
mode of the reinforced concrete. Premature debonding of the
cover concrete is associated with abrupt and premature failure
of FRP strengthened members. The study presented here
reports on experiments involving monitoring of concrete cover
in reinforced concrete beams repaired with CFRP fabrics. A
new long-gauge distributed optical fiber sensor has been
developed and used in monitoring of strain in the fabric as
well as for monitoring of strain and sensing of interface cracks
at the cover. Experimental results are presented and compared
with strains measured by conventional sensors.
mzhao@uic.edu

We are interested in measuring in situ damage in arbitrary


structures. Such measurements would be useful for safety
evaluation and model verification. To address this we
considered the relationship between acoustic emission (AE)
energy and bulk fracture energy. The distribution of energy
received by the acoustic emission transducers should be a
function of the distribution of the fracture energy released
during crack propagation. To examine this we conducted
experiments to relate the energy released at a micro-scale to
the bulk fracture energy as measured on a macro scale. We
used acoustic emission techniques to monitor energy released
at a microscopic scale, and we correlated these measurements
with the results of standard concrete fracture energy tests.
Specimen fracture toughness, Gf, was measured according to
the RILEM standard. AE signals were recorded by a 4-channel
transient recorder while the specimen was being tested for Gf.
A simplified method was used to estimate AE energy from the
recorded waveforms. The results showed a fracture energy to
be proportional to AE energy, however further work is
warranted for generality.

76

Experimental Techniques for Evaluation of Repaired and Retrofitted Structures

MMC2001-251 Friday, June 29, 11:54 AM

Session: 2: Sensor Technology


Friday, June 29, 1:30-3:00
Marina V
Chairs: Farhad Ansari and Ming Wang

Ultrasonic Inspection, Acceptance, and Repair of


Earthquake-Damaged Welds

MMC2001-425 Friday, June 29, 1:30 PM

Glenn M. Light, George Gruber, NDE Science and


Technology, Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio,
TX, USA

Scanning White Light Fiber Optic Interferometric


Sensor for Large Structural Systems

Despite their excellent moment-resisting design nature,


steel-frame buildings can also be damaged by earthquakes of
significant magnitude. Current ultrasonic test (UT) standards
for assessing the extent of damage, however, proved to be
inadequate for some high-rise buildings in the Los Angeles
area following the 1994 Northridge earthquake. In some
cases, the buildings were classified as needing "additional
inspection." A laboratory program was, therefore, conducted
which featured 12 intentionally flawed mockup specimens
with severe field-representative restrictions to moving the UT
transducer close to the weld root. The accessibility limitations
were due to the presence of backing bars, fillet reinforcements,
cover plates, and web holes. The finds of this program point
the way to upgrading the American Welding Society's
Structural Steel Welding Code D1.1. The work was supported
by the Federal Emergency Management Agency.
glight@swri.edu

Yang Zhao, Farhad Ansari, Civil & Materials Engineering,


University of ILLinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA
Sensors capable of making distributed measurements
allow for monitoring of the entire structure. Optical fiber
sensors are especially very attractive for this purpose, since
they are geometrically versatile and can be readily integrated
within various types of structures and materials. Development
and characteristics of a quasi-distributed intrinsic fiber optic
strain sensor based on white light interferometry is described.
The research presented here describes the development of a
new optical fiber sensor system for measurement of structural
strains based on double white light interferometry. Individual
segments of single mode optical fibers forming a common
path interferometer are linked in series and a scanning white
light interferometer provides for distributed sensing of strain
signals from various locations in the structure. The system is
configured for automatic compensation of drift due to
environmental effects, i.e. temperature and vibration. Strain
gauges were employed for comparison and verification of
strain signals as measured by the new system. The
experimental results demonstrate the linearity of the system
and the capability for distributed sensing of strains.
yzhao@uic.edu

MMC2001-559 Friday, June 29, 12:12 PM

Damage Detection in Concrete by Experimental


Vibration Analysis
Hani Melhem, Hansang Kim, Civil Engineering, Kansas
State University, Manhattan, Kansas, USA
Frederick Sheffield, Design Branch, US Army Corps of
Engineers, Kansas City, Missouri, USA

MMC2001-361 Friday, June 29, 1:48 PM

Lamb Wave Technique to Characterize Repaired


Concrete

Several research experiments are conducted at Kansas


State University in which cyclic loads are applied to concrete
pavement slabs and prestressed beams. The slabs are fullscale specimens exposed to a truck-axle of an Accelerated
Pavement Testing machine, and the beams are prestressed
bridge beams tested in 3-point bending using an MTS servocontrolled hydraulic system. Rehabilitation of faulted
pavement is achieved by dowel-bar joint repairs. The
objective of this study is the detection of damage using
vibration analysis. The analysis is based on Fourier spectral
methods and uses real-time recordings of transducers in
contact with the specimens during the application of impact
loads. Impact is applied periodically using a dropped weight
and an instrumented impulse hammer. Deflection is recorded
on the slabs using LVDT's, and acceleration in the beams
using accelerometers. The description of the experiments, the
approach used, the analysis of the data, and the results
obtained are presented.
melhem@ksu.edu

Laurence Jacobs, Kritsakorn Luangvilai, Wonsiri Punurai,


Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute
of Technology, Atlanta, GA, USA
A popular repair method for reinforced concrete involves
externally bonding fiber reinforced plastic (FRP) patches on to
the tension face of a beam, thus increasing the beam's flexural
stiffness and loading capacity. The usage of FRP patches in
these applications has created the requirement for reliable
nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques capable of
characterizing these bonded patches; this research proposes
using guided Lamb waves for this purpose. The primary
advantage of using guided Lamb waves in this application is
that they are capable of interrogating large, inaccessible
components in a time-efficient manner. This research
combines laser ultrasonic techniques with digital signal
processing techniques (time-frequency representations (TFR)
and the two-dimensional Fourier transform (2D-FFT)) to
characterize the material properties of this adhesive layer. The
experimental procedure consists of measuring transient Lamb
waves in FRP repaired concrete components. The frequency
spectrum (dispersion curves) for each specimen are obtained
by operating on these transient waveforms with either a TFR
or the 2D-FFT. This study quantifies the effect of an adhesive

77

Experimental Techniques for Evaluation of Repaired and Retrofitted Structures

bond's properties on these measured dispersion curves.


Finally, these experimental results are interpreted in terms of
an analytical, 2-layer guided wave model.
laurence.jacobs@ce.gatech.edu

fixed-end (column face) in addition to the steel plates bonded


on both sides.
cwwu2@ntut.edu.tw

MMC2001-596 Friday, June 29, 2:06 PM

Session: 3: Laboratory Investigations/Techniques for


Evaluating Repaired Structures
Friday, June 29, 3:30-5:00
Marina V
Chairs: W. Jason Weiss and Gongkang Fu

A New Stress Sensor for Cables in Cable-Stayed


Bridges Using Magnetoelastic Measurements
Ming Wang, cemm, University of Illinois at Chicago,
Chicago, Il, USA

MMC2001-303 Friday, June 29, 3:30 PM

Non-contact wave sensing for concrete structures

Despite the increasing popularity of cable-stayed bridges


no accurate or simple method is available for measuring the
forces in the cable stays. The measurement of the forces is
important for monitoring excessive wind or traffic loadings, to
gage the redistribution forces present after sesmic events, and
for detecting corrosion via loss of the cross-section. To
address this problem, a remote (portable) magnetoelastic
sensor for the direct measurement of stress in steel cables and
tendons is currently under development. It is based on
modifications to an existing magnetoelastic sensor based upon
a cylindrical solenoidal geometry, which is suitable for
installations at the time of construction. The applied field is
generated by a cylindrical solenoid which must be wound
around the cable. This is also the geometry of the sensing
circuit. This sensor has undergone extensive laboratory testing
on single and multiple strand prestressing cables from
Canadian, Japanese, and US manufacturers. Accuracies of
one to five percent (against a load cell) are routinely achieved
with different sensors below the elastic limit. Temperature
compensation in the range of -40 F to 100 F has been
designed. These sensors have been accepted for emplacement
and field testing during the construction of several industrial
and municipal projects, in view of their accuracy and
ruggedness. The paper discusses the potential benefits of the
new sensor to bridge engineering and presents preliminary
laboratory result from a prototype.
mlwang@uic.edu

John S. Popovics, Civil & Architectural Engineering, Drexel


University, Philadelphia, PA, USA
Rapid and accurate non-destructive evaluation (NDE)
techniques are needed to assess the in-place condition of
retrofitted or rehabilitated concrete structures. However the
time and effort required to perform NDE tests using surfacemounted contact sensors hinder rapid evaluation of full-scale
structures. The author is currently involved in research to
develop a rapid and robust method that collects elastic wave
signals from concrete structures and to characterize the
location type and magnitude of damaged areas using the signal
data. The approach makes use of surface-guided waves and
sensitive, non-contact wave detection techniques. In this
paper, work on the development of non-contact (air-coupled)
wave sensors is described. After a brief introduction to noncontact sensing, the experimental set-up for the air-coupled
sensor is described. Results from experimental tests are then
presented. Impact-generated surface waves in a concrete slab
specimen are detected with the air-coupled sensor system.
These signals are compared to those obtained from
conventional surface-mounted sensors; the ability of aircoupled sensors to detect wave propagation signals in concrete
is demonstrated. Conclusions concerning the utility of aircoupled sensors for in situ inspection of concrete structures are
finally presented.
johnpop@drexel.edu

MMC2001-214 Friday, June 29, 2:24 PM


MMC2001-366 Friday, June 29, 3:48 PM

The Strengthening of RC Flexural Members by


Attaching Steel Plates Laterally

Laser Profilometry for Concrete Roughness


Characterization for Externally Bonded Fiber
Reinforced Laminates

Chuan-Wei Wu, Sing-Tai Hsiao, Civil Engineering, National


Taipei University of Technology, Taipei, Taiwan, Rep. of
China

John Myers, Xianlin Shen, Civil Engineering, University of


Missouri, Rolla, Missouri, USA

In the present paper, a number of full-scale RC cantilevers


with width 250mm, height 400mm and length 2000mm were
tested to study the strengthened effects of attaching different
thickness steel plates laterally on both sides of the beams with
or without additional anchored device other than epoxy. The
test results reveal the follows: (1) no obvious strengthened
effect was observed while merely injecting epoxy into the
cracks of damaged RC flexural members, (2) attaching steel
plates on both sides of the damaged RC cantilever using epoxy
only promotes 12~18% moment capacity, and (3) the moment
capacity of the RC members may increase up to 96~134%
while stiffen plates and anchored bolts are provided at the

Norbert Maerz, Geological & Petroleum Engineering,


University of Missouri, Rolla, Missouri, USA
The use of fiber reinforced polymers (FRP) for
reinforcement of aging and deteriorating concrete members
has emerged as a viable and cost effective alternative to
traditional repair and strengthening techniques to upgrade
deficient structures to meet todays design standards. The load
carrying ability of structures such as beams and columns can
be enhanced by externally attaching FRP laminates to the
concrete surface. Research has indicated that the bond strength
between the epoxy adhesive and the concrete depends on a

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Experimental Techniques for Evaluation of Repaired and Retrofitted Structures

number of factors including the material properties of the


epoxy as well as the properties of the concrete substrate. The
strength of the epoxy is affected by how it is stored, handled,
installed and cured. The epoxy-concrete bond strength is
affected by the strength, roughness, and cleanliness of the
prepared concrete surface. To that end, a portable device has
been developed to measure the roughness of concrete surfaces.
This device can be used as a quality control tool to
characterize surface roughness and identify when an adequate
surface preparation has been attained. The method uses laser
striping and integrated software for image analysis. The
method was developed in conjunction with specimens that
were sandblasted to varying degrees of surface roughness.
This paper presents the development of the device and use as a
quality control tool for the application of externally bonded
fiber reinforced polymer laminates to concrete.
jmyers@umr.edu

MMC2001-352 Friday, June 29, 4:24 PM

Measuring Moisture Gradients With Electrical


Impedance: Potential Applications In Concrete
Overlay And Repair Materials
W. Jason Weiss, Civil Engineering, Purdue University, West
Lafayette, IN, USA
John D. Shane, Material Science and Engineering,
Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, USA
Thomas O. Mason
Surendra P. Shah, Civil Engineering, Northwestern
University, Evanston, IL, USA
Cemetitious overlay and repair materials may be
particularly susceptible to durability problems caused by
early-age cracking or curling that is associated with changes
due to temperature or moisture. As cementitous materials dry
changes in the moisture content and internal relative humidity
are the most significant near the drying surface and
consequently moisture gradients are established. Currently,
few experimental methods exist to measure these profiles, and
the methods that do exist are often labor-intensive or are
difficult to implement. This presentation will describe the use
of electrical Impedance Spectroscopy (IS) in which the
electrical response of concrete is measured at various depths
from the surface to assess changes in moisture content that
occur as a result of drying. Specifically, this presentation will
illustrate how the IS technique can be used to obtain
experimental measurements of the time-dependent electrical
impedance profiles that develop in concrete as a result of
aging and drying. A calibration procedure will be illustrated
which has the ability to convert bulk resistance measurements
accounting for hydration and drying. Finally, these results will
be compared to diffusion based predictive models.
wjweiss@ecn.purdue.edu

MMC2001-206 Friday, June 29, 4:06 PM

Optical Measurement of Structural Displacement


Gongkang Fu, Adil Moosa, Jian Ye, Poudel Upendra, Civil
Engineering, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA
Over the past decade, optical measurement devices have
been rapidly advanced, largely due to developments in the
computer and electronic industry. These devices perform a
variety of measurements for many applications. The major
advantage of these devices is that no sensors need to be
attached to the object to be measured. In addition, very fast
sampling rates are achievable, in order to record fast varying
quantities. Examples of them are laser based devices and CCD
cameras.
This paper presents a study on using CCD camera for
measuring structural displacements. A CCD camera has an
optical sensor for receiving light signals from the objects in
the view. This sensor consists of a number of sub-sensors
referred to as pixels. Arrays of large number of pixels are
commercially available now. This sensor structure offers an
opportunity of acquiring spatially intensive data, as opposed to
traditional point measurements for structural displacement. It
is demonstrated here that sub-pixel resolution is achievable
using CCD camera, which is required in structural
displacement measurement. Application of this approach is
also illustrated, taking advantage of the acquired spatially
intensive data.
gfu@ce.eng.wayne.edu

MMC2001-222 Friday, June 29, 4:42 PM

The Behavior of Fiber-Reinforced Polymer


Reinforcement in Low Temperature Environmental
Climates
Yunping Xi, Renee Cusson, Civil Engineering, the University
of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, USA
Fiber-reinforced polymers have been shown to be
excellent construction materials in low temperature
environments due to its low thermal conductivity, and high
strength to density ratios. In cold weather climates, high
residual stresses can build up within the fibrous composite
material due to different coefficients of thermal expansion of
the constituent materials. In regions where the temperature
may vary dramatically, microcracking and void generation can
accentuate these residual stresses. This paper is focused on
the long-term effects of combined loading history and
environmental exposure on FRP durability. Specifically,
degradation of FRP bars due to coupled freeze-thaw cycling,
moisture cycling, and fatigue loading is experimentally
investigated. After a series of cyclic environmental and
mechanical loading, the degradation of FRP bars are evaluated

79

Failure Due to Environmental Degradations

from three aspects: mechanical properties including tensile


strength and Young's modulus; viscoelastic properties such as
creep compliance or relaxation modulus; and microscopic
properties like matrix cracking. FRP bars with E-glass fibers
and carbon fibers embedded in epoxy/polyester resin are
studied.
xiy@bechtel.colorado.edu

MMC2001-450 Thursday, June 28, 9:18 AM

Using Moir Interferometry for Fatigue Testing of


Microelectronics Solder Joints
Cemal Basaran, Civil Engineering, University at Buffalo,
SUNY, Buffalo, NY, USA
Terry Dishong, Manufacturing Technology Development,
Intel Corporation, Hillsboro, OR, USA

Failure Due to Environmental Degradations

Ying Zhao, Quality and Reliability, Analog Devices,


Norwood, MA, USA

Session: 1
Thursday, June 28, 9:00-10:30
Spinnaker I
Chair: Toshio Nakamura

Alex Cartwright, Electrical Engineering, University at


Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, USA
Temperature cycling tests are standard industry for
determining fatigue life of solder joints. Industry standard
temperature profiles usually start from the room temperature
then go to a high temperature and then to a cold temperature
and then back to the room temperature. The temperature
profile also contains dwell times at the highest and lowest
temperatures.
Experimental reliability studies were
conducted using the in-situ measured temperature history as
well as industry standard temperature history. In order to
measure deformations in the solder joint under cycling loading
a new Moir interferometry technique was developed to be
able to measure strain field during fatigue testing.
Moir interferometry in the past has been used for
monotonic loading but never for fatigue testing. Due to
difficulty of keeping the grating intact during testing.
Results suggest that Coffin-Manson fatigue models cannot
be used for evolving materials and can significantly
underestimate the fatigue life of evolving materials.
cjb@eng.buffalo.edu

MMC2001-258 Thursday, June 28, 9:00 AM

Degradation of Thermal Barrier Coatings by


Thermal Exposure: Microstructure, Properties,
Implications
Mark Walter, Hyungjun Kim, Mechanical Engineering, 206
W. 18th Ave., The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH,
USA
Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are an enabling
technology for today's advanced gas turbine engines.
Superalloy turbine blades are designed to resist high
temperature creep. In the process of reducing creep, the
superalloy substrates are susceptible to oxidation damage.
TBCs are designed to both reduce temperature that the
superalloy substrate is exposed to and to form an oxidation
barrier. The ceramic topcoat in a TBC system has low thermal
conductivity and will therefore reduce the substrate's
temperature. The bondcoat in a TBC system forms a
protective alumina layer which prevents oxidation of the
substrate. At the same time the growth of alumina on the
surface of the bondcoat ultimately is linked to the spallation of
the ceramic topcoat.
Experimental investigation of isothermally exposed and
thermally cycled TBC specimens have been performed. These
investigations have resulted in better understanding regarding
the formation of the alumina layer through sacrificial
oxidation of the bond coat. In addition, the effects of thermal
exposure on the bond coat mechanical properties have also
been quantified. These results are relevant to existing models
of the TBC failure process.
walter.80@osu.edu

MMC2001-276 Thursday, June 28, 9:36 AM

Effects of Thermal and Hygrothermal Degradation


on Failure Processes in Carbon/Epoxy Composites
Toshio Nakamura, Raman P. Singh, Mechanical
Engineering, State University of New York at Stony
Brook, Stony Brook, NY, USA
The effects of thermal and hygrothermal degradation on
the fracture and fatigue processes in unidirectional and crossply carbon fiber reinforced epoxy laminates are examined.
Single edge-notched fracture specimens are prepared from the
laminates typically used for aerospace applications. These
specimens are then put through single and cyclic tensile and
three-point bend loading conditions. The tests are carried out
for as-received condition and after thermal/hygrothermal
degradation. Differences in local strain fields within the neartip region are employed to characterize the magnitude of
damage in the vicinity of the pre-existing crack. The
underlying mechanisms of damage growth as a function of
thermal/hygrothermal degradation are determined by scanning
electron microscopy of various sections in the fracture process
zone.
In a separate series of experiments applicability of a
fracture mechanics approach is investigated using coherent
gradient sensing (CGS). This full-field optical technique is

80

Failure Due to Environmental Degradations

used to monitor the deformations in the vicinity of the loaded


crack tip. These experimental observations are then used to
evaluate the applicability of a fracture mechanics approach
and the determination of appropriate fracture parameters, such
as the effective stress intensity factor or energy release rate.
The measured parameters are compared with the ones
obtained from numerical simulations.
toshio.nakamura@sunysb.edu

MMC2001-816 Thursday, June 28, 11:18 AM

Mechanical Effects Of Reinforcing Steel Corrosion


In Concrete
Beatriz Martn-Prez, Urban Infrastructure Rehabilitation,
Institute for Research in Construction, National, Ottawa,
Ontario, Canada

MMC2001-394 Thursday, June 28, 9:54 AM

Stavroula J. Pantazopoulou, Department of Civil


Engineering, Demokritus University of Thrace, Xanthi,
Greece

Precipitate Size Effect In Alloys: A Numerical Study


By The Mechanism-Based Strain Gradient Plasticity
Theory

Katerina D. Papoulia, School of Civil and Environmental


Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA
Michael D.A. Thomas, Civil Engineering, University of
Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Zhenyu Xue, Yonggang Huang, Mechanical and Industrial


Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL, USA

Service life of concrete structures is limited by the


susceptibility of the reinforcement to corrosion. In this paper,
a simple analytical model is formulated to predict corrosionproduct buildup and demonstrate its mechanical consequences
around the bar. Service life is estimated as the time required
for through cracking of the cover, which is identified in the
model by a sudden drop of the internal pressure exerted by the
corroding bar eventually relaxing to zero. Cracking time is
found to be a function of cover, material properties of the
surrounding concrete and rust product, and is controlled by the
rate of rust accumulation. In formulating the associated
boundary value problem, the governing equation expressed in
terms of radial displacements is discretized using finite
differences, whereas cracked concrete is treated as an
orthotropic material. Calculated cracking times are correlated
against published experimental data and finite element
analyses. The parametric sensitivity of the model is
established with reference to published experimental evidence
whereas the role of the important design variables in the
evolution of this mechanical problem is identified and
discussed.
Beatriz.Martin-Perez@nrc.ca

Ming Li, Alcao Technical Center, Alcoa Center, PA, USA


It is a significant fact that the size of second-phase
particles has an important effect on the macroscopic plastic
work hardening behavior of metals and their alloys or metalmatrix composites. The classical plasticity theories cannot
explain this size effect since their constitutive laws possess no
internal material lengths. We use the theory of mechanismbased strain gradient (MSG) plasticity to investigate the
particle size effect and find good agreements with the
experiments of aluminum matrix reinforced by silicon carbide
particles. It is shown that, at a fixed particle volume fraction,
smaller particles give larger plastic work hardening of the
composite than large particles do.
zxue@uiuc.edu
Session: 2
Thursday, June 28, 11:00-12:30
Spinnaker I
Chair: Raman P. Singh and Katerina D. Papoulia
MMC2001-604 Thursday, June 28, 11:00 AM

MMC2001-817 Thursday, June 28, 11:36 AM

Dynamic Failure Characterization of Microballoon


Dispersed Epoxy: Implications for Modeling
Porosity

Effect of De-Icing Agents on Corrosion of


Automobile Components

Hareesh Tippur, Mechanical Engineering, Auburn


University, Auburn, Alabama, USA

Yun Ping Xi, Zhaohui Xie, Civil, Environmental, and


Architectural Engineering, University of Colorado at
Boulder, Boulder, CO, USA

Medhat El-Hadek

MgCl2 and NaCl have been used for anti-icing and deicing
in Colorado for several years. Some concerns have surfaced
that the chemicals may affect various components of cars and
trucks. In this experimental study carried out at the Materials
Laboratory at the University of Colorado at Boulder,
representative metals were selected from the automobile
industry to compare their corrosion behaviors under exposures
to deicing salts NaCl and MgCl2. Both reagent grade MgCl2
and NaCl and the deicing agents MgCl2 and NaCl used on the
road (which contains a corrosion inhibitor) were used in the
testing process. Two testing methods were applied to the
selected metals: one is an accelerated cyclic test and the other
is a continuous spraying test.

Successful modeling of elastic properties of porous


materials using rule-of-mixtures, mean-field theories and cellbased computations are widely reported. However, models for
predicting strength and fracture toughness are still limited. In
this work, a method of simulating porosity in a nominally
brittle polymeric matrix through microballoon dispersion is
described and validated using existing micro-mechanical
models for predicting elastic properties. Also, a simple model
is proposed for predicting the dynamic crack initiation
toughness of porous samples and validated by experiments.
Subsequently, dynamic crack growth in these compositions is
studied using the method of CGS and high speed photography.
htippur@eng.auburn.edu

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Fatigue of Advanced Materials

Experimental results by the cyclic test indicated that


MgCl2 is more corrosive than NaCl to the bare metals tested.
Corrosion varied from only slight differences for some metals
to 13 time more corrosion for SS410. The experimental
results from the continuous spraying test showed
inconsistencies when compared with the results of the cyclic
test, especially for the stainless steel SS410, for which NaCl is
more corrosive than MgCl2. The experimental results also
indicated that the mixture of MgCl2 and NaCl caused slightly
more corrosion to the metals than either single salt (either
MgCl2 or NaCl). This implies that there are coupling effects
between the two chlorides to the corrosion of the metals.
Yunping.Xi@Colorado.EDU

specimens in bending with a similar-shaped specimen tested


more recently by Kahn and colleagues [Proc. Roy. Soc.
London A, 1999]. In both cases, electrostatic actuation by
comb drives permitted testing at frequencies on the order of
tens of kilohertz. Axial tension-tension testing was introduced
in a very preliminary form by Sharpe and Turner [Fatigue 99]
at a frequency of 50 Hz. More recently, Kapels et al. [29th
Euro. Solid State Dev. Res. Conf. 00] developed a thermally
actuated machine operating at one Hz and produced very nice
data for lives up to one million cycles. Results taken from
those four papers show a large amount of scatter, but there is
an overall trend towards increasing life with decreasing cyclic
loading.
sharpe@jhu.edu

MMC2001-859 Thursday, June 28, 11:54 AM


MMC2001-953 Thursday, June 28, 1:48 PM

Faceplate Debonding In High-Temperature


Sandwiches

High-Cycle Fatigue of Silicon-Based MEMS


Structures

Kenneth Liechti, ASE/EM, WRW 217, UT Austin, Austin, TX,


USA

C.L. Muhlstein, R.O. Ritchie, Materials Science and


Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA,
USA

Balazs Marton, ASE/EM, UT Austin, Austin, TX, USA


This paper describes the development of a method for
determining the fracture toughness of the core/faceplate bond
in high-temperature sandwich plates. The tensile deformation
behavior of a sandwich element was also determined. The
results from the latter experiment were used in a beam on
elastic foundation analysis of the fracture specimen. The
faceplate/core toughness was determined at 23 and 180?C.
The room temperature toughness was slightly higher and, in
both cases, the toughness decreased with crack length. The
higher toughness was associated with a greater degree of
interlaminar failure in the faceplates, as opposed to corepullout.
kml@mail.utexas.edu

S.S. Brown, Exponent Failure Analysis Associates, Natick,


MA, USA
The vast majority of cyclic fatigue testing of structural and
functional materials is performed at macroscopic dimensions;
moreover, mechanistic understanding rarely extends to
dimensions below the scale of microstructure. The capability
to characterize fatigue damage and failure at micron-scale
dimensions and below, however, is critical to aid such a
mechanistic understanding and to generate realistic
engineering information for the structural integrity and life
prediction of small structures encountered in
microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). Since silicon is the
dominant structural material for MEMS, the focus of this
presentation will be on the susceptibility of micron-scale,
silicon-based films to premature failure by stress corrosion
and fatigue.
roritchie@lbl.gov

Fatigue of Advanced Materials


Session: A
Thursday, June 28, 1:30-3:00
Executive Conference Center 3A
Chairs: R.O. Ritchie and W.N. Sharpe, Jr.

MMC2001-922 Thursday, June 28, 2:06 PM

Surface Morphology Evolution During Fatigue of


Polysilicon MEMS Structures

MMC2001-955 Thursday, June 28, 1:30 PM

Fatigue of Polysilicon - A Review

Seyed M. Allameh, Pranav Shrotriya, Mechanical and


Aerospace Engineering and The Princeton Materials
Institute, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, USA

W.N. Sharpe, Jr., J. Bagdahn, Dept. of ME, Johns Hopkins


University, Baltimore, MD, USA

Stuart Brown, Brian Gally

Polysilicon is one of the most widely used structural


materials used in microelectro-mechanical systems (MEMS).
Applications include accelerometers and angular rate sensors,
which can be expected to undergo billions of cycles in their
lifetime. Fatigue testing of materials used in MEMS is in its
infancy, and this paper will review test methods and results
from other researchers and will present the latest
developments in tensile fatigue testing at Johns Hopkins.
Brown and colleagues [NSF/AFOSR/ASME Workshop,
1997] inaugurated fatigue testing of notched polysilicon

W.O. Soboyejo
Evolution of surface morphologies consisting of
periodicities with sufficient wavelength occurs as a result of
cyclic actuation of polysilicon MEMS structures in the
presence of moisture. Such morphology changes lead to the
formation of grooves, which become sharper with time under
sufficiently high stress levels. In order to study the mechanism
of crack initiation, which constitutes the major portion of the
lifetime of the polysilicon components, in-situ AFM tests have

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Fatigue of Advanced Materials

been performed on these components under cyclic loading


conditions. The results of the in-situ AFM coupled with the
results of perturbation analysis will be presented.
allameh@princeton.edu

crack driving "forces" have been found to be useful for


comparing different materials systems and testpiece
geometries. The controlling influence of intact bridging fibres
is highlighted. Particular attention will be focused on the
important practical situation of small highly stressed part
through-thickness (continued) cracks growing from a thin
region of monolithic material (cladding) into a larger
uniformly reinforced composite section. The accurate analysis
of such cracks will be critical in lifing gas turbine "blings"
(bladed rings). Progress towards the introduction of such
components will also be reviewed.
p.bowen@bham.ac.uk

MMC2001-371 Thursday, June 28, 2:24 PM

Thermal Cycling Response of Layered


Gold/Polysilicon MEMS Structures
Ken Gall, Martin L. Dunn, Brian Corff, Yanhang Zhang,
Mechanical engineering, University of Colorado,
Boulder, CO, USA

MMC2001-914 Thursday, June 28, 3:48 PM

Multi-layer material structures in Micro-ElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) differ considerably from their
microelectronic counterparts since the thicknesses of the film
and substrate are comparable. Due to thermal expansion
coefficient mismatch, thermal fluctuations in multi-layer
MEMS structures can lead to out of plane displacements
several times the structure thickness. In the present study we
examine the cyclic deformation of gold/polysilicon plates that
were produced using the Multi-User MEMS Process
(MUMPS). The thicknesses of the gold and polysilicon layers
are 0.5 microns and 1.5 microns, respectively, and the overall
diameter is about 200 microns. Using an interferometric
microscope, we measure the full-field deformed shapes of the
multi-layer structures subjected to repeated thermal cycles or
hold periods. The thermal creep/fatigue behavior of the
MEMS plates is discussed in terms of critical external factors
such as the applied temperature range, holding temperature,
and plate geometry. In conjunction with the displacement
measurements, scanning electron microscope observations of
degradation mechanisms are also presented and discussed.
The results provide significant insight into the fatigue of
emerging MEMS materials.
Kenneth.Gall@Colorado.edu

Effects of Temperature on the Fatigue Crack


Growth Behavior of Cast, Lamellar, Gamma-Based
Titanium Aluminides
Christopher Mercer, Jun Lou, Seyed M. Allameh, W.O.
Soboyejo, Princeton Materials Institute and the
Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering,
Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, USA
The results of a recent study of the effects of temperature
(25, 450 and 700 degrees C) on the fatigue crack growth
behavior of three near-commercial, lamellar, cast gamma
titanium aluminide alloys (Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb, Ti-47Al-2Mn2Nb+0.8%TiB2 and Ti-45Al-2Mn-2Nb+0.8%TiB2) are
presented. Scanning electron microscopy was employed to
study fracture modes under cyclic loading and to identify the
presence of oxide layers on the crack faces. Fatigue crack-tip
deformation was evaluated using transmission electron
microscopy techniques. The trends in fatigue crack growth
rate data are explained by considering the combined effects of
crack-tip deformation mechanisms and oxide-induced crack
closure. Faster fatigue crack growth rates at 450 degrees C are
attributed to the high incidence of irreversible deformationinduced twinning, while slower crack growth rates at
700degrees C are due increased deformation by slip and the
effects of oxide-induced crack closure.
cmercer@princeton.edu

Session: B
Thursday, June 28, 3:30-5:00
Executive Conference Center 3A
Chairs: Paul Bowen and T.S. Srivatsan
MMC2001-951 Thursday, June 28, 3:30 PM

MMC2001-916 Thursday, June 28, 4:06 PM

Characterization, Assessment and Modeling of Fibre


Reinforced TiMMCs Under Fatigue Loading

A Probabilistic Framework for the Modeling of


Fatigue in two Lamellar Gamma Titanium
Aluminide Alloys --- Ti-47Al-2Mn2Nb+0.8vol%TiB2 and Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb

Paul Bowen, Metallurgy and Materials, University of


Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, United Kingdom

Weimin Shen, W.O. Soboyejo, Jun Lou, Princeton Materials


Institute & Department of Mechanical and Aerospace
Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, U.S.A.

This paper will review the characterisation, assessment


and modelling of unidirectional fibre reinforced TiMMCs
under fatigue loading, with particular focus on fatigue crack
growth resistance when dominant but bridged mode I cracks
are produced ahead of an unbridged defect. The influence of
intrinsic factors (such as fibre fracture stress, fibre-matrix
interfacial strength, fibre volume fraction and matrix crack
growth resistance) and extrinsic factors (such as crack shape,
crack size, test temperature and environment) on fatigue crack
growth resistance are considered carefully for continuously
reinforced composites. In this context the definitions of crack
arrest/catastrophic failure transitions as a function of initial

A.B.O. Soboyejo, Department of Food, Agricultural and


Biologica Engineering, and Department of Aerospace
Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH,
U.S.A.
Christopher Mercer, J. Zhao, Wole Orisamolu
This paper presents a probabilistic framework for the
modeling of fatigue damage in two gamma titanium aluminide

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Fatigue of Advanced Materials

alloys (Ti-47Al-2Mn-2Nb+0.8%TiB2 and Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb).


This includes: empirical stress-life and fracture mechanics
approaches to the estimation of material reliability or the risk
of failure. Empirical reliability functions are obtained initially
from multiple stress-life experiments designed to identify the
statistical distributions that best describe the measured
vcariabilities in fatigue life. Fracture mechanics-based
reliability functions are also derived using statistical
distributions that characterize the measured variabilities in
fatigue crack growth data obtained from fatigue crack growth
experiments in the long crack regime. The anamalous behavior
of short cracks is then discussed before assessing the
implications of the current work for the design of engineering
structures and components from gamma-based titanium
aluminides.
sweimin@princeton.edu

Session: C
Friday, June 29, 9:00-10:30
Executive Conference Center 3A
Chairs: Reinhold H. Dauskardt and W.O. Soboyejo
MMC2001-468 Friday, June 29, 9:00 AM

Fatigue and Fracture in Thin-Film Structures and


Devices
Reinhold H. Dauskardt, Department of Materials Science and
Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA
Resistance to subcritical debonding of interfaces
profoundly influences the mechanical integrity of a wide range
of thin-film devices exposed to moist or corrosive
environments. Similarly, alternating thermomechanical or
vibrational loads may result in fatigue damage. Such time or
loading cycle dependent fracture or debonding leads to a loss
of mechanical, thermal, and electrical integrity. In this
presentation, the fracture and debonding properties of
representative interfaces in thin-film structures involving
glass, polymer and metal layers are examined. Interface
fracture techniques are described to characterize both critical
adhesion values and subcritical debonding behavior under
cyclic fatigue and monotonic loading conditions in a range of
environments. Debond-growth rates are shown to be sensitive
to a range of salient mechanical, microstructural and
environmental variables including the interface morphology
and chemistry, ductile layer thickness, activity of the
environmental species, and loading mode.
The
micromechanisms controlling interfacial debonding are
rationalized in terms of the prevailing deformation
mechanisms and related to interface chemical reactions. The
order of the debond tip chemical reaction with respect to the
environmental species is determined. Implications for device
reliability and life-time prediction are discussed.
dauskardt@stanford.edu

MMC2001-699 Thursday, June 28, 4:24 PM

Study of small fatigue crack growth within notch


plastic field
Wenfong Li, Department of Mechanical and Mechatronical
engineering, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW,
Australia
In engineering application, almost all structures and
components contain notches or holes. They often experience
severe fatigue loading, and have been recognized as potential
sites for small fatigue crack initiation and propagation. In this
paper, the effect of notch plastic field on small fatigue crack
initiation and propagation from notch member, under cyclic
tensile loading control, are investigated. Experiments showed
that small crack initiates from notch specimen at far higher
rate than that of smooth specimen; small crack propagation is
still faster than that of smooth specimen within notch plastic
field, though this difference is progressively lessening; beyond
notch plastic zone, small crack growth rate is approaching
long crack growth rate. Analysis via finite element and
analytical method reveals that notch plasticity has key
influence on small crack initiation and early propagation
within cyclic notch plastic field, crack tip generated plasticity
has critical impact on small crack propagation out of cyclic
notch plastic field but within tensile notch plastic field, and
plasticity induced crack closure has dominant effect on crack
propagation out of notch plastic field. A comparison between
experimental data and analytical data results are made to
identify the effects of notch plasticity on small fatigue crack
driving force and growth rate.
research@australia.edu

MMC2001-954 Friday, June 29, 9:18 AM

Microelectromechanical Systems for Studying


Fatigue Cracking of Interfaces
J.K. Shang, X. Tan, Z. Xu, Materials Science and
Engineering, University of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign, Urbana, IL, USA
Microelectromechanical systems are ideal tools for
conducting fatigue experiments on small structures. When
integrated with electron microscopy techniques,
microelectromechanical testing systems provide unique
platforms for investigating micromechanisms of fatigue crack
propagation along interfaces. We present two examples from
our recent work where piezoelectrically actuated
microelectromechanical systems were built to examine fatigue
crack growth along interfaces. The first example deals with
fatigue cracking of the grain boundary in a polycrystalline
ceramic where cavitation and ligament bridging played a
significant role. The second example examines fatigue crack
growth between a compliant thin film and a rigid substrate,
where the plastic deformation in the thin film was the
dominant fatigue crack growth mechanism. Mechanics of
piezoelectric driving force for the crack growth in the

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Fatigue of Advanced Materials

microelectromechanical systems will be given and analyses of


the pertinent crack growth mechanisms will be discussed.
j-shang@staff.uiuc.edu

experimentally derived constitutive laws. Attempts are then


made to relate the computed stress/strain distributions to popin phenomena observed during Hertzian contact damage
experiments with WC balls of different sizes. The ball sizes
that are needed to simulate clinically relevant failure modes
(during Hertzian indentation) are elucidated.
pshrotri@princeton.edu

MMC2001-952 Friday, June 29, 9:36 AM

Effects of Plastic Constraint on the Cyclic and Static


Fatigue Behavior of Metal/Ceramic Layered
Structures

MMC2001-432 Friday, June 29, 10:12 AM

A Dissipated Energy Theory of Fatigue Crack


Growth

J.J. Kruzic, J.M. McNaney, R.M. Cannon, R.O. Ritchie,


Materials Science and Engineering, Lawrence Berkeley
National Lab., Berkeley, CA, US

Nathan W. Klingbeil, Mechanical and Materials Engineering,


Wright State University, Dayton, OH, USA

With metal/ceramic interfaces finding utility in many


advanced engineering materials applications, particularly in
layered structures, there is a need for further understanding of
the role that plastic constraint in the metal plays during fatigue
failure, both under cyclic and static loading conditions. To
investigate the effects of constraint, crack growth experiments
have been conducted on sandwich specimens consisting of 5100 micron thick 99.999% pure aluminum layers bonded
between both 99.5 % pure polycrystalline and single crystal
alumina (sapphire). Under cyclic loading, crack growth was
observed to occur predominantly by interface debonding, with
cracks deviating into the polycrystalline alumina only for
highly constrained samples at high driving forces. Under
static loading in a moist environment, interfacial crack growth
was never observed at measurable rates (> 10-9 m/sec.);
however; for highly constrained samples, cracks did deviate
off the interface and grow into the polycrystalline alumina.
Due to the poor crack resistance of the Al2O3, cracks leaving
the interface grew at faster rates than those at the interface.
Such trends in growth rates and crack trajectories are
explained in terms of the degree of plastic constraint in the
aluminum layer, the modulus mismatch and the effects of
environmental mechanisms.
roritchie@lbl.gov

This study proposes a new theory of fatigue crack growth


in ductile solids based on the total cyclic plastic dissipation
ahead of the crack. The fundamental hypothesis of the theory
is that the total energy required to produce a unit crack
extension is simply indicative of the fracture toughness of the
material, and is the same under monotonic and fatigue loading
conditions. It follows that the fatigue crack growth rate can be
readily expressed in terms of the total plastic dissipation per
cycle and the monotonic plane stress or plane strain fracture
toughness of the material. The total plastic dissipation per
cycle is obtained by 2-D elastic-plastic finite element analyses
of a stationary crack under constant amplitude loading (C(T)
specimen geometry). Both elastic-perfectly plastic and linear
kinematic hardening constitutive behaviors are considered,
and numerical results for a dimensionless plastic dissipation
per cycle are presented over the full range of relevant
mechanical properties and loading conditions. Finally, the
proposed crack growth law is shown to collapse a wide range
of fatigue crack growth data for titanium, aluminum, nickel
and stainless steel alloys.
nathan.klingbeil@wright.edu
Session: D
Friday, June 29, 11:00-12:30
Executive Conference Center 3A
Chairs: Huseyin Sehitoglu and J.K. Shang

MMC2001-940 Friday, June 29, 9:54 AM

Ratcheting and Hertzian Contact Damage in Model


Dental Multilayers

MMC2001-378 Friday, June 29, 11:00 AM

Pranav Shrotriya, Anette M. Karlsson, Anthony G. Evans,


W.O. Soboyejo, Princeton Materials Institute and
Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department,
Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey, USA

Cyclic Deformation Behavior of Single Crystal NiTi


Huseyin Sehitoglu, Demircan Canadinc, X Zhang,
Mechanical and Industrial Eng., University of Illinois,
Urbana, Illinois, USA

Robert Seghi
This paper presents the results of Hertzian contact
experiments and finite element simulations designed to
provide insights into the mechanisms of damage in model
multilayers with equivalent elastic properties to those in dental
restorations. These include: glass layers with equivalent
elastic properties to ceramic crowns, epoxy with equivalent
elastic properties to dental cements, and a ceramic-filled
polymer composite with equivalent elastic properties to
dentin. The paper examines the influence of WC ball size on
stress/strain distributions and contact damage mechanisms
under monotonic and cyclic loading. The stress/strain
distributions are computed using finite element methods, and

Ibrahim Karaman, Mechanical Engineering, Texas A&M


University, College Station, Texas, USA
Ken Gall, Hans J Maier, Yuriy Chumlyakov
Single crystals of NiTi (with 50.8at%Ni) and NiTiCu were
subjected to cyclic loading conditions at room temperature.
The single crystals exhibited remarkable cyclic hardening
under zero to compression strain control experiments. The
stress range under strain control increased by as much as a
factor of 3 in compression. The increase in stress range is
primarily due to the increasing strain hardening modulus. In
the tension case, loop shape changes occurred but the increase

85

Fatigue of Advanced Materials

in stress range is rather small. The fatigue cycling was


undertaken with a strain range of 3% which is far below the
theoretical transformation strains levels exceeding 6%. The
maximum stress levels reached in the experiments are below
those that cause martensite slip. Therefore, the stress-strain
response is governed by transformation from the austenite to
the martensitic phases and the dislocation structure evolution
in the austenite domains. Several single crystal orientations,
including [148], [112] and [001] were examined during the
experiments . The behavior of [001] crystals is particularly
interesting because slip deformation can not occur in this
orientation due to the prevailing slip systems. The strain
hardening in compression cases is rather substantial with the
stress range depending on the number of correspondent variant
pairs that are activated. Two heat treatments were selected to
produce coherent and incoherent precipitates in the
microstructure respectively.
huseyin@uiuc.edu

MMC2001-957 Friday, June 29, 11:36 AM

An Investigation Of The Cyclic Fatigue And Final


Fracture Behavior Of Dispersion Strengthened
Copper And Copper-Niobium Microcomposite.
T.S. Srivatsan, Meslet Al-Hajri, Mechanical Engineering,
The University of Akron, Akron, OH, USA
J.D. Troxell, OMG Americas, Raleigh, NC, USA
A study has been made to understand the cyclic stress
response, cyclic stress-strain response and cyclic strain
resistance characteristics; fatigue life and fracture behavior of
an oxide dispersion strengthened copper and dispersion
strengthened copper-niobium composite. Specimens of the
chosen materials were cyclically deformed under stress
amplitude and strain amplitude control at both ambient and
elevated temperatures. Under total strain-amplitude control
specimens of both the dispersion strengthened copper and the
microcomposite counterpart displayed combinations of
hardening and softening to failure. In this presentation, the
cyclic stress response and stress-strain response
characteristics, cyclic strain resistance, fatigue life and fracture
behavior of the microcomposite will be compared with the
unreinforced alloy and observed differences rationalized in
light of the competing and mutually interactive influences of
cyclic strain amplitude and resultant response stress, cyclic
stress amplitude, intrinsic microstructural effects, matrix
deformation characteristics and macroscopic aspects of
fracture.
tsrivatsan@uakron.edu

MMC2001-406 Friday, June 29, 11:18 AM

Cyclic Deformation Behavior of Haynes HR-120


Superalloy under Low-Cycle Fatigue Loading
Peter K. Liaw, Lijia Chen, Yuehui He, Robert L. McDaniels,
Materials Science and Engineering, University of
Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee, USA
Liang Jiang, Bing Yang, Hsin Wang, Roger R. Seeley,
Dwaine L. Klarstrom
The cyclic deformation behavior of HAYNES HR-120
superalloy at different temperatures ranging from 24C to
982C was investigated by performing fully reversed total
strain controlled low-cycle fatigue tests under the total strain
ranges of 0.4% to 2.3%. It was noted that in most cases,
increasing the temperature from 24C to 982C significantly
decreased the fatigue lives. The alloy exhibited the cyclic
hardening throughout the test, initial cyclic hardening
followed by cyclic softening or a plateau region, as well as
cyclic softening, which was dependent on the temperature and
total strain range. Dynamic strain aging (DSA) was found to
occur at both temperatures of 761C and 871C. The
precipitation of secondary-phase particles was also observed
above 761C. The change in the microstructure due to cyclic
deformation was evaluated through scanning electron
microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy
(TEM). In addition, an advanced infrared thermography
system was employed to monitor the temperature evolution
during fatigue at 24C. It was noted that during low-cycle
fatigue, the steady-state temperature of the specimens
increased from 2C to 120C above room temperature,
depending on the strain range. A model based on energy
conservation and one-dimensional heat conduction was used
to predict the temperature evolution resulting from low-cycle
fatigue.
pliaw@utk.edu

MMC2001-515 Friday, June 29, 11:54 AM

High-cycle Fatigue and Nondestructive Evaluation


(NDE) of Ceramic Matrix Composites
Jeongguk Kim, Peter K. Liaw, Materials Science and
Engineering, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville,
Tennessee, USA
Hsin Wang, Metals and Ceramics Division, Oak Ridge
National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A.
High-cycle fatigue behavior of continuous fiber reinforced
ceramic matrix composites (CFCCs) was investigated with the
aid of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques. The NDE
methods used for this investigation include ultrasonic testing
(UT), infrared (IR) thermography, and acoustic emission (AE)
techniques. Prior to fatigue testing, UT and IR thermography
were used to characterize the initial defect distribution of
CFCC samples, i.e., developing ultrasonic C-scans and
thermal diffusivity maps, respectively. A qualitative
correlation between the C-scan and thermal diffusivity map
has also been obtained. During fatigue testing, AE sensors
and an IR camera were used for in-situ monitoring of
progressive damages of CFCC samples. A stress versus
cycles to failure (S-N) curve has been provided to predict the
lifetime of CFCC samples as functions of initial defects and
progressive damages. UT and IR thermography were
conducted on fractured samples after fatigue testing to
compare progressive damages with the initial defects.
Microstructural characterization using scanning electron

86

Fatigue of Advanced Materials

microscopy (SEM) was performed to investigate fracture


mechanisms of CFCC samples. In this study, NDE techniques
were used to facilitate a better understanding of fracture
mechanisms of CFCCs during high-cycle fatigue testing.
jgkkim@utk.edu

due largely to the effects of roughness-induced crack closure,


which is modeled within a simple geometrical framework.
soboyejo@princeton.edu

MMC2001-802 Friday, June 29, 12:12 PM

A Mechanics Modeling Framework for the


Prediction of Fatigue Crack Growth in Ti-6Al-4V
with Colony Microstructures

MMC2001-671 Friday, June 29, 1:48 PM

Fabric Orientation Effects on the Fatigue Behavior


of CFCCs

S. Shademan, A.B.O. Soboyejo, Department of Food,


Agricultural and Biological Engienering, and the
Department of Aero. Engr., The Ohio State University,
Columbus, Ohio, USA

Narendernath Miriyala, Peter K. Liaw, Materials Science


and Engineering, The University of Tennessee,
Knoxville, TN, USA
Fabric orientation effects on the fatigue behavior of two
CFCCs, namely Nicalon/Al2O3 and Nicalon/SiC, were
investigated by performing the mechanical tests at room
temperature (RT) in air, and at 1,000oC in an argon
environment. It was observed that the flexural-fatigue
behavior of the Nicalon/Al2O3 composite at ambient and
elevated temperatures was significantly affected by the
orientation of the loading direction to the fabric plies. Also,
there was a significant reduction in the fatigue life of the
Nicalon/Al2O3 composite at 1,000oC, compared with that at
RT. In contrast, the fatigue behavior of the Nicalon/SiC
composite was not noticeably influenced by either the fabric
orientation or the test temperature. The micromechanisms
responsible for the differences in the fatigue behavior of the
Nicalon/Al2O3 and Nicalon/SiC composites are discussed in
this paper.
----------------

W.O. Soboyejo, Princeton Materials Institute & Dept. of


Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering, Princeton
University, Princeton, NJ, USA
The paper presents a mechanics modeling framework for
the prediction of fatigue crack growth in Ti-6Al-4V. The
model relates fatigue crack growth rates to the change in
crack-tip opening displacement during a fatigue cycle. This
assumption is used to derive a crack growth law for the
characterization of fatigue in different regimes. The model is
used to characterize fatigue crack growth behavior in Ti-6Al4V with controlled colony microstructures. The dependence
of fatigue crack growth rates on colony microstructural
parameters and heat treatment parameters is also modeled
within a multiparameter extension of the simple crack growth
law. Finally, the implications of the results are discussed for
the prediction of long fatigue crack growth.
shademan.1@osu.edu

* Present address: Solar Turbines Inc., P. O. Box 85376,


MZ R-1, San Diego, CA 92186-5376.
naren@iname.com

MMC2001-915 Friday, June 29, 2:06 PM

An Investigation of the Effects of Microstructure on


Fatigue Crack Growth in Ti-6242

Session: E
Friday, June 29, 1:30-3:00
Executive Conference Center 3A
Chairs: Ken P. Chong and Peter K. Liaw

Weimin Shen, W.O. Soboyejo, Princeton Materials Institute


& Department of Mechanical and Aerospace
Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, U.S.A.

MMC2001-962 Friday, June 29, 1:30 PM

A.B.O. Soboyejo, Department of Food, Agricultural and


Biological Engineering & Department of Aerospace
Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio,
U.S.A.

An Investigation of Short and Long Fatigue Crack


Growth in Ti-6Al-4V with Colony and Equiaxed
Microstructures

This paper examines the effects of three alpha/beta


microstructures on fatigue crack growth in Ti-6242. The
microstructures that are examined include: a random
alpha/beta microstructure with distributions of primary
equiaxed alpha grains; an aligned equiaxed microstructure
transformed alhpa/beta structure, and an alpha/beta colony
microstructure. Fatigue crack growth rates and thresholds are
measured under constant amplitude loading conditions. The
dependence of crack growth rate on fracture mechanics
parameters is also modeled using a simple crack growth law.
The implications of the results are then discussed for the
prediction of crack growth.
sweimin@princeton.edu

W.O. Soboyejo, Princeton Materials Institute and Dept. of


Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton
University, Princeton, NJ, USA
The paper presents the results of a combined experimental
and analytical study of short and long fatigue crack growth in
Ti-6Al-4V with well controlled colony and equiaxed
microstructures. Following a brief description of the cracktip/microstructure interactions associated with short fatigue
crack growth the microstructures of short and long fatigue
crack growth are elucidated. A multiparameter framework is
also presented for the modeling of the combined effects of
microstructural and mechanical variables. Finally, the
differences in fatigue crack growth behavior are shown to be

87

Films and Multilayers

MMC2001-889 Friday, June 29, 2:24 PM

Films and Multilayers

Characterization of the Temperature Evolution


during Fatigue of ULTIMET Alloy: Experiment and
Theoretical Modeling

Session: Thin Films and Coatings


Thursday, June 28, 11:00-12:30
Executive Conference Center 2B
Chairs: John W. Hutchinson and Zhiliang Zhang

Peter K. Liaw, Liang Jiang, Charlie R. Brooks, Materials


Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee,
Knoxville, TN, USA

MMC2001-423 Thursday, June 28, 11:00 AM

Hsin Wang, Metals and Ceramics Division, Oak Ridge


National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, USA

Stress in thin films from substrate curvature


observations: Building on Stoney ground

Dwaine L. Klarstrom

Keynote

High-speed, high-resolution infrared thermography, as a


non-contact, full-field, and nondestructive technique, was used
to study the temperature variations of a cobalt-based
ULTIMET alloy subjected to cyclic fatigue. During each
fatigue cycle, the temperature oscillations, which were due to
the thermal-elastic-plastic effect, were observed and related to
stress-strain analyses. The change of temperature during
fatigue was utilized to reveal the accumulation of fatigue
damage. A constitutive model was developed for predicting
the thermal and mechanical responses of ULTIMET alloy
subjected to cyclic deformation. The model was constructed in
light of internal state variables, which were developed to
characterize the inelastic strain of the material during cyclic
loading. The predicted stress-strain and temperature responses
were found to be in good agreement with the experimental
results. In addition, the measured temperature was utilized as
an index for fatigue-life prediction.
pliaw@utk.edu

L. B. Freund, Division of Engineering, Brown University,


Providence, RI, USA
The Stoney equation (Proc. Roy. Soc. A82 (1909) 172175) relating the membrane force in a thin film and the
curvature of a substrate to which the film is bonded is one of
the cornerstone concepts of thin film research. The purpose
here is to review the principal assumptions that underlie this
relationship and that dictate the limits on its range of
applicability. Extensions of the basic idea of relating substrate
curvature and film stress to cases that are apparently outside
the domain of the Stoney equation are considered. These
include substrate deformation in the geometrically nonlinear
range and substrate curvature due to residual stress in cracked
or patterned films.
freund@engin.brown.edu
MMC2001-420 Thursday, June 28, 11:36 AM

Ratcheting and related phenomena in layered


materials subject to temperature cycling

MMC2001-956 Friday, June 29, 2:42 PM

High Temperature, High Frequency Fatigue Crack


Propagation Thresholds in a Nickel-Base Turbine
Disk Alloy

Zhigang Suo, Min Huang, Mechanical and Aerospace


Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, USA
Qing Ma, Component Research, Intel Corporation, Santa
Clara, CA, USA

Amit Shyam, Santo A. II Padula, Sotiris Marras, Walter W.


Milligan, Materials Science and Engineering, Michigan
Technological University, Hougton, MI, USA

Thermal cycling is widely used as a qualification test in


the microelectronic industry. This paper investigates an
intriguing failure mode observed in such a test. Near the
corners of a silicon die, a shear stress arises due to thermal
expansion mismatch between silicon and packaging substrate.
This shear stress may have a small magnitude, being
transmitted through polymers, but motivates the metallic films
to crawl toward the center of the die during cycling, even
when the temperatures are low and the metal creeps
negligibly. Although the phenomenon has been observed for
two decades, no mechanistic explanation has been given so
far. This paper shows that the metal film can crawl by plastic
ratcheting. When the temperature cycles, the thermal
expansion mismatch with the silicon die causes the metal
films to yield. Directed by the small shear stress, the films
shear plastically by a small amount in each cycle, and
accumulate large deformation after many cycles. We develop
an idealized model to demonstrate this mechanism, and to
study the effects of temperature dependent yield strength and
strain hardening. Implications for interconnect design are
discussed.

Fatigue crack propagation thresholds were determined in a


powder-metallurgy, nickel-base turbine disk alloy at
temperatures from 20 to 650C, and at frequencies up to 1,000
Hz. Two different microstructures and load ratios were
investigated. While the variation in thresholds was an
extremely complex function of microstructure, frequency, load
ratio and temperature, the thresholds correlated almost
perfectly with the quantitatively measured fracture surface
roughnesses. Implications of this behavior and likely
threshold mechanisms will be discussed.
milligan@mtu.edu

88

Fracture of Multi-Layered Material Systems

suo@princeton.edu

Fracture of Multi-Layered Material


Systems

MMC2001-376 Thursday, June 28, 11:54 AM

Delamination of thin film strip

Session: 1
Wednesday, June 27, 9:00-10:30
Executive Conference Center 3A
Chair: Raman P. Singh

Honghui Yu, Division of Engineering and Applied Sciences,


Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA
A residually stressed thin film strip with finite width may
debond along the film-substrate interface across the full width,
or debond may travel down the strip leaving a narrow width of
strip still attached to the substrate. This latter phenomenon is
referred to as partial delamination. In the full delamination, the
debonded film strip behind the crack front undergoes biaxial
stress relaxation. By contrast, the stress in the detached
portion of a partially delaminated film is relaxed mainly in
only the width direction such that the detached portion is still
constrained in the lengthwise direction by the bonded portion.
This provides the explanation for why full delamination
usually happens when the film width is small. For full
delaminations, it is found that the average energy release rate
of the crack front reaches steady state value when the crack
length is only quarter of film strip width. The steady state
energy release rates are calculated as functions of film width
and elastic mismatch for both full and partial delamination.
For both cases, the crack will arrest when the crack front
approaches the far end of the strip. The dependence of the
energy release rate on remaining bonded ligament length has
also been calculated and the results provide an effect means
for inferring interface toughness from crack arrest position.
yu@esag.harvard.edu

MMC2001-865 Wednesday, June 27, 9:00 AM

Dynamic Failure Characteristics in Sandwich


Structures: Basic Failure Modes Selection in
Heterogeneous Three-layer Systems
Luoyu Roy Xu, Ares J. Rosakis, Aeronautics, The California
Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, USA
In the present work we concentrate on the systematic
experimental investigation of the generation and the
subsequent evolution of dynamic failure modes in sandwich
structures subjected to out-of-plane impact. Model sandwich
specimens composed of polymer cores and metal face plates
of various widths and lengths were designed and subjected to
impact loading to simulate failure evolution mechanisms in
real structures. High-speed photography and dynamic
photoelasticity are utilized to study the nature, sequence and
transition of such failure modes. In most cases, inter-layer
cracks (dynamic delaminations) appeared first. These cracks
were shear dominated and featured intersonic crack speeds
when the sandwich was subjected to moderate impact speeds.
The transition behavior between inter-layer crack growth and
intra-layer crack formation was also captured. Opening intralayer cracks kinking from the shear inter-layer cracks
propagated into the core layer and eventually branched as they
reached a high enough growth speed. The effect of specimen
dimensions and impact history was investigated in detail.
luoyu@cco.caltech.edu

MMC2001-866 Thursday, June 28, 12:12 PM

Influence of substrate compliance on buckling


delamination of thin films
John W. Hutchinson, Division of Engineering and Applied
Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA

MMC2001-430 Wednesday, June 27, 9:18 AM

An analysis of s straight-sided, buckling-driven


delamination blister is carried out with a focus on the role of
substrate compliance. The critical buckling condition, the
energy release rate and the mode mix of the interface
delamination crack are calculated as functions of the elastic
mismatch between the film and the substrate. When the
substrate is very compliant the energy release rate at the
curved front exceeds that along its sides and, moreover, is far
larger than for the case when the substrate has comparable
elastic modulus to the film.
hutchinson@husm.harvard.edu

Debond-Resistance of Short Interface Cracks Near


Free-Edges of Bimaterial Layers Under Differential
Expansion
Nathan W. Klingbeil, Srikanth Bontha, Mechanical and
Materials Engineering, Wright State University, Dayton,
OH, USA
The design of debond-resistant bimaterial layers has
recently been considered from both free-edge singularity and
steady-state interface cracking approaches. However, a gray
area exits between the two approaches, in which a short
interface crack exists in the vicinity of the free-edge.
Depending on the bimaterial configuration, such cracks may
or may not be susceptible to delamination. In this study, the
susceptibility to debonding of short interface edge-cracks is
investigated for the general global problem configuration of a
bimaterial strip with a uniform edge load applied to the top
layer (a general model of differential expansion). The goal of
this study is to determine the maximum crack length L for
which interface crack extension is inhibited, or more
specifically, for which the mode I component of the interface

89

Fracture of Multi-Layered Material Systems

stress intensity factor is negative. This is equivalent to a


maximum allowable flaw size, which is of substantial interest
to both designers and inspectors of bimaterial systems.
Results for the allowable flaw size L are extracted from finite
element analyses of the global problem configuration, and the
implications on bimaterial design are discussed.
nathan.klingbeil@wright.edu

MMC2001-488 Wednesday, June 27, 10:12 AM

Interface Stress Distribution And Strength Design


Of Adhesive Layers In A Sandwich Domain
Hong Yuan, Jingyu Sun, Mechanical Engineering
Department, Beijing Institute of Petrochemical
Technology, Beijing, Beijing, China
Interface stress and strength of adhesive layers in
sandwich domains are concerned about and have been studied,
but commonly satisfactory solutions are not found up to now.
Some analysis models not conforming to boundary conditions
are still used in designs. More research work is needed in this
field. Present study gives more reasonable results satisfying
boundary conditions better by using a mathematical modeling
method. This paper establishes the mathematical model first.
The stress and strain formulas needed in strength design of
adhesive layers are then deduced by using the model. Example
1 gives a clear picture of shear stress results in the layers by
the method presented here. The shear stresses at the end of the
adhesive layer, next to free surfaces, are zero and with no
singularity. These satisfy boundary conditions better. Example
2 is for comparison of results given by present study and by a
design method being used in practice. Their results are very
close. But the theory based by present study better conforms to
boundary conditions. So, the theory and the formulas given by
this paper could be a substitution in strength designs of
adhesive layers in a sandwich domain.
sunjy@public.bta.net.cn

MMC2001-821 Wednesday, June 27, 9:36 AM

The Stress Field in a Cracked Laminated Composite


Plate
E. S. Folias, Mathematics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City,
Utah, USA
This paper deals with the construction of an asymptotic
solution for the stress field in a laminated composite plate,
with a [ 0 / 90 ] stacking sequence. The plate contains through
the thickness a line crack of length 2c, and its perimeter
boundaries are sufficiently far away from the crack so that no
edge effects are present. The stress field is derived explicitly,
and includes a correction factor to account for the laminate
effects in the third dimension. The stress is a maximum at an
angle of The stress field is then used to derive an approximate
fracture criterion for mode I loading, similar to that of Griffith.
The criterion may now be used to predict the fracture stress in
a similar material system by knowing only crack size,
material lay-up microstructure, periodic crack length in the
third dimension as well as the fracture toughness. Comparison
with some experimental observations for two different
material systems shows a fairly good agreement that
substantiates its potential use.
folias@math.utah.edu

Session: 2
Wednesday, June 27, 11:00-12:30
Executive Conference Center 3A
Chair: Vikas Prakash

MMC2001-187 Wednesday, June 27, 9:54 AM

MMC2001-539 Wednesday, June 27, 11:00 AM

Mechanics of Crack Propagation Normal to a


Ductile Layer in a Brittle Material

Stress singularities in the core and face sheet


interface of structural sandwich panels

Raman P. Singh, Gary Rosene, Alains Gratien, Mechanical


Engineering, SUNY at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY,
USA

Joerg Hohe, Wilfried Becker, Institut fuer Mechanik und


Regelungstechnik, Universitaet Siegen, Siegen, Germany
Sanjib Goswami, College of Aeronautics, Cranfield
University, Cranfield, Bedfordshire, United Kingdom

The mechanics of crack propagation normal to a ductile


layer in a brittle material are investigated for both quasi-static
and dynamic loading conditions. A single-edge-notched
fracture specimen is prepared by embedding a ductile copper
strip in Homalite-100, a nominally brittle polymer. The
specimen is loaded under three point bending and
photoelasticity is used to determine the stress intensity factor
for both fracture initiation and growth. This characterization is
carried out as a function of the relative position of the crack
tip with respect to the ductile layer, interfacial adhesion
between copper and Homalite-100, ductile layer thickness, and
loading rate. Conditions that determine crack tip shielding,
interfacial crack growth and crack initiation across the ductile
layer are established on the basis of experimental observations
and analytical modeling.
raman.singh@sunysb.edu

Subject of the contribution is an analysis of the stress


singularity induced by an incompatibility in the modes of
deformation associated with the cellular core and the face
sheets of sandwich panels. It causes an increased delamination
hazard compared to layered media consisting solely of
homogeneous materials. The study is performed by means of a
closed form asymptotic analysis using the complex potential
method and alternatively by the finite element method. It is
shown that the stress singularity is of the pure, non-oscillatory
power-law type. The exponent depends solely on the cell wall
angle and on the cell wall material's Poisson's ratio. The
associated stress intensity factor depends in addition on the
elastic modulus of the cell wall material and on the magnitude
of the effective strain. The bending stiffness of the cell walls
and the stiffness of the face sheets are of minor influence. Due
to the variable order of the singularity, the standard concepts

90

Fracture of Multi-Layered Material Systems

of fracture mechanics are not directly applicable. A brief


discussion on possible adjustments and alternative concepts
for assessment of the induced delamination hazard closes the
study.
hohe@imr-sun8.fb5.uni-siegen.de

providing support for its use as a fracture initiation criterion.


We also study the effects of geometrical perturbations at the
interface corner via an idealized model of a small crack, and
discuss implications for fracture analysis.
labossie@u.washington.edu

MMC2001-622 Wednesday, June 27, 11:18 AM

MMC2001-831 Wednesday, June 27, 11:54 AM

Low-Velocity Impact Damage of Curved Laminate


Composites

Ballistic failure mechanisms during high velocity


penetration of finite thickness Alumina tiles

Oh-Yang Kwon, Jung-Kyu Jun, Mechanical Engineering,


Inha University, Inchon, Korea

Sai Sarva, S. Nemat-Nasser, Jon B Isaacs, David W Lischer,


Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engg, Center
of Excellence for Advanced Materials, University of
California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA

The dynamic response and the impact damage of curved


laminate composites subject to low-velocity impact are quite
different from those of flat laminates. The radius of curvature
and the effective shell stiffness appeared to considerably affect
the dynamic response. At a fixed impact energy level, the
maximum contact force increased with the decreasing radius
of curvature, approaching 1.5 times that of flat plates for the
radius of curvature of 50 mm. Since the maximum contact
force is closely related to impact damage, curved laminates
can be more vulnerable to delamination, a representative
damage induced by low-velocity impact. The damage has been
evaluated experimentally for graphite/epoxy cylindrical shells
with the radius of curvatures of 50, 150, 300, and 500 mm.
The result was also compared with that of a nonlinear finiteelement analysis using von Karman large deflection
assumption. Delamination was distributed rather evenly at
each interface along the thickness direction of curved
laminates. The result so far strongly implies that the effect of
curvature has to be considered for the design of curved
composite laminate structures
okwon@inha.ac.kr

Previous research at CEAM indicates that ballistic


efficiency of Al2O3 tiles is considerably improved by thin
membrane restraint.* Experiments have been performed to
study the failure mechanisms during perforation of Al2O3
tiles by W-HDA (Tungsten high density alloy) projectiles.
Soon after impact a pulverized zone called the Mescall zone is
formed ahead of the projectile, due to intense stress
conditions. The fine ceramic powder in the pulverized zone is
then ejected out to accommodate the projectile penetration.
High speed photography indicates that the improvement in the
ballistic efficiency of a membrane restrained tile is the result
of a more acute flow of the incident face ejecta. Flash
radiography indicates that thin membrane restraint also results
in larger mushrooming and erosion of the projectiles. The
penetration resistance is closely related to the nature of
ceramic debris formed during the initial stage of wave
propagation. The failure mechanisms will be discussed.
saisarva@starlite.ucsd.edu
MMC2001-541 Wednesday, June 27, 12:12 PM

MMC2001-568 Wednesday, June 27, 11:36 AM

Fracture in Aluminum Bicrystals Joined with


Ductile Interlayer

Failure Mechanics at Two- and Three-Dimensional


Bimaterial Interface Corners

Jeffrey W. Kysar, Clyde L. Briant, Division of Engineering,


Brown University, Providence, RI, USA

Paul E. W. Labossiere, Department of Mechanical


Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA,
USA

The goal of the present work is to measure experimentally


the asymptotic crack tip fields in ductile single crystals. We
describe a new bicrystal fracture specimen that consists of two
single crystals of aluminum bonded together with a thin
interlayer of pure tin. A crack introduced along the interlayer
is constrained to propagate along the relatively weak
interlayer. We present measurements of the asymptotic
structure of the crack tip plastic deformation fields under plane
strain conditions. The measurements are made by sectioning
the fracture specimen after it is mechanically loaded in Mode I
and subsequently mapping the variation in crystallographic
orientation of the material around the crack tip with the EBSP
(Electron Backscatter Pattern) capability of a SEM. Rice's
[Mech. Mater., 6, pp 317-335, 1987] asymptotic deformation
field solutions around cracks in single crystals are compared to
the experiments.
kysar@engin.brown.edu

Martin L. Dunn, Department of Mechanical Engineering,


University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, USA
We describe an approach to characterize fracture initiation
from 2-D and 3-D bimaterial interface corners, based on the
universal singular stress field that exists at an interface corner
in the context of linear elasticity. The approach involves
correlating fracture initiation at an interface corner with a
critical value of the corresponding stress intensity. In order to
demonstrate the approach, we designed and fabricated a series
of 2-D silicon/glass specimens and series of 2-D and 3-D
aluminum/epoxy specimens. From a rigorous analysis of the
stress state at the interface corner (where fracture initiates), the
corresponding stress intensities were determined as a function
of the applied loading and far-field geometry. Measured
fracture data shows that although the failure stress varies
significantly with specimen size, the corresponding critical
stress intensity of the dominant mode is constant, thus

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Friction and Interfaces

DLC/DLC interfaces at the nano-scale. We will discuss the


fundamental relations governing friction for this interface.
carpick@engr.wisc.edu

Friction and Interfaces


Session: Friction and Interfaces
Thursday, June 28, 1:30-3:00
Executive Conference Center 2B
Chairs: R. C. Batra

MMC2001-531 Thursday, June 28, 2:06 PM

Friction Effects on the Bearing Performance of


Bolted Composite Joints

MMC2001-493 Thursday, June 28, 1:30 PM

Dynamic of Friction and Surface Roughness

Hung-Shyong Chen, Mechanical Engineering, Chengshiu


Institute of Technology, Niaosung, Kaohsyung, Taiwan,
ROC

Jamil Abdo, Mechanical/Mechatronics Engineering,


Hashemite University, Zarqa, N/A, Jordan

The effects of friction load on the bearing performance of


a single double-lap bolted composite joints were examined.
Due to the friction loads generated by clamp-up torque usually
were hard to measured or calculated directly, a relatively
simple way to obtain friction load either in static or fatigue test
was needed. The test machine crosshead displacement versus
load data has proven useful as an indicator for the initial
testing conditions and the onset of structure damage (hole
wear). In this study, the static load-displacement plot and the
load-displacement hysteresis plot were applied. Therefore,
friction loads can be acquired through these plots. Two
thermo-set composite material systems IM6/3501-6 and
IM7/8552 were studied.
For static results, the specimens with relatively rough
surface finish produce higher static failure strengths due to a
higher friction load, and a high clamp-up torque value also
improved the static failure strength. The use of test machine
crosshead displacement versus load data presentation provided
a convenient way of monitoring bearing damage in fatigue
loading. The improvement of high clamp-up torque level on
fatigue limit under RTD conditions was observed. Friction
load was increased by a high clamp-up torque, resulted in
reduced hole elongation (hole wear) and a better fatigue life
for both material systems.
KEYWORDS: Friction load, Double-lap joint, Loaddisplacement hysteresis plot, Fatigue limit, Hole elongation
hschen@cc.csit.edu.tw

Kambiz Farhang, Mechanical Engineering Department,


Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, Carbondale,
62901, USA
This work presents the dynamic effects of the contribution
of surface irregularities (roughness) as a result of mechanical
interactions. Earlier research results pertaining to the
prediction of contact stiffness are used along with the addition
of the viscoelastic effects of contact. The viscoelastic
properties are presented by combining loss modulus with
Youngs modulus to obtain a differential operator reminiscent
of the Kelvin-Voigt model. The formulation is presented by
considering a spring-damper-mass system that is in frictional
contact with a second mass of a known velocity. The contact
theory is used to furnish appropriate force components in the
differential equations governing the normal and tangential
motions of the mass. The classical notion of friction
coefficient is entirely abandoned. Therefore, friction is
instead obtained as a result of systems dynamic response that
includes time-dependent forces at the contact. The tangentialto-normal contact load ratio, the classical definition of friction
coefficient, is shown to depend on system response that in turn
is dependent on both the structural and contact characteristics.
It is demonstrated that the contact and the mechanical system
have a mutual influence, i.e. effect and feedback.
jdabdo@yahoo.com
MMC2001-492 Thursday, June 28, 1:48 PM

MMC2001-764 Thursday, June 28, 2:24 PM

Diamond-Like Carbon Nanocontacts

Comparison of Coatings Produced Using ElectroPlasma and Traditional Methods

Robert W Carpick, Kumar Sridharan, Jeffrey R


VanLangendon, Engineering Physics, University of
Wisconsin - Madison, Madison, WI, USA

Paul Herrington, Paul J. Schilling, Mechanical Engineering,


University of New Orleans, New Orleans, LA, USA

Wear-resistant low-friction coatings are of interest for a


variety of applications from automotive engines to sub-micron
machines. One particularly important coating is diamond-like
carbon (DLC), which can possess mechanical properties
approaching those of diamond. We have used atomic force
microscopy to study the nanotribological properties of DLC as
a function of preparation to investigate the mechanisms that
underlie ultralow friction and wear. Furthermore, we have
fabricated nano-asperities by coating the tips of atomic force
microscope cantilevers with DLC. The unique coating process,
plasma-source ion deposition, produces a high-quality
conformal coating of DLC. By placing this asperity in contact
with a DLC-coated substrate, we are able to measure, for the
first time, the mechanical and frictional properties of

Electro-plasma processing was investigated for its


potential application to the protection of steel, both as a
surface preparation technique for the application of organic
coatings and as a method for applying a protective zinc metal
coating. Electro-plasma-cleaned and shot-blasted specimens
were coated in an identical manner using an inorganic zinc
pre-construction primer with a ceramic base. The resulting
coatings were tested for corrosion resistance and coating
integrity. Tests included QUV weathering, salt fog exposure,
and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. In addition,
tensile adhesion tests were performed after QUV weathering.
After QUV weathering, the samples coated with the preconstruction primer exhibited very little corrosion, regardless

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General Fluids, Hydrodynamics, Transport Processes and Environmental Fluids

natural frequency of cable and the vortex shedding frequency


of flow are close to each other, resonance (or lock-in) occurs.
This may greatly amplify the cable vibration to cause a severe
damage to the cable. Early numerical works by researchers
showed that both standing and traveling waves occur, but with
shortcomings, especially when many vibration modes appear.
A numerical simulation of flow-induced cable vibration is
presented in this paper. We coupled a Beam Element Method
(BEM) for cable dynamics and a Direct Numerical Simulation
(DNS) method for fluid motion, with the cable specially tuned
to a resonance condition. The results of the present
computations showed that the cable basically vibrates as
standing waves. In addition, the amplitude of the lateral
displacement was found to be one order of magnitude greater
than that of the stream-wise displacement. Most importantly, it
is found that a maximum energy transfer from fluid to cable
occurs when the cable velocity and the fluid force in the lateral
direction are synchronized.
mecthsu@ust.hk

whether cleaning was done by shot-blasting or electro-plasma


cleaning. Similar results were observed after 100 hours of salt
fog exposure. In addition, a set of samples was prepared using
the electro-plasma process to deposit a protective zinc metal
coating. The zinc coating provided good corrosion protection
in the QUV weathering tests, but the performance was inferior
to that of the currently used pre-construction primer. The zinc
coatings thus offer potential, but their application using the
electro-plasma process must be optimized.
pherring@uno.edu
MMC2001-529 Thursday, June 28, 2:42 PM

Characterization of Coefficient of Friction in Dry


Contact
Jamil Abdo, Mechanical Engineering, The Hashemite
University, Zarqa, Zarqa, Jordan
Diana Manasra, Engineering, The A&M institute of
Technology, Manus, Manus, Brasil

MMC2001-421 Wednesday, June 27, 9:18 AM

Factorial design experiment is performed to ascertain the


effects of four factors and their cross influence on friction
between dry surfaces. The factors in this study include
materials Young's modulus, applied normal load, surface
roughness and sliding speed. For each combination of factors
two replicates in addition to two center points are used to
obtain an average coefficient of friction for dry contact. In the
experiments 304 Stainless Steel and Alloy 6061 Aluminum
are employed to provide the high and low levels of Young's
modulus. Results suggest that Young's modulus has the most
significant influence followed by velocity/modulus crosscoupling, surface roughness, load, and modulus/roughness.
The results are used to obtain iso-friction curves that can serve
to establish force-speed control for prevention of stick-slip
vibration.
jdabdo@yahoo.com

Interaction of Laminar Far Wake with Unsteady


Viscous Free-surface Waves
Dong-Qiang Lu, Allen T. Chwang, Department of
Mechanical Engineering, The University of Hong Kong,
Hong Kong, China
The interaction of laminar far wake with unsteady viscous
free-surface waves generated by a submerged body moving
along a straight line in an incompressible fluid of infinite
depth is analytically investigated in detail by the methods of
integral transforms and of Lighthill's two-stage scheme. The
body is assumed to start suddenly from rest and to move with
a constant velocity along a straight line. The flow is assumed
to be laminar and the submerged body is mathematically
represented by an Oseenlet or an Oseen-doublet. Exact
solutions in closed integral forms for the velocity field and
wave profiles are given. By employing Lighthill's method,
the asymptotic representations of wave profiles in the far wake
for large Reynolds numbers are derived. Based on these
results, the free-surface profiles and the wavefront velocity are
obtained. The effects of viscosity and submergence depth on
the free-surface wave profiles are respectively expressed by
the exponential attenuation factors. Furthermore, it is shown
that the unsteady wave system consists of four families, that
is, the transverse waves, the diverging waves and two families
of non-stationary waves. The results obtained show explicitly
the physical characteristics of the unsteady wave motion
generated by submerged bodies.
luda@hkusua.hku.hk

General Fluids, Hydrodynamics, Transport


Processes and Environmental Fluids
Session: 1: Hydrodynamics I
Wednesday, June 27, 9:00-10:30
Coronado B
Chairs: Allen T. Chwang and Chin-Tsau Hsu
MMC2001-356 Wednesday, June 27, 9:00 AM

A Numerical Study of Resonance in Flow Induced


Cable Vibration
Chin-Tsau Hsu, Man-Kim Kwan, Department of Mechanical
Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and
Technology, Clearwater Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong
C.C. Chang, Department of Civil Engineering, The Hong
Kong University of Science and Technology, Clearwater
Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong
For decades, flow-induced cable vibration has been an
important problem in wind and coastal engineering. When the

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General Fluids, Hydrodynamics, Transport Processes and Environmental Fluids

produced by a collapse of a water column (a classical dam


break problem). Simulated results demonstrate that the model
is capable of predicting the time variations of the water
surface and the corresponding velocity field after a sudden
release of a piled water column. An instantaneous drop of the
water column and the following formation of a downstream
propagating surge are accurately modeled. The results are
compared with existing experimental measurements. The
predicted surge front and residual water level are shown in a
good agreement with the measured data.
khwang@uh.edu

MMC2001-807 Wednesday, June 27, 9:36 AM

Dual Pontoon-Membrane Floating Breakwater


William G. McDougal, None, WGM Corp., Philomath,
Oregon, USA
Neil Williams, Civil & Environmental Eng., Univ. Houston,
Houston, TX, USA
Alaa-Eldin Mansour, Irrigation & Hydraulics, Univ. Cairo,
Cairo, Egypt
The hydrodynamic performance of a dual pontoonmembrane floating breakwater is investigated. The breakwater
consists of a pair of rigid rectangular pontoons of connected
by a rigid, horizontal deck. A membrane wave barrier is
suspended beneath each pontoon. The membranes are kept
under tension by clump weights and can move independently
or have a coupled motion. This dual pontoon configuration is
similar to the cross-section of many floating dock systems.
The addition of the membrane wave barriers improves the
wave protection provided by the dock. The membranes may
be included as a component in the initial design or retrofitted
to an existing structure to improve wave protection
performance.
The fluid motion is idealized as linearized, twodimensional potential flow and the pontoon-deck structure is
taken as a rigid body undergoing surge, heave and pitch
motions. The membrane motions are assumed to be of small
amplitude and one-dimensional. The breakwater can be
restrained with mooring lines or vertical piles. The solution for
the fluid motion is obtained by a boundary integral equation
approach using an appropriate Green function. The membrane
motion is also described by means of a Green function.
Numerical results are presented that illustrate the effects of the
various wave and structural parameters on the efficiency of the
breakwater as a barrier to wave action. Particular attention is
focussed on the improvement in breakwater performance
obtained through the addition of the weighted membranes to
an existing dual pontoon breakwater structure.
mcdougal@wgmcorp.com

MMC2001-527 Wednesday, June 27, 10:12 AM

Some Steady-State Numerical Solutions for the


Incompressible Navier-Stokes Equations Using
Artificial Compressibility
Rajaa Nechad, EGT, Engineers Mohammadia School, Rabat,
Morrocco
Abdellatif El Marjani, Mechanics, Engineers Mohammadia
School, Rabat, Morrocco
A numerical solution of the two-dimensional constantdensity Navier-Stokes equations for both steady-state and
time-dependent problems is presented. Governing equations
are written in
a general curvilinear coordinates using
primitive variables. The method is based on the artificial
compressibility approach using an iterative process in pseudotime at each physical time level to compute the time-accurate
solution (Rogers 1989). The system of equations is solved
with an approximate LU factorization
allowing a
decomposition of the system to solve in two systems: an upper
and a lower matrices. Results mentioned in this paper include
some well-known steady-state cases to validate the elaborated
code:
1) a driven-cavity flow for the Reynolds numbers Re=
400, 1000 and 5000 (Ghia 1982)
2) a flow across an asymetric curvature with Re= 100
(Ghia 1981)
3) the case of a flow across a sudden constriction (Nurick
1976).
nechad@emi.ac.ma

MMC2001-777 Wednesday, June 27, 9:54 AM

Modeling Free-Surface Flow Using A Volume of


Fluid Method

Session: 2: Hydrodynamics II
Wednesday, June 27, 11:00-12:30
Coronado B
Chairs: Keh-Han Wang and Michelle Teng

Keh-Han Wang, Department of Civil and Environmental


Engineering, University of Houston, Houston, TX, U.S.A.
Ziping Dai, Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering,
University of Houston, Houston, TX, U.S.A.

MMC2001-782 Wednesday, June 27, 11:00 AM

Modeling free-surface flow has many applications in


coastal and hydraulic engineering. It can provide simulations
of overland flow and wave motion. In this study, a twodimensional flow code solving continuity and momentum
equations are developed to calculate detailed fluid velocities.
The moving free surface is modeled by using the concept of
volume of fluid (VOF). The net change of fluid flux on a
surface cell is calculated to determine the volume fraction of
fluid, which is used to update the new position of the free
surface. Model performance is tested by simulating flows

Measurements of Velocity Field at a Circular Pier by


Particle Image Velocimetry
Francis C. K. Ting, Kent K. R. Johnson, Civil and
Environmental Engineering, South Dakota State
University, Brookings, South Dakota, USA
The results of an experimental study on flow around a
circular pier on a smooth bed will be presented. The study
was motivated by bridge-pier scour in a flowing stream. To

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General Fluids, Hydrodynamics, Transport Processes and Environmental Fluids

date, pier scour has been studied primarily based on scaled


model testing. Very little is known about the influence of
flow and pier parameters on the bridge-pier flow field. By
varying the approach flow velocity and water depth in an
open-channel flume, a wide range of sub-critical flow
conditions was produced. Water surface elevations were
measured at 0, 90 and 180 to the approach-flow direction
near the surface of the pier, and three-dimensional velocity
vector fields were measured in two horizontal planes using a
stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) system. The
PIV measurements provided a detailed picture of the deflected
flow around the pier. It was found that the water surface
profile around the pier was related to the Froude number and
relative water depth. It was also found that the flow around the
pier had substantial vertical structure. The velocity
measurements showed that the approach flow conditions
affected the pier flow field mainly behind the pier. The
presentation will focus on the effects of pier Reynolds
number, Froude number and relative water depth on the
velocity field, and the implications of these measurements on
scour prediction.
Francis_Ting@sdstate.edu

MMC2001-317 Wednesday, June 27, 11:36 AM

Effect of Body Disturbances on Wrist-pulse


Contours
Elizabeth O.Y. Lau, Deparment of Mechanical Engineering,
The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, --, Hong
Kong
Allen T. Chwang, Department of Mechanical Engineering,
The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong
Most of the arterial pulse studies have focused on the
effect of cardiac condition on the aortic pulse contours. There
are, however, great interactions between the heart and the
arterial conditions. The ascending aorta is close to the heart
and the pulse characteristics are predominated by the cardiac
activity. The effects of pathologic changes in the vascular
systems or other organs might be overwhelmed. The objective
of the present study is to investigate the effects of heart
problems and the chronic renal failure on the wrist-pulse
contours measured from the left wrist, using an instrument that
would non-invasively record and digitize the pulse contour.
As the heart and the kidney conditions are closely related to
that of the vascular system, the radial artery which is located
further away from the heart, is expected to be a good site for
the study. Wrist-pulse contours of 30 healthy subjects, 30
heart-problem subjects and 30 chronic renal failure subjects
are analyzed and the corresponding S-patterns are studied.
The S-pattern is obtained from the slope of a wrist-pulse
contour. Specific S-patterns are found in each group, which
shows the relationship between wrist-pulse characteristics and
body conditions.
aleliza@yahoo.com

MMC2001-486 Wednesday, June 27, 11:18 AM

Nanofluid Viscosity Calculated by the Kinetic


Theory and Molecular Dynamics Simulations
Xiao-Bing Mi, Allen T. Chwang, Dept. of Mechanical
Engineering, The Univ. of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, N/A,
China
A complex model taking account of both fluid-fluid and
fluid-wall intermolecular interactions is given in the present
paper to obtain the relationship between the structure and
viscosity distribution of a nanofluid confined in a nanoscale
slit pore. The derived Enskog-like kinetic equation and
transport equations are solved by the functional perturbation
method. The theoretical solutions expressed in terms of the
pair correlation function show some basic physical properties
of nanofluids. The molecular dynamics (MD) method is
further applied to simulate several cases of nanoflow in pores.
The strongly inhomogeneous Lennard-Jones fluid with hardsphere and soft-sphere models is used to calculate the
nanofluid viscosity. Furthermore, the bulk viscosity is
acquired by considering the weak or strong fluid-wall
interaction. It is observed that under the strong fluid-wall
interaction there exist more high viscosity regions near the
wall than those under the weak interaction. Moreover, the
complex model used in the present study makes the bulk
viscosity results somewhat higher in comparison with the
simple fluid-fluid interaction model. Several reasons are
provided to explain the phenomenon. Both theoretical results
and MD simulations are in qualitative agreement in the present
study.
mixa@hkusua.hku.hk

MMC2001-519 Wednesday, June 27, 11:54 AM

On the Spreading of Bottom Dense Liquid under


Surface Waves
Sau-Chung Fu, Chiu-On Ng, Mechanical Engineering
Department, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong,
HKSAR, China
The potential threat to the benthic environment posed by a
hazardous liquid chemical accidentally discharged onto the
seabed can be enormous. This study is to develop an
asymptotic theory for the slow spreading of a thin layer of
dense immiscible liquid on the bottom of a waterway, under
the combined action of surface waves and density current. An
initial-boundary-value problem is formulated in terms of slow
space and time variables for the transport of the dense liquid
due to steady streaming and gravity. For purely progressive
waves, over a time scale that is three orders of magnitude
longer than the wave period, the dense liquid will spread out
by gravity, and migrate slowly because of streaming in the
direction of wave propagation. Under perfect standing waves,
an equilibrium form of small-amplitude ripples is formed on
the liquid/water interface on a time scale one order of
magnitude longer than the wave period. For partially standing
waves, ripples are formed on the interface while the entire
layer is undergoing migration. (This work was supported by
Grant HKU 7117/99E from the RGC of HKSAR, China.)

95

General Fluids, Hydrodynamics, Transport Processes and Environmental Fluids

h9619050@hkusua.hku.hk

transport of SSC in the lake are analyzed and discussed. Wind


speed is found to have strong correlation with SSC and surface
velocities. Wind is demonstrated to be a dominant factor in
transporting the suspended sediment and driving the lake
circulation. Wind direction also plays an important role in
affecting the SSC, typically at sites around the northeast and
northwest of the lake. The surface and near-bottom fluids
occasionally flow in opposite directions. The reversal of the
flow velocities has shown its direct influence on the formation
of the stratification and inversion of the SSC. Under strong
wind events, in general, the SSC and water temperature are
well mixed. This study has provided valuable storm-event data
and mechanism analyses, which has improved our
understanding of the transport of SSC, thermal exchanges, and
flow patterns within Lake Okeechobee.
khwang@uh.edu

Session: 3: Sediment Transport


Wednesday, June 27, 1:30-3:00
Coronado B
Chairs: A. N. Papanicolaou and Francis C. K. Ting
MMC2001-431 Wednesday, June 27, 1:30 PM

An Integrated Hydrologic, Hydraulic, and Sediment


Transport Modeling with the Implementation of GIS
H.M. Hu, Selena M. Forman, Leo Kreymborg, 11848
Bernardo Plaza Court, Suite 140-B, WEST Consultants,
Inc., San Diego, CA, USA
An integrated hydrologic, hydraulic and sediment
transport modeling with the implementation of the GIS system
can provide an effective and efficient way to perform
watershed flow forecasting, decision support modeling,
watershed results visualization, and watershed and river
network planning and management. Using the digital spatial
data, GIS can be used to delineate watershed subbasins and
associated streams and to digitally create the geometry input
data for a hydraulic model. GIS can also be a very powerful
tool to help develop a sediment transport model and to
estimate the channel lateral migration using a time series of
aerial photographs. The results of hydraulic and sediment
transport models can then be exported back to GIS to delineate
the floodplain and floodway, to visualize the different
locations and magnitudes of channel bed changes along the
streams, and to animate the propagation of flood waves.
This paper uses the HEC software package, Geo-HMS,
HEC-HMS, Geo-RAS, HEC-RAS, and HEC-6 and the
ArcView 3.2a to describe the basic modeling procedures and
capabilities of this state-of-the-art integrated modeling
technology in engineering hydrology, hydraulics, and
sediment transport. A detailed case study is provided to
illustrate the application of the GIS integrated modeling
system.
hhu@westconsultants.com

MMC2001-847 Wednesday, June 27, 2:06 PM

Modeling of Hydrodynamics and Sediment in Lake


Okeechobee under Storm Events
Kang-Ren Jin, Okeechobee, South Florida Water
Management District, West Palm Beach, Florida, USA
Zhen-Gang Ji, Applied Environmental Engineering, Fairfax,
Virginia, USA
The calibrated and verified Lake Okeechobee
Hydrodynamic and Sediment Model is used as a tool for
quantifying the hydrodynamic characteristics and examining
sediment transport processes under storm events. The model
can also be applied to aid further hydrodynamic and sediment
field data collection programs for lake water quality
management. The model grid contained 2126 horizontal grid
cells and 5 vertical layers. The primary model hydrodynamic
forcings included freshwater flows from tributaries and
surface wind stresses. The hydrodynamic and sediment model
also access significant wave height and period from windwave model to calculate bottom stresses at sediment bed. The
model can simulate circulation patterns and suspended
sediment concentrations (SSC) associated with hurricanes or
strong storm events. The model results indicate currents
paralleled the marsh zone at most parts but can penetrate at
opens and carry a large amount suspended solids into the
marsh zone. The most important finding is the deposition of a
large amount suspended solids in the marsh zone after a strong
storm event. Once suspended solids are deposited in this area,
it is hard to resuspend and transport them back to the open
water.
kjin@sfwmd.gov

MMC2001-581 Wednesday, June 27, 1:48 PM

Seasonal Variations of Flow Velocities and


Suspended Sediment Concentrations in Lake
Okeechobee
Keh-Han Wang, Mehrdad Tehrani, Dept. of Civil and
Environmental Engineering, University of Houston,
Houston, TX, USA
Kang-Ren Jin, South Florida Water Management District,
West Palm Beach, FL, USA
This paper presents a comprehensive field investigation of
collecting and analyzing flow velocity, suspended sediment
concentration (SSC) and temperature data in Lake
Okeechobee. Lake Okeechobee is a large, shallow subtropical
lake located in south central Florida. In this study, data of
three-dimensional flow velocity, SSC, and temperature were
collected at four locations in the period of six weeks from Jan.
18 to Mar. 5, 2000. Physical mechanisms affecting the

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General Fluids, Hydrodynamics, Transport Processes and Environmental Fluids

MMC2001-434 Wednesday, June 27, 2:24 PM

Session: 4: Environmental Fluid Mechanics


Wednesday, June 27, 3:30-5:00
Coronado B
Chairs: Pei-Fang Wang and James Martin

Instrumentation for the Measurement of Suspended


Sediment Transport in a Flume

MMC2001-762 Wednesday, June 27, 3:30 PM

David A. Smith, Ocean and Resources Engineering,


University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI, USA

Coupling of Hydraulic and Environmental Quality


Models: Issues and Approaches

A. N. Papanicolaou, Civil and Environmental Engineering,


Washington State University, Pullman, WA, USA

James Martin, Mark Dortch, Water Quality and Contaminant


Modeling Group, ERDC/Waterways Experiment Station,
Vicksburg, Mississippi, USA

Flume experiments were conducted to measure the total


sediment transport rates for fine sand. The suspended sediment
concentration profile was measured using a Sedimeter, an
instrument composed of a vertical array of 16 optical
backscatter sensors. The vertical distribution of water velocity
was simultaneously measured using an Acoustic Doppler
Velocimeter (ADV). The data obtained by the Sedimeter is
coupled with that from the ADV to produce suspended
sediment transport rates. A mesh bag trapped sediment at the
downstream end of the flume for verification of the total
transport rate.
dasmith@oe.eng.hawaii.edu

Water flow is a fundamental mechanism that controls a


significant amount of the variability in the water quality of
streams, lakes and estuaries. However, only in recent decades
have predictive methods for computing transport been
considered in environmental quality models. Some of the
history, methods and issues in the coupling of hydraulic and
environmental quality models may be illustrated by
highlighting the development of some of the surface water
quality models at the Corps of Engineers Engineering
Research and Development Center, Waterways Experiment
Station (WES). Hydraulics has been a fundamental
consideration in the development of environmental quality
models by WES since storage and operational control have
traditionally been the two primary methods available to the
Corps for the control of water quality. The development of
four models will be discussed: the one-dimensional
(longitudinal) riverine model CE-QUAL-RIV1; the onedimensional (vertical) reservoir model CE-QUAL-R1; the
two-dimensional (longitudinal-vertical) model CE-QUALW2; and the general integrated compartment model CEQUAL-ICM. This presentation will highlight some of the
model features and linkage issues as well as discuss future
plans for continued model development.
martinj@wes.army.mil

MMC2001-436 Wednesday, June 27, 2:42 PM

Prediction of Sediment Transport in Littoral Zones,


a Case Study in Anzali Port in Iran
Nasser Talebbeydokhti, Civil and Environmental
Engineering, Washington State University & University
of Shiraz, Pullman, WA, USA
M. R. Nikmanesh, Civil Engineering, University of Shiraz,
Shiraz, Fars, Iran
In this paper, longshore sediment transport in littoral zones
is studied. For investigation of sediment transport in the
nearshore zone, the effects of waves, currents and
topographical conditions of coast, are considered. Linear wave
theory is used for analysis of wave behavior. Continuity and
momentum governing equations are used to analyze the
littoral current. Convection-diffusion equation was used to
calculate concentration profile of suspended sediments at
depth. A computer program called PLSTP is developed to
calculate the sediment transport rate in littoral zones. Finite
difference method is used to solve the governing equations. To
investigate the accuracy of program, different parts of the
program are controlled. Concentration profile at depth, littoral
current velocity profiles and sediment transport distributions
are three parts of PLSTP program that available results and
measurements (Van Rijn, 1989) control their accuracy. The
results show a good agreement between this model and
existing measurements.
talebbey@wsu.edu

MMC2001-417 Wednesday, June 27, 3:48 PM

Effect of Surface Waves on Pollutant Dispersion


Hui Loo, Allen T. Chwang, Mechanical Engineering, The
University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, /, China
The influence of current and surface waves on the
dispersion of pollutants is investigated in water of finite depth
or infinite depth. Major studies on pollutant dispersion
available in the literature are based on the unidirectional flow
or oscillatory current where the velocity is independent of the
distance in the flow direction. In the present study, we
investigate the spreading of an instantaneous point source and
a line source in the presence of unsteady two-dimensional
surface waves. Assuming that no chemical reaction is present
and the pollutant density is the same as that of the surrounding
fluid, a mathematical model is developed based on the
linearised wave theory. Solutions are obtained analytically by
the perturbation method and the integral transforms. There are
several factors which influence the behavior of the pollution
spreading, including the initial position of pollutants, and the
depth of the fluid domain. It is found that the deeper the
initial placement of the pollutant, the smaller the influence of
surface waves on the pollutant distribution. The spreading and

97

General Fluids, Hydrodynamics, Transport Processes and Environmental Fluids

were discharged from a pipe about 2 meters above, and freefalled into the receiving tank water. As the free-falling jet
plunges into the tank water, air-bubbles are entrained into a
turbulent jet, mixed with water and air bubbles. The
turbulent jets penetrate downward to certain depths, due to the
excessive momentum, and then the submerged plumes surface
at various speeds due to the buoyancy from the air bubbles.
Experiments were conducted for two discharge flow rates
under three different ambient flow conditions with ambient
currents of 0, 25 cm/s and 50 cm/s. For each experiment, the
following hydrodynamic parameters were measured:
disturbed velocities (u,v,w), turbulent kinetic energy, air
bubble concentrations, and air bubble size distributions.
Empirical correlations among the flow velocities, turbulent
kinetic energy, concentrations and size distributions of the
bubbles were obtained and mechanisms controlling turbulence
and turbulent mixing are identified.
pfwang@spawar.navy.mil

dispersion of pollutants in shallow water is different from that


in deep water.
looh@hkusua.hku.hk
MMC2001-760 Wednesday, June 27, 4:06 PM

Lagrangian Drifts in the Tide and Wind-Driven


Dyes Inlet, WA
Pei-Fang Wang, Bob Johnston, Brad Davidson, Bart
Chadwick, Marine Environmental Quality Branch,
Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center, San Diego,
CA, USA
Woo-Hee Choi, Steve Swanson, Frank Meriweather, Paul
Williams, Mindy Fohn, Chris Collins
Dyes Inlet, a sub-estuary of the Puget Sound estuarine
system, is located in the region of (-1220 43, 470 39) and (1220 38, 470 34), north of City of Bremerton. The Inlet
connects to Sinclair Inlet to the south through the Washington
Narrow. Pacific Ocean tides enter through the mouth of the
Puget Sound and propagate to both Inlets from Brownsville, to
the north and Clam Bay, to the South. Hydrodynamics in
Dyes Inlet are complicated, encompassing multiple, yet
unique, hydrodynamic phenomena.
These observed
phenomena include jet plumes, local vortices, wind-driven and
tide-driven circulations. To understand and quantify transport
in Dyes Inlet, four drogue release studies were conducted. For
each study, surface drogues were released during flood tides.
Each drogue has a Global Positioning System (GPS) device
onboard. After the drogues were retrieved within 1-6 hours,
the GPS data were downloaded to a PC and the trajectories of
the drogues were obtained. Trajectory data were compared
with the predicted results from the 3-D hydrodynamic model,
CH3D. Local winds and tides were included in analysis and
their effects on the drogue drifts were quantified. Results of
the drogue study are used to study fate and transport of fecal
coliforms, discharged from about 12 CSOs (Combined
Sewage Overflows) in the Washington Narrow. The study
shows that a combination of field data, including ADCP data
and drogue trajectory data, and the calibrated 3-D
hydrodynamic transport model, CH3D, provides accurate and
effective predictions of fecal coliform evolutions in Dyes
Inlet.
pfwang@spawar.navy.mil

MMC2001-350 Wednesday, June 27, 4:42 PM

The Use of Water-Filled Geomembrane Tubes as


Temporary Flood-Fighting Devices
Tung C. Huong, Brendan T. FitzPatrick, David B. Nevius,
Raymond H. Plaut, Civil and Environmental
Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State
University, Blacksburg, Virginia, USA
George M. Filz
Sandbags are often used to hold back floodwaters.
Recently, water-filled tubes have been introduced as an
alternative temporary flood barrier. Some failures have
occurred due to rupture or excessive movements. The results
of a numerical and experimental investigation of these tubes is
presented here. Experiments were conducted on tubes 4.5m
long with circumference 1.5m and thickness 0.5mm. External
water of varying heights was applied on one side. Wedges
with heights of 6cm and 12cm were placed on the downstream
side to inhibit rolling and sliding of the tube. Measurements
of the cross-sectional deformations, underseepage flow rates,
and pore pressure beneath the tube were taken. A twodimensional numerical analysis using the finite-difference
program FLAC also was carried out. The cross section of the
tube was modeled with beam elements, and the MohrCoulomb soil model was adopted. The floodwater level was
increased until failure occurred with the tube rolling over the
wedge. The results compared well with those from the
experiments. This research has demonstrated that water-filled
tubes can provide an effective alternative to sandbags for
holding back floodwaters.
rplaut@vt.edu

MMC2001-761 Wednesday, June 27, 4:24 PM

Bubble-Entrained Turbulent Mixing From FreeFalling Jets in The Plunge Zone


Pei-Fang Wang, Ken Richter, Marine Environmental Quality
Branch, Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center, San
Diego, San Diego, CA, USA
Brian Skahill, Civil Engineering, San Diego State University
Foundation, San Diego, CA, USA
James Uyloan, Marine Physical Laboratory, Scripps Institute
of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA, USA
Experiments were conducted in a laboratory flow tank to
measure hydrodynamic properties of plunging jets. The jets

98

Geo Dynamics

satisfactory, especially in the frequency contents of the


predicted response, due to the difficulty in the analytical
modeling of train loadings which is most critical for accurate
prediction of the ground transmitted vibration.1
This paper shows how the source of train-generated
vibrations can be effectively modeled by using the input
identification and measured data. A new method is proposed
in this study by combining data processing techniques and an
input identification technique.2 The proposed method is then
applied to a real railway system. The wave propagation
analysis on the soil-rail interaction system subject to train
loading is carried out by using the finite element method
combined with the infinite element formulation for the
unbounded layered soil medium.3 The parameters identified
for the study include the shear moduli of the surrounding soil
regions as well as the input motion of the train-induced
vibration. The predicted responses on the surrounding ground
surface show excellent agreement with the measured response
data.
joo7777@hitel.net

Geo Dynamics
Session: Geo Dynamics
Friday, June 29, 9:00-10:30
Spinnaker II
Chairs: Jorge F. Meneses-Loja and Ahmed-Waeil Elgamal
MMC2001-530 Friday, June 29, 9:00 AM

Input and System Identification of the Hualien SoilStructure Interaction System Using Earthquake
Response Data
Jun S. Choi, Jong S. Lee, Dept. of Civil and Environmental
Engineering, Hanyang University, Ansan, Kyunggi-Do,
Korea
Many techniques have been proposed to develop
analytical models correlated with experimental data to study
soil-structure interaction (SSI). These techniques generally
work well for the cases where numerical simulation data or
experimental data are obtained from small structural models.
However, most of the techniques appear to be erratic for largescale soil-structure interaction systems due to the nonlinear
behavior of near-field soil media and the radiation damping.
Besides, these techniques need also to overcome problems
associated with the uncertainty of the input motion in the
earthquake response analysis. Therefore, it is desired that a
new method be developed so that an analytical model can be
accurately correlated with the test data regardless of the input
motion. To that end, a new method is proposed in this study
by combining the optimization technique and the input
identification technique thereby enabling the estimation of the
input motion as well as the system properties using the
response data only. The proposed method is applied to the
Hualien large-scale seismic test structure. The simulated
earthquake responses using the identified parameters and the
input motion show excellent agreement with the observed
response data.
choijs69@yahoo.co.kr

MMC2001-812 Friday, June 29, 9:36 AM

Diffraction of SH-Waves Around a ArbitraryShaped Rigid Foundation in a Wedge-Shape HalfSpace


Nazaret Dermendjian, Department of Civil and
Manufacturing Engineering, California State University,
Northridge, Northridge, CA, USA
The wave propagation behavior in an elastic wedgeshaped medium, with an arbitrary-shaped rigid foundation at it
vertex, has been studied. In particular, an analytic closed-form
sense solution in terms of cylindrical wave functions has been
derived for incident plane SH (shear horizontal) waves. The
analysis demonstrates that the resulting surface displacement
profile depends, as expected and as in similar previous
analyses, on several parameters including the angle of the
wedge, the frequencies of the incident waves, the material
properties of the media, the angles of incidence and the
density ratios between the foundation and the media. The
results, especially in the context of varying wedge angles,
provided interesting results that help to explain geophysical
observations of amplification of seismic energy as a function
of site conditions.
nazaret.dermendjian@csun.edu

MMC2001-697 Friday, June 29, 9:18 AM

Prediction of ground transmitted vibrations using


input identification techniques from soil-rail
interaction systems
J.H. Lee, 104 Wonhyo 1Ga, Lotte Engineering &
Construction Co., Yongsan-Gu,, Seoul, Korea

MMC2001-886 Friday, June 29, 9:54 AM

J.B. Yun, Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engg., KAIST,


Taejon, Taejon, Korea

Surface Motion Due To The Scattering Of Incident


Sh Waves As Affected By Underground Topography
Of Arbitrary Shape

Jun S. Choi, Jong S. Lee, Dept. of Civil and Environmental


Engg., Hanyang University, Ansan, Kyunggi-Do

Michael E. Manoogian, Civil Engineering and Environmental


Science, Loyola Marymount University, Los Angeles,
California, USA

Recently, ground transmitted vibrations in contiguous


ground by train loading become more and more important, as
more high speed railroad systems are being constructed or
planned. Many methods have been proposed to date for
prediction of the ground transmitted vibration on the ground
and in buildings and met with varying degrees of success.
Performance of these techniques is, however, far from

The weighted residual method was applied to the problem


of scattering and diffraction of plane elastic waves in the form
of SH-waves by a cavity, inclusion, and tunnel of arbitrary
shape below the surface of a two dimensional half-space. In

99

Health Monitoring and Retrofitting of Large Civil Engineering Structures

We have divided the SHM system into the following four


subsystems. (a) Static field testing, (b) Dynamic field testing,
(c) Periodic monitoring, and (d) Continuous monitoring. It is
noted that many SHM experts do not include the first
subsystem as a part of an SHM system.
muftia@cc.umanitoba.ca

order to demonstrate the versatility of the method, it was


applied to the cases of circular, elliptical, and rectangular
shaped topography. It was shown that the presence of these
discontinuities results in significantly amplified SH-waves on
the surface of the half-space. Amplification profiles for lower
frequency waves were simple, near the expected value of 2 for
a flat half-space surface, with moderate magnification.
Amplification profiles had increasing complexity and
amplitudes for higher frequency incident waves.
Amplifications were symmetrical for vertically incident
waves. As the angle of incidence is varied from vertical, the
amplification profiles were more complex near the leading
edge and simpler near the trailing edge of the topography.
*Associate Professor, Department of Civil Engineering and
Environmental Science, Loyola Marymount University, Los
Angeles, California, USA.
mmanoogi@lmu.edu

MMC2001-876 Friday, June 29, 9:18 AM

Health Monitoring and Management of Highway


Bridges
Darryll Pines, Aerospace Engineering, University of
Maryland, College Park, Maryland, USA
A. Emin Aktan, Mesut Pervizpour, Drexel University, Drexel
Intelligent Infrastructure Institute, Philadelphia, PA, US
The principal advantage we expect from the new paradigm
of infrastructure health monitoring is to be able to proactively
manage health just as in the medical realm, by diagnosing
deterioration and damage at their onset, and for timely
detection and effective response to operational incidents,
accidents, natural hazards and other emergencies.
Presently, we discover deterioration and damage by
visually observing the signs they exhibit after their
progression and taking their toll on reliability, and we have a
large disconnect between operational and structural
maintenance management. Many additional incentives for
health monitoring (HM) of infrastructure systems or their
components are offered in the following.
We note that HM requires and deserves a generalized
theory irrespective of the specifics of infrastructure systems or
components that are monitored. In general, HM of an entire
infrastructure meta-system as opposed to its individual
components is more meaningful and desirable, as this will
permit an integrated, holistic and optimum management of the
entire system's health as opposed to just some of its
components. However, until a generalized theory may be
developed and demonstrated, we have considered highway
bridges as critical system-wide nodes of the highway
transportation system and therefore will focus on a
component-level HM focusing on highway bridges.
The presentation offers a HM demonstration on a longspan bridge
djpterp@eng.umd.edu

Health Monitoring and Retrofitting of


Large Civil Engineering Structures
Session: Session (1)
Friday, June 29, 9:00-10:30
Marina II
Chairs: Urs Sennhauser and A. Emin Aktan
MMC2001-878 Friday, June 29, 9:00 AM

Structural Health Monitoring with a Fresh


Perspective
Aftab A. Mufti, University of Manitoba, ISIS Canada,
Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
Bakht Baidar, JMBT Structures Research Inc., Toronto,
Ontario, Canada
John P. Newhook, Civil Engineering, University of Calgary,
Calgary, Alberta, Canada
Structural health monitoring (SHM) is a relatively new
term for civil engineering applications, for which its definition
is yet to be standardized. For our purposes, we have defined
SHM as a system comprising sensing instruments and other
ancillary systems, which can provide on demand reliable
information pertaining to the safety and integrity of a
structure. SHM is usually a collection of various systems,
being (a) a sensory system, (b) a data acquisition system, (c) a
data processing and archiving system, (d) a communication
system, and (e) a damage detection and modeling system.
Although SHM is a relatively new term in civil
engineering, the use of instruments to assess the health, i.e.
integrity, of structures is not new. Field testing of bridges with
the help of various measuring instruments is a very old
activity. Similarly, the basic instruments proposed to be a part
of an SHM system have been in use for a long time in
structural engineering laboratories around the world. The
intention of this paper is to provide a framework for
consolidating the various basic instruments and technologies
into an integrated system, which can be utilized with
advantage in the maintenance of bridges, buildings, power
plants, offshore platforms, and other significant structures.

MMC2001-602 Friday, June 29, 9:36 AM

Health Monitoring of the Confederation Bridge Dynamic Characteristics of the Bridge


Moe Cheung, Nove Naumoski, Simon Foo, AES Technology, Public Works and Government Services
Canada, Hull, Quebec, Canada
Upon the completion in 1997, the 12.9 km Confederation
Bridge provides traffic link across the Northumberland Strait
in Eastern Canada, between the province of Prince Edward
Island and the province of New Brunswick. It consists of 21
approach spans, and 45 main spans of 250 m each. The bridge
was built of prestressed concrete segments that were

100

Health Monitoring and Retrofitting of Large Civil Engineering Structures

assembled at the site by post-tensioning. Given the importance


of the bridge, a comprehensive health monitoring program was
undertaken to monitor the short- and long-term performance
of the bridge. This program comprises several instrumentation
networks. One of these networks is associated with the
monitoring the dynamic performance of the bridge due to
traffic, wind and seismic motions. This network consists of 76
accelerometers and is known as dynamic instrumentation.
Acceleration time histories (i.e. accelerograms) of the
vibrations of the bridge due to traffic and wind, recorded by
the dynamic instrumentation, were used to determine the
natural frequencies and mode shapes of the bridge. Based on
the Fourier spectra and the displacement time histories derived
from the recorded accelerograms, the natural frequencies and
shapes of the first four vertical modes, the first two lateral
modes, and two torsional modes were determined. These
results are very important for establishing a realistic model of
the Confederation Bridge that is essential for assessment of the
performance of the bridge due to dynamic loads.
moe.cheung@pwgsc.gc.ca

reinforced polymers in civil structure applications. Three sets


of CFRP cables were tested at UCSD's Structural Laboratories
for possible use in the I-5/Gilman bridge. The acoustic
dispersive behavior of the cable systems was identified by
using a laser ultrasonics approach. Acoustic Emission (AE)
testing was performed to monitor cable failure during the
laboratory proof tests. AE proved suitable for detecting cable
failure earlier than any other technique including the
conventional observation of a stiffness change. This study
shows also promises for an effective use of AE in the field.
flanza@ucsd.edu
Session: Session (2)
Friday, June 29, 11:00-12:30
Marina II
Chairs: Glauco Feltrin and Helmut Wenzel
MMC2001-247 Friday, June 29, 11:00 AM

Dynamic Tests on real Bridges till Failure


Helmut Wenzel, VCE, Vienna Consulting Engineers, Vienna,
Vienna, Austria

MMC2001-183 Friday, June 29, 9:54 AM

Health Monitoring of Retrofitted Bridges by Fiber


Optic Sensors

Monitoring has been widely accepted as an assessment


tool. The measurement of ambient vibrations has the
disadvantage that only small amplitudes are recorded and only
linear elastic behavior is represented. System identification
methods lead to an accurate identification of the structural
behavior under service conditions. To predict the behavior
under ultimate conditions numerical models are used. To
verify these calculations, three full scale tests have been
carried out. The goal was to apply progressive damage to real
structures and measure their behavior consequently. A1
Bridge 123a: This 33m single span bridge had to be
demolished because of doubts about the quality of the steel
where stress corrosion has been detected. A1 Bridge Winden:
a three span prestressed concrete structure has been assessed
by the Brimos system and was found to be damaged.
Gurkbrcke Rain: this 5-span reinforced concrete bridge built
in 1936 has to be demolished.
vce@atnet.at

Eric Udd, 2555 NE 205, Blue Road Reserach, Fairview,


Oregon, USA
Whitten Schulz, Marty Laylor, 2555 NE 205, Blue Road
Research, Fairview, Oregon, USA
Daniele Inaudi, Via al Molino 6, Smartec SA, Grancia,
Switzerland
Branko Glisic, Samuel Vurpillot, Marley Kunzler
From many points of view, fiber optic sensors are the ideal
transducers for civil structural monitoring as they are durable
and stable can be configured to be insensitive to undersired
environmental effects. In this paper a series of installations of
retrofitted bridges performed by Smartec and Blue Road
Research will be breifly overviewed and the application of
both SOFO Michelson interferometer based fiber sensors and
Blue Road Research fiber optic grating sensor technology will
be described.
ericudd@aol.com

MMC2001-144 Friday, June 29, 11:18 AM

Damage Assessment Using Vibration Analysis On


The Z24-Bridge

MMC2001-626 Friday, June 29, 10:12 AM

Johan Maeck, Guido De Roeck, Department of Civil


Engineering, K.U.Leuven, Heverlee, Belgium

Acoustic Emission Monitoring of CFRP Cables for


Cable Stayed Bridges

A method of damage detection and quantification is


developed, called direct stiffness calculation (DSC). The
technique is based on the relation that the bending stiffness in
each section of a structure can be written as the quotient of the
modal bending moment to the corresponding modal curvature.
Besides experimental eigenfrequencies, to calculate the modal
inertia forces, also modeshapes are needed to calculate
curvatures. Damage can be directly related to a decrease of
stiffness in the structure. In the framework of Brite Euram
project BE96-3157 SIMCES (System Identification to
Monitor Civil Engineering Structures), the technique is
applied to a prestressed concrete bridge in Switzerland to

Francesco Lanza di Scalea, Piervincenzo Rizzo, Vistasp


Karbhari, Frieder Seible, Structural Engineering,
University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA
Carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) cables are
increasingly used in cable stayed and suspension bridges.
This study is a part of the monitoring plan for the I-5/Gilman
Advanced Technology Bridge Project of the Structural
Engineering Department of the University of California San
Diego. The I-5/Gilman cable stayed bridge is aimed at the
demonstration and capability assessment of advanced fiber

101

Health Monitoring and Retrofitting of Large Civil Engineering Structures

detect, localize and quantify artificially applied damage. A


series of full modal surveys are carried out on the bridge
before and after applying a number of damage scenarios. The
test set-up and damage scenarios are described, and the
solution procedure and experimental validation results are
given. Despite of numerical inaccuracies at some locations of
the bridge, damage was clearly observed and localized for
settlements of 80mm and 95mm.
johan.maeck@bwk.kuleuven.ac.be

Session: Session (3)


Friday, June 29, 1:30-3:00
Marina II
Chairs: Kenneth W. Neale and Masoud Motavalli
MMC2001-868 Friday, June 29, 1:30 PM

Finite Element Modelling of Concrete Structures


Strengthened with Fibre Reinforced Plastics
Geir Horrigmoe, Bjornar Sand, NORUT Technology Ltd.,
Narvik, Norway

MMC2001-494 Friday, June 29, 11:36 AM

The present paper describes the use of nonlinear finite


element analysis for the computation of failure loads of RC
beams strengthened by CFRP. This approach is based on
constitutive modes for concrete that can realistically represent
both compressive crushing and tensile cracking. Plastic
yielding of embedded steel reinforcement is also accounted
for. The behaviour of the CFRP is taken as that of an elastic,
anisotropic material. A key ingredient is the modelling of
delamination between CFRP and concrete. Calculation of
failure loads of strengthened RC beams by means of nonlinear
finite element analysis needs verification. Laboratory tests
were therefore selected for comparison. It is demonstrated that
the numerical simulations are in good agreement with the
experimental data, that is, both failure load and failure mode
are well predicted by the finite element simulations.
Geir.Horrigmoe@tek.norut.no

The Dynamic Mearsurement of The Full Scale Large


Structure
Zonggong Wang, Zhipeng Chen, Zong-Lian Qiu,
Department of Civil Engineering, Tsinghua University,
Beijing, P.R.China
The purpose of the dynamic measurement of full-scale
structures, which are, included Containment of Qin Shan
Nuclear Power Station, 405m height TV Reinforced Concrete
Tower in Beijing and 1377m span Tsing Ma Suspension
Bridge in Hong Kong. The environmental random vibration is
employed in the dynamic measurement of full-scale structures.
Servo accelerometers are used for measuring accelerations.
Frequencies, mode shapes and damping ratios are identified.
The dynamic characteristic data are as basic parameters for
investigating the change of safety of systems in the future, to
supply the computational model for resistant earthquake and
wind design and to examine accuracy of the computation.
wangzg@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn

MMC2001-867 Friday, June 29, 1:48 PM

Numerical Simulations of Deteriorated and Repaired


Concrete Structures

MMC2001-550 Friday, June 29, 11:54 AM


Geir Horrigmoe, NORUT Technology Ltd., Narvik, Norway

Damage Detection on a Highway Bridge by Modal


Analysis Testing

To achieve safe and efficient repair, it is necessary to have


reliable methods for prediction of residual stiffness and
strength of damaged and repaired concrete structures. The
spatial distributions of strains and stresses in such structures
are generally so complex that predictions of the ultimate load
carrying capacity can only be attained by computerized
discretization procedures. The present paper describes how
this problem can be solved by means of nonlinear finite
element simulations. Models representing the constitutive and
kinematical behaviour of deteriorated concrete structures,
including reinforcement corrosion and loss of bond, are
presented. A special method for simulating the true loading
and straining history of reinforced concrete structures
subjected to deterioration and subsequent repair is developed.
The method proposed in the present paper is verified
against published data from laboratory experiments. Both
beams cast with exposed tensile reinforcement and beams
subjected to reinforcement corrosion are considered. For both
categories good agreement between numerical simulations and
test data is achieved.
Geir.Horrigmoe@tek.norut.no

Glauco Feltrin, Jens P. Ulfkjaer, Department of Structural


Engineering, EMPA, Duebendorf, Switzerland
A highway bridge was damaged to investigate the ability
of modal analysis testing and damage detection algorithms to
find cracks on a full scale structure. The Obkirchen highway
bridge was a slightly curved three-span prestressed concrete
structure with spans of 28.5 m, 36.4 m and 28.5 m. The
superstructure was 9.1 m wide and 1.4 m deep and had a boxgirder cross section. The tests were performed in two phases.
During the first phase a permanent monitoring system with 16
accelerometers and 20 temperature sensors was installed to
study the sensitivity of the modal parameters to temperature
and traffic loads. This system was operational from April 2000
to January 2001. In the second phase, which took place in
January 2001, the bridge was progressively damaged. In the
first scenario, the superstructure was lowered up to 600 mm at
the southern abutment. In the second scenario, the bridge was
loaded up to a loading level of 4800 kN at the middle of the
southern span. For the modal tests, the bridge was exited with
a servo-hydraulic shaker. The excitation was a band-limited
random signal with peak loads of 20 kN. In total, nine modal
tests were performed. The results were promising.
glauco.feltrin@empa.ch

102

Health Monitoring and Retrofitting of Large Civil Engineering Structures

shown to contribute to the flexural stiffness in the service load


range. The width of the FRP plate is found to affect the
concrete tension stiffening response.
hayder@ksu.edu

MMC2001-848 Friday, June 29, 2:06 PM

A Novel Approach to Model Delamination Failure in


FRP Strengthened Concrete Beam
Christopher K. Leung, Marcus Klenke, W.K. Tung, Herman
C. Luk, Civil Engineering, Hong Kong University of
Science and Technology, Kowloon, N/A, Hong Kong

Session: Session (4)


Friday, June 29, 3:30-5:00
Marina II
Chairs: Aftab A. Mufti and Christopher K. Leung

The bonding of composite plates to the tensile side of


concrete beams or slabs has recently been accepted as an
effective retrofitting method. A concrete member retrofitted
in this manner often fails through the delamination of the
composite. Most existing models for the analysis of
delamination assume linear elastic material behaviour until
failure, while experimental observations clearly reveal the
occurrence of non-linear damage processes well before the
ultimate load is reached. In this paper, a novel approach for
the analysis of delamination failure is introduced. The
delamination is modelled as a fictitious interfacial crack, with
progressive interfacial damage represented by material
softening at the crack wake.
A combined
experimental/numerical method is developed to determine the
interfacial shear stress vs slip relation. To illustrate the
approach, representative experimental results are shown. From
our results, the softening behaviour exhibits a sharp drop
followed by more progressive weakening, indicating sudden
loss of cohesion/bond at a critical stress level, and a more
gradual reduction in friction with increased sliding and
damage.
ckleung@ust.hk

MMC2001-567 Friday, June 29, 3:30 PM

Behaviour of FRP Sheets Bonded to Concrete


Kenneth W. Neale, Civil Engineering, University of
Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada
Laurent Bizindavyi
Laboratory investigations of the strengthening of concrete
beams with externally-bonded FRPs have shown that
premature failures by debonding can often occur. A better
understanding of the behaviour at the FRP/concrete interface
is thus required. Here we present results from experimental
investigations of bonded FRP/concrete joints subjected to
static and cyclic shear. We first describe our test setups for
single and double lap joints. With these setups it is possible to
investigate the shear conditions at the FRP/concrete interface,
to determine the stress and strain profiles in the FRP, and
make direct measurements of transfer lengths and bond
strengths. The behaviour of the bonded joints is discussed, and
the influence of additional glass fibre anchorage systems on
the overall behaviour of the joints is examined.
kenneth.neale@courrier.usherb.ca

MMC2001-336 Friday, June 29, 2:24 PM

Inelastic Analysis of Concrete Beams Strengthened


with Cross-ply FRP

MMC2001-374 Friday, June 29, 3:48 PM

Hayder Rasheed, Civil Engineering, Kansas State University,


Manhattan, Kansas, USA

Seismic Retrofit of a R/C Building with Carbon


Fiber Reinforced Polymers

Shariq Pervaiz, Biggs Cardosa Associates, Fresno,


California, USA

Oguzhan Bayrak, Department of Civil Engineering, The


University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas, USA

A numerical procedure is developed for the inelastic


analysis of reinforced concrete beams strengthened with crossply FRP plates and subjected to monotonic loading. The
nonlinear response of concrete in compression and tension,
including tension stiffening and local bond-slip effects, is
taken into account. Steel reinforcement is assumed to have a
bilinear behavior. Cross-ply FRP laminates are modeled for
any sequence of 0/90. The section analysis utilizes the finite
layer approach to integrate for the nonlinear section properties
and internal forces. An incremental-iterative algorithm using
the moment of axial rigidity to locate the inelastic centroid is
invoked. The section computations are, then, implemented
within a beam analysis program with a segmented element
model. The section analysis results exhibit excellent
agreement with the experimental response of beams tested by
several researchers, for the cases of properly anchored FRP
plates by means of bolts or metal transverse plates in addition
to epoxy bonding. The experimental response is proven to
undergo overall bond slip softening for bonded plates without
additional anchorage. A simplified slip analysis is
implemented to confirm this conclusion. The 90 plies are

Results from an analytical investigation conducted to


study the ductility demands imposed on reinforced concrete
beams and columns of a three-bay six-story reinforced
concrete frame subjected to earthquake-type loads are
presented. The ultimate goal of this study is to determine the
critical locations in the structure and devise an upgrade
scheme that is consistent with the ductility demands on these
locations. 32 hinges formed at various locations before the
reinforced concrete structure lost its lateral load carrying
capacity. There were 15 column hinge formations just prior to
the collapse. The most critical column hinges exploited their
deformation capacities just prior to the collapse, the most
critical beam hinge, on the other hand, exploited 40% of its
deformation capacity. Hence, it was decided to wrap the
potential plastic hinge regions of the columns with carbon
fiber reinforced polymers. Due to better confinement of the
potential plastic hinge regions of the columns their sectional
deformation capacities increased considerably and the roof
displacement at failure increased by about 56%. In the
upgraded frame, just prior to the collapse, at most column

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Inelastic Behavior of Geomaterials

hinges deformation capacities were completely exploited and


deformation capacities of the beam hinges were exploited to
91%. As a result of the seismic retrofit, lateral load carrying
capacity of the frame increased by 4 % and lateral deformation
capacity increased by about 56%.
bayrak@mail.utexas.edu

the adjoining sections. The tensioning force is then again


slightly reduced, and another section bonded at either side.
The new method allows full exploitation of the high material
strength.
urs.meier@empa.ch

MMC2001-325 Friday, June 29, 4:06 PM

Inelastic Behavior of Geomaterials

Monitoring of CFRP structural elements in bridges

Session: 1: Computational Geomechanics I


Wednesday, June 27, 9:00-10:30
Spinnaker II
Chairs: A. (Rajah) Anandarajah and Yacoub "Jacob"
Najjar

Urs Sennhauser, Peter Anderegg, Electronics / Metrology,


EMPA, Duebendorf, Switzerland
By installing new materials and load bearing elements,
testing and health monitoring became critical for long term
save operation of bridges, despite progress in modeling and
finite element simulation of strength and degradation. Due to
anisotropic mechanical behavior and chemical aging CFRP
belongs to this category of materials with limited long time
experience. Monitoring systems usually drift and fail on
timescales shorter than the expected lifetime of structural
elements. We report on packaging, embedding, reliability and
livetime investigations of sensors and monitoring systems
including well known electrical resistance strain gages and
fiber optic Bragg gratings and on several years of health
monitoring of CFRP cables in bridges. Of special interest is
creep and strain distribution in anchoring given very high
strain levels of up to 1 percent. It is shown that load cycling
from daily and yearly temperature variations is substantial
compared to traffic load due to different thermal expansion
coefficients of CFRP and other materials used in bridge
construction.
urs.sennhauser@empa.ch

MMC2001-218 Wednesday, June 27, 9:00 AM

Risk Assessment of an Interacting Structure-Soil


System Due to Liquefaction
Jean H. Prevost, Phaedon S. Koutsourelakis, George
Deodatis, Civil and Environmental Engineering,
Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, USA
The study deals with the nonlinear stochastic dynamic
analysis of a soil-structure interacting system. The ultimate
objective is to determine the risk of damage to the system due
to liquefaction under a wide range of earthquake intensities. A
Monte Carlo simulation approach is followed in conjunction
with advanced finite element procedures. The soil is modeled
as a two-phase material and two sets of equations are solved
simultaneously (solid-water). Soil properties are modeled as
non-Gaussian random fields and the seismic excitations as
nonstationary random processes. The probabilistic
characteristics of the stochastic field modeling soil properties
are established from in-situ tests. The risk of damage to the
soil-structure system due to liquefaction is assessed by
establishing fragility curves, which are of paramount
importance for risk assessment and management studies of
such systems. The relative effect of the variability of various
soil parameters on the variability of the response is also
examined.
prevost@princeton.edu

MMC2001-136 Friday, June 29, 4:24 PM

How To Make Better Use of the Strength


Urs Meier, Iwan Stoecklin, EMPA, Swiss Federal
Laboratories for Materials Research, Dubendorf, Zurich,
Switzerland
The need for better use of the strength of CFRP laminates
for post-strengthening led us developing a system for
prestressed laminates. A method was developed to allow
variation of the prestress in the laminate. This in turn permits
application of the laminate with a gradual reduction of
prestress to zero at the ends, ruling out the risk of shearing in
the concrete while obviating the need for elaborate end
anchorage. The associated tensioning device, developed at
EMPA, comprises two tensioning units connected to each
other in the required length via a reaction frame. Roughly
three-quarters of the laminate are carried around the
tensioning rollers and the ends clamped in position. The
laminate may then be tensioned to the required level by
turning one of the rollers. As the laminate lies on top of the
top of the tensioning device, it may be offered up directly to
the structural element to be strengthened. Adhesive is applied
to the tensioned laminate, which is offered up to the prepared
substrate. The prestress gradient is achieved by first bonding a
fully pretensioned section in the middle of the laminate, before
slightly easing the tensioning force in the system and bonding

MMC2001-334 Wednesday, June 27, 9:18 AM

Template Elastic-Plastic Framework in


Computational Geomechanics
Boris Jeremic, Zhaohui Yang, Civil and Environmental
Engineering, University of California, Davis, Davis,
California, USA
We present a new approach to computations in elastoplastic geomechanics based on the object oriented design
philosophy and observations
on similarity of most
incremental elastic-plastic material models. This new
approach to elastic-plastic computations in geomechanics
allows for creation of template material models. The analysis
of template material models will in turn allow for an easy
implementation based on the object oriented design
principles. It is important to note that a large majority of
incremental elastic-plastic material models developed for

104

Inelastic Behavior of Geomaterials

geomechanics consist of the three main elements: (a) the


yield functions (surface); (b) the plastic flow direction
(directly or through the potential function); and (c) the
evolution hardening-softening rules. This observation has
practical consequence in that it is possible to unify the
implementation of the incremental elastic-plastic equations
under a single template framework. In addition to that, we
show how to synthesize of novel material models using the
Template framework and perform an easy assessment of
novel material model features ([1]).
References
[1] Jeremic, B., and Yang, Z. Template elasticplastic computations in geomechanics. International
Journal for Numerical
and Analytical Methods in
Geomechanics (2001). Submitted for possible publication:
February 2001.
jeremic@ucdavis.edu

techniques (air pluviated, moist tamped, and moist vibrated).


Undrained cyclic triaxial tests were then performed to
determine the liquefaction resistance. On the same specimens,
vertical and horizontal compression (P) wave velocities, and
vertical shear (S) wave velocity were measured using
piezoelectric bender elements. P-wave velocities in both
directions showed small differences for all specimens, while
S-wave velocities were significantly affected by soil-fabric.
Transversely isotropic elastic constants of specimens were
recovered quantitatively from elastic wave measurements and
consolidation test data. Induced anisotropy due to different
preparation techniques was identified by recovered anisotropic
constants. Accordingly, by using directional variations of
elastic constants, liquefaction cyclic stress ratios were
normalized. It was observed that the anisotropy effects on
liquefaction resistance were eliminated with those anisotropy
indices.
iishibas@odu.edu

MMC2001-224 Wednesday, June 27, 9:36 AM

MMC2001-944 Wednesday, June 27, 10:12 AM

Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis of a Single Pile

Sand Boils and Liquefaction-Induced Lateral


Deformation

A. (Rajah) Anandarajah, Jigang Zhang, Civil Engineering,


Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA

Zhaohui Yang, Ahmed El-Gamal, Structural Engineering,


University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, U.S.A.

When pore pressure buildup during the loading is


insignificant, methods are available for modeling the linear
and nonlinear dynamic behavior of a single pile-soil system.
However, when the pore pressure buildup during the loading
is too large as to produce excessive softening of the stiffness
and strength of soils, the current methods are not effective in
representing the behavior of the pile-soil system. While a
three-dimensional, fully-coupled, elasto-plastic finite element
modeling procedure could in principle capture the behavior, it
is complex, computationally intensive and requires the
determination of several model parameters. To this end, there
is a need for a simpler numerical model that can still account
for the pore pressure induced softening reasonably well. In
this presentation, two methods are discussed. In one of the
methods, the effect of pore water pressure is directly
considered in a nonlinear elastic analysis. An approximate
pore water pressure model is used to compute the pore water
pressure buildup in time domain. In the other, a pile-soil
model based on the Beam on Nonlinear Winkler Foundation
method is coupled with a fully-coupled, elasto-plastic, finite
element model of the free-field.
Rajah@jhu.edu

A mechanism of sand boil development during


liquefaction is briefly discussed. In particular, the impact of
sand boils as potential excess pore-pressure relief mechanisms
is investigated within a computational solid-fluid fully coupled
effective-stress framework. In this regard, sand boils may
contribute to significant reduction in liquefaction-induced
lateral ground deformations (in profiles vulnerable to flow
failure scenarios). Illustrations of representative sand boil
features are discussed, along with related liquefaction
laboratory test results. Thereafter, a computational
investigation is presented to highlight: 1) impact of overall site
permeability in dictating the nature and magnitude of
liquefaction-induced lateral deformation, and 2) potential
effect of sand boils on the magnitude of such deformations.
zyang@monona.ucsd.edu
Session: 2: Computational Geomechanics II
Wednesday, June 27, 11:00-12:30
Spinnaker II
Chairs: Yacoub "Jacob" Najjar and Amy L.
Rechenmacher

MMC2001-254 Wednesday, June 27, 9:54 AM

MMC2001-220 Wednesday, June 27, 11:00 AM

Anisotropy and Its Relation to Liquefaction


Resistance of Granular Material

Quantifying Anisotropy in Asphalt Mixtures Using


Micromechanics Analysis

Isao Ishibashi, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Old


Dominion University, Norfolk, VA, USA

Eyad Masad, Laith Tashman, Department of Civil and Env.


Eng., Washington State University, Pullman, WA, USA

Omer Faruk Capar, Engineering, Zonguldak Karaelmas


University,, Zonguldak, Turkey

Dallas Little, Civil Engineering, Texas A&M University,


College Station, Texas, USA

This research establishes quantitative relationships


between soils anisotropy and liquefaction resistance for
granular materials. Uniform medium dense sand specimens
were prepared using three different sample preparation

The mechanical behavior of bound granular materials such


as asphalt mixtures is anisotropic in nature. However, the
majority of the current mechanical tests and analytical models

105

Inelastic Behavior of Geomaterials

for asphalt mixtures are based on the assumption of isotropic


material properties.
This study investigates the stiffness anisotropy of asphalt
mixtures using micromechanics-based models. The model
parameters are obtained using image analysis procedures. The
internal structure anisotropy is quantified in terms of the
preferred orientation of longest axes of aggregates and their
contacts. The aggregate orientation is found to be better than
contacts in describing asphalt mixture anisotropy.
Finite element analyses of the internal structure are also
used to provide insight into the mixture stiffness anisotropy.
The properties of the mixture components are selected to
represent a wide range of temperatures. The stiffness in the
horizontal direction is shown to be as high as 30% more than
the stiffness in the vertical direction. The stiffness anisotropy
decreases with a decrease in the mixture temperature. The
results are compared with the micromechanics models. The
model derived based on aggregate orientation is shown to have
good correlation with the finite element results.
masad@wsu.edu
MMC2001-818 Wednesday, June 27, 11:18 AM

pavement performance prediction models are used by the


system must provide for determination of the probability of
future condition states following a rehabilitation. POS
pavement prediction models are mechanistic-empirical
equations derived from regression analysis which predict the
probabilities of specific distress levels for critical pavement
distresses as functions of parameters which define the
pavement segment both before and immediately following a
candidate rehabilitation action. The original regression
equations were intended to be upgraded as additional
historical project-level information became available.
Upgrading these prediction models utilizing historical data has
proven to be difficult using statistically-based approaches.
Combined with review of the available independent variables
to be included along with deflection data, back-propagation
artificial neural network (ANN) methodology offered an
attractive alternative approach for developing new pavement
performance prediction models. In this research study, ANN
approach was used to develop efficient pavement performance
prediction models for flexible and rigid pavements in Kansas.
Prediction accuracy of the ANN-based models significantly
exceeded those reported for the currently used models.
ea4146@ksu.edu

Relating the Microstructure of Asphalt Mixtures to


their Constitutive Behavior

MMC2001-813 Wednesday, June 27, 11:54 AM

Modeling Soft Soil Behavior under Vehicle Loads

Tom Papagiannakis, Eyad Masad, Department of Civil and


Env. Eng, Washington State University, Pullman, WA,
USA

Sally A. Shoop, Vincent C. Janoo, Robert B. Haehnel, Cold


Regions Research & Engineering Laboratory, US Army
Corps of Engineer, Hanover, NH, USA

Ala Abbas, Department of Civil and Env Eng, Washington


State University, Pullman, WA, USA

Rosa T. Affleck, Cold Regions Research & Engineering


Laboratory, Rosa.T.Affleck@erdc.usace.army.mil,
Hanover, NH, USA

This study describes a methodology for relating the


microstructure of asphalt concretes to their constitutive
behavior. Imaging techniques are used for capturing the
microstructure of the mixtures and for measuring strains.
Conventional laboratory tests are used for characterizing the
viscoelastic behavior of the binders and mechanical models
are fitted to describe their stress-strain behavior as a function
of temperature, loading frequency and strain level. These
models are programmed in a finite element formulation in
order to describe the behavior of asphalt binder.
Finite element models of the microstructure are analyzed
under dynamic loading to study the relationship between the
behavior of the binder and that of the asphalt concrete. An
incremental iterative procedure is employed in order to
account for the nonlinear behavior of the binder by adjusting
the viscoelastic model parameters according to the strain level.
pappa@wsu.edu

Ernest Berney, Donald Smith, John Peters


A finite element model of soft soil was generated in an
effort to simulate the impacts of thawing soil under vehicle
loading on paved and unpaved roads. Two soils were modeled,
an A-4 silt and a fine silty sand. Both soils are frost
susceptible and were used in full scale tests of paved and
unpaved road sections in CRREL's Frost Effects Research
Facility (FERF). The soils were subjected to a full suite of
saturated and unsaturated triaxial testing under conditions
similar to those experienced during the freeze-thaw testing in
FERF.
Two constitutive models were used to simulate the thawed
soil: a capped Drucker-Prager plasticity model, and a new
model being developed by Peters, Smith and Berney at GSL.
This new model is called the Multi-Mechanical Model
(MMM) and is specifically designed to address the behavior of
granular material based on a special case of Valanis'
Endochronic theory as extended to soil of Valanis and Peters.
The MMM was recently implemented to simulate cyclic
loading of an airfield pavement by Smith (2000). This project
hopes to extend the applicability of the model to low density,
soft silty soils, which are commonly at issue in seasonal
pavement design.
The constitutive models for thawing soils will be
implemented in FE simulations of a conventional pavement
section subjected to loading by a Heavy Vehicle Wheeled

MMC2001-210 Wednesday, June 27, 11:36 AM

Pavement Performance Prediction Models via ANN


Approach
Yacoub "Jacob" Najjar, Civil Engineering, Kansas State
University, Manhattan, Kansas, USA
A basic assumption in the current KDOT Project
Optimization System (POS) is the pavement performance is
probabilistic in nature. Consistent with this assumption,

106

Inelastic Behavior of Geomaterials

Simulator, and an unpaved secondary road subjected to local


vehicle traffic. When fully operational, simulations will be
validated using instrumented test sections and vehicle
measurements from freeze-thaw experiments.
Sally.A.Shoop@erdc.usace.army.mil

MMC2001-225 Wednesday, June 27, 1:30 PM

devised by means of a simulated flexible membrane-system,


while the rigid displacement boundary is implemented either
in terms of force or displacement control.Numerical
simulations of true-triaxial cubical, axisymmetric triaxialprismatic, direct shear, direct simple shear, pull-out and
penetration tests are performed, where the intermediate
principal stress (traction) is varied between the major and
minor stresses, or where different pure displacement or mixed
traction-displacement conditions are applied. In general, the
analysis results compare favorably with data obtained in
related laboratory tests.
Lijian.Gong@colorado.edu

Microstructural Constitutive Model for Sands

MMC2001-499 Wednesday, June 27, 2:06 PM

A. (Rajah) Anandarajah, Civil Engineering, Johns Hopkins


University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA

An Anisotropic Parameter for Critical State


Modeling of Sand Response

The stress-strain behavior of sands is complex involving


nonassociated flow rule, density and deviatoric hardening, etc.
While the use of elaso-plastic modeling framework yields
powerful and practical models to describe such a complex
behavior, most existing models involve numerous model
parameters, with most of them lacking physical meaning. In
addition, extensive laboratory testing is needed to determine
the required parameters. To this end, micromechanical or
microstructural models could potentially alleviate some of the
problems inherent in the elasto-plastic models. The stress
dilatancy theory of Rowe (1962) is an example in this
direction. Following Rowes (1962) attempt, several other
models have been recently proposed, some of which are
entirely micromechanical in nature, and the others integrate
microstructural concepts into the elasto-plastic framework in
producing models which have some physical meaning. In this
presentation, using the idea of force chains, some
microstructural equations are developed for the flow rule and
yielding, and combined with the theory of plasticity to
describe some aspects of the behavior of sands. The
theoretical results are compared with laboratory results on the
stress-strain behavior of sands.
Rajah@jhu.edu

X.S. Li, Civil Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science


& Technology, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China

Session: 3: Constitutive Modeling of Soils I


Wednesday, June 27, 1:30-3:00
Spinnaker II
Chairs: Yannis F. Dafalias and Majid T. Manzari

A critical state framework based on the concept of state


dependent dilatancy was modified for modeling inherently
anisotropic sand behavior is presented. In the framework, a
second order fabric tensor is employed to describe the material
inherent anisotropy; and the critical state line in the e-p plane
is assumed to be a function of a scalar variable, A, that
represents the material anisotropic state. To be objective, A
was chosen to be a joint invariant of the stress tensor and the
fabric tensor. This approach results in a unique critical state
surface in e-p-A space, which, in conjunction with the critical
state stress ratio, M, serves as a reference to quantify soil
dilatancy. With the proposed framework, both the contractive
and dilative responses of sand over a wide range of variations
in stress and material states can be simulated with a single set
of material constants. The variations in stress-strain-strength
responses associated with different shear modes, and/or due to
changes in principal stress directions, are properly
reflected.With a set of 15 unified model constants, the
proposed model was able to simulate a total of 43 test results
on dry-deposited Toyoura sand under various combinations of
principal stress directions (or sample orientations),
intermediate principal stress values, and soil densities. The
correct trend of the model simulations indicates that the
anisotropic state variable, A, is a good index for the
characterization of the effect of the anisotropic fabric on the
stress-strain-strength response of sand.
xsli@ust.hk

MMC2001-310 Wednesday, June 27, 1:48 PM

Discrete Element Modeling of Three-Dimensional


Assemblies of Ellipsoidal Particles
Lijian Gong, Stein Sture, Civil, Env., and Arch. Engineering,
University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, Colorado,
USA

MMC2001-576 Wednesday, June 27, 2:24 PM

Three-dimensional micromechanical computational


studies of assemblies of ellipsoidal particles are presented.
Uniform or specified size distributions of particle assemblies
are pluviated into the analysis domain by means of gravity
with specified boundaries or isotropically compressed under
displacement or traction boundary conditions. The technique
for detecting and defining contacts between the ellipsoidal
particles is described. The constitutive or stiffness behavior at
the particle contacts is described by standard nonlinear elastic
Hertz and load-history dependent elastic-plastic slip Mindlin
models. A technique for handling both displacement and
traction boundaries is developed. The traction boundary is

Modeling Of Granular Soils At Low And Moderate


Effective Stresses Using A Critical State Stress-Ratio
Plasticity Model
Yannis F. Dafalias, Civil and Environmental Engineering,
The University of California, Davis, Davis, CA, USA
Majid T. Manzari, Civil and Environmental Engineering,
George Washington University, Washington, DC, USA
A stress-ratio controlled, critical state compatible, sand
plasticity model is presented. The model is based on standard

107

Inelastic Behavior of Geomaterials

formulation of plasticity with a yield surface that undergoes


isotropic and kinematic hardening. The desired variation of
the plastic modulus is achieved by using bounding surface
concept. Simple expressions are used to relate the dilatancy of
the soil and hardening of the yield surface to state parameter,
psi (difference between current void ratio and the
corresponding critical state void ratio). The simulative
capability of the model is illustrated by comparison of the
model simulations with experimental data reported on
Toyoura sand. It is observed that using a rather simple series
of plasticity equations in triaxial space, the drained and
undrained responses of the soil over a wide range of pressures
and densities can be captured by using only one set of model
parameters. At low effective stresses a small modification of
the yield condition allows a more stable numerical
implementation while simultaneously addressing, at least
qualitative, observations made during micro-gravity
experiments. The performance of the model is also
demonstrated in the analysis of seismic response of naturally
deposited saturated granular soils. It is shown that fabricrelated parameters embedded in the formulation, are essential
in capturing the accurate settlements and accounting for initial
fabric effects via the concept of directional anisotropic void
ratio.
yfdafalias@ucdavis.edu

the effect of any pore fluid introduced through its volumetric


stiffness.
parduino@u.washington.edu
Session: 4: Constitutive Modeling of Soils II
Wednesday, June 27, 3:30-5:00
Spinnaker II
Chairs: Stein Sture and A. (Rajah) Anandarajah
MMC2001-577 Wednesday, June 27, 3:30 PM

Issues on the Elastoplastic Constitutive Modeling of


Clays
Yannis F. Dafalias, Civil and Environmental Engineering,
University of California, Davis, Davis, CA, USA
The constitutive modeling of clays using the mathematical
theory of elastoplasticity is one of the most developed area in
theoretical and applied soil mechanics, with the central idea
that of a critical state. Yet there are some issues which have
never been rigorously addressed. The present work will
present a few of these issues in a way which will be proved
beneficial to many researchers in this area, since the
presentation will be general enough for application to different
cases. In essence these issues can be expressed in the form of
questions that apparently have not had clear cut answers so
far. Such are
1. Is a critical state line in e-p space unique in view of
material anisotropy?
2. How is anisotropic elasticity effecting the undrained
stress path and the Ko value predicted by an elastoplastic clay
constitutive model?
3. Is a non associative flow rule effecting the undrained
stress path and Ko value or not, and if yes in which way
exactly?
4. Does the answer to the previous question depend on
existing elastic and/or plastic anisotropy? Does it depend on
evolving anisotropy?
The answers to these questions have more than academic
interest and are of great importance in constitutive modeling.
Examples will illustrate the general conclusions.
yfdafalias@ucdavis.edu

MMC2001-990 Wednesday, June 27, 2:42 PM

UW-Sand: A Simple Constitutive Model for


Liquefiable Soils
Pedro Arduino, Steven L. Kramer, Dave Baska, Civil &
Environmental Engineering, University of Washington,
Seattle, WA, USA
The rapid evolution of computer hardware and
programming environments has brought about remarkable
advances in computing capabilities, which, together with new
constitutive models, have greatly enhanced the predictive
value of current geotechnical numerical analyses. In fact, a
wide variety of plasticity models of increasing complexity
have been developed to address various complex aspects of
soil behavior by including concepts such as bounding and
loading surfaces, nested yield surfaces, kinematic or combined
hardening rules and non-associated flow rules. However, the
growth in sophistication has a down side from the standpoint
of practical usefulness. Especially, for models that are
sufficiently general, the number of model parameters and
internal variables necessary for describing the complexities of
material behavior has made it difficult to identify them with
physically meaningful material constants.
In this context, the primary focus of this research was to
formulate and implement a simple model of sufficient
generality to address the behavior of liquefiable soils. The
controlling philosophy behind this new model has been one of
simplicity, and avoidance of unnecessary complexity. The
model can be described as an elasto-plastic effective stress
formulation and it is expressed in terms of well known
geotechnicals parameters; viz. G/Gmax degradation curves,
shear wave velocity, Vs, SPT values, and peak friction angle,
f. The model represents the behavior of the soil skeleton, with

MMC2001-500 Wednesday, June 27, 3:48 PM

Seepage Effects on Flow Deformation of Earth Dam


X.S. Li, H.Y. Ming, Civil Engineering, Hong Kong University
of Science & Technology, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China
Performance based design has become a recent trend in
geotechnical practice. Evaluation of post-liquefaction flow
deformation is now a central part in design and remediation of
earth dams. The extent of flow deformation is crucially
affected by the driving force acting. Seepage force is one of
the driving forces acting on the soil skeleton, which play the
same role as the gravitational force in terms of driving soils
away from their in situ positions upon liquefaction. The
seepage driving force, however, was often overlooked in
seismic analyses. The impact of this ignorance was unclear.

108

Integration and Reliability of New Materials in Integrated Circuit Fabrication: Copper Interconnects and Low K.
Dielectrics
Seepage effects are naturally integrated in a fully coupled
effective stress procedure. This paper presents a set of such
fully coupled finite element analyses on the Upper San
Fernando Dam, with the objective of evaluating the impact of
the seepage force on the post-liquefaction deformations of an
earth dam. The Upper San Fernando Dam experienced a
significant but limited deformation during the 1971
earthquake. In the analyses, a newly developed constitutive
model based on the concept of state-dependent dilatancy was
employed to describe granular soil behavior over the full range
of loading conditions encountered. The results show that the
effects of seepage driving force are indeed significant and
should be taken into account in performance evaluations and
back analyses.
xsli@ust.hk

developed during earthquakes on elements of soil behind


slopes, the anisotropic soil conditions were considered during
this research project.
The limited testing program included undrained cyclic
triaxial tests on samples prepared by two methods of sample
preparation to represent uniform and layered soil conditions.
The anisotropic stress ratio, Kc (the ratio of major to minor
principle stress on a soil element prior to the earthquake) will
vary depending on the slope of the soil deposit and the
position of the soil element. The preliminary results have
indicated as Kc increased, the liquefaction resistance also
increased for the layered soil condition.
This research was supported by the ARO under grant
numbers 32451-GS-ISP and 32708-AAS, and in part by the
NSF under grant No. HRD-9627989, and the AFOSR under
grant No. F49620-97-0345. The supports are gratefully
appreciated.
Amini, F. and Qi, G. Z. (2000). "Liquefaction Testing of
Layered Silty Sands," Journal of Geotechnical and
Geoenvironmental Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 126, No. 3, 208217.
famini@jsums.edu

MMC2001-707 Wednesday, June 27, 4:06 PM

The Influence of Consolidation History of Sands on


Critical State Line Position
Amy L. Rechenmacher, Civil Engineering, Johns Hopkins
University, Baltimore, MD, USA
Richard J. Finno, Civil Engineering, Northwestern
University, Evanston, IL, USA

Integration and Reliability of New


Materials in Integrated Circuit Fabrication:
Copper Interconnects and Low K.
Dielectrics

A series of drained biaxial compression tests were


conducted on two sands to verify the uniqueness of the critical
state void ratio-effective stress relationship for different
consolidation histories. Dense to medium dense specimens
were consolidated along one or the other of two paths in void
ratio?effective stress space, creating two distinct consolidation
histories for each sand. Since the sands were dilative, strains
localized during shearing, and the evolution to critical state
occurred only within the shear band. Digital images of the inplane deformations were captured through a Plexiglas sidewall
throughout each test. Digital Image Correlation (DIC) was
used to quantify shear band displacements, and a linear
regression approach was used to formulate displacement
functions from which strains were computed. A critical state
of shearing at constant stress and volume was achieved within
the shear band in each test, but each consolidation history
resulted in a separate critical state line. Hence, the critical
state line was found to depend on the consolidation history,
and hence initial structure, of sand specimens.
alr@jhu.edu

Session: 1
Thursday, June 28, 3:30-5:00
Executive Conference Center 2B
Chairs: Robert F. Cook and Barry N. Lucas
MMC2001-427 Thursday, June 28, 3:30 PM

Adhesion and Mechanical Reliability of New Low-K


Materials for Interconnect Structures
Keynote
Reinhold H. Dauskardt, Department of Materials Science and
Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA
The development and implementation of new low-K
dielectric materials represents a critical step in the drive
towards increasing density and improved performance of
ULSI technologies. The reliability of these dielectric
materials in multi-layer thin-film structures are profoundly
influenced by their adhesion with adjacent barrier layers and
substrates. Cracking events may occur in the layers
themselves, particularly where brittle porous dielectrics are
concerned. Subcritical debonding and cracking are associated
with moisture enhanced stress corrosion mechanisms and
accelerated during chemical mechanical polishing operations
or high temperature processing steps.
Adhesion and integrity of the constituent interfaces are
closely related to chemistry and processing conditions. These
determine key interfacial parameters, such as interfacial
chemistry and morphology, residual stress levels and

MMC2001-509 Wednesday, June 27, 4:24 PM

Behavior of Anisotropically Consolidated Layered


Silty Sands under Liquefaction Conditions
Farshad Amini, Department of Civil Engineering, Jackson
State University, Jackson, MS, USA
Although layered soils are often encountered in alluvial
deposits and hydraulic fill, which have a history of
liquefaction during earthquakes, their behavior are not very
well understood. Limited studies of the liquefaction behavior
of layered silty sands and sand-silt-gravel composites have
been recently performed. Those studies were limited to the
isotropic soil conditions. To simulate cyclic loading conditions

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Integration and Reliability of New Materials in Integrated Circuit Fabrication: Copper Interconnects and Low K.
Dielectrics
adjoining microstructures. These issues are addressed in a
range of new dielectric materials including oxides and
polymers. The important effect of dielectric composition and
plastic deformation in adjacent ductile layers on mechanical
and adhesive properties will be examined and compared with
the results from multi-scale simulations. Models describing
the kinetics of subcritical debonding including the effects of
environment and temperature are reviewed.
dauskardt@stanford.edu

indentation load and radial crack length, measured optically,


fracture toughness of thin films was calculated.
Film adhesion was measured using the superlayer
indentation test. A compressed TiW superlayer was deposited
on top of the films, providing stored elastic energy to
propagate indentation-induced delamination. These were
cross-sectioned using Focused Ion Beam. For most of the
structures the crack propagated in the low-K film layer,
implying that the interfacial toughness exceeds the film
toughness. Given that the crack propagates through the low-K
and based on resultant strain energy release rate calculations,
film toughness on the order of 0.05 MPa*m1/2 is estimated.
This agrees with the film toughness calculated from the
critical film cracking thickness based on the knowledge of
residual stress.
alex.volinsky@motorola.com

MMC2001-343 Thursday, June 28, 4:06 PM

Adhesion of Dielectrics: Porosity and Chemistry


Effects
Michael Lane, TJ Watson Research Center, IBM, Yorktown
Heights, NY, USA
The drive for faster interconnects dictates that materials
with a dielectric constant, k, lower than that of SiO2 (k ~ 3.9)
must be incorporated into future device technologies. A
number of candidates ranging from organic to inorganic films
have emerged. However, the general consensus is that solid
films will not be able to provide the ultra low dielectric
constant (k 2.0) needed for future applications. To this end,
dielectrics which contain embedded voids have been proposed
to lower the dielectric constant towards that of air (k ~ 1.0).
While inserting voids into a material may produce favorable
results in regards to electrical properties, it may have
deleterious effects on the mechanical properties of the
material. Accordingly, this work focuses on adhesion of
porous MSSQ films and the their mechanical reliability.
Correlations between the measured adhesion values and the
onset of open celled porosity are observed and it is shown that
open celled porosity leads to a change in fracture path from
interfacial failure to cohesive failure.
mwlane@us.ibm.com

MMC2001-869 Thursday, June 28, 4:42 PM

Environmental Effects On Stress-Corrosion


Cracking Of Organosilicate Glass (Osg) Low-K
Dielectric Films
Ting Tsui, Andrew Mckerrow, PEMT, Texas Instruments,
Dallas, TX, US
Dylan Morris, Materials Science, University of Minnesota,
Minneapolis, MN, US
Low dielectric constant materials of a wide variety are
currently being evaluated as replacements for silicon dioxide,
SiO2, in high performance interconnects. In all cases the
mechanical properties (modulus, hardness, and fracture
toughness) of such low-k materials differ considerably from
those of SiO2 . Another significant difference between
standard Pe-CVD SiO2 films and most low-k materials is that
films of the former are characterized by compressive residual
stress at room temperature, while films of the latter are
typically tensile. One of the challenges associated with
interconnect fabrication using such low-k materials is the
potential for stress-corrosion cracking in the presence of an
aqueous environment; a process that requires a tensile driving
force and chemical bonding in the film that can be hydrolyzed
at the crack tip. One class of low-k films, organosilicate
glasses (OSG), are integrated with tensile stress, contain Si-O
bonds that are susceptible to chemical hydrolysis, and are
therefore candidates for stress corrosion cracking. To better
understand the fracture properties of OSG materials the
steady-state crack velocity under different aqueous
environments were measured. It was observed that moisture
absorption reduces the film residual stress and crack velocity
significantly. The pH of the reactive environment is shown to
have a discernable effect on the steady-state cracking velocity.
The relationship between the chemical makeup of the films
and the corresponding resistance to stress-corrosion cracking
will be discussed.
ttsui@ti.com

MMC2001-338 Thursday, June 28, 4:24 PM

Fracture Toughness and Adhesion of Low K


Dielectric Thin Films
Alex A. Volinsky, Joseph B Vella, Indira S Adhihetty,
Process and Materials Characterization Lab, Motorola,
Mesa, AZ, USA
Burt W Fowler, APRDL, Motorola, Austin, TX, USA
William W. Gerberich
Low-K materials bring up tremendous integration
problems for the microelectronics industry. Silica-based
porous films are being studied for low-k applications, and
typically have low elastic modulus of 1 to 10 GPa and
relatively high hardness of 0.5 to 1.5 GPa. With the high
hardness to modulus ratios low fracture toughness is expected.
Low-K films of different thicknesses were deposited on Si
wafers using a CVD process. At 3 um thickness LowK films
exhibited residual stress relief by cracking. Film mechanical
properties were measured with nanoindentation. An
indentation method utilizing a cube corner indenter was used
to induce radial cracks in these low-K films. Based on the

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Integration and Reliability of New Materials in Integrated Circuit Fabrication: Copper Interconnects and Low K.
Dielectrics
The model for the thickness dependent glass transition
temperature is also discussed with the experimentally
observed relationships among glass transition temperature and
the film thickness.
zhouh@uci.edu

Session: 2
Friday, June 29, 9:00-10:30
Executive Conference Center 2B
Chairs: Reinhold H. Dauskardt and Ting Tsui
MMC2001-624 Friday, June 29, 9:00 AM

Fracture and Reliability of Low-Dielectric-Constant


Thin Films

MMC2001-870 Friday, June 29, 9:36 AM

Mechanical aspect of ultra low-k materials

Robert F. Cook, Chemical Engineering and Materials


Science, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN,
USA

Atsushi Shiota, Eiji Hayashi, Michinori Nishikawa, Kinji


Yamada, Tsukuba Research Lab, JSR Corporation,
Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan

For the last 30 years, it could be argued, electrical


interconnection arrays in microelectronic devices have been
massively mechanically over designed. Arrays consist of a
structural supporting element, formed from dielectric films,
and electrically conducting elements, in the form of fine metal
lines. The structural dielectric supports the metal
lineschemical vapor deposited oxide and nitride films used in
this role are dense, stiff, hard and tough, with material
properties often approaching their bulk counterparts. As a
consequence, interconnection arrays have been more than able
to withstand the mechanical rigors of device fabrication,
including those of chemical mechanical polishing, dicing and
packaging. In this presentation, the fracture properties of
porous, silsesquioxane-based, low-k materials will be
considered, with a view to optimizing reliability of the
materials during both processing and in use. The general
aspects of stress-corrosion cracking in aqueous environments
will be considered, including the effects of film thickness,
processing time and temperature and relative humidity of the
environment.
rfc@cems.umn.edu

JSR have successfully developed low-k dielectric


materials for future high performance logic semiconductor
products. The materials are based upon an organo siloxane
compound and cover a wide range of dielectric constant from
k=2.8 to 1.8. The materials are easily deposited on a silicon
substrate with a spin-on method and followed by an
adequate cure process with a furnace or a hotplate. A material
with k=2.2 is of our typical product line and is being widely
evaluated in semiconductor manufactures as a dielectrics for
0.1 m technology node. The elastic modulus of 4.5 GPa and
the density of 1.0 g/cm3 are significantly lower than those of a
thermal oxide and a d-TEOS. Because of these big differences
in mechanical properties, current damascene integration
technologies for 0.18 m and 0.15 m devices may not be
directly applied for the low-k integration. Particularly, a cap
deposition, and CMP process should be well managed for a
successful structure build in mechanical point of view.
Atsushi_Shiota@jsr.co.jp
MMC2001-345 Friday, June 29, 9:54 AM

Frequency Specific, Depth-Sensing Indentation


Testing of low-k, low-modulus Films

MMC2001-572 Friday, June 29, 9:18 AM

Thermal reliability of CVD low-dielectric thin and


ultrathin film

Barry N. Lucas, Jack C. Hay, Product Development, Fast


Forward Devices, LLC, Knoxville, TN, USA

Hong Zhou, Kim Hyungkun, Frank Shi, Optoelectronics


Packaging Laboratory, School of Engineering,
University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA, USA

Jennifer L. Hay, Erik G. Herbert, Analytical Services, MTS


Systems Corp., Oak Ridge, TN, USA
Frequency-specific, depth-sensing indentation testing has
become the method of choice for measuring the mechanical
properties, specifically the Youngs modulus and hardness, of
low-k films that are being evaluated for integration into the
next generation of semiconductor devices. While this
technique is an accurate, reproducible, and fully automated
method for obtaining load, displacement and elastic contact
stiffness data, all of the required information necessary to
calculate a materials hardness and Youngs modulus, these
data are often used in analytical models that have been
developed for homogeneous, monolithic or bulk materials.
Due to the wide variety of film morphologies, and therefore
possible types of deformation, and the large mismatch
between the effective modulus of the film and the modulus
of the substrate, the application of models developed for bulk
materials can result in a number of problems or errors. This
talk will briefly discuss the experimental technique used to
acquire the data but will focus on the interpretation of the
results citing some specific examples and case histories that

Bin Zhao, Conexant System Inc., Newport Beach, CA, USA


The low-dielectric constant materials are needed for ULSI
inter-level dielectric applications. With the ever-present drive
towards smaller circuits, the thickness of thin and ultra-thin
films becomes an important design parameter. For those thin
glassy polymer films, the glass transition temperature is a
critical material property determining their thermal reliability.
Therefore, characterization of the effect of interconnect
scaling of low-k dielectric material on the thermal behavior is
desirable to provide thermal design guidelines in the future.
Moreover, needs exist for understanding the possible
thickness-induced thermal reliability of low-k polymer thin
films for deep-submicron multilevel interconnection
applications. In the present work, thermal reliability of CVD
low dielectric thin film ranging from 24 to 1244nm is
investegated. The glass transition temperature of the CVD
low-k thin films turned out to be thickness dependent and can
be attributed to surface/film and substrate/film interaction.

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Integration and Reliability of New Materials in Integrated Circuit Fabrication: Copper Interconnects and Low K.
Dielectrics
have been encountered over the past two years as well as the
results of FEM simulations that have been performed to better
understand the shortcomings of the current analytical models
commonly used.
blucas@ffdevices.com

Session: 3
Friday, June 29, 11:00-12:30
Executive Conference Center 2B
Chairs: John C. Bravman and Matthew R. Begley

MMC2001-382 Friday, June 29, 10:12 AM

Microstructure of Ultra-High Vacuum Sputtered Cu


and Cu-Al Alloy Films

MMC2001-359 Friday, June 29, 11:00 AM

Nanostrucutres And Micromechanical Properties Of


Low-Dielectric Organosilicate Thin Films Modified
By Plasma Treatment

Keynote
Dirk Weiss, Oliver Kraft, Eduard Arzt, Prof. E. Arzt, MaxPlanck-Institut fuer Metallforschung, Stuttgart, Germany

Kookheon Char, Sang-Hyon Chu, S. H. Kim, School of


Chemical Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul,
Korea

Our previous research showed that the thermomechanical


properties of pure Cu and dilute Cu-Al alloy films are
different. Here we present a detailed study on the
microstructure evolution in pure Cu and self-passivated Cu1at.%Al alloy films. The films were deposited by magnetron
sputtering under ultra-high vacuum (UHV) conditions on
diffusion-barrier (SiNx) coated Si substrates. After annealing
in UHV, pure Cu films exhibited large, columnar grains with a
strong and extremely sharp {111} texture. The grains were
almost free of twins. This microstructure differs substantially
from that of Cu films produced under conventional highvacuum conditions, which show a smaller grain size, a less
sharp texture, and a high degree of twinning. Al alloying had
no measurable effect on grain size, texture, and twinning,
which is explained by the miscibility of 1at.% Al and Cu.
However, detrimental changes in film morphology were
observed after post-annealing oxidation of Cu-Al alloy films
at temperatures above 400 C under controlled conditions in
the UHV-sputtering chamber. Large voids were observed at
grain boundaries and grain-boundary triple junctions. Voids
were not found in an oxidized pure Cu film, nor in a Cu1at.%Al film which was annealed but not oxidized. Voiding is
explained as a consequence of the aluminum oxide surface
layer formed by Al segregation and oxidation.
weiss@finix.mpi-stuttgart.mpg.de

H. S. Sim, Semiconductor Materials Laboratory, Korea


Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul, Korea
Y.T. Kim, J.-H. Hahn, J.-K. Lee, D.Y. Yoon
In BEOL applications for advanced ULSI microelectronic
devices, organosilicate low dielectric materials have
advantages such as good gap filling capability, excellent
planarization, and low cost. Poly(methyl-silsesquioxane)
(PMSSQ) and its derivatives are the leading candidates and
they have intrinsically low dielectric constants (k ~ 2.8). In
this regard, micromechanical properties of the PMSSQ thin
films are quite important since the films should withstand
severe mechanical stress conditions generated by the chemical
mechanical planarization (CMP) process and the thermal
expansion mismatch of the multilevel low dielectric film with
a underlying silicon layer. In this study, the surface of PMSSQ
thin films was selectively modified using NH3 plasma
treatment to improve the surface hardness, an important
micromechanical property for CMP in the dual damascene
process. Hardness and elastic modulus of the modified
organosilicate films were measured by a nanoindenter with a
continuous stiffness measurement (CSM) option, determining
the existence of a harder surface layer formed on the original
films. FT-IR analyses also showed that the nitrogen atom
bombardment produced longer siloxane chains in the
organosilicate films, resulting in a denser and harder surface
layer. The plasma treatment was performed, under various
conditions such as plasma treatment time and temperature, to
investigate their effects on micromechanical properties and to
minimize the increase of dielectric constants.
khchar@plaza.snu.ac.kr

MMC2001-355 Friday, June 29, 11:36 AM

Constitutive Response of Passivated Copper Films:


Experiments, Analyses and Implications
Yu-Lin Shen, Department of Mechanical Engineering, The
University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico,
USA
Upadrasta Ramamurty, Department of Metallurgy, Indian
Institute of Science, Bangalore, INDIA
The constitutive behavior of passivated copper films is
studied. Stresses in copper films of thicknesses 1000 nm, 400
nm and 40 nm, passivated with silicon oxide on a quartz or
silicon substrate, were measured using the curvature method.
The thermal cycling spans a temperature range from -196 to
600C. It is seen that the strong relaxation at high temperatures
normally found in unpassivated films is nonexistent for
passivated films. The copper film did not show any ratedependent effect over a range of heating/cooling rate from 5 to
25 C/min. Further analyses showed that significant strain
hardening exists during the course of thermal loading. In

112

Integration and Reliability of New Materials in Integrated Circuit Fabrication: Copper Interconnects and Low K.
Dielectrics
particular, the measured stress-temperature response can only
be fitted with a kinematically hardening model, if a simple
constitutive law within the continuum plasticity framework is
to be used. This is drastically different from the unpassivated
and passivated aluminum films and unpassivated copper films.
It will have direct bearing on the stress modeling of copper
interconnects in actual devices. Examples will be presented,
and the possible microstructural mechanisms responsible for
this unique feature will be discussed. Isothermal stress
relaxation at fixed temperatures between 300 and 400C was
also measured. Without the influence of continuous thermal
loading and strain hardening, the relaxation is shown to follow
a power law-type behavior with high stress exponent and
activation energy, compared to bulk polycrystalline copper.
The possible causes will be addressed.
shenyl@me.unm.edu

A novel technique, based on the widely used modified


Edge Lift-off Test (m-ELT) [1], is developed to characterize
the adhesion at interfaces for thin films under thermal cycling.
The test consists of coating a layer of epoxy onto a rigid
substrate containing the thin film of interest and dicing the
substrate into long strips. A weak interface is artificially
created by partially depositing a thin gold layer between the
epoxy coating and rigid substrate. These strips are then
subjected to temperature excursions that induce the stresses
(due to mismatch in coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) in
the materials system) required to propagate the interfacial
crack. The critical temperature at which the delamination
propagation occurs is recorded. By using a numerical
procedure, the interfacial fracture mechanics parameters, i.e.,
critical strain energy release rate Gc and mode-mixity , for the
thin-film is then calculated.

MMC2001-690 Friday, June 29, 11:54 AM

Session: 4
Friday, June 29, 1:30-3:00
Executive Conference Center 2B
Chairs: William W. Gerberich and Paul Besser

Quantifying Mechanical Stresses in Copper


Interconnects

MMC2001-882 Friday, June 29, 1:30 PM

Paul Besser, AMD-Motorola Alliance Logic Technology,


Advanced Micro Devices, Austin, TX, USA

In-Situ Dynamic Studies of Electromigration in


Copper Metallizations

Matthew Herrick, AMD-Motorola Alliance Logic Technology,


Digital DNA Labs, Motorola, Austin, TX, USA

Keynote

The mechanical stress state of inlaid Cu lines has been


determined using X-Ray diffraction methods. The strain was
measured on an array of critical-dimension lines on a product
die, and the method for determining stress will be detailed.
The mechanical stress levels in Cu lines has been measured as
a function of linewidth in the unpassivated and passivated
state. It will be shown that the magnitude of stress in inlaid Cu
lines is different than that for Al and that the inlaid fabrication
method affects the stress state. The stresses have been
measured in-situ during annealing and also as a function of
annealing temperature. It will be shown that the stress state of
the Cu lines is a function of the post-plating anneal
temperature and that the stress of passivated Cu lines is linear
with temperature. The implications for processing and
reliability will be discussed.
paul.besser@amd.com

John C. Bravman, Jonathan Doan, Seok-Hee Lee, Nicole


Meier, Materials Science & Engineering, Stanford
University, Stanford, CA, USA
Paul Flinn
With the development of Cu--based interconnect
technology it is expected that electromigration as a reliability
concern will diminish in importance, but with the extreme
process sensitivity of copper microstructure and stress state,
and the growing use of low-k, highly compliant dielectrics,
reliability remains an issue. The use of high voltage scanning
electron microscopy for dynamic studies of electromigration
behavior in interconnects will be described. Images are
obtained with a backscattered electron detector, which
provides usable signals from patterned metallization lines
beneath typical IC passivation layers of oxides or nitrides.
Resolutions on the order of 50nm can be obtained, even
through 1um of passivation. Although this does not permit
initial nucleation events to be imaged, it does allow for
detailed studies of void growth and evolution to be made as a
function of current, temperature, line alloy content, time, etc.
By combining these studies with conventional TEM studies of
lines which have had their passivation removed, we can add
information concerning the crystallography and microstructure
of nucleation sites, voids, and other features of interest.
bravman@stanford.edu

MMC2001-991 Friday, June 29, 12:12 PM

Characterization of Interfacial Fracture Properties


for Thin Films
T.-C. Chiu, V. Sundararaman, A. Hernandez-Luna, C.
Hartfield, Texas Instruments Incorporated, Dallas, TX,
USA
As integrated circuit technology is scaled into the deep
sub-micron regime, the problems associated with interconnect
are ever more pressing and could potentially become a
roadblock to progress. The use of copper/low-k for chip level
interconnect introduces a new materials set into the
interconnect system. Material characterization tools are
essential to understand the material behavior and to be able to
predict the mechanical performance and reliability of material
interfaces for these new materials.

113

Integration and Reliability of New Materials in Integrated Circuit Fabrication: Copper Interconnects and Low K.
Dielectrics
rate for channeling and tunneling cracks. The talk will include
comparisons of theoretical predictions with preliminary
experiments involving crack opening measurements during
thermal cycling. The ratcheting phenomenon will be
discussed in the context of material parameters and cyclic
temperature ranges, with specific emphasis on the role of layer
compliance and yield stress in ratcheting deformation. The
effect of incorporating new materials and the implications of
finite-sized features (such as line widths and spacing in
periodic multi-layers) on ratcheting phenomena will be briefly
discussed.
matthew.begley@uconn.edu

MMC2001-457 Friday, June 29, 2:06 PM

In-Situ X-Ray Microdiffraction Observation Of


Strain Evolution In Cu Damascene Lines Under The
Influence Of Electromigration On A One Micron
Scale
Ralph Spolenak, Dave L. Barr, Electronic & Photonic
Materials Physics, Agere Systems, Murray Hill, New
Jersey, USA
Nobumichi Tamura, Advanced Light Source, Lawrence
Berkeley National Labs
Bryan Valek, Dept. Materials Science & Engineering,
Stanford University

MMC2001-418 Friday, June 29, 2:42 PM

Thermomechanical Failures In Interconnects: Metal


Pad Crawling And Passivation Film Cracking

M. D. Morris, J. F. Miner, W. L. Brown, A. MacDowell, R.


S. Celestre, H. A. Padmore, John C. Bravman, B. W.
Batterman, J. R. Patel

Zhigang Suo, Min Huang, Mechanical and Aerospace


Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, USA

The investigations of electromigration in Cu damascene


interconnects are still relatively new. One of the major issues
is, as it has been for Al interconnects, whether the local
microstructure of Cu has a direct influence on
electromigration. In this study we utilized the newly
developed facility for microdiffraction at the Advanced Light
Source (ALS) at Lawrence Berkeley National Labs. The
complete 3D strain tensor of any single grain along a
conducting line can be determined to an accuracy of 2e-4. The
spatial resolution is better than 0.8 mm. This technique was
applied to Blech type Cu damascene interconnects in-situ at
250 C at current densities between 0.5 and 2 MA/cm2. The
segment lengths ranged from 10 to 100 mm and the line
widths from 0.8 to 2 mm. The lines were passivated with 200
nm of SiNx and showed a critical product of between 3000
and 5000 A/cm. Voiding was observed to occur at the
Cu/SiNx interface, not only at the cathode end but also at
specific locations along the entire length of the line. The
correlation between the void sites, the local microstructure and
the local strain/stress state will be demonstrated. Mechanical
properties of Cu damascene lines were also investigated as a
function of line width and temperature.
spolenak@agere.com

Qing Ma, Harry Fujimoto, Components Research, Intel


Corporation, Santa Clara, CA, USA
J. He
Temperature cycling has long been used as an accelerated
reliability test to qualify new electronic products. Many
commonly observed failure modes, however, are so poorly
understood that the extrapolation of the test results to service
lifetime is empirical, loosely based on historical records of
similar products. This lack of mechanistic understanding is
particularly disconcerting when new interconnect materials are
being explored. This talk presents our recent study on
crawling of metal interconnect pads and cracking in the SiN
passivation films. The cyclic temperature, coupled with the
shear stress at the die corner, causes the interconnect pads
underneath the SIN films to undergo plastic ratcheting.
Consequently, in the SiN films the stress builds up as the
temperature cycles, leading to cracks. We compare the effects
of copper and aluminum interconnects. Implications for
design rules and qualification tests are discussed.
suo@princeton.edu

MMC2001-643 Friday, June 29, 2:24 PM

Session: 5
Friday, June 29, 3:30-5:00
Executive Conference Center 2B
Chairs: Ralph Spolenak and Dirk Weiss

Thermo-mechanical Stability in Elastic/Elasticplastic Multi-layer Systems


Matthew R. Begley, Joseph M. Ambrico, Edward E. Jones,
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of
Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut, USA

MMC2001-582 Friday, June 29, 3:30 PM

Length Scale Factors in the Adhesion of Al and Cu


Films

Anthony G. Evans, Princeton Materials Institute, Princeton


University

William W. Gerberich, Alex A. Volinsky, Chemical


Engineering and Materials Science, University of
Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA

Many layered structures often fail during thermal cycling,


even in situations in which linear elastic analyses predict that
cracking should not occur. This talk will outline recent
analyses of thermomechanical stability in a thin elastic layer
of a dielectric material above a thin Cu layer, which is in turn
attached to a silicon substrate. Thermal cycling can induce
ratcheting, wherein crack openings increase systematically
with each cycle and increase in the steady-state energy release

Data from 9 different sources regarding the effect of


thickness on adhesion of Cu/SiO2/Si systems are shown to be
relatively consistent. Effects of other variables such as
annealing, test temperature and interfacial chemistry are not so
clear. For example, where annealing may lower yield strengh

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Integration and Reliability of New Materials in Integrated Circuit Fabrication: Copper Interconnects and Low K.
Dielectrics
and segregate unwanted species to the interface, apparently
lowering toughness, it may also enhance the plastic zone size
and increase interfacial bonding. As this is related to changes
in microstructure, the connection between continuum and
discretized mesoscopic models via scaling laws is of interest.
One goal has been to establish what length scales are
appropriate to the interfacial decohesion problem. Arguments,
based upon the indentatiohn size effect, suggest that surface to
volume ratio at small depths may be an appropriate scaling
factor. Surprisingly, this leads to a fracture criterion in thin
films with thickness as one of the appropriate length scales.
Ramifications of this to thin film delamination will be
discussed.
wgerb@tc.umn.edu

MMC2001-442 Friday, June 29, 4:06 PM

The effect of the IMD confinement architecture on


the electromigration in Al interconnect
Valeriy Sukharev, Device Technology & Process R & D, LSI
Logic Corp., Milpitas, CA, USA
We present the results of the calculations of the mean time
to failure (MTTF) for the long Al lines embedded into the
different inter metal dielectrics. Three cases characterized by
the different IMD materials were considered: (i) conventional
HDP SiO2, (ii) low-K carbon-doped SiO2 and (iii)
combination of the thin SiO2 base sublayer and thick low-K
layer. The finite element method was used to calculate the
thermal stresses for the plain strain condition as well as the
hydrostatic stresses, caused by the applied homogeneous
dilatational strains at the Al line borders, in all three cases.
These calculations were performed using the commercial code
CFD-ACE. Results of these calculations were used to estimate
the initial stress condition and the effective modulus to
account the confinement effect on the electromigration
induced stress development. The MTTF was calculated with
the MIT/EmSim code for the set of the 800 mm length
Al(0.5%Cu) lines. Our simulations resulted in that the MTTF
was equal to 187 h, 221 h and 232 h for the HDP SiO2, low-K
and base-oxide/low-K IMD correspondingly at the employed
test conditions of T=230 C and j=4E5 A/cm2.
vsukhare@lsil.com

MMC2001-339 Friday, June 29, 3:48 PM

A new halogen-free organometallic family of


precursors for CVD copper seed layers:
design,characterization and process development
Rolf U. Claessen, UAlbany Institute for Materials and
Department of Chemistry, University at Albany - SUNY,
Albany, NY, USA
Kulbinder K. Banger, Silvana Ngo, Seichiiro Higashiya,
Andrei M. Kornilov, Poay Lim, Eric T. Eisenbraun,
Paul J. Toscano, Alain E. Kaloyeros, John T. Welch
Beyond the 100 nm technology node,CVD (Chemical
Vapor Deposition)will play an important role as one of the
few remaining solutions for copper seed layers in gigascale
integration schemes 1 .The current technology roadmap also
proposes to assess environmentally friendly materials to be
implemented by the year 2005. We present a new family of
halogen free organometallic precursors for the CVD of metals
using a series of silylated ligands.Details about the design of
and rationale for the precursors,a feasibility study of a CVD
process based on one of those precursors and characterization
of the precursor and films resulting from the CVD process are
described.
The silylated ligands were obtained under modified
Claisen type conditions from the reaction of acid chlorides or
esters (e.g.pivaloylchloride)with the corresponding silylated
enolate (e.g. Lithium enolate of acetyltrimethylsilane)at a
typical temperature of 90 o C in diethylether 2 . Reaction of
the ligands with metal halides or acetates yielded the
Cu(II)complexes in good yield.In this way we created a
library of over 100 ligands that can be combined with different
metals to yield a large family of organometallic complexes 3
as candidates for applications such as CVD of Copper 4 .The
complexes were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis,
differential scanning calorimetry,X-ray crystallography and
UV/VIS
spectroscopy
to
assess
their
volatility,purity,decomposition behavior and reactivity.All
complexes appear to be stable toward air,moisture and light.
rclaessen@uamail.albany.edu

MMC2001-609 Friday, June 29, 4:24 PM

Solid solution strengthening effects in Pt-Ru thin


films
Richard P. Vinci, Materials Science and Engineering, Lehigh
University, Bethlehem, PA, USA
In certain applications, increases in resistivity may be
tolerated in exchange for improvements in adhesion, corrosion
resistance or morphological stability. Solid solution alloying
may be an effective way of achieving such goals but may have
unintended mechanical consequences. Because the mechanical
behavior of thin films is often dominated by different
mechanisms than those that control bulk behavior, the relative
importance of solid solution effects on residual stress and
stress relaxation cannot be easily predicted.
We have selected Pt-Ru as a both a model system and a
system with potential commercial application for integration
with high-K dielectric materials such as BST. Pt films forming
complete solid solutions from 0% to 20 wt% Ru were
prepared by magnetron sputtering. The relative strengthening
effects of grain size, film thickness and solute fraction were
evaluated using a combination of techniques including
substrate curvature and nanoindentation. Comparison between
experimental results and simple models show that solid
solution strengthening can have a large effect on the
mechanical behavior of thin Pt films. The results should also
be relevant for other FCC materials such as Cu and Al.
vinci@lehigh.edu

115

Jan D. Achenbach, SES William Prager Medalist Symposium: Wave Motion and Dynamic Response of Materials

structures, of small but finite width, emitted from a diffuse


crack tip region. Within a finite distance behind the growing
shear crack tip a secondary set of opening (Mode-I) microcracks was also observed. These microcracks initiated on the
upper crack-face (tension side of the main shear crack faces)
and propagated a finite distance in a direction approximately
11 degrees off the vertical to the shear crack faces. Motivated
by the above experimental observations, we explore the
validity of a slip-rate weakening cohesive zone model of
intersonic shear fracture. Direct comparison of this model with
experiments allows for the estimation of the cohesive
parameters of the slip-rate weakening law, addresses questions
of preferable crack tip speed regimes, and elucidates a
possible, rate controlled, mechanism describing intersonic
shear failure.
rosakis@atlantis.caltech.edu

Jan D. Achenbach, SES William Prager


Medalist Symposium: Wave Motion and
Dynamic Response of Materials
Session: 1
Wednesday, June 27, 9:00-10:30
Catalina Ballroom
Chairs: Zdenek P. Bazant and Ares J. Rosakis
MMC2001-228 Wednesday, June 27, 9:00 AM

Ductile fragmentation under high-strain-rate loading


conditions
L. B. Freund, Division of Engineering, Brown University,
Providence, RI, USA
When a ductile metal cylinder is expanded at a slow rate,
say by internal pressure, it deforms more or less uniformly
into the plastic range until a strain localization site, or "neck",
develops at some point on the circumference; ductile fracture
at the site follows almost immediately. In contrast, if the same
plastic deformation is induced at a rate of loading typical of
explosive loading or dynamic rupture, experiments reveal that
many necks form around the circumference of the cylinder at
more or less equally spaced intervals. This remarkable
nonlinear material failure mode was first demonstrated
experimentally by N. F. Mott more than 50 years ago and, in
spite of its relevance to dynamic fracture, explosive metal
forming and other technologies, understanding of its origins
has remained elusive. To address this issue, large scale
numerical simulations were undertaken to determine
sensitivity of the phenomenon to the many material
parameters which might be relevant, with a view toward
identifying those which are most significant for the process.
The dominant properties were then incorporated into a
dynamic stability analysis which reveals that multiple equallyspaced necks which grow at rates large compared to the rate of
background deformation form naturally in the process.
Growth of many of these incipient necks to fracture eventually
results in ductile fragmentation of the material. The
theoretical model predictions are consistent with experimental
observations of the process.
freund@engin.brown.edu

MMC2001-973 Wednesday, June 27, 9:36 AM

Microplane Constitutive Model With Effects Of


Fracturing Rate And Creep For Concrete Dynamics
Zdenek P. Bazant, Civil Engineering, Northwestern
University, Evanston, IL, USA
Ferhun C. Caner, Civil Engineering, Mustafa Kemal
University, Iskenderun, Turkey
Mark D. Adley, U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment
Station (WES), Vicksburg, MS, USA
Stephen A. Akers
In previous efforts at Northwestern University, a versatile
nonlinear triaxial constitutive model of concrete, named model
M4, has been developed using the microplane approach. In
that approach, which is an extension of G.I. Taylor's idea, the
constitutive law is formulated in terms of vectors rather than
tensors---particularly, in terms of the components of the stress
and strain vectors on planes of various orientation within the
material, termed the microplanes. The advantage is that
various physical phenomena such as frictional slip, tensile
fracturing and compression splitting can be simulated from
first physical principles. There is no need to use tensorial
invariants, since invariance is guaranteed by the variational
principle that yield the stress tensor from the microplane stress
components. The model can simulate postpeak softening up
to complete failure (which means that one must take measures
to avoid spurious localization). In this paper, an extension of
the microplane model for the effect of the deformation rate is
discussed. Some refinements of the originally developed ratedependent formulation [1] are presented. It is found that two
types of rate effect must be distinguished: (1) The rate
dependence of fracturing due to microcrack growth, which is
associated with the activation energy of bond ruptures in a
cohesive crack, and (2) the creep (or viscoelasticity) in the
bulk of the material. An effective explicit algorithm for stepby-step finite element analysis is formulated.
z-bazant@northwestern.edu

MMC2001-226 Wednesday, June 27, 9:18 AM

Intersonic Shear Crack Growth Along Weak Paths


Ares J. Rosakis, Aeronautics, California Institute of
Technology, Pasadena, CA, USA
Intersonic shear cracks propagating along weak planes in
otherwise constitutively homogeneous linear elastic solids
were first modeled by Freund through a steady state
elastodynamic analysis. Experimental confirmation of the
existence of such a process followed twenty years later
through the direct observation of intersonic shear rupture of
two identical, weakly bonded, Homalite plates subjected to
asymmetric impact. These shear cracks which propagated at
speeds between the shear and the dilatational wave speeds of
the material also featured clearly visible shear shock waves

116

Jan D. Achenbach, SES William Prager Medalist Symposium: Wave Motion and Dynamic Response of Materials

mathematical framework from which other approximations


might be deduced.
grkrie@micro.njit.edu

MMC2001-269 Wednesday, June 27, 9:54 AM

Acoustic Emission from Strain-Determined Sources


Franz Ziegler, Civil Engineering Department, TechUniversity of Vienna, Vienna, Vienna, Austria

MMC2001-227 Wednesday, June 27, 11:18 AM

One-Dimensional Wave Propagation in a Genuinely


Nonlinear Elastic Media

Monitoring of structures subjected to overloads can be


based on observing signals emitted in the course of developing
defects. Within the linear elastic background concept such an
event may be considered by the formation of sources of
eigenstress. Since a direct description of the source
characteristics is rather cumbersome we choose the time
convolution of the imposed plastic strains with the
complementary Green's stress dyadic to describe the signal of
the acoustic emission. The novel contribution of this paper to
acoustic emission and monitoring of (layered) structures is the
formulation of the full 3-D problems and the introduction of
the generalized rays in the background considering an
instantaneous oblique force point source at the transducer's
location. That means, all the information on the wave guide is
contained in the Green's stress dyadic. Directional sensitivity
of transducers is emphasized. Jan D. Achenbach made
fundamental contributions to quantitative ultrasonics and
nondestructive evaluation.
franz.ziegler@tuwien.ac.at

Jianmin Qu, Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Tech,


Atlanta, GA, usa
Thomas Meurer, Laurence Jacobs, Civil and Environmental
Engineering, Georgia Tech, Atlanta, GA
This paper considers the problem of wave propagation in a
nonlinear elastic medium with a quadratic stress-strain
relationship. The paper is limited to one-dimensional wave
propagation. Under these conditions, the initial value problem
is formulated into a hyperbolic system of conservation laws.
The Riemann problem due to an initial step function excitation
is considered first. Analytical solutions to the Riemann
problem are obtained by solving the corresponding eigenvalue
problem. In addition, a computer program is developed based
on the high-resolution central scheme of Kurganov and
Tadmor. The accuracy of this numerical procedure is verified
by comparing the numerical results with the exact solutions.
The second part of the paper considers several different types
of initial excitations in order to determine special
characteristics of the wave propagation due to material
nonlinearity.
jianmin.qu@me.gatech.edu

Session: 2
Wednesday, June 27, 11:00-12:30
Catalina Ballroom
Chairs: Gregory Kriegsmann and Gerard A. Maugin
MMC2001-905 Wednesday, June 27, 11:00 AM

MMC2001-384 Wednesday, June 27, 11:36 AM

Electromagnetic Propagation in Periodic Porous


Structures

Multiwave Nonlinear Couplings In Elastic


Structures

Gregory Kriegsmann, Mathematical Sciences, New Jersey


Institute of Technology, Newark, New Jersey, USA

Gerard A. Maugin, Laboratoire de Modelisation en


Mecanique, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris,
France, France

A variational technique is employed to compute


approximate propagation constants for electromagnetic waves
in a dielectric structure which is periodic in the X-Y plane and
translationally invariant in the Z direction. The fundamental
cell, in the periodic structure, is composed of a pore and the
surrounding host media. The pore is a circle of radius R0
filled with a dielectric epsilon1 and the host dielectric
characterized by epsilon2. The size of the cell is characterized
by the length A which is the same order as R0.
Two limiting cases are considered. In the first the pore
size is assumed to be much smaller than the wavelength; this
limit is motivated by microwave heating of porous material.
The approximate propagation constants are explicitly
computed for this case and are shown to depend upon the two
dielectric constants, the relative areas of the two regions in the
cell, and on a modal number. They are not given by a simple
mixture formula.
In the second limit the pore size is taken to be of the same
order as the wavelength; this limit is motivated by the
propagation of light in a holey fiber. In this case our
variational argument directly yields the dispersion relationship
recently derived by Ferrando, et. al. [6], using intuitive and
physical reasoning. Thus, our method puts theirs into a

D.A. Kovriguine, Mechanical Engineering Institute, Russian


Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia, Russian
federation
Alexander Potapov, Mechanical Engineerign Institute,
Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia,
Russian Federation
Multiple-wave nonlinear resonance coupling is a known
and well-studied phenomenon in fluid mechanics (cf.
A.D.D.Craig, Wave Interactions and Fluid Flows, CUP, 1985)
and optics (D.F.Nelson, Electric, Optic and Acoustic
Interactions in Dielectrics, J.Wiley, 1979). Here three
paradigmatic examples are examined in solid mechanics:
nonlinear waves in a thin elastic rod (simple Bernoulli-Euler
model; exhibiting a continuous spectrum), nonlinear
oscillations in a circular elastic ring (exhibiting a discrete
spectrum), and nonlinear waves in a thin elastic plate (2D
example). This allows one to show such phenomena as stress
amplification and four-wave resonant interactions in a rod,
triple and four-wave nonlinear couplings in the second case,
and resonant triads in the plate case. In all, the contribution

117

Jan D. Achenbach, SES William Prager Medalist Symposium: Wave Motion and Dynamic Response of Materials

presents a study of the hierarchy of instabilities in these three


types of slender elastic structures (work within the INTAS
programme 96-2370, 1997-2001).
gam@ccr.jussieu.fr

Session: 3
Wednesday, June 27, 1:30-3:00
Catalina Ballroom
Chairs: Thomas C. T. Ting and Mao-Kuen Kuo
MMC2001-238 Wednesday, June 27, 1:30 PM

MMC2001-232 Wednesday, June 27, 11:54 AM

Explicit Secular Equations for Surface Waves in


Monoclinic Materials with the Symmetry Plane at
x1=0, x2=0 or x3=0

How a Rayleigh Wave Turns a Corner


Arthur K. Gautesen, Mathematics, Iowa State Univ. - Ames
Lab., Ames, Iowa, USA

Thomas C. T. Ting, Civil and materials engineering,


University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA

The problem of scattering of plane waves by an elastic


wedge of arbitrary angle is considered. An exact solution
seems to be out of reach at the present time. Thus a simple
method based on Fourier transforms is used to derive
equations which can be numerically treated. The unknowns
are the Fourier transforms of the displacements on the
traction-free surfaces. By taking a physically reasonable
representation of these unknowns, stable Fredholm integral
equations of the second kind with simple continuous kernels
are derived. The method can be used to treat incidence of any
plane wave. For the purpose of presenting numerical results,
the incident wave is taken to be a Rayleigh surface wave.
Graphs of the transmission and reflection coefficients for the
surface waves reflected and transmitted by the corner are
presented.
gautesen@ameslab.gov

The explicit secular equation for surface waves in an


anisotropic elastic half-space is available for orthotropic
materials. Destrade (2001) has recently employed the first
integrals to obtain explicit secular equation for monoclinic
materials with the symmetry plane at x3=0. We employ a new
approach that not only recovers Destrade's secular equation
easily, it also allows us to derive explicit secular equation for
monoclinic materials with the symmetry plane at x1=0 or
x2=0.
tting@uic.edu
MMC2001-221 Wednesday, June 27, 1:48 PM

Some Special Supersonic Non-Radiating Dislocations


in Anisotropic Linear Elastic Solids
David M. Barnett, Materials Science and Engineering,
Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA

MMC2001-278 Wednesday, June 27, 12:12 PM

Focussed acoustic beams applied to guided wave


dispersion analysis in plates

Barnett & Zimmerman have shown that a straight


dislocation in uniform supersonic motion will not radiate
energy in its far-field if the dislocation Burgers vector is
orthogonal to all of the Stroh auxiliary eigenvectors associated
with the REAL Stroh eigenvalues corresponding to the
supersonic speed v. When all 6 Stroh eigenvalues are real, no
non-radiating dislocation (NRD) is possible. With only 4 real
eigenvalues, a unique NRD exists if and only if the 4 auxiliary
eigenvectors are co-planar, with the Burgers vector normal to
this plane. With only 2 real eigenvalues, either a unique
Burgers vector or a whole plane of Burgers vectors yields a
NRD, depending on the linear independence or dependence of
the 2 auxiliary eigenvectors. Examples of the abovementioned cases are to be found in isotropy (Eshelby's edge),
cubic symmetry (supersonic screw and edge NRD's), and even
special triclinic solids.
barnett@stanford.edu

Dale E. Chimenti, Dong Fei, Aero Eng & Eng Mechanics and
Center for NDE, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa,
USA
The receiving transducer voltage in a bistatic fluid- or aircoupled plate wave measurement contains contributions from
both intrinsic material properties and extrinsic experimental
factors, including geometry and transducer beam properties.
In this work experiments are reported on phenomena relating
to guided plate wave dispersion, demonstrating the full range
of transducer beam effects on wavenumber-frequency domain
data.
By exploiting the large angular spread of highly
focused transducer beams, almost the entire angular range
accessible by phase-matched water coupling can be measured
with the two transducers at a single orientation angle in a
synthetic-aperture coordinate scan. This novel approach leads
to a very efficient method for mapping major portions of the
guided wave dispersion spectrum in planar media. Also
presented here is a complex transducer point model that
includes all relevant experimental factors, permitting the
prediction of the wavenumber-frequency domain results
obtained in experiments. As an example, a targeted procedure
is developed which yields an accurate estimate of material
elastic properties with only a minimal use of the highly
redundant dispersion data. Experiments on isotropic and
anisotropic plates show a measurement difference less than
5% from contact acoustic estimates.
chimenti@iastate.edu

MMC2001-237 Wednesday, June 27, 2:06 PM

Exact transient study of plane wave diffraction by a


crack in an orthotropic or transversely isotropic
solid
Louis M. Brock, Mark T. Hanson, Mechanical Engineering,
University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, USA
A key result in the study of diffraction by cracks is the
time-harmonic work by Achenbach and Norris. As an
extension, a transient plane-strain analysis of plane wave
diffraction by a semi-infinite crack in an unbounded

118

Jan D. Achenbach, SES William Prager Medalist Symposium: Wave Motion and Dynamic Response of Materials

orthotropic or transversely isotropic solid is performed. The


waves approach the crack at a general oblique angle, and are
of two types: normal and shear stress pulses. In the isotropic
limit, these would become, respectively, P- and SV-waves. A
class of materials that includes this limit and beryl, cobalt, ice,
magnesium and titanium is chosen for illustration, and exact
solutions are obtained for the initial/mixed boundary value
problems. In contrast to some work, a factorization in the
integral transform space is used to simplify the solution forms
and the Wiener-Hopf step in the solution process, and to yield
a more compact expression for the crack-plane Rayleigh wave
speed. Calculations for this speed, the two allowable,
direction-dependent plane-wave speeds, and quantities related
to the Mode I/II dynamic stress intensity factors are given for
the five materials mentioned earlier.
brock@engr.uky.edu

by the canonical Hamilton-Jacobi technique. Then, instead of


approximating the second-order complete transport equation
by simpler equations, as employed in the ray method or in the
method of parabolic equations, we obtain its exact solution as
the mathematical expectation of a specified functional in the
space of Brownian trajectories with the Wiener probabilistic
measure.
The obtained solutions appear to be a direct improvement
of the ray method approximations to the exact solutions of the
Helmholtz equation. These solutions provide a clear unified
description of such phenomena as backscattering, tunneling
and diffraction, and they admit efficient numerical evaluation
by simple and versatile algorithms with practically unlimited
capability for parallel processing.
budaev@cml.me.berkeley.edu
MMC2001-292 Wednesday, June 27, 3:48 PM

MMC2001-313 Wednesday, June 27, 2:24 PM

Transient dynamic Green's function for piezoelectric


solids

Application of The Reverberation-Ray Matrix to


The Propagation of Elastic Waves in a Multilayered
Solid

Mao-Kuen Kuo, K.C. Wu, J.H. Wu, Institute of Applied


Mechanics, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan,
Taiwan

Yih-Hsing Pao, Institute of Applied Mechanics, National


Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, R.O.C.
Xian-Yue Su, Department of Mechanics and Engineering
Science, Peking University, Beijing, China

Explicit results of the two-dimensional transient dynamic


Green's tensors for orthotropic and transversely isotropic
piezoelectric materials are presented. The Green's tensors
represent the coupled elastic and electric responses to an
applied line force or line charge in an infinite solid.
The
Smirnov-Soloblev method for a two-dimensional scalar wave
equation is generalized to this self-similar problem. The
resulting formulation resembles and may be regarded as an
extension to Stroh's formalism for two-dimensional
anisotropic elastostatics.
mkkuo@ccms.ntu.edu.tw

This paper extends the method of reverberation-ray matrix


which was reported in previous publication (Pao et al., J. of
Sound and Vibration, 2000) to the propagation of elastic
waves in a multilayered solid. The waves which are generated
by a point or a line source, known as a source ray s, are
expressed by the Sommerfield-weyl Integrals of wave
numbers. The reflection and refraction of the waves at each
interface of two layers are represented by a local scattering
matrix and phase matrix. The local matrices of all layers are
then stacked to form the global scattering matrix and global
phase matrix separately. The product of these two matrices
together with a global permutation matrix gives rise to the
reverberation-ray matrix R which represents the multireflected and transmitted steady state waves within the layered
medium. The waves that are transmitted from the source to
every point through multiple reflections are then represented
by the ray integrals involving [ I _ R]_ _ s.
The transient waves in the layered medium are
determined by the inverse Fourier transform of the previous
ray integrals with respect to the frequency, and the inversion is
facilitated by expanding the matrix [I _ R]_ _ into a power
series of R. The inverse transformed integrals so derived are
particularly suitable for the evaluating of transient response by
applying the Cagniard method.
yhpao@gauss.iam.ntu.edu.tw

Session: 4
Wednesday, June 27, 3:30-5:00
Catalina Ballroom
Chairs: David Bogy and Subhendu K. Datta
MMC2001-236 Wednesday, June 27, 3:30 PM

Application of random walk methods to wave


propagation
Bair Budaev, Mechanical Engineering, University of
California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA
David Bogy, Mechanical Engineering, Uiversity of California,
Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA
We present an approach to problems of wave propagation
and wave scattering that has its roots in a number of wellestablished theories such as the ray method, the method of
parabolic equations, methods of Wiener functional integration
and stochastic processes.
We start our analysis by closely following the scheme of
the ray method and split the Helmholtz equation into the firstorder eikonal equation and the second-order 'complete
transport equation'. The complex-valued eikonal is computed

119

Material Response and Failure at Microstructural Levels

MMC2001-467 Wednesday, June 27, 4:06 PM

Material Response and Failure at


Microstructural Levels

On the Transient Response of a Plate with Thin


Anisotropic Layers due to a Line Source

Session: 1
Wednesday, June 27, 9:00-10:30
Executive Conference Center 2A
Chairs: Tracy J. Vogler and Gustavo Gioia

A.J. Niklasson, Department of Mechanics, Chalmers


University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden
Subhendu K. Datta, Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, USA

MMC2001-287 Wednesday, June 27, 9:00 AM

Ultrasonic waves excited by a line source applied on the


surface of a plate with either a thin coating of anisotropic
layers or a thin anisotropic interface layer are analyzed to
demonstrate the coupling of the in-plane and out-of-plane
guided modes for propagation in an arbitrary direction. Thin
layers have been approximated by an 0(h) approximation, h
being the thickness of the layer. The study focuses on
frequency bands around the region of strong coupling between
the qSH and qL waves. It is found that the time-domain
response clearly shows conversion of the qSH modes into qL
modes and vice versa. The mode coupling has different
characteristics for coating and interface layers.
jnik@mec.chalmers.se

Microstructural Aspects of Deformation in


Sandwich Core Materials at High-Strain-Rates
Murat Vural, Guruswami Ravichandran, Aeronautics,
California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California,
USA
The compression behavior of a sandwich core material,
balsa wood, at strain rates in the range from 0.001 to 3,000/s is
presented, with a particular emphasis on the identification and
the evolution of microstructural deformation patterns when
loaded along its orthogonal axes. Specimens of balsa wood
with different densities were loaded by a Kolsky (split
Hopkinson) pressure bar apparatus at varying high strain rates.
Then specimens, loaded to pre-determined inelastic strains,
were sectioned and examined using a scanning electron
microscope (SEM). It was found that deformation patterns are
quite different from each other when it is loaded in different
directions. Inelastic deformation in transverse directions is
mainly governed by the plastic buckling and eventual collapse
of hexagonal cell walls. In radial direction, this homogeneous
deformation pattern is accompanied by a larger scale
bending/buckling due to ray cells. However, deformation in
longitudinal direction has complex features and is mainly
characterized by localization along shear bands. Analytical
models are used to correlate the observed response and
microstructural evolution as function of deformation.
mvural@its.caltech.edu

MMC2001-279 Wednesday, June 27, 4:24 PM

Elastic Waves from Localized Sources in Composite


Laminates
Ajit Mal, Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University
of california, Los Angeles, California, USA
Yoseph Bar-Cohen, MS 82-105, Jet Propulsion Laboratory,
Pasadena, California, USA
This paper is concerned with the analysis of elastic waves
generated by localized dynamic sources in structural
composites. The damage can be external, involving acoustic
wave loading as in the so called Leaky Lamb Wave (LLW)
experiment, and low-velocity foreign object impact on the
surface of the structure, or internal, as in sudden crack
initiation and its rapid growth from existing internal flaws. All
three problems are of critical importance in the safe operation
of composite structures, due to their vulnerability to hidden
delaminations that can occur in composite materials, when
they are subjected to this type of loads. It is well known that
both the dynamic surface loading associated with wave
loading or impact, and the sudden "opening" of an internal
crack associated with the extension of a preexisting flaw, act
as sources of elastic waves in the material of the structure. The
research reported here consists of model-based analysis and
laboratory experiments for guided waves generated by surface
loading and microcrack initiation in graphite epoxy composite
laminates commonly used in aircraft and aerospace structures.
The objective of this study is to develop a mechanics based
understanding of the causal relationship between the
properties of the source and the characteristics of the waves
generated by its initiation and propagation. The results of this
research are expected to be useful in developing effective
health monitoring systems for new as well as aging aircraft
and aerospace structures.
ajit@ucla.edu

MMC2001-854 Wednesday, June 27, 9:18 AM

The Failure Of Metal-Ceramic Composites Under


Compression, Tension And Torsion
K.T. Ramesh, Yulong Li, Mechanical Engineering, Johns
Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA
E.S.C. Chin, Weapons Materials Research Directorate, Army
Research Laboratory, Aberdeen, MD, USA
A series of metal-ceramic composites (ceramic particles in
a metal matrix) have been investigated under compression,
tension and torsion (at both quasistatic and dynamic strain
rates). In each case the matrix material (typically an aluminum
alloy) has also been independently evaluated. We present a
comparison of the behavior and failure of these metal-ceramic
composites for these various loading modes, noting in
particular the influence of evolving damage on the failure. The
influence of strain rate on the behavior and failure is also
considered, and comparisons are made with existing models
for the viscoplastic deformations of these materials. The
results emphasize the importance of correctly handling

120

Material Response and Failure at Microstructural Levels

multiaxial stresses in constitutive modeling and damage


modeling of such materials.
ramesh@jhu.edu

FE calculations both criteria yield similar results.If the local


sliding velocities are of the order 100 m/s. they trigger the socalled plastic wave trapping.It has been shown recently that a
new material constant can be defined, called Critical Impact
Velocity (CIV) in shear. That is the result of failure caused by
plastic waves. The CIV in shear has recently been evaluated
by FE method in [1] for 4340 steel and in [2] for Ti-6Al-4V
alloy.
klepaczko@lpmm.univ-metz.fr

MMC2001-311 Wednesday, June 27, 9:36 AM

Mechanics and Mechanisms of Deformation and


Failure in Bulk Metallic Glasses
Jun Lu, Guruswami Ravichandran, Mechanical Engineering,
California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California,
USA

MMC2001-365 Wednesday, June 27, 10:12 AM

Effect of Microstructure on the Dynamic Failure


Resistance of TiB2/Al2O3 Composites

William L. Johnson, Materials Science, California Institute of


Technology, Pasadena, California

Min Zhou, Andrew R. Keller, Mechanical Engineering,


Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia, USA

The deformation and failure of bulk metallic glasses


(BMG) were investigated as a function of strain rate and
temperature. It was found that the maximum peak stress of the
BMG under investigation, Zr-Ti-Cu-Ni-Be amorphous alloy
(Vitreloy 1) decreases dramatically with increasing
temperature and increases gradually with increasing strain
rate. The overall deformation of the material can be
characterized as homogeneous at relatively low strain rate and
high temperature, and inhomogeneous at high strain rate and
low temperature due to shear band formation. These results
suggest the BMGs require relatively larger relaxation time in
order to develop macroscopically uniform deformation.
Dynamic indentation experiments were conducted to assess
the impact resistance and failure of BMGs. A multiple step
loading phenomenon was observed during the indentation,
which may due to the shear instability occurring at the
microstructural level. Extensive shear bands were observed on
the indentation surface of the BMG with a shear band width of
less than 1 micrometer and mean shear band spacing of 10
micrometers.
junlu@its.caltech.edu

The failure resistance and microstructural failure behavior


of four TiB2/Al2O3 ceramics are analyzed. A split Hopkinson
pressure bar (SHPB) was used to measure the compressive
strength of these four materials under dynamic loading
conditions. The compressive failure strength of the four
materials was found to be between 4300 and 5300 MPa at
strain rates of approximately 400 s-1. Previous research
yielded compressive strength ranging from 3000 to 4000 MPa
for these composite materials under quasi-static conditions.
Clearly, there is a strong dependence of failure stress on the
strain rate. The strength at higher rates is approximately 27%
greater than that observed at quasi-static loading rates. The
use of a soft recovery mechanism in the experiment allowed
the specimen fragments to be recovered for postmortem
analysis. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy
dispersive spectrometry (EDS) were used to analyze the post
mortem fracture surfaces. Inspection of the fracture surfaces
indicated that failure associated with the Al2O3 phase of the
composite is characterized by transgranular cleavage in all
four materials. Depending upon the microstructure, failure
associated with the TiB2 phase was characterized by a
combination of transgranular cleavage and intergranular pull
out.
gte403k@prism.gatech.edu

MMC2001-565 Wednesday, June 27, 9:54 AM

Failure of Impact Resistant Metallic Alloys by


Adiabatic Shear Bands
Janusz R. Klepaczko, ISGMP-Laboratory of Physics and
Mechanics of Materials, Metz University, METZ, France

Session: 2
Wednesday, June 27, 11:00-12:30
Executive Conference Center 2A
Chairs: K.T. Ramesh and Min Zhou

Recent experimental studies on high-speed shearing of


4240 steel (52HRC) and titanium alloy Ti-6AL-4V have
shown that those alloys fail at high strain rate regime by
adiabatic shear bands.However, the process of plastic
deformation and next failure, that is complete separation of
tested material, is the result of complicated interplay of strain
hardening, rate sensitivity, thermal softeneing and sometimes
phase transformation. Four stages of material behavior are
normally observed: a positive strain hardening, istability,
localization and failure. The failure mechanism is related to
high dislocation densities combined with thermal softening.
Such combination of extreme conditions, amplified by
appearance of plastic waves, leads to the local limit of material
resistance. When stress concentrators can be neglected the
failure criteria, discussed in a more detailed way in this
contribution, are based on the local strain energy density or on
the equivalent plastic strain. As it has been demonstrated by

MMC2001-754 Wednesday, June 27, 11:00 AM

The Dynamic Growth of Voids


T.W. Wright, Weapons Materials Research Directorate,
Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen P.G., MD, USA
Xiaoyi Wu, K.T. Ramesh, Department of Mechanical
ENgineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD
The dynamic growth of a single spherical void subjected
to far-field hydrostatic tensile loading is investigated. The
matrix is considered to be elastic plastic with power law strain
hardening and linear thermal softening. When inertia is
neglected, our theoretical analysis demonstrates the existence

121

Material Response and Failure at Microstructural Levels

The feasibility of these applications has elicited


considerable interest in thin-film diaphragms, but a thorough
understanding of their mechanical behavior remains
unavailable. A notable exception is the isotropically
compressed case, which has been researched extensively in
recent years. As a result, it is now known that the isotropic
compression of diaphragms leads to folding patterns whose
length scale is set by the boundary conditions. In this paper
we introduce experimental evidence to the effect that the
anisotropic compression of
diaphragms leads to
microstructures, i.e., fine folding patterns which lack a
length scale associated with the boundary conditions. To
understand the energetics of the observed folding patterns we
model the experiments using a novel finite element
formulation for shells, as well as a constrained von Karman
plate theory.
ggioia@uiuc.edu

of a critical load beyond which unstable void growth will


occur. It is shown that the influence of thermal softening on
this critical load can generally be neglected unless the strain
hardening is relatively high. The effects of rate sensitivity and
thermal diffusion are addressed through numerical
simulations. It is shown that rate sensitivity delays the void
growth. Inertial effects in dynamic void growth have been
investigated for an elastically and plastically incompressible
matrix. It is shown that inertia first delays but later facilitates
void growth if the applied loading does not exceed the critical
load.
tww@arl.army.mil
MMC2001-872 Wednesday, June 27, 11:18 AM

Crystal-Plasticity of Titanium with Varying Slip


Anisotropies
Tracy J. Vogler, Hyunis T. Hussain, S.E. Schoenfeld, Impact
Physics Branch, U.S. Army Research Laboratory,
Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD, USA

MMC2001-787 Wednesday, June 27, 11:54 AM

Gradient Elasticity: Implications On Indentation


And Size Effects

Crystal-based plasticity models have been widely used for


simulating plastic deformation because they allow the
underlying microstructure to be included as well as their
ability to predict textural evolution. The most common such
model is that of Taylor, which has been used successfully for
high-symmetry FCC metals. HCP materials such as titanium,
however, generally present a significant degree of anisotropy
in their slip systems that makes the Taylor model unsuitable.
The anisotropy of available slip systems in titanium is
known to vary with the level of impurities present. Since
there is currently interest in using material with higher oxygen
content for armor applications, the question of slip system
activity is relevant.
In this investigation, we examine three different
polycrystalline models: the modified Taylor method, the selfconsistent model, and direct finite element simulation. These
models are evaluated for three levels of slip anisotropy.
Macroscopic responses for the different cases are presented,
and textures predicted to develop are shown.
tvogler@arl.army.mil

Jean Sulem, CERMES (Soil Mechanics Research Center),


Ecole Nationale des Ponts et Chaussies, Paris, France
Elias C. Aifantis, MMI/MTU & LMM/AUT, MTU/USA &
AUT/Greece, Houghton/Thessaloniki,
Michigan/Thessaloniki, USA/Greece
Various recent models of gradient elasticity and their
implications to dislocation and crack problems are reviewed.
Then attention is focussed to the problem of indentation. The
role of higher order gradients on the nature or elimination of
singularities is discussed. Size effects are also considered.
sulem@cermes.enpc.fr
MMC2001-447 Wednesday, June 27, 12:12 PM

Constitutive Models For Finite Deformation RateIndependent Elasto-Plasticity Based On Logarithmic


Rate And Logarithmic Strain
Said Gomaa, Development, Ansys, Inc., Canonsburg, PA,
USA

MMC2001-617 Wednesday, June 27, 11:36 AM

Two finite deformation constitutive models are introduced


for rate-independent, elastic-plastic solids. In the first model,
the rate of deformation tensor is the sum of elastic and plastic
contributions. A hypoelastic constitutive equation based on a
new objective stress rate called the logarithmic rate is utilized.
The second model utilizes the multiplicative decomposition of
the deformation gradient. A hyperelastic constitutive equation
between the Kirchhoff stress and the logarithm of the left
stretch tensor of the elastic part of deformation gradient is
used.
It will be shown that the hypoelastic constitutive equation
using the additive decomposition and the logarithmic rate is
consistent with the hyperelastic constitutive equation based on
the multiplicative decomposition and the Eulerian logarithmic
strain of the left stretch tensor. Computational procedures are
explained for the finite element implementations of combined
isotropic-kinematic hardening for both models.

Folding of Thin-film Diaphragms: Experiments and


Finite Elements
Gustavo Gioia, Theoretical and Appplied Mechanics,
University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois, USA
Alberto M. Cuitino, Moises Smart, Mechanical and
Aerospace Engineering, Rutgers University, Piscataway,
New Jersey, USA
Fehmi Cirak, Graduate Aeronautical Laboratories,
California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California,
USA
Michael Ortiz
In recent years, a vast gamut of novel applications has
been proposed for microfabricated thin-film diaphragms.

122

Materials for Infrastructure and Development

said.gomaa@ansys.com

MMC2001-660 Wednesday, June 27, 11:36 AM

Holistic Design of Costruction for Sustainable


Infrastructure and a Better Quality of Life.

Materials for Infrastructure and


Development

R. Narayan Swamy, Department of Mechanical Engineering,


University of Sheffield, Sheffield, Sheffield, United
Kingdom

Session: A
Wednesday, June 27, 11:00-12:30
Spinnaker I
Chairs: W.O. Soboyejo and Elbert Marsh

The latter half of the 20th century has seen unparalleled


advancements to the scientific, technological and social face
of the world, but in that process, the world has also been
plunged into several inter-related crises. In the context of the
construction industry, these crises can be broadly classified in
terms of environment, durability and sustainability. The crises
have risen from a number of factors such as technological
industrialization, population growth, world-wide urbanization
and uncontrolled pollution and creation of waste. The
massive, indiscriminate and wasteful consumption of the
worlds material and energy resources has resulted in an
almost irreversible global warming. The price for this
environmental abuse is a massive, horrendous and world-wide
Infrastructure crisis - a rapid deterioration and destruction of
the worlds infrastructure, water shortages, natural disasters,
violent climatic changes, and material/structural degradation
by the forces of nature. These gigantic changes are
compounded by poverty, human conflict and economic and
environmental globalization.
Every crisis experienced in the world has a direct impact
on the construction industry, and since the construction
industry is so much interlinked with energy, resources and
environment, unredeemable environmental degradation can
only by prevented by sustainable development of the industry,
which alone can give hopes for a better world and a better
Quality of Life.
R.N.Swamy@sheffield.ac.uk

MMC2001-981 Wednesday, June 27, 11:00 AM

Overview of U.S./Africa Sessions on Materials and


Infrastructure
W.O. Soboyejo, Princeton Materials Institute & Dept. of
MAE, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, USA
This paper presents an overview of the breakout sessions
on materials and infrastructure for development that were held
at the US/Africa workshop in Pretoria, South Africa. The
potential research areas identified at the workshop are
described along with the initiatives that were suggested at the
workshop. The paper also identifies the ways in which the
current symposium can help in the achievement of the goals
identified at the Pretoria workshop.
soboyejo@princeton.edu
MMC2001-961 Wednesday, June 27, 11:18 AM

US Research in Civil Infrastructure Systems


Elbert Marsh, Materials, National Science Foundation,
Arlington, VA, USA
The National Science Foundation (NSF) sponsors a broad
array of basic research in engineering and science. NSF's
Engineering Directorate is responsible for supporting the
American academic engineering research infrastructure and
currently invests $450M in that enterprise. Materials and
Engineering Infrastructure research comprise a significant
component of the directorate's portfolio. Much of the
materials research focuses on new and advanced materials for
infrastructure enhancement. Civil engineering research also
addresses infrastructure issues.
This discussion details the broad framework of NSF
research activity in the area of materials for infrastructure.
This activity encompasses basic materials research, large
engineering structures research, earthquake and other hazard
environment research, and general civil infrastructure
research.
Evolving themes in smart materials and
nanotechnolgy hold the promise of unique characteristics and
functionality for infrastructure materials. This issue will be
explored, as will the ongoing civil infrastructure studies at the
NSF sponsored Institute for Civil Infrastructure Systems at the
New York University.
These research activities are largely U.S. based, but
opportunities for expanding them to include an international
and Africa dimension will be explored.
emarsh@nsf.gov

MMC2001-958 Wednesday, June 27, 11:54 AM

New Approach and Technologies for Desert


Architecture in Egypt
Sherif Algohary, F.H. Hammad, Materials, Atomic Energy
Authority of Egypt, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt
The vast majority of Egypt's population is concentrated in
about 5% of the area of Egypt in the Nile valley. Desert
development is becoming an essential part of Egypt's
development strategy to attract population away from the
overcrowded urban centres in the valley. Housing using desert
architecture appropriate for living in desert environment is
promoted. The Atomic Energy Authority has initiated a
program of desert development using nuclear techniques and
renewable energy, which includes a project on demonstration
of desert architecture, with optimized dome construction. The
features of this project are decoribed and assessed. Associated
technologies which also are developed and evaluated include
compressed earth blocks and new advanced daylighting
systems which comprise Pholographic optical elements and
light guiding elements. These systems were applied and tested
in areal building. Evaluation of these technologies are
reported.
watanoma@internetegypt.com

123

Materials for Infrastructure and Development

parameters. It is observed that crack growth in constant


amplitude fatigue loading is a two-phase process: a
deceleration phase followed by an acceleration stage. The
quasi-static load envelope is shown to predict the crack length
at fatigue failure. A fracture-based fatigue failure criterion is
proposed, wherein the fatigue failure can be predicted using
the critical mode I stress intensity factor. A material model for
the damage evolution during fatigue loading of concrete in
terms of crack propagation is proposed. The crack growth
acceleration stage is shown to follow Paris law.
ksubram@ce.ccny.cuny.edu

Session: B
Wednesday, June 27, 1:30-3:00
Spinnaker I
Chairs: Daniel Davis and F.H. Hammad
MMC2001-873 Wednesday, June 27, 1:30 PM

Reinforcement Corrosion and the Deflection of RC


Beams: An experimental Critique of Current Test
Methods
Yunus Ballim, James C Reid, School of Civil and
Environmental Engineering, University of the
Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa

MMC2001-669 Wednesday, June 27, 2:06 PM

This paper presents an experimental critique of the current


test methods used to assess the effects of reinforcement
corrosion on the serviceability deflections of reinforced
concrete beams. Importantly, the work reported here
highlights the weakness of tests aimed at assessing the
deflection behaviour of beams in which the corrosion of the
steel and the application of the service loads are undertaken as
two separate and sequential processes.
In the present series of tests, the central deflections of
beams subjected to 23% and 34% of the design ultimate load,
under 4-point loading subjected to simultaneous accelerated
corrosion, were monitored over a period of approximately 30
days. Uncorroded beams were used as control samples and
tested in parallel with the corroded samples.
The results show the importance of assessing the structural
effects of reinforcement corrosion under simultaneous load
and corrosion conditions, as would occur in situ. In this
situation, when 6% of the mass of steel is corroded, beam
deflections are increased by between 40% and 70% relative to
the deflection of the control samples.
ballim@civil.wits.ac.za

A Probabilistic Multiparameter Framework for the


Modeling of Fatigue Crack Growth in Concrete
K. Bhalerao, A.B.O. Soboyejo, Dept. of Food, Agricultural &
Bio. Engr., The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio,
USA
W. Shen, W.O. Soboyejo, Princeton Materials Institute &
Dept. of MAE, Princeton University, Princeton, N.J.
This paper presents a probabilistic multiparameter
framework for the modeling of fatigue crack growth in three
concrete mixes. The framework relies on the use of ranked
fatigue crack growth rate data (with specified occurrence
probability levels) in the formulation of multiparameter
fatigue crack growth expressions. These relate ranked fatigue
crack growth rates to crack driving force parameters such as
the stress intensity factor range, maximum stress intensity
factor, stress ratio and occurrence probability level. A
probabilistic framework is then presented for the estimation of
material reliability or failure probability due to fatigue crack
growth.
Bhalerao.1@osu.edu

MMC2001-950 Wednesday, June 27, 1:48 PM


MMC2001-670 Wednesday, June 27, 2:24 PM

Fatigue of Concrete Subjected to Biaxial Loading in


the Tension Region

An Investigation of Fracture and Resistance-Curve


Behavior in Concrete

Kolluru V. Subramaniam, Surendra P. Shah, Civil


Engineering Department, City College of New York,
New York, NY, USA

J. Lou, W.O. Soboyejo, Princeton Materials Institute, and


Dept. of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering,
Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, USA

The objective of this work is to characterize the quasistatic and low-cycle fatigue response of concrete subjected to
biaxial stresses in the tensile-compression-tension (t-C-T)
region, where the principal tensile stress is larger in magnitude
than the principal compressive stress. An experimental
investigation of material behavior in the biaxial t-C-T region is
conducted. The experimental setup consists of the following
test configurations: (a) notched concrete beams tested in threepoint bend configuration, and (b) hollow concrete cylinders
subjected to torsion with or without superimposed axial tensile
force.
The failure of concrete in t-C-T region is shown to be a
local phenomenon under quasi-static and fatigue loading,
wherein the specimen fails owing to a single crack. The crack
propagation is studied using the principles of fracture
mechanics. It is shown that the crack propagation resulting
from the t-C-T loading can be predicted using mode I fracture

K. Bhalerao, A.B.O. Soboyejo, Dept. of Food, Agricultural


and Biological Engineering, The Ohio State University,
Columbus, Ohio, USA
This paper examines the effects of mix strength on the
fracture initiation and resistance-curve behavior of concrete.
The fracture initiation toughness and the resistance-curve
behavior are shown to crease with increasing mix strength.
However, the extent of stable crack growth is shown to
decrease with increasing mix strength. The measured
resistance-curve behavior is associated with the beneficial
effects of crack-tip shielding due to ligament bridging
mechanisms. The observed small- and large-scale bridging
phenomena are then modeled using fracture mechanics
models. The studies show that the measured resistance-curve
behavior is predicted largely by considering the beneficial
effects of ligament bridging. Finally, the implications of the

124

Materials for Infrastructure and Development

results are then discussed for the design of durable concrete


structures.
jlou@princeton.edu

the preparation of sisal and banana fibres while residual


Eucalyptus grandis pulp was used as received. Granulated
blast furnace slag (BFS) was used as the major component of
an alternative hydraulic binder and ordinary Portland cement
was employed as the reference. Composites were prepared
using a slurry vacuum de-watering process, pressing and aircuring. Moduli of rupture (MOR) up to 23 MPa and flexural
toughness (FT) values in the range of 0.6 - 1.7 kJ/m2 were
obtained at fibre contents of 8 to 12% by mass at 28 days.
After 12 months of exposure under tropical and temperate
conditions the MOR of the BFS-based composites had
decreased to values in the range of 6.6 - 10.1 MPa. Favourable
weathering effects included a stability, or even an increase, in
the FT. The results indicate that the performance of the
composites being studied is currently satisfactory and that
potential exists for further optimisation of formulation and
processing parameters.
holmersj@usp.br

Session: C
Wednesday, June 27, 3:30-5:00
Spinnaker I
Chairs: A.B.O. Soboyejo and R. Narayan Swamy
MMC2001-691 Wednesday, June 27, 3:30 PM

Evaluation and Repair of Algiers New Airport


Building
Kenai Said, Civil Engineering, University of Blida, Blida,
Blida, Algeria
Bahar Ramdane, Civil Engineering, Mouloud Mammeri
University of Tizi-Ouzou, Tizi-Ouzou, Tizi-Ouzou,
Algeria

MMC2001-960 Wednesday, June 27, 4:06 PM

This paper reports on the assessment study conducted by


the authors on the Algiers new airport building. The
evaluation approach included visual inspection of concrete,
seismic parallel method for piles testing and non-destructive
testing of concrete with Schmidt hammer, ultrasonic-pulse
velocity measurements, cores testing, carbonation tests and
also ambient vibrations of the structure. The diagnostic
confirmed that the concrete was of low strength and showed
many shortcomings such as inappropriate mix design with
respect to coarse aggregate size of concrete resulting in
honeycombing, construction errors such as lack of cover and
the use of low slump concrete without plasticiser admixtures,
poor placement and inadequate vibration. The repair work
involved the application of ready mixed polymer modified
sprayed mortar with and without fibers on more than ten
thousand square meters of honeycomb concrete, the injection
of about five hundred linear meters of cracks and the repair of
about one hundred square meters of corrosion damaged
concrete at a cost of more than three millions US dollars.
sdkenai@yahoo.com

Characterization of Tannin Resin Blends for


Particleboard Applications
E.T.N. Bisanda, Materials, University of Namibia, Windhoek,
Namibia
W.O. Ogola, Materials, Egarton University, Nakuru, none,
Kenya
The rising oil prices are making synthetic resins and
polymers more expensive, prompting a need to replace them
with natural resins. When hydrolyzed and condensation
polymerized, tannins provide an excellent resin for use in
particleboard and plywood production. Blends of hydrolyzed
tannin, cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL), and urea
formaldehyde (UF) have been tested to determine the resin
formulation that gives optimum properties for particleboard
applications. The introduction of hydrolyzed tannin in UF
resin has been found to reduce the formaldehyde emission
levels significantly. A blend of hydrolyzed tannin and CNSL
has been found to possess better dimensional stability and
resistance to insect attack. Tannin-blended resins cure faster,
and result in composites with better water and moisture
resistance when compared to UF.
Thermal analysis by
differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) has shown that tannin
blends exhibit better thermal stability and have a higher glass
transition temperature than UF resin. Generally, it was found
that particleboards made from wood particles and coffee
husks, and bonded using the tannin resin blend that include UF
and CNSL, possessed superior properties to those made using
UF and PF alone. The thermal and physical properties of
particleboards produced using this novel resin blend are
presented and discussed.
ebisanda@unam.na

MMC2001-564 Wednesday, June 27, 3:48 PM

Potential Of Alternative Fibre-Cements As Building


Materials For Developing Areas
Holmer Savastano, Jr., Departamento Zootecnia Construcoes Rurais, University of Sao Paulo,
Pirassununga - Caixa Postal 23, Sao Paulo, Brazil
Peter Graeme Warden, Forestry and Forest Products (FFP),
Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research
Organisation (CSIRO), Melbourne - Clayton South MDC
- private bag 10, Victoria, Australia
Robert Stephen Patrick Coutts, ASSEDO Pty. Ltd.,
Melbourne - Sandringham - 75 Sandringham Rd,
Victoria, Australia
The main objective of this collaborative work is to
evaluate the production of thin fibre-cement elements by the
Hatschek process with a view to their use in low-cost housing.
Mechanical and kraft pulping procedures were employed in

125

Mechanics and Materials Issues in Thin Films and Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS)

David Simbi, Metallurgical Engineering, University of


Zimbabwe, Harare, Harare, ZIMBABWE

architecture of the shell are essential factors in the robust


design of this biocomposite, a model for engineering
segmented-layered materials. Secondly, sponge spicule from
Rosella with a proteinaceous filament core is a natural optical
fiber with waveguide characteristics comparable to those of
synthetic ones. The spicule, with orders of magnitude better
fracture strength and toughness than those of synthetic glass
rods, offers bioinspired lessons for optical fibers with longterm durability.
sarikaya@u.washington.edu

Erik Navara, Production Engineering Institute, SIRDC,


Harare, Harare, ZIMBABWE

MMC2001-890 Wednesday, June 27, 9:36 AM

MMC2001-705 Wednesday, June 27, 4:24 PM

Austempered Ductile Iron: An Alternative Material


for Earth Moving Components
Josephat Zimba, Production Engineering Institute, Scientific
and Industrial Research and Development Centre of
Zimbabwe (SIRDC), Harare, Harare, Zimbabwe

Recent Advances in Surface Micromachining


Technology at Sandia

Traditionally steels have enjoyed some kind of monopoly


in earth movement applications like ripper tips and grader
blades. Earth movement demands that the material posses both
wear resistance and toughness. Ironically, the limitation of
steels is that it is difficult to get a good combination of these
properties. Recent research efforts in earth movement have
focused on austempered ductile iron (ADI) as an alternative
material, which exhibits both these properties. ADI is obtained
when ductile cast iron is accorded a special heat treatment
known as austempering. This paper details the heat treatment
of ductile iron to yield ADI and typical abrasive wear
properties of this material. These properties are compared with
those of a proprietary quenched and tempered steel used in
applications requiring good wear resistance.
jzimba@hotmail.com

Murat Okandan, Paul Galambos, Sita Mani, Jay Jakubczak,


Si Surface Micromachining and Advanced Concepts,
Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM, USA
The silicon surface micromachining technology which has
been under development at Sandia throughout most of the last
decade has produced some of the most intricate and complex
micromachines to date. With further enhancements, this
technology offers immense flexibility in design space, while
maintaining complete compatibility with microelectronics
processing. The recent enhancements in this technology are
aimed at providing new capabilities in BioMEMS and
microfluidics applications, as well as novel actuation and
sensing platforms. In a system view, integration of MEMS
components that are enabled by the technology enhancements
allow complex functions such as cellular manipulation,
separation and mixing to be performed on-chip. The hybrid
assembly of MEMS components with other channel structures
is used to provide the interconnection layer for fluidic
input/outputs. In this presentation, the new technology
developments and the potential applications of these systems
in the biological and medical sciences will be highlighted.
mokanda@sandia.gov

Mechanics and Materials Issues in Thin


Films and Microelectromechanical Systems
(MEMS)
Session: 1: Bio-MEMS and Applications
Wednesday, June 27, 9:00-10:30
Executive Conference Center 2B
Chair: Cengiz S. Ozkan
MMC2001-152 Wednesday, June 27, 9:00 AM

MMC2001-763 Wednesday, June 27, 9:54 AM

Biomimetics: Nanomechanical Design of Materials


through Biology

Particle Manipulation By Optical And Electronic


Means In Microfluidics

Keynote

Erhan Ata, Mihrimah Ozkan, Aaron Birkbeck, Electrical


and Computer Engineering Dept., University of
California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA

Mehmet Sarikaya, Materials Science and Engineering,


University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA

Mark Wang, Genoptix, Inc., San Diego, CA, USA

Biological hard tissues (bone, teeth, spicules, shells,


spines, particles) have intricate hierarchical structures and a
combination of physical (e.g., mechanical) properties, often
superior to human-made materials with similar phase
compositions. Investigation of biomaterial structure-property
correlation provides lessons for novel material fabrication
through biology. Here two unique structures will be discussed.
Firstly, nacre (pearl) of mollusk shell is a layered
nanocomposite of aragonitic CaCO3 platelets and proteinmolecular composite. FE modeling based on nanomechanical
properties, measured by an AFM-based system, indicate that
the individual component properties and the hierarchical

Cengiz S. Ozkan, Richard A. Flynn, Sadik C. Esener


In this paper, we report on device arrays that utilize microparticle photon interactions. We show that the manipulation
of micro particles by optical means and the manipulation of
optical beams by microparticles activated by microfluidic and
electronic means can be performed in parallel with at low cost
in a power efficient manner. We demonstrate that parallel
optical manipulation of microspheres and biological cells can
be carried out by using optical tweezers using VCSEL arrays.
For example, using VCSEL radiation induced optical traps
and/or photonic pressure with only a few mW optical power,
microscopic objects can be selectively manipulated and

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Mechanics and Materials Issues in Thin Films and Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS)

switched to desired outlets of multilayer microfluidic channels


fabricated in PDMS elastomer. We have also shown that it is
possible to manipulate multiple particles by using an optically
trapped particle as a handle. As another example, we have
shown that microsphere lenses can be aligned and manipulated
electrophoretically in fluid filled polymer wells with very low
drive powers (<10 microwatt/per lenslet). We believe such
devices can be used effectively in various fields ranging from
biomedical devices to photonic chip systems.
eata@ece.ucsd.edu

such MOEMS research concepts. I discuss the impact of


materials systems, processing complexity, and reliability
requirements on design flexibility, functionality and
commercialization of MOEMS. A tight inter-dependent
feedback loop between Component/ Subsystem/ System
Design, Fabrication, Packaging, Manufacturing and Reliability
is described as a strategy for building reliability into potential
MOEMS products while accelerating their development into
commercial offerings.
arney@lucent.com

MMC2001-143 Wednesday, June 27, 10:12 AM

MMC2001-814 Wednesday, June 27, 11:36 AM

Characterizing Cell-Substrate Adhesion

Packaging Issues in MOEMS:Epoxy Seal

Kuo Kang Liu, Hong-Gang Wang, Kai Tak Wan, Centre for
Mechanics of Microsystems (CMMS), School of
Mechanical and Production Engineering, Nanyang
Technological University, Singapore, Singapore,
Singapore

Sohrab Habibi, Josh Malone, Seth Miller, Josh Jacobs,


Digital Light Processing (DLP tm), Texas Instruments,
Dalla, TX, USA

Tianzheng Liu, School of Chemical Engineering, University


of Birmingham, Birmingham, Birmingham, U. K.

Session: 2: Optical MEMS and Applications


Wednesday, June 27, 11:00-12:30
Executive Conference Center 2B
Chair: Robert Welstand

The Digital Light Processing(TM) (DLP(TM)) microchip


is a micromachined, discretely addressable array of a half
million to a million or more mirrors that are used as spatial
light modulators for video projection. Prior to 2001, all of our
commercial devices have been produced using seam welded,
hermetic packaging. Due to a variety of factors, e.g. ease of
production and cost reduction, epoxy seals are being
considered as an alternative packaging approach. In this case,
an epoxy-based adhesive is used to bond the DLP(TM)
window directly onto the ceramic base substrate. One of the
main concerns in replacing the seam weld with an epoxy seal
is that the latter forms a non-hermetic, semi-permeable seal.
In time, moisture, oxygen and other gases permeate through
the epoxy bond-line, and gradually high levels of these
external gases lead to device failure. The maximum allowable
amount of each gas that can permeate through the epoxy seal
over the required lifetime of a given device therefore
influences the choice of epoxies. The specific chemical and
physical characteristics of the chosen epoxy bring about other
concerns, such as interfacial adhesion, package stresses, and
thermal management.In this paper, the advantages and
disadvantages of epoxy-based packaging are discussed. Other
factors considered for deciding the suitability of an epoxy seal
for our DLP(TM) devices are also presented.
habibi@ti.com

MMC2001-772 Wednesday, June 27, 11:00 AM

MMC2001-746 Wednesday, June 27, 11:54 AM

Design for Reliability of MEMS /MOEMS for


Lightwave Telecommunications

Heterogeneous integration of polymer microlenses


with inorganic substrates by use of the hydrophobic
effect

Manjula Variyam

Zhang Zhibing
This paper reports a new method to characterize the
adhesion between a cellular entity (liquid-filled microcapsule)
and a solid substrate. A sensitive microscope visualization
instrument has been developed for measuring the cellsubstrate contact area and inflated cell volume in response to
an osmosis change. A theoretical model is used to
quantitatively correlate the adhesion energy to the contact area
and the osmotic inflation of cell volume [1]. The results show
that the contact area increases with increasing adhesion
energy, while it shrinks in dimension as cell inflation is
enlarged. The good agreement between the experimental and
theoretical results described facilitates the determination of the
adhesion energy [2]. This method will be potentially applied
to facilitate the new design of cell-base microsensors.
mkkliu@ntu.edu.sg

Keynote
Susanne Arney, 600 Mountain Ave. 1C-258, Lucent
Technologies Bell Labs, Murray Hill, NJ, USA

Daniel M. Hartmann, Osman Kibar, Sadik C. Esener,


Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of
California at San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA

Optical Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (Optical


MEMS, or MOEMS) comprise a disruptive technology whose
application to telecommunications networks is transforming
the horizon for lightwave systems. Beginning with an
overview of MOEMS devices of interest for lightwave
telecommunications systems, I describe a Design for
Reliability mindset that facilitates rapid commercialization of

We report a means of fabricating high-performance


polymer microlens arrays using the hydrophobic effect.
Experimental development, modeling, and optimization of the
lens deposition process has been conducted. Using the
optimized technique, microlenses were fabricated on a variety
of substrates including semiconductor surfaces and MEMS

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Mechanics and Materials Issues in Thin Films and Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS)

mirrors. Lenses were also deposited on the ends of optical


fibers in a self-aligned fashion. Arrays of microlenses with
footprints 2-500 um in diameter were fabricated. The
fabricated arrays had lithographically-defined pitches,
allowing fill-factors up to 90%. The # of formed microlenses
was controlled by adjusting monomer viscosity and surface
tension, substrate dipping angle and withdrawal speed, the
array fill factor and the number of dip coats used. An
optimum withdrawal speed was identified at which f was
minimized and array uniformity was maximized. At this
optimum, arrays of f/1.38 lens arrays with uniformity better
than delta f /f ~5.9% were produced. Average # s were
reproducible to within 3.5%. The lenses had excellent surface
profiles (maximum deviation from a sphere was < 5 nm over
the center 130 um of 500 um diameter f/3.2 lenses), and were
stable at room temperature. These characteristics are
competitive with those of leading microlens fabrication
technologies.
hartmann@ece.ucsd.edu

Session: 3: Mechanics of Thin Films and MEMS (I)


Wednesday, June 27, 1:30-3:00
Executive Conference Center 2B
Chair: Guanshui Xu
MMC2001-883 Wednesday, June 27, 1:30 PM

Micromechanical Testing of Free-Standing Thin


Films for MEMS Applications
Keynote
John C. Bravman, Ping Zhang, Materials Science and
Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA
Hoo-Jeong Lee, Agere Systems, Allentown, PA, USA
In Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) devices,
many of the active components exist in the form of freestanding thin films. Such components are constantly in motion
under various actuation and stimulation. Although thin films
on substrates have been extensively studied, knowledge of
free-standing thin films was generally not available until the
advent of micromachining techniques and is yet to be further
explored. We have developed a dedicated sample fabrication
process to produce free-standing thin films of different
materials and different thicknesses. We have built a customdesigned micromechanical testing apparatus with a load
resolution of 0.2mN and a displacement resolution of
10nm. We study the stress-strain response of pure Al and AlTi alloy free-standing thin films for both monotonic loading
and preliminary cyclic loading. Monotonic tests include
microtensile tests and stress relaxation tests. From
microtensile tests, we examine the results with respect to those
of bulk materials and thin films adhered to substrates. From
stress relaxation tests, we study the effect of alloying in
conjunction with a proposed anelastic model. >From TEM
analyses we also find evidence of inhomogeneous
deformation, including the development of localized thinning.
bravman@stanford.edu

MMC2001-272 Wednesday, June 27, 12:12 PM

Mechanics of Optical Pumping of Micromechanical


Oscillators
Alan T Zehnder, Maxim Zalalutdinov, Anatoli Olkhovets,
Bojan Ilic, Cornell Center for Materials Research,
Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA
David Czaplewski, Harold Craighead, Jeevak Parpia
MEMS oscillators are important sub-systems for which
there are a large number of potential applications, including
filtering for telecommunication devices, mass detection, and
scanning force microscopy. Parametric amplification of is
often desirable as it narrows resonance peaks, allowing more
precise filtering and can be used to amplify small motions.
Parametric amplification can occur when the spring
constant of an oscillator is modulated at twice the natural
frequency of the system. We have recently discovered that a
low power, modulated laser can be used to parametrically
amplify disk shaped Si oscillators, 40m diameter and 0.25m
thick, oscillating at 1 MHz. The mechanism of stiffness
change is the thermal stress due to laser heating. Experimental
measurements of amplification and of frequency shift show
excellent agreement with theoretical and computational
analyses of the oscillators.
We also observe self-generated motions of the oscillator
under DC laser power. The mechanism of self-generated
motion is motion of the oscillator within the interference
pattern developed due to multiple reflections of the laser from
the oscillator and its substrate. Simple models coupling the
thermal and mechanical problems will be presented to explain
this phenomenon.
atz2@cornell.edu

MMC2001-188 Wednesday, June 27, 2:06 PM

Fracture Behavior of an Amorphous Alloy Thin


Film
Kazuki Takashima, Ryuichi Tarumi, Akio Ogura, Yakichi
Higo, Precision and Intelligence Laboratory, Tokyo
Institute of Technology, Yokohama, Japan
Fracture tests have been carried out on micro-sized
specimens prepared from a Ni-P amorphous alloy thin film
and its fracture behavior has been investigated. Cantilever
beam type specimens with dimensions of 10 microns x 10
microns x 50 microns were prepared by focused ion beam
machining and notches with different directions, which are
perpendicular and parallel to the deposition growth direction
of the amorphous film, were introduced. Fatigue pre-cracks
were also introduced ahead of the notches. Fracture tests were
performed at room temperature using a newly developed
mechanical testing machine for micro-sized specimens.
Fracture behavior was different between the two types of
specimens. The fracture toughness value of the specimen with
the crack propagation direction being perpendicular to the

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Mechanics and Materials Issues in Thin Films and Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS)

deposition growth direction was higher than that with the


crack propagation direction parallel to the deposition growth
direction. This result suggests that the electroless deposited
amorphous thin film has anisotropic mechanical properties.
takashik@pi.titech.ac.jp

sought by studying interfacial shear stresses. The case of a thin


film of finite length on a thick substrate under plane strain is
considered for various loading conditions. An analytical
solution for the stress field exhibits square root singularity
near the free edges. The associated stress intensity factor is
obtained in closed form as a function of material properties,
aspect ratio of the film and the type of loading. Governed by a
single, dimensionless parameter, the dependence of stress
intensity factor on these variables is reported in the form of a
universal plot. Comparison of theoretical results to finite
element calculations shows good agreement of interfacial
shear stresses.
alaca@uiuc.edu

MMC2001-153 Wednesday, June 27, 2:24 PM

Acoustic Measurements for Nanomechanical Test


Instruments
Antanas Daugela, R&D, Hysitron Inc., Minneapolis, MN,
USA
Nanomechanical test instruments offer qualitative
characterization of mechanical properties due to quasi-static
depth sensing. Thus, in-situ SPM type imaging and
simultaneous acoustic response monitoring opens new
instrumentation horizons. Correlation between quasi-static
force displacement curves and simultaneously monitored
acoustic phenomena powered by pre/post test SPM type
images enables real-time investigation of phenomena such as
film delamination and dislocations. Active and passive
acoustic methods can be utilized to characterize large variety
of substrates and coatings. Using a concept of localized
acoustic emission (AE) monitoring combined with advanced
signal processing, AE signal can be detected at sub-milli
Newton contact force. Plastic deformation induced events can
be separated from contact friction events by analyzing AE
signal signatures for nanoindentation/scratch and wear tests.
Beside other applications, active ultrasonic methods can be
utilized for nanoscale characterization of tribo-surfaces. A
friction coefficient reduction of up to 20 percent was
monitored on ultrasonically excited surface during scratch test
and investigated by post/scratch SPM imaging. Recent trends
indicated successful nanoindentation applications for
evaluation of visco-elastic biological materials. A synergy of
localized ultrasonic monitoring and nanoindentation technique
can lead into development of new promising instrumentation
to characterize in-vivo/vitro biological tissues at molecular
level.
daugela@hysitron.com

Session: 4: Mechanics of Thin Films and MEMS (II)


Wednesday, June 27, 3:30-5:00
Executive Conference Center 2B
Chair: John C. Bravman
MMC2001-826 Wednesday, June 27, 3:30 PM

Effect Of Nanotexturing On Interfacial Adhesion In


Mems
Keynote
Maarten P. de Boer, Intelligent Micromachining, MS 1080,
Sandia National Labs, Albuquerque, NM, USA
James A. Knapp, Radiation Solid-Interactions, Sandia
National Labs, Albuquerque, NM, USA
Peggy J. Clews, Silicon Processing, Sandia National Labs,
Albuquerque, NM, USA
Understanding the effects of surface roughness on
parameters such as adhesion, friction and wear is a central
question in the tribology of MEMS. In this work, we
fabricated polysilicon cantilevers over textured surfaces of
varying nm scale roughness, and measured the interfacial
adhesion of the cantilevers to the surfaces. Contrary to
expectations, the effect of roughness, when increased over a
large range from 3 to 12 nm rms, reduced the adhesion only by
a factor of 2, instead of by a factor of 16 as expected from
previous literature models. The adhesion was studied by
inputting 3-D data from AFM topographs of the surfaces into
a finite element code, and mating the surfaces in the computer.
We find that the attraction between MEMS surfaces is in a
regime not previously considered by standard models of rough
surfaces such as the Fuller-Tabor or Maugis treatment of the
Greenwood-Williamson model. The modeling is in good
agreement with the data, and shows that at small roughnesses,
adhesion is proportional to 1/(average separation)^2, but at
large roughnesses, asperities that nearly bridge the gap are the
dominating contributor to the adhesion.
mpdebo@sandia.gov

MMC2001-164 Wednesday, June 27, 2:42 PM

Study Of Interface Debond At The Edge Of A Thin


Film On A Substrate
B. Erdem Alaca, Taher Saif, Huseyin Sehitoglu, Mechanical
and Industrial Engineering, University of Illinois at
Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, USA
Failure of a composite diaphragm in an electrostatically
actuated micro pump is investigated. Consisting of a
polymeric substrate with dielectric and conducting coatings,
the diaphragm is used to pressurize gas in a cavity. Under such
loading, interfaces between various layers become crucial for
the reliability of the device. To study the failure of the
diaphragm, 400 nm aluminum thin films on 127 micrometerthick polyimide substrates have been tested under uniaxial
tension. Using in-situ microscopy, cracking in the Al film and
subsequent delamination of the film edge from substrate are
observed. The mechanism by which edge debond occurs is

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Mechanics and Materials Issues in Thin Films and Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS)

micron scale very well. The strain gradient effect in microelectro-mechanical systems (MEMS) is investigated in this
paper via the MSG plasticity theory since the typical size of
MEMS is on the order of microns (comparable to the internal
material length in MSG plasticity). Through an example of a
digital micromirror device (DMD), it is shown that the strain
gradient effect significantly increases the mechanical strain
energy in the DMD, and also significantly reduces the rotation
time of the micromirror. However, the strain gradient has no
effect on the critical bias voltage governing the fast rotation of
the micromirror.
saif@uiuc.edu

MMC2001-155 Wednesday, June 27, 4:06 PM

Characterization of MEMS-Type Devices: HDD


Head Gimble Assembly Stiffness Measurements
Antanas Daugela, Warren Oden, R&D, Hysitron Inc.,
Minneapolis, MN, USA
The Hard Disk Drive (HDD) read-write head slider is a
complicated MEMS-type device which has electro-magnetic
and mechanical functions. A Head Gimble Assembly (HGA)
is a flexture gently supporting head and suspension in
equilibrium on the airbearing while flying above the disk
surface. The main objective for good head slider performance
is stiffness match of the HGA and the airbearing which needs
to be in the range of 60 - 100N/m. Quality control of the HGA
should be performed in order to ensure overall HDD
performance. A newly-developed automated nanoindentation
instrument with optical and in-situ AFM-type imaging was
used to measure stiffness of three HGA assemblies obtained
from the same vendor. Powerful top down optics ensured
rough sample positioning within 1micrometer. AFM-type
feedback engaged the sample within 30nm accuracy and
provided pre and post stiffness measurement images. Stiffness
measurements were performed by indenting into the HDD
head slider with a blunt nanoindentation tip. Experimental
results indicated stiffness variations for all three HGAs.
daugela@hysitron.com

Session: 5: Mechanics of Thin Films and MEMS (III)


Thursday, June 28, 9:00-10:30
Executive Conference Center 2B
Chair: Maarten P. de Boer
MMC2001-888 Thursday, June 28, 9:00 AM

MEMS Materials Issues for High-Sensitivity Force


Measurements
Thomas Kenny, Mechanical Engineering, Stanford, Stanford,
CA, USA
Accelerometers, Gyros, and Pressure Sensors are all
examples of MEMS devices which detect signals by
measuring small forces. This capability can be optimized
through miniaturization, and this opportunity is the basis for
the success of MEMS. Our group has been collaborating with
the Rugar/Mamin group at IBM Almaden in their efforts to
detect individual atoms by MRFM. The forces in MRFM are
in the attoNewton regime, and the ultimate limits to force
detection play a significant role. In this project, my group has
developed methods for fabrication of ultrasensitive
cantilevers, and we have investigated the role of internal
friction in thermal noise. The presence of thin films of native
oxides or other materials on the surface of the cantilevers has
proven to be very important. This talk will discuss the basic
thermodynamics behind thermomechanical noise, and our
experimental results showing its dependence on materials and
geometries of micromechanical MEMS structures.
kenny@mems.stanford.edu

MMC2001-931 Wednesday, June 27, 4:24 PM

Air-damping Effects on Micro- and Nano-machined


Beam Resonators
Guanshui Xu, Chuanli Zhang, Qing Jiang, Mechanical
Engineering, University of California at Riverside,
Riverside, CA, USA
Micro- and nano-machined beam resonators are recently
proposed for many applications in highly sensitive sensor and
frequency-agile communications systems. One of the primary
concerns in design is to understand the increasingly stronger
air-damping effects on the characteristics of beam resonators
as they become smaller in size and operate at higher
frequencies. Analytical models will be presented to
demonstrate these effects as functions of various physical
parameters of the resonator and the surrounding air.
gxu@engr.ucr.edu

MMC2001-167 Thursday, June 28, 9:18 AM

A simple wall shear stress sensor in polycrystalline


silicon : electrical and thermal considerations

MMC2001-437 Wednesday, June 27, 4:42 PM

Laurence Michelutti, Sedat Tardu, ENSHMG, 1025 rue de la


Piscine, Domaine Universitaire, BP 95, LEGI / umr
INPG/UJF/CNRS n5519, Saint Martin d'Hres cedex,
France

A Micro-Plasticity Study of Micro-electromechanical Systems


Taher Saif, Zhenyu Xue, Yonggang Huang, Mechanical and
Industrial Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana,
IL, USA

Jumana Boussey, ENSERG, 23 rue des martyrs, BP 257,


LPCS / umr INPG/CNRS n5531, Grenoble cedex 1,
France

Metallic materials display strong size effect when the


characteristic length of deformation is on the order of microns.
The theory of mechanism-based strain gradient (MSG)
plasticity established from the Taylor dislocation model has
captured this size dependence of material behavior at the

The critical aspects of wall shear stress sensors based on


hot wire anemometry are the electrical resistance of the wire
and its sensibility to temperature fluctuations, and thermal
isolation of the wire. In conventional hot wire anemometry,

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Mechanics and Materials Issues in Thin Films and Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS)

applications of nanotubes range from new electronic devices


and electromechanical probes to multifunctional structural
components and control systems for aerospace industries.
Recently, the mechanical response of NTs has been
investigated by molecular dynamic simulations that use the
continuum Euler beam theory and thin shell models for data
reduction. Such approaches must be carried out along with the
careful analysis of continuum approximations used. To
examine validity and limitations of the continuum models for
NTs, the beam and the thin shell models for NTs under axial
compression are analyzed. The continuum assumptions are
discussed along with the dimensional analysis of the problem
and parameters such as the bond length, radius, aspect ratio,
modulus are discussed. Model applicability maps and criteria
are presented. The critical buckling loads for various NT
beams and shells are derived and compared with the available
data.
v.m.harik@larc.nasa.gov

the wire is fabricated in platinum which has a high


Temperature Coefficient of Resistivity (TCR). By varying
doping level and deposition parameters of polycrystalline
silicon (polysilicon) thin films, a good TCR value can be
obtained. The main advantage of using polysilicon instead of
platinum is its entire compatibility with standard
microelectronics. The drawback of polysilicon is its resistivity
which is much higher than that of platinum. We have realized
a simple shear stress sensor (three mask levels) where the hot
wire (in polysilicon) is thermally isolated from the substrate
by an air cavity. The static calibration in air flow facility
shows that the sensor behaves like a wall shear stress sensor.
For the first run of sensors, the response time is too high for
their use in measurements of the instantaneous shear stress.
This is due to an important axial thermal conduction, as
demonstrated by 3D electro-thermal finite element modeling.
michelut@enserg.fr
MMC2001-120 Thursday, June 28, 9:36 AM

MMC2001-524 Thursday, June 28, 10:12 AM

Analytic Solutions of Stress Distribution Under A


Thin Film Edge In Isotropic Substrates

Analytical modeling and global optimization method


for micro heat sink design

S.P. Wong, H.J. Peng, Electronic Engineering, Chinese


University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong, China

Jumana Boussey, Electronics Engineering School-ENSERGINPG, Lab. Physique des Composants a


Semiconducteurs, Grenoble, Grenoble-ISERE, France

Shounan Zhao, Applied Physics, South China University of


Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China

Corinne Perret, Christian Schaeffer, Electrotechnics


Engineering School-ENSIEG-INPG, Lab
Electrotechnique de Grenoble, Saint Martin d'Heres

It is well known that film edge can produce large and


localized stresses in the substrate in film-substrate systems and
that stresses in the substrate are of importance in Si
technology as well as in many other semiconductor
heterostructure systems. Many theoretical investigations have
been performed in the past two decades to study the filmedge-induced stress distribution problem but a satisfactory
analytical solution is still lacking. In this work, we shall report
on an exact solution we have obtained for the stress
distribution under a thin-film edge in isotropic substrates
satisfying the balance and compatibility equations of linear
elasticity. The substrate, half-covered by a thin film on its
surface, is of finite thickness and extends to infinity in the
other two directions. With this solution, the stress distributions
in substrates under the edges of long stripes or long windows
of thin films are also obtained by superposition. This work is
partially supported by the Research Grants Council of Hong
Kong SAR (Ref. No. CUHK 4155/97E).
spwong@ee.cuhk.edu.hk

Yvan Avenas, Martin Coyaud


A typical configuration of a heat sink is a finned structure
which is cooled by forced convection from the fin's hot walls
towards the cooling fluid. There are mainly tow basic
technologies for cooling device manufacturing: copper [1] and
silicon [2,3] technology. The main advantage of this last
choice is to provide very competitive devices with a very low
internal strain at low cost. In this paper, we will present an
analytical model describing the global thermal resistance of
such device as a function of its geometrical parameters and of
the external operating conditions. Afterwards, a specific global
optimization technique well be applied in order to find out the
optimum dimension of the first prototypes.
The computation details will be discussed and we will
show out how the use of this optimization procedure allowed
us to conceive an optimized prototype for each technology.
Comparison of the experimental results with the expected
performances will be given.
[1] L. Meysenc et al. "A high heat flux IGBT
microexchanger setup", IEEE Trans. On Comp. & Pack.
Technology, A, vol. 20,pp. 334-341, sept. 1997
[2]D.B. Tuckerman et al. "High performance heat sink for
VLSI" IEEE Electron Devices Letters, Vol. EDL-31;, pp.126129, May, 1985
[3] C. Perret et al. "Modeling, Optimization and
Realization of Cooling Devices in Silicon Technology",
Therminic'99, Roma (Italy), p. 265, Oct 1999
boussey@enserg.fr

MMC2001-112 Thursday, June 28, 9:54 AM

Limitations of the Thin Shell and Beam Models for


Carbon Nanotubes
Vasyl Michael Harik, Michael P. Nemeth, Thomas S. Gates,
ICASE, MS 132C, NASA Langley Research Center,
Hampton, VA, USA
Carbon nanotubes are cylindrical molecules composed of
carbon atoms in a periodic hexagonal arrangement.
Nanotubes appear to possess extraordinary physical properties
(e.g., high stiffness-to-weight and strength-to-weight ratios
and enormous electrical and thermal conductivities). Potential

131

Mechanics of Advanced Composites

Dynamic Fracture in Multi-Layered Materials


Subjected to Low-Speed Impact

is performed using an explicit axisymmetric


Cohesive/Volumetric Finite Element scheme, in which
cohesive elements are introduced along the fiber/matrix
interface. A robust contact algorithm is incorporated to
account for the fiber/matrix sliding taking place behind the
rapidly advancing debonding front. Residual stresses present
in the specimen after manufacturing are also taken into
account in the simulation. Preliminary numerical results
include the effects of the bond strength on the debonding
speed, and rate effects on the energetics of the dynamic fiber
push-out process.
lambros@uiuc.edu

Keynote

MMC2001-686 Friday, June 29, 9:54 AM

Luoyu Roy Xu, Ares J. Rosakis, Aeronautics, The California


Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, USA

Crack bridging in 3D composites under dynamic


loads

Mechanics of Advanced Composites


Session: 1: Mechanics of Advanced Composites: dynamic
fracture
Friday, June 29, 9:00-10:30
Fairbanks B
Chairs: Costas Soutis and Roberta Massab
MMC2001-846 Friday, June 29, 9:00 AM

Model layered materials involving a combination of


transparent polymers and metals were tested to understand the
nature and sequence of complex dynamic failure modes in
layered and sandwich structures. For heterogeneous threelayer systems, inter-layer cracks (delamination) always
appeared first. These cracks were shear dominated and could
be intersonic even under moderate impact speeds. Opening
intra-layer cracks kinking from the inter-layer cracks
propagated into the weak core layer of the model three-layer
system and eventually branched.
For the homogeneous layered materials, three-layer and
two-layer, bonded Homalite/Homalite specimens featuring
different bonding strengths were tested. Opening dominated
intra-layer cracks radiated from the impact point. Mixedmode inter-layer cracking (interfacial debonding) was initiated
when the intra-layer cracks approached the interface with a
large incident angle. The dynamic interaction between interlayer crack formation and intra-layer crack growth (or the
dynamic equivalent of Cook-Gordon Mechanism) was
visualized for the first time.
luoyu@its.caltech.edu

Brian N Cox, Materials Science, RSC, Thousand Oaks, CA,


USA
N. Sridhar, Irene Beyerlein, Roberta Massab
Through-thickness reinforcement in the form of fibres,
stitches, or rods suppresses crack growth by bridging
delamination cracks. Under static loading, the bridging zones
create unusual characteristics of crack propagation, strongly
influencing the mode ratio and sometimes causing crack
arrest. These effects may be very beneficial for suppressing
delamination or maximising energy absorption under dynamic
loads, but the mechanics involved pose some new and
interesting problems.
We will review recent progress. We have solved a simple
model of the dynamic pullout of a generalised fibre from a
half-space (e.g., a laminate or composite). The stress front is
found to propagate at speeds less than the longitudinal wave
speed in the fibre, if the applied load is a continuously
increasing function of time rather than discontinuous. We
have derived analytical results for a bridging traction law for
loads that increase linearly in time, which define time
constants. We find that inertial effects in the bridging
mechanism will in fact be significant for many problems. We
have also examined dynamic delamination crack propagation
in the presence of large scale bridging. We find that under
dynamic loading, displacement oscillations found under static
loading exist, but now depend on the crack velocity. Simple
models allow regimes of different qualitative crack behavior
to be mapped out.
bncox@rsc.rockwell.com

MMC2001-127 Friday, June 29, 9:36 AM

An Experimental And Numerical Study Of Dynamic


Fiber Push-Out In Composite Materials
John Lambros, Xiaopeng Bi, Philippe H. Geubelle,
Aeronautical and Astronautical Engineering, University
of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, USA
A combination of experiments and simulations is
performed in order to better understand the mechanics of
dynamic fiber push-out and frictional sliding in composite
materials. Model composites, in which a single metallic fiber
is rapidly pushed out of an epoxy matrix, are used. The
experiments are performed on a modified compression Split
Hopkinson Bar (SHB). Push-out force and displacement are
monitored from the Hopkinson bar. A comparison of
experimental results is made with numerical simulations.
Simulations are performed on the entire SHB system with
input boundary conditions being those measured in each
experiment. This allows for as close a comparison with
experimental data as possible. To account for the spontaneous
initiation and propagation of the debonding crack the analysis

MMC2001-593 Friday, June 29, 10:12 AM

Thermal Analysis of Crack Tearing


Alan T Zehnder, Kavi Bhall, Theoretical and Applied
Mechanics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA
Xiaoyan Han, Yingxia Wang, Electrical and Computer
Engineering, Wayne St. University, Detroit, MI
During stable crack propagation the heat generated at the
crack tip due to plastic deformation results in a local
temperature increase. We will show that the measured

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temperature field can be used to quantify the energy required


to drive the crack and to obtain a qualitative description of the
distributed damage to the material.
In our research we use a high speed, high resolution,
infrared imaging system to measure the temperature field for
stable tearing of cracks in annealed 302 stainless steel, 1.0 mm
and 0.1 mm thick, at crack speeds up to 100 mm/s. The
experiments are simulated using fully coupled thermomechanical
finite
element
analyses.
See
http://www.tam.cornell.edu/~bhalla/TACT2000/TACT2000.ht
ml for recent experimental results.
Through consideration of the heat flux equation,
specialized to a thin sheet and using the crack tip energy flux
integral, we have developed a method for quantifying energy
flow to the crack tip using analysis of thermal images obtained
during crack growth. The resulting values of energy flux to
the crack agree closely with results of the finite element
simulations. These results demonstrate, for the first time, that
accurate estimates of crack tip energy flow can be obtained
from analysis of infrared images. This result opens the door to
further applications of thermal imaging to determining local
quantities and locations of energy dissipation in complex
structures such as composite parts for automotive applications.
atz2@cornell.edu

of the future might be obtained by a combination of


selectively placed crack initiation resistant resin layers with Zpinned crack stopping regions.
i.partridge@cranfield.ac.uk
MMC2001-684 Friday, June 29, 11:36 AM

Modelling The Compressive Response Of Woven


Fabric Face-Sheet Honeycomb Sandwich Panels
Costas Soutis, Mark S. Spearing, Department of Aeronautics
& Astronautics, MIT, Cambridge, MA, USA
The honeycomb-cored composite sandwich panel is an
efficient structural configuration that is employed in aerospace
applications ranging from helicopter rotor blades to secondary
structures in commercial and military aircraft. One of the
factors limiting the wider usage of sandwich panels,
particularly for commercial aircraft primary structures, is
concern regarding their damage tolerance. The work in this
paper analyses recent experimental data related to the effect of
through-thickness open holes on the compressive strength of
honeycomb sandwich panels with thin composite face-sheets
(E-glass/epoxy-Nomex); the key failure mechanism was
linear damage zones (LDZs) emanating from the hole edge.
Cross-sectioning studies indicate that the LDZ wake is
characterized by kinking in all warp tows and transverse tow
cracking. LDZ's behave in a macroscopically similar manner
to a bridged crack under tensile loading, and propagate in a
stable manner. Due to this crack resemblance, the damage
process will be modeled by a crack bridging analysis that
predicts the size of the buckled region as a function of the
applied load, with the local stress supported by the buckled
fibres decreasing linearly with the closing displacement of the
microbuckle. The laminate unnotched strength and the
compressive energy release rate associated with fibre
microbuckling, which are required as the models input will be
estimated from a micromechanics model for fibre
microbuckling Predictions of this approach will be compared
with measured values.
soutis@MIT.EDU

Session: 2: Mechanics of Advanced Composites: fiber


reinforced composites, sandwich plates, 3D laminates
Friday, June 29, 11:00-12:30
Fairbanks B
Chairs: Joseph Zarka and Brian N Cox
MMC2001-680 Friday, June 29, 11:00 AM

Designing delamination resistant laminates - an


experimentalist's view
Keynote
Ivana K Partridge, Advanced Materials Department,
Cranfield University, Cranfield, Beds, United Kingdom
The paper outlines different experimental approaches to
the toughening of aerospace grade thermoset matrix CFRPs.
An early technique was the toughening of the matrix resin
itself, by blending with high temperature thermoplastics. The
transfer of any resin toughness increase to the laminate is
limited, as the toughening mechanisms in the resin are
inhibited by the proximity of the stiff fibre plies. An attractive
alternative is to use selectively placed self-same resin film
interlayers between plies of prepreg (interleaving). The
barriers to the use of this technology in real structures are the
need for very accurate predictions of regions of crack
initiation and crack growth and an increase in the
manufacturing complexity. Similarly, the most recently
introduced through-the-thickness reinforcement technique of
Z-fibreTM pinning (Z-pinning) also dictates selective
placement of the (Z-direction) reinforcement. The increase in
the crack propagation resistance of laminates, offered by Zpinning, can be up to 20x. Impact damage studies suggest that
the Z-pins are not effective in preventing crack initiation, but
are highly effective in reducing and stopping subsequent crack
growth. Thus the most damage tolerant composite structures

MMC2001-736 Friday, June 29, 11:54 AM

Mixed mode delamination in 3D laminates


Roberta Massab, Department of Structural and Geotechnical
Engineering, University of Genova, Genova, Genova,
Italy
Brian N Cox, Rockwell Science Center, Rockwell Science
Center, Thousand Oaks, California, USA
A through-thickness reinforcement (stitching, z-pins, )
is the most effective method of preventing delamination in
conventional 2D laminates. Such a reinforcement acts as a
crack bridging mechanism, effective over very long lengths,
leading to so-called large-scale bridging problems. The
through thickness reinforcement controls and suppresses
delamination, and improves the damage tolerance of the
laminate. Mode I and mixed mode large scale bridging
delamination show phenomena of crack face closure, crack
arrest and crack propagation with crack face contact, which

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Mechanics of Advanced Composites

have no precedent in the delamination of conventional


laminates. In a previous work (Mech. Comp. Mater. Struct.,
2001) we explained these phenomena by means of a
theoretical model based on Timoshenkos beam theory. In this
presentation we will review recent progress in the area of large
scale bridging delamination mechanics. We will present a
nonlinear fracture mechanics model for analysis of mode I and
mixed mode delamination in orthotropic materials. The
problem is solved through an integral equation approach in
terms of stress intensity factors at the crack tip. The model
assumes a two-dimensional deformation field and accounts for
the orthotropy of the material. The application of the model
shows the ranges of crack lengths over which beam theories of
different order succeed and fail.
massabo@diseg.unige.it

Session: 3: Mechanics of Advanced Composites: fracture


models
Friday, June 29, 1:30-3:00
Fairbanks B
Chairs: David B. Marshall and Roberta Massab
MMC2001-733 Friday, June 29, 1:30 PM

Porous-Matrix All-Oxide Ceramic Composites:A


New Paradigm In Matrix-Enabled Damage
Tolerance
Keynote
Frank W. Zok, Materials Department, University of
California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California,
USA

MMC2001-569 Friday, June 29, 12:12 PM

The use of porous matrices to enable damage tolerance in


fiber-reinforced ceramic composites (CFCCs) has emerged as
a new paradigm in high performance materials. This
paradigm obviates the need for fiber coatings for the purpose
of crack deflection, thereby providing opportunities for lower
cost manufacturing relative to that of conventional coatedfiber systems. Furthermore, upon selection of all-oxide
constituents, the prospect for meeting the long-term durability
requirements of high-temperature components for future gas
turbine engine technologies becomes realizable. This
presentation will review key aspects of microstructural design
and mechanical properties of this class of all-oxide composite.
The properties of interest include the in-plane strength and
notch-sensitivity subject to both fiber- and matrix-dominated
loadings. Special emphasis will be placed on the role of the
porous matrix in each of these properties.
zok@engineering.ucsb.edu

On penny shaped equilibrium cracks in materials


reinforced by fibers
Mikhail Grekov, Scientific Research Laboratory, Ford Motor
Company, Dearborn, MI, USA
Nikita Morozov, Nikolai Ponikarov, Matematics-Mecanics,
St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russia
The model of a partially bridged penny-shaped crack
(axisymmetric problem) in a brittle aligned material like
composite ceramics is suggested. Two different fracture
criteria of its components (matrix and fiber) are accepted. The
variation intervals of the sizes of an equilibrium crack and its
bridged part are estimated. An analytical solution for
homogeneous anisotropic body, a force-separation law, and
the Novozhilovs brittle fracture criterion is used for this
purpose. It is shown that, like the fracture toughness, the
critical width of the bridged part of a crack can be accepted as
a constant parameter of composite material reinforced by
fibers. The value of this parameter for a penny-shaped crack is
the same as for a crack under the plane deformation. For two
types of ceramics the variation intervals of a bridged part of a
critical crack are found, and a dependence of an ultimate load
upon the size of the crack in 2-D problem and axisymmetric
problems is presented.
mgrekov@ford.com

MMC2001-681 Friday, June 29, 2:06 PM

Characterization of Interlaminar Tension Strength


and Failure in CMC
Leif A. Carlsson, Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, Florida, USA
Ronald R. Cairo, Materials and Processes Engineering,
General Electric Gas Turbines, LLC, Greenville, SC,
USA
Future aircraft and power generating gas turbine engines
require stable, structural materials capable of sustained high
temperature operation to improve thermodynamic efficiency.
Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMCs) offer that potential but
are susceptible to interlaminar tensile failure and interlaminar
crack growth. These unique failure mechanisms must be
characterized before the materials can be reliably
implemented.
This paper describes the effort to devise a method to
characterize interlaminar failure initiation and propagation in a
CMC. Two specimens were examined, one a classic "button"
shaped specimen and the other a "C"-shaped specimen. The
stress levels to initiate delamination failure in the "C" and
button specimens will be compared with experimental test
data. In addition, the tendency to initiate delamination in the

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Mechanics of Advanced Composites

"C"-specimen will be analyzed based on the strain energy


release rate.
The button specimen is limited to low temperature testing
and is pre-disposed to free-edge stress singularities that result
in highly non-uniform interlaminar stress states. The "C"specimen can be used for interlaminar failure characterization
at any temperature. The specimen is loaded in flexure. This
loading, in combination with the curvature of the specimen,
develops interlaminar tension and shear stresses. Particular
attention will be devoted to the scaling of the geometry and
dimensions to enable interlaminar tension stresses to govern
failure in the curved region.
carlsson@acc.fau.edu

MMC2001-165 Friday, June 29, 2:42 PM

Effect of Bond Thickness on Damage Zone around a


Crack Tip in Adhesive Joint
Lee Deok-bo, Ikeda Toru, Miyazaki Noriyuki, Chemical
Engineering,Graduate School of Engineering, Kyushu
University, Fukuoka, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku,
Japan
The failure behavior around a crack tip in adhesive joint is
important in relation to the structural integrity of adhesive
structures. The bond thickness is one of the important design
parameters in adhesive structures. It has been reported that the
fracture toughness of a crack in an adhesive joint depends on
the bond thickness[1],[2],[3]. Although this is a considerable
problem of adhesive structures, the mechanism of the
dependence has not yet been elucidated.
In this study, we investigate the bond thickness effect on
the fracture toughness of adhesive joint using rubber-modified
epoxy resin from the viewpoint of microstructure. The fracture
toughness(GC) is measured using compact tension(CT)
adhesive joint specimens with different bond thicknesses. The
damage zone around crack tip in adhesive layers are
investigated by an optical microscpoe, and damage zones
along interfaces between an adhesive layer and two ahherends
are observed in thin adhesive layers. As a result, damage
zones along interfaces between an adhesive layer and two
adherends influence the fracture toughness of an adhesive
joint which has a thin bond thickness.
tokbo@chem-eng.kyushu-u.ac.jp

MMC2001-426 Friday, June 29, 2:24 PM

Criterion of delamination initiation in composite


laminates
Jean-Francois Caron, Alberto Diaz-Diaz, Rui Pedro
Carreira, LAMI, Ecole nationale des Ponts et Chausses,
Marne la vallee, Seine et Marne, France
We propose a criterion able to predict delamination
initiation in angle-ply laminates based on the analytical
calculation of the maximum out-of-plane shear stresses (on the
free edge and at the interfaces), using an approximate model
called M4-5N. The multilayer is described like a superposition
of N Reissner plates coupled by interlaminar stresses (it takes
as a starting point Paganos work [1]). These interface stresses
have a physical meaning and represent the exact out-of-plane
3D approximate stresses calculated at the interface between
two layers.
We consider the problem of a flat specimen crossply with
a displacement imposed on its extremities (free edge problem).
M4-5N calculations at the interfaces of the laminates, take into
account the ply thickness effect mentioned in literature.
The criterion validation has required uniaxial tensile tests
with carbon-epoxy specimens until the beginning of
delamination at interfaces (detected by observing the polished
specimen edges with a microscope).
From this tests and from the theoretical calculations we
identify a critical shear stress which takes into account the
thickness effect and which seems to depend little of the ply
angle (until 30). Such a criterion predicts laminates
delamination initiation with an error smaller than 5%.
1 N. J. Pagano, S. R. Soni, Global-local laminate
variational model, International Journal of Solids and
Structures, 1983 19 207.
caron@lami.enpc.fr

Session: 4: Mechanics of Advanced Composites: textile


composites
Friday, June 29, 3:30-5:00
Fairbanks B
Chairs: Frank W. Zok and Brian N Cox
MMC2001-700 Friday, June 29, 3:30 PM

Integrally Woven Ceramic Composites for Active


Cooling
Keynote
David B. Marshall, M. Berbon, Brian N Cox, K. Rugg,
Rockwell Science Center, Rockwell Science Center,
Thousand Oaks, California, USA
The design of C-SiC composite heat exchangers based on
integrally woven fiber reinforcements will be discussed. The
most efficient designs often consist of channel structures with
thin walls. The processing and properties of thin layer C-SiC
composites with several weave structures will be discussed.
The use of laser speckle interferometry to measure local
strains reveals significant differences the responses of thin
section composites and conventional thicker composites
consisting of multiple layers of reinforcement fabrics.
dbmarshall@rsc.rockwell.com

135

Mechanics of Soil-Structure Interaction

characterization and analytical predictions of their mechanical


properties, and some current industrial applications.
Reference
1. Mohamed, M.H. and Zhang, Z.-H., "Method of forming
variable cross-sectional shaped three-dimensional fabrics", US
Patent 5,085,252, 1992, to North Carolina State University.
bogdanovicha@3tex.com

MMC2001-881 Friday, June 29, 4:06 PM

Multidisciplinary Optimal Design Of Woven


Composites
Joseph Zarka, Laboratoire de Mecanique des Solides, CNRSEcole Polytechnique, Palaiseau Cedex, France, France
Thierry Doux, Ateliers CUERS, DGA/DCN, Toulon Naval,
France

MMC2001-749 Friday, June 29, 4:42 PM


Advanced fibre reinforced composites, such as woven
composites, offer the promise of solutions to structural
problems in which extreme demands in multidisciplinary
domains are made. However the world economical situation
implies that their cost is also essential.
These new composites are generally not well described by
traditional composite design, analysis.
New models and new approaches must be derived, based
on basic understanding of the fundamental mechanisms.
The purpose of this lecture is to show how to design the
optimal woven composite (i.e. to give its composition and its
fabrication process) for any new special application when
only a few tests are available, when the simulated predictions
are not very reliable and when it is necessary to adjust its
mechanical elastic/inelastic properties and its electromagnetic
properties while taking care of its weight and its price.
This is solved within the Intelligent Optimal Design
Approach i.e. by coupling the existing knowledge of experts,
their models, their numerical results and their experimental
data thanks to some special adaptive learning and
optimization techniques.
zarka@lms.polytechnique.fr

Textile Mechanics Approach to Predictive Modelling


of Composites
Prasad Potluri, Textiles, UMIST, Manchester, PO Box: 88,
United Kingdom
Fibrous materials, in the form of textile structures, exhibit
highly non-linear load-deformation behaviour due to
geometric and material non-linearities, and due to a complex
hierarchy of fibres, yarns and fabric layers interconnected with
stitching elements. Hence, their deformation behaviour cannot
satisfactorily be represented by elastic constants. With the
pioneering work of Peirce in 1930s, textile mechanics has
developed into an academic discipline covering a range of
aspects including topology, geometry, in plane and out of
plane deformations, failure mechanisms and drape behaviour.
The paper investigates the textile mechanics route to
modelling composites. Mechanics of draping 2D and 3D
textile preforms has received a considerable interest in recent
years due to the popularity of RTM and thermoforming
techniques. While the continuum mechanics approaches tend
to be nontrivial, a geometric-kinematic approach resulted in a
very efficient algorithm to handle a large class of geometric
shapes. An attempt has been made to extend the application of
textile mechanics from dry fabrics to rigid composites,
especially beyond the elastic regime.
prasad.potluri@umist.ac.uk

MMC2001-734 Friday, June 29, 4:24 PM

A New Generation Of 3-D Woven Composites:


Manufacturing, Properties And Applications
Alexander E. Bogdanovich, James N. Singletary, Mansour
H. Mohamed, 3TEX, Inc., 3TEX, Inc., Cary, North
Carolina, USA

Mechanics of Soil-Structure Interaction


Session: Mechanics of Soil-Structure Interaction - Session
I
Friday, June 29, 11:00-12:30
Spinnaker II
Chairs: Rudolf F. Stark and Euclides Mesquita

One fundamental advantage of using thick 3-D woven


preforms, consisting of a single fabric ply, instead of a stack of
thin 2-D fabric plies, is that the composite manufacturing
process is substantially simplified and the labor cost is
significantly reduced. The patented 3-D orthogonal weaving
technology [1] enables manufacturing 3-D woven fabrics by
inserting all of the warp, fill and Z yarns in one set of motions,
which makes the technology practical and economical. 3-D
woven orthogonal thick fabric preforms provide significant
property advantages over stacks of 2-D fabrics primarily due
to crimp-free warp and weft yarns, absence of interfaces
between fabric plies and availability of the continuous through
thickness reinforcement. These features of the preform
architecture radically improve damage tolerance, suppress
delamination, increase impact and ballistic performance and
provide higher dimensional stability. This paper addresses the
issues of cost effective, automated 3-D orthogonal weaving,
VARTM processing of 3-D woven composites, experimental

MMC2001-182 Friday, June 29, 11:00 AM

A Time Domain Boundary Element Formulation for


Inelastic Solids
Martin Schanz, Department of Civil Engineering, Technical
University Braunschweig, Institute of Applied Mechanics,
Braunschweig, Germany
The Boundary Element Method (BEM) meanwhile is an
established method in many engineering fields, e.g., soilstructure interaction or wave propagation in semi-infinite
media. To solve such problems, a time domain BEM is the
appropriate method because, first, the only unknowns reside
on the boundary and, second, the energy dissipation due to

136

Mechanics of Soil-Structure Interaction

geometrical damping has to be considered. However, in time


domain the BEM is often restricted to linear elastic behavior
due to the lack of other general valid time-dependent
fundamental solutions.
The recently developed Convolution Quadrature Method,
proposed by Lubich, utilizes Laplace transform fundamental
solution existing for, e.g., viscoelasticity as well as
poroelasticity, and performs the solution in time domain.
Hence, applying this quadrature formula to the time dependent
boundary integral equation a time stepping BE procedure for
viscoelasticity and poroelasticity is obtained based only on the
Laplace domain fundamental solution and a linear multistep
method.
Numerical studies concerning spatial and temporal
discretization will demonstrate the robustness of the proposed
formulations. Finally, the Rayleigh wave in a viscoelastic and
a poroelastic half space is treated.
m.schanz@tu-bs.de

MMC2001-396 Friday, June 29, 11:36 AM

Impedance of a Rigid Inclusion in a Transversely


Isotropic Medium
Nimal Rajapakse, Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British
Columbia, Canada
Yaoping Wang, Department of Civil and Geological
Engineering, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg,
Manitoba, Canada

Si-Hwan Park, Department of Civil Engineering, University


of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA

The steady-state dynamic response of rigid massless


cylindrical and hemispherical inclusions in a transversely
isotropic elastic half-space is considered in this study. The
axis of symmetry of the inclusion is parallel to the material
axis of symmetry of the surrounding medium. The inclusion is
subjected to time-harmonic axial, lateral and moment loading.
It is perfectly bonded to the surrounding medium. The
interaction problem is solved by applying the boundary
element method. Application of BEM to this class of problems
requires Green's functions for buried ring loads. The
derivation of such Green's functions and their numerical
evalaution are discussed. Selected numerical results for
impedance of cylindrical and hemispherical inclusions are
presented.
rajapakse@mech.ubc.ca

John L. Tassoulas, Department of Civil Engineering, The


University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas, USA

MMC2001-403 Friday, June 29, 11:54 AM

MMC2001-185 Friday, June 29, 11:18 AM

A Discontinuous Galerkin Method for Modeling


Transient Wave Propagation in Unbounded Media

Dynamic soil-structure interaction analysis normally


requires the consideration of the unboundedness of the soil
media for accurate and reliable results. While methods based
on Green functions, such as the boundary element method, are
used most frequently to meet this goal, they require substantial
computational resources due to the nature of the resulting
formulation which couples the information in both space and
time. In this study, a technique based on the discontinuous
Galerkin finite element method is developed and applied to the
derivation of a condition that can be used to take into account
the wave-absorbing effects of infinite soil media in transient
analysis [1]. The condition involves only discretization error,
and the associated computational cost is an order of magnitude
lower than for conditions based on Green functions.
Reference

Vertical Compliances of Plane and Axisymmetric


Rigid Foundation Embedded in a Transversely
Isotropic Half Space
Euclides Mesquita, Renato M. Barros, Dept. of
Computational Mechanics, State University at Campinas
- UNICAMP, Campinas, SP, Brazil
Persio L.A. Barros, Detp. of Geotechnics and Transportation,
State University at Campinas - UNICAMP, Campinas,
SP, Brazil
This work presents the evaluation of the displacements of
rigid massless foundations embedded in a visco-elastic,
transversely isotropic soil due to time-harmonic vertically
applied loads. Rigid strip footings and cylindrical footings are
analysed. For the analysis the soil-structure interface is
discretized in elements and an indirect formulation of the
Boundary Element Method is applied. This formulation uses
specially developed influence functions which are solutions
for displacements and stresses in the transversely isotropic
medium due to distributed internal loads. The main feature of
these solutions is the absence of singularities that is found in
the Green's functions. In the plane case analysis, influence
functions of loads distributed along vertical and horizontal
strips are used. In the axisymmetric analysis influence
functions of loads distributed along cylindrical strips and
along horizontal thick rings are employed. Numerical results
of the vertical compliance for various degrees of material
anisotropy are presented.
euclides@fem.unicamp.br

[1] Si-Hwan Park, "Methods for the Numerical Analysis


of Wave Motion in Unbounded Media," Ph.D. Dissertation,
The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas, 2000
sihwan@hawaii.edu

137

Mechanics of Soil-Structure Interaction

We consider an embankment consisting of material


differing from the surrounding medium. The wavefield in this
geometry is determined by a domain integral equation, that is
solved numerically. We have developed an efficient method in
the slowness domain which accurately accounts for the
singularity of the Green's function.
We have carried out computations for a geometry
consisting of an embankment in a two-layer subsurface model.
The computational results show good agreement with
experimental results.
A.Ditzel@math.tudelft.nl

Session: Mechanics of Soil-Structure Interaction - Session


II
Friday, June 29, 1:30-3:00
Spinnaker II
Chairs: Martin Schanz and Nimal Rajapakse
MMC2001-412 Friday, June 29, 1:30 PM

A boundary element analysis for surface foundations


on non-homogeneous elastic soils
Rudolf F. Stark, Institute for Structural Analysis and Strength
of Materials, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Tirol,
Austria

MMC2001-399 Friday, June 29, 2:06 PM

This paper deals with a boundary integral formulation to


analyse the static interaction of arbitrarily shaped surface
foundations resting on non-homogeneous elastic soil. The type
of non-homogeneity considered here is a power law variation
of Young's modulus with depth. Assuming constant tractions
within a single boundary element two integration approaches
are discussed. In the first one, a contour integral approach, the
integration is reduced to the evaluation of line integrals, thus
reducing the dimension of the 3D problem of soil-foundation
interaction by two. For rectangular boundary elements an
integration-free approach is outlined. These integration
procedures are then employed for a soil-foundation interaction
analysis using an iterative approach to couple finite element
and boundary element schemes for the raft and the soil
medium, respectively. By discretizing the raft, the soil
elements making up the soil surface covered by the foundation
structure are defined indirectly. At each corner node of the
finite elements a soil element of polygonal shape is attached.
In this method the traction on a single soil element is assumed
to be constant which enables the use of the above mentioned
integration schemes. To demonstrate the accuracy and the
effectiveness of the proposed method, some applications to
soil-structure interaction problems for rigid and flexible rafts
are presented.
rudolf.stark@uibk.ac.at

An Analysis Of Frequency Domain Green And


Influence Functions For Horizontally Layered
Transverse Isotropic Viscoelastic Continuum.
Euclides Mesquita, Renato M. Barros, Dept. of
Computational Mechanics, State University at Campinas
- UNICAMP, Campinas, SP, Brazil
Persio L.A. Barros, Dept. of Geotechnics and Transportation,
State University at Campinas - UNICAMP, Campinas,
SP, Brazil
The article presents a numerical analysis of Green and
Influence functions for horizontal multi-layered, transverse
isotropic and viscoelastic plane strain continua. The idea of
the method is to synthesize a stiffness matrix for a horizontal
layer in the frequency domain. The equations of motion are
transformed to the wave number domain by the Fourier
integral transform. The stiffness matrix for each layer is
obtained numerically. This numerically determined stiffness
matrices are now assembled by means of kinematic
compatibility and equilibrium conditions at the layers'
interface. The solution in the original domain is obtained by a
numerical realization of the inverse Fourier transform.
Concentrated and distributed loads are considered. The
presented scheme is able to model half-space as well as fullspace problems. An extensive numerical investigation of the
accuracy of the method is conducted. The maximum number
as well as the thickness of the layers is addressed. The topic of
variation of the layer elastic properties is studied. The ability
of the scheme to reproduce the dynamics of soils with
continuous variation of the elastic properties in one direction
is discussed.
euclides@fem.unicamp.br

MMC2001-215 Friday, June 29, 1:48 PM

Vibrations generated by moving trains: the effect of


a rail embankment
Auke Ditzel, Gerard C. Herman, Applied Mathematical
Analysis, Centre for Technical Geoscience, Delft
University of Technology, Delft, Netherlands
Due to the response to track irregularities high-speed
trains can generate ground vibrations that can cause damage to
the built environment. In soft soil areas, the train speed can
exceed the speed of the slowest ground waves. This causes the
vibration level to increase significantly.
In our approach, the train is represented by a point load
moving over an embankment (embedded in a 3D layered
medium). The vibrational movements of the train are taken
into account by assuming the force to depend on the dominant
frequencies of the forced vibrations and the position along the
track. Layering of the soil is modeled by means of reflectivity
and transmission properties of the layers.

MMC2001-322 Friday, June 29, 2:24 PM

Simplified Dynamic Soil-Structure Interaction


Analyses by Means of Boundary Differencial
Equations
Toyoaki Nogami, Harn Shean Chen, Civil Engineering,
National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore
The first author has previously proposed a simplified soil
model for dynamic soil-structure interaction analysis. A soil
domain is divided into a convenient number of sub-domains
and the differential equation is established for each subdivided
domain treating the medium as the above model. Application

138

Mechanics of Textile Materials

of Galerkin's procedure for weighted residual transforms the


differential equation over a volume of each domain to that
only along the boundary surfaces of the domain.
Compatibility and equilibrium conditions are imposed by
using these equations. Solving the equations for the boundary
conditions imposed by a massless rigid foundation, very
simple expressions are obtained for impedance functions of
foundations for various cases.
The developed simple
formulations are verified with far more rigorous methods. It is
confirmed that, even for the conditions too complex to
develop the formulations in a simple form by other available
methods, the present method enables us to develop them in a
very simple form yet to predict the soil-structure interaction
behaviour well.
cvetn@nus.edu.sg

MMC2001-146 Friday, June 29, 9:18 AM

On the Stress Concentration in Blended Yarns near


a Fiber Break
John N. Rossettos, Mechanical,Industrial and Manufacturing
Eng., Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts,
USA
Thomas A. Godfrey, Mail Stop AMSSB-RSS-M, U.S.Army
Natick Soldier Center, Natick, Massachusetts, USA
Blended yarns, which consist of more than one type of
fiber have improved strength and stiffness over what can be
achieved in homogeneous yarns. This so called hybrid effect is
supported by the present results which show that the stress
concentration factor(SCF) of an LE fiber next to a broken HE
(high elongation) fiber decreases, while the SCF of an HE
fiber next to a broken LE fiber increases with decreasing
values of hybrid parameter,R, the ratio of the axial stiffness of
the HE to that of the LE fibers. This has a positive effect for
yarns where the principal fibers are LE fibers with dispersed
HE fibers. It is suggested that if the reduction of the SCF of
the LE fiber has a dominant effect on the yarn strength
compared with the increase of the SCF of the HE fiber,a
hybrid effect can be realized. Near a fiber break, the
neighboring fibers will slip.A parameter,Q, which involves
both elastic and frictional properties of the fibers has an
important influence on the slip extent. The results show that
slip extent decreases with larger values of Q. For smaller
values of Q,slip increases, and the SCF goes down suggesting
that slip acts as a dissipative mechanism.
jross@coe.neu.edu

Mechanics of Textile Materials


Session: Session 1: Yarn Mechanics / Experimental
Techniques
Friday, June 29, 9:00-10:30
Point Loma A
Chairs: Mary Lynn Realff and Thomas A. Godfrey
MMC2001-797 Friday, June 29, 9:00 AM

Modeling the Mechanical Behavior of Blended Yarns


Mary Lynn Realff, School of Textile & Fiber Engineering,
Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, USA
We have demonstrated the importance of twist reinforcing
mechanism to the strength of a twisted structure, the
interaction patterns between different types of components
during yarn extension, and the significance of multiple breaks
along a component. A mechanistic approach has been used for
the first generation of a stochastic computer model to predict
the strength and fracture behavior of a blended yarn with
continuous components. Although this first generation model
was able to capture some of the trends and behaviors of a
model yarn, the model was not validated with real yarns.
Comparison of the model with experimental results showed
that modifications to the model were required. In this paper,
the model has been enhanced with different load sharing rules
to capture the real yarn behavior. A comparison with
experimental data will be presented. By means of this new
model, issues like the effect of fiber placement (sheath core
vs. intimate blend), strength reinforcing mechanism of twist in
a blended yarn, the yarn break propagation pattern, and twist
effect on yarn fracture behavior as well as the shape effect of
component stress-strain curves are simulated and elucidated.
mr37@prism.gatech.edu

MMC2001-159 Friday, June 29, 9:36 AM

Mechanics of Hybrid Braided Preforms


Matthew W. Dunn, Eileen Armstrong-Carroll, Krasi Hristov,
School of Textiles & Materials Technology, Philadelphia
University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
Yasser Gowayed, Department of Textile Engineering, Auburn
University, Auburn, Alabama, USA
Composite rebar, arterial grafts, and erosion control
fabrics are just a few examples of applications with nonlinear
elastic requirements. Hybrid preforms have the potential to
meet these complex load performance requirements, since
they contain different fibrous constituents that provide
contrasting elastic properties. Due to the challenge of
designing and modeling these materials, they are typically
developed on a trial and error basis. This study is focussed on
developing a model to predict the behavior of such materials.
Braided preforms have been constructed from yarns with
contrasting mechanical properties. Deformation during tensile
loading was quantified using image analysis. Yarn and fabric
deformation data were used to construct a numerical model to
deepen our understanding of the inherent design parameters
involved in the hybrid preform behavior. The model also
considers geometric and frictional variations.
DunnM@PhilaU.edu

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Mechanics of Textile Materials

MMC2001-795 Friday, June 29, 9:54 AM

Session: Session 2: Mechanics of Woven Fabrics


Friday, June 29, 11:00-12:30
Point Loma A
Chairs: Mohammed Zikry and Thomas A. Godfrey

Online Characterization Of Fabric Compressional


Behavior

MMC2001-400 Friday, June 29, 11:00 AM

Tushar K. Ghosh, Wensheng Huang, College of Textiles,


North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA

Deformation Of Plain Weave Fabrics Under Biaxial


Loading

The principle of online measurement of fabric


compressional behavior developed in this study is based on the
analysis of fabric deformation while the fabric moves through
a nip formed by a pair of rollers. A prototype online
measurement system has been developed based on this
principle. In this system, the specimen being tested is moved
continuously through the measurement system, while it is
deformed in compression at a constant rate in the nip area. The
load-displacement relation of the fabric in compression is
obtained as a function of time. Assuming a stepwise
anisotropic behavior in the thickness direction, the fabric
stress-strain relation in compression is calculated from the
experimental load-displacement data using an Incremental
Differential Algorithm. A number of woven and nonwoven
fabrics have been evaluated using the online measurement
system as well as a number of other commercially available
fabric compression testers. The compressional characteristics
obtained from the online measurement system compare well
with the same parameters measured using the other
commercially available compressional testers.
tghosh@unity.ncsu.edu

Faruk Taban, Shen-Yi Luo, Mechanical Engineering


Department/312, University of Nevada, Reno, Reno, NV,
USA
The analysis of this work is based on a strain energy
approach where the yarn's crimp interchange, bending and
flattening have been considered. The inputs are: original
crimps, ends per unit length, yarn stress-strain curve and
bending rigidity. The curved yarns in a fabric are assumed to
be in sinusoidal shape. After deformation, the total length of a
deformed yarn is a function of its current wavelength and
amplitude, with which the yarn axial strain energy can be
defined. The current wavelength is related to the given fabric
deformations. The crimp interchange is caused by the vertical
displacement (d) at the contact point of the warp and filling
yarns, that also affects the current amplitude and the yarn
bending energy. Since a balanced structure must have the
minimum energy stored, the unknowns d and the bi-axial
loadings can be uniquely identified through an energy
variation method. Comparisons have been made between the
theoretical predictions and experimental results. Very good
correlations have been found.
ftaban@unr.nevada.edu

MMC2001-751 Friday, June 29, 10:12 AM

Automated Measurement of Constitutive Material


Properties of Textiles: Direct and Mixed NumericalExperimental Techniques

MMC2001-200 Friday, June 29, 11:18 AM

The Large Deformation Elastic Response Of Woven


Kevlar Fabric

Prasad Potluri, Textiles, UMIST, Manchester, PO Box 88,


United Kingdom

William E. Warren, Department of Mechanical Engineering,


University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico,
USA

Textile materials, in the form of woven, nonwoven,


braided, knitted and multi-axial fabrics, are being increasingly
used for high performance and load bearing applications.
Applications include composites, geotextiles, inflatable
structures, cladding of civil structures to name a few. Unlike
traditional engineering materials, textile materials do not have
well documented design data due to a wide variety of
structural and process variables involved. It is tedious to
generate large amounts of test data using Instron-like test
machines. An automated test system has been developed to
measure the non-linear load-deformation behaviour of textiles
in tensile, lateral compression, shear and bending modes. A
robotic arm, equipped with a fabric gripper and a 3-axis load
cell, is used for positioning, aligning, clamping and applying a
test cycle to a fabric sample. Bending moment-curvature
relation is computed using a mixed numerical-experimental
procedure, developed in the present work. A series of fabric
cantilevers are simulated using large-deformation mechanics
to satisfy the measured boundary conditions, and the momentcurvature values are computed from these simulations.
prasad.potluri@umist.ac.uk

The large deformation elastic response of a plane woven


Kevlar fabric is investigated both analytically and
experimentally. The general elastic response of this woven
fabric is determined by the yarn interaction forces and
displacements, and to investigate this yarn interaction, each
yarn is modeled as an extensible elastica subject to certain
compatibility conditions. The undeformed elastica is assumed
to be a sequence of interlaced arcs of circles which reverse at
each yarn midpoint to accommodate the adjoining cross yarn.
This analysis provides the force-deflection relations for the
biaxially loaded plane woven fabric in terms of the initial
weave geometry and the elastic properties of the individual
yarns. The force-deflection relations for several woven Kevlar
fabrics have also been determined experimentally under
conditions of uniaxial loading. In these experiments, the
loading is stopped at a given level and a portion of the fabric
encapsulated. The fabric is then unloaded, sectioned, and
photographed to reveal the changes in weave geometry and
yarn cross-section with loading. Significant changes in the
yarn cross-section are observed, and it is found that during the
initial loading, yarn bending dominates the response, while for

140

Mechanics of Textile Materials

large loads the response is dominated by yarn stretching. The


experimental results agree well with the predictions of the
theoretical analysis.
wewarren@unm.edu

correctly represent evolving material properties in a finite


element simulation of the stamping of structural composites.
ab@enterprise.eng.uml.edu
MMC2001-799 Friday, June 29, 12:12 PM

MMC2001-902 Friday, June 29, 11:36 AM

Failure Modes in 3D Woven Composites

Multiscale modelling of fabric


Jared N. Baucom, Mechanical engineering, North Carolina
State University, Raleigh, NC, USA

Jean-Francois Ganghoffer, Group of Solid Mechanics,


LEMTA - ENSEM, Nancy, France

Mohammed Zikry, Mechanical Engineering, North Carolina


State University, Raleigh, NC, U.S.A.

Bernard Haussy, ESEO, Angers, France


Textiles are discrete and highly inhomogeneous materials,
that can sustain large strains and large rotations, a set of
characteristics that makes their modelling difficult. Studying
the behavior of their basic constituent, the thread, is an
essential step towards the analysis at the mesoscopic (one
undulation of one thread) and the macroscopic scales.
Accordingly, a geometric homogenization technique is first
applied in order to obtain a limit model of a straight beam
(thread without undulations). Equivalent mechanical moduli
for flexibility in stress and rigidity in flexion are obtained,
which in turn allow to draw "traction curves" for a single
thread, that resemble the uniaxial traction curve measured on a
whole sample. Next, a constitutive law in large
transformations of woven structures is given, through a
micropolar hyperelastic constitutive law, where the
microrotation takes into account the effect of the
microstructure. The mesoscopic wave model predicts in a
satisfactory manner the uniaxial extension of plain weave
fabrics.
jfgangho@ensem.inpl-nancy.fr

Yiping Qiu, textiles engineering, North Carolina State


University, raleigh, NC, USA
The effects of porosity and textile architecture on the
impact and penetration resistance perforation resistance of 3-D
woven fiber reinforced epoxy panels subjected to impact
loading conditions are investigated. Material behavior, as a
function of areal density, porosity, and energy absorption, is
investigated for impact velocities ranging from 5m/s to
300m/s. Current results indicate that highly porous samples
can be tailored to absorb a greater amount of specific energy
in comparison with pore-free 3D woven systems. This could
be due to the deflection of matrix cracks by matrix pores and
the greater flexibility of the out-plane fibers to absorb energy
through tensile straining. Although porosity is generally an
undesirable property in textile composites, the induction of
porosity may result in reduced panel weight without
degradation of ballistic performance.
jnbaucom@unity.ncsu.edu
Session: Session 3: Non-Woven and Knitted Materials
Friday, June 29, 1:30-3:00
Point Loma A
Chairs: Ning Pan and Thomas A. Godfrey

MMC2001-943 Friday, June 29, 11:54 AM

Shear Deformation Analysis of Woven Fabric


Composites during Forming

MMC2001-147 Friday, June 29, 1:30 PM


Anuradha Bulusu, Julie Chen, Mechanical Engineering,
University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell,
Massachusetts, USA

Symmetry Considerations in Mechanics of Textile


Structures

Forming is a fast and efficient method of producing


complex shapes due to its high production rates and adherence
to tolerances. Woven fabrics conform well to complex shapes
by undergoing shear deformation. During the forming process,
yarn parameters such as width, inter-yarn spacing, and yarn
orientation change, affecting the mechanical properties. This
poses a challenge to accurately modeling the material response
during the manufacturing process. A micromechanical unit
cell model is presented to study the change in architecture of
woven fabric preforms during shear. Various yarn parameters
were incorporated to specify key points along the yarn path.
Cubic spline interpolation was used as an efficient method of
curve fitting the points, with a single expression, to describe
the shape of the yarn path for a wide range of fabric structures.
From this model, the fiber volume fractions of the yarn and
unit cell have been calculated. Using an orientation averaging
technique, the fabric elastic constants are also calculated as a
function of the shear deformation, as represented by the
changing yarn orientation. These results will be used to

Keynote
A.S. Abhiraman, Vinoo Sharma, Jeffrey Rice, Chemical
Engineering and Polymer Education &Research Center,
Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, USA
Han Seong Kim, College of Textiles, NC State University,
Raleigh, NC, USA
Jefferey Reperant, Ravi Sura, Prashant Desai, Benham
Pourdeyhimi
This presentation will exemplify the efficacy of models
that take advantage of the underlying symmetry, exact or
approximate, that exists in many textile structures. Two
primary examples will be provided in this regard, namely,
a simple "link across length scale" in predicting the
stiffness of twisted yarns and cords of highly ordered fibers,
based entirely on the pseudo-axial symmetry of the overall
crystal orientation distribution in these structures.

141

Multi-Physical Length Scale Modeling Simulation and Design of Materials and Systems

simple relationships for azimuthal changes in mechanical


properties of planar nonwoven structures, utilizing the pseudoorthotropic symmetry that exists in their fiber network.
Comparison to experimental measures of azimuthal
mechanical properties of nonwovens point clearly to efficacy
of this approach. Also, fits of symmetry-dictated models to the
properties of thermal spot-bonded nonwovens are shown to
yield results that can serve to rationalize the influence of
bonding conditions. Surprisingly, the models are found to be
appropriate for not only stiffnesses, but also strength.
Potential future directions will be discussed, especially
with regard to the coupling of micro-mechanical and
continuum models.
agaram.abhiraman@che.gatech.edu

whether there is a need, and if yes, how to establish a criterion


above which a fibrous structure has to be considered as a nonhomogeneous two-phase medium, and further, how a
constitutive relationship can be derived for such a medium.
For fibrous structures, the compositions of both dry fiber
and moisture, and the distributions of the two constituents
dictate the behavior of the structures. The different physical
properties such as mechanical, thermal, acoustic, optical, and
electrical between the two constituents and the interactions
between them will in most cases make the simple Rule of
Mixtures invalid. We have to look at the local situations to
find clues which may shed light on the system behavior.
npan@ucdavis.edu

MMC2001-151 Friday, June 29, 2:06 PM

Multi-Physical Length Scale Modeling


Simulation and Design of Materials and
Systems

Physical And Numerical Models For Fiber Networks


Douglas C. Stahl, Architectural Engineering, Milwaukee
School of Engineering, Milwaukee, WI, USA

Session: I
Friday, June 29, 9:00-10:30
Executive Conference Center 2A
Chairs: Ken P. Chong and Daniel Davis

Martin Ostoja-Starzewski, Institute of Paper Science and


Technology, Atlanta, GA, USA
This paper presents progress with micromechanical
analysis of fiber networks and introduces the use of physical
models. The analytical model includes 3D geometry, and
multi-scale heterogeneity in fiber properties and arrangements
including flocculation. A linear analysis produces the set of
3D initial elastic properties for the equivalent continuum, and
a progressive failure analysis produces a non-linear loaddisplacement record for a specific set of boundary conditions;
microfailure mechanisms include fiber segment failure and the
separation of two bonded fibers. In this paper we describe our
use of dynamic relaxation in the progressive failure analysis,
allowing us to determine the networks deformed state after
each microfailure without re-forming and factoring a large
stiffness matrix. A second direction to our work is in the
construction of large-scale physical models to aid visualization
of complex fiber networks. A physical model is built from a
numerical description of fibers and bonds via the selective
laser sintering method for solid freeform fabrication (rapid
prototyping).
stahl@msoe.edu

MMC2001-695 Friday, June 29, 9:00 AM

Research And Challenges Of Engineering Mechanics


And Materials In The Twenty First Century
Keynote
Ken P. Chong, Civil & Mechnaical Systems Division,
National Science Foundation, Arlington, VA, USA
Daniel Davis, School Of Science & Technology, Texas
Southern University, Houston, TX, USA
Mechanics and materials [M&M] engineering are really
two sides of a coin, closely integrated and related. For the last
decade this cooperative effort of the M&M Program has
resulted in better understanding and designed of materials and
structures across all physical scales, even though the seamless
and realistic modeling of different scales from nano-level to
system integration-level is not yet attainable. With the
availability of advanced computing, and new developments in
material sciences, researchers can now characterize processes,
design and manufacture materials with desirable performance
and properties. One of the challenges is to model short-term
micro-scale material behavior, through meso-scale and macroscale behavior into long term structural systems performance.
Accelerated tests to simulate various environmental forces and
impacts are needed. Supercomputers and/or workstations used
in parallel are useful tools to solve this scaling problem by
taking into account the large number of variables and
unknowns to project micro-behavior into infrastructure
systems performance, and to model or extrapolate short term
test results into long term life-cycle behavior. M&M are
essential elements in all of the transcendent technologies in the
twenty first century, including nanotechnology,
microelectronics, information technology and biotechnology.
Research opportunities and challenges are presented.
kchong@nsf.gov

MMC2001-142 Friday, June 29, 2:24 PM

Some Thoughts on Mechanics and Physics of


Fibrous Structures
Ning Pan, Division of Textiles and Clothing, Biological &
Agricultural Engineering, University of California at
Davis, Davis, CA, USA
Most fibrous structures can be treated as mixtures of air
(or more accurately, moisture) existed in pores and the dry
fibers; as a result, their properties will be determined by the
properties of both constituents. But, the studies on fibrous
materials so far have rarely taken the effect of moisture into
consideration, except in the area such as thermal or comfort
studies where existence of moisture becomes too critical to
ignore. The question we have now is that for general studies,

142

Multi-Physical Length Scale Modeling Simulation and Design of Materials and Systems

christopher.lynch@me.gatech.edu

MMC2001-716 Friday, June 29, 9:36 AM

A Multi-Scale Approach Toward Understanding of


the Interphase in Polymer Matrix Composites

MMC2001-717 Friday, June 29, 10:12 AM

Strain Effects on the Activation Energy for Adatom


Migration

Lidvin Kjerengtroen, Mechanical Engineering, South Dakota


School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, SD, USA

Alonso D. Peralta, Mechanical Engineering, State University


of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York,
USA

William M. Cross, Jon J. Kellar, Materials and Metallurgical


Engineering
The interphase in polymer matrix composites (PMCs) is
the region adjacent the fibrous reinforcement in the polymer
phase. This research focuses upon analysis of the interphase
using a multi-scale approach. Molecular-level analysis has
been performed by utilization of a novel fiber-optic
technology which allows complete analysis of the
interphase, including the polymer matrix as well as adsorbed
silane coupling agents. Molecular-level of silane/polymer
interactions are of interest as it is well established that the
adsorbed silane coupling agents can dramatically effect the
adhesion, and hence durability of PMCs. Atomic force
microscopy (phase imaging) and nanoindentation
measurements have been performed to ascertain nanometerlevel information on the interphase. Specfically, these
techniques allow the relative size and nanomechanical
properties (hardness and modulus) of the interphase to be
determined. The microbond test has been employed to
determine the micro-level effect of the interphase on the
interfacial shear strength of the PMC. The ultimate objective
of this research is to determine the role of the interphase
(molecular/nano/micro scales) on the performance of PMCs.
Lidvin.Kjerengtroen@sdsmt.edu

Session: II
Friday, June 29, 11:00-12:30
Executive Conference Center 2A
Chairs: Raman P. Singh and Daniel Davis

MMC2001-706 Friday, June 29, 9:54 AM

MMC2001-179 Friday, June 29, 11:00 AM

Multiscale effects in the constitutive behavior of


ferroelectric materials

Fracture Of Brittle Polymer Reinforced With


Micron And Nanometer Sized Metal Particles

Christopher Lynch, Wan Shan, Woodruff School of


Mechnaical Engineering, Gerogia Institute of
Technology, Atlanta, Georgia, USA

Keynote

Strain is an inherent parameter in the thin-film growth


process; it is present in the growth of homoepitaxial as well as
heteroepitaxial films. Strains may develop as a result of lattice
mismatch, surface and/or internal defects and due to externally
applied stresses. Surface strain affects the chemical potential
of the surface, and depending on the sign of the strain,
diffusion may be either enhanced or reduced. This is believed
to be the result of two possible effects (1) the interaction
energy between the adatom and the surface or internal defects,
and (2) the activation energy for adatom migration. The results
that will be presented show how a variety of strain fields affect
(1) the chemical potential of the surface and (2) how these
strain fields affect the activation energy for adatom migration.
The change in the activation energy may then be related to the
change in the diffusion coefficient.
alonso.peralta@sunysb.edu

Raman P. Singh, Mei Zhang, Mechanical Engineering,


SUNY at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY, USA

The observed coupled field hysteretic constitutive


behavior of ferroelectric ceramic materials is the volume
average of material behavior that occurs on multiple length
scales. At the scale of the crystal structure the material can
switch between multiple equilibrium states. This rotates
anisotropy in the elastic, piezoelectric, and dielectric
properties; giving rise to local field fluctuations. At the single
crystal scale, the material forms domains. Again, the
fluctuations in anisotropy give rise to field fluctuations. At the
level of the grains, the behavior is the volume average of the
crystal variants present and their interaction. This work
presents an overview of the application of techniques from
micromechanics to make the volume averaging computations
tenable. The results are simulations of the hysteretic behavior
of several materials. Results from a series of electron back
scatter experiments will be used to identify grain orientations
and domain patterns. This enables modeling of real
microstructures and gives insight into underlying mechanisms
responsible for features of the macroscopically observed
behavior.

Micron- and nanometer-sized aluminum particles are used


as reinforcements to enhance the fracture toughness of a
highly-crosslinked, nominally brittle, thermosetting
unsaturated polyester resin. Both particle size and particle
volume fraction are systematically varied to investigate their
effects on the fracture behavior and the fracture toughness. It
is observed that, in general, the overall fracture toughness
increases monotonically with the volume fraction of aluminum
particles, for a given particle size, provided particle dispersion
and deagglomeration are maintained. Furthermore, the fracture
toughness is also strongly influenced by the size of the
reinforcement particles. Smaller particles lead to a greater
increase in fracture toughness for a given particle volume
fraction. Scanning electron microscopy of the fracture surfaces
is employed to establish crack front trapping as the primary
extrinsic toughening mechanism. Finally, the effects of
particle volume fraction and size on the tensile properties of
the polyester-aluminum composite are investigated. The
measured elastic modulus is in accordance with the rule-of-

143

Multi-Physical Length Scale Modeling Simulation and Design of Materials and Systems

mixtures. While, the tensile strength is slightly reduced upon


the inclusion of aluminum particles in the polyester matrix.
raman.singh@sunysb.edu

a desired target distribution is minimized. Arbitrary


distributions of volume fraction that describe a composite are
used as control variables. A general design method, based on a
conjugate gradient technique and an augmented objective
functional, is used to obtain numerical solutions, which
correspond to continuous functions that describe a material
layout of a functionally graded composite.
sergiot@seas.upenn.edu

MMC2001-694 Friday, June 29, 11:36 AM

Elastic Models for Carbon Nanotubes


C.Q. Ru, Mechanical Engineering, University of Alberta,
Edmonton, Alberta, Canada

MMC2001-532 Friday, June 29, 12:12 PM

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have attracted worldwide


attention. Particularly, mechanical behavior of CNTs have
been one topic of central interest. Since experiments at the
nanoscale are extremely difficult, and molecular dynamics
simulation remains expensive, solid mechanics models offer
an important method for CNTs.
The presentation will discuss the efficiency and the
limitations of existing solid mechanics models, with three
examples :
1. Axially compressed buckling of free-standing
singlewall CNTs.
2. Elastic buckling of singlewall CNT ropes under high
pressure.
3. Axially compressed buckling of doublewall CNTs
embedded in an elastic medium.
These examples show that solid mechanics models offer a
powerful approach for CNTs. On the other hand, CNTs
provide exciting challenges to solid mechanics.
References

Effects of Friction Stir Welding on Composite


Microstructure: Particle Size Distribution
Sarah C. Baxter, Anthony Reynolds, Mechanical
Engineering, University of South Carolina, Columbia,
SC, USA
Friction stir welding is a promising technique for
improving the quality of welds in high strength aluminums.
Relative motion between a rotating tool and the work-piece
produce a solid-state weld via in situ extrusion and forging.
The nature of movement around the tool during welding is not
fully understood. Welding particulate reinforced metal matrix
composites presents challenges, in particular the difficulty of
welding an effectively stiffer material with abrasive particles,
but it also offers a mechanism, the spatial arrangement of the
particles, which can provide insight into material
displacements. In this work, friction stir welds were made on a
discontinuously reinforced aluminum [1]. Statistical image
analysis was applied to metallographic sections. Of interest
were volume fraction and particle size distributions of the
particulate.
Acknowledgements: NSF REU supplement to NSF-CMS
9875067, Dr. Jorn Larsen-Basse program director USAF/AFRL, Dr. Kumar Jata, Technical Point of Contact,
TMC-96-5835-0083-01. John G. Crowley and Keith A. Blinn
contributed to this work.
[1] A.B. Pandey, B.S. Majumdar, and D.B. Miracle,
"Effect of aluminum particles on the fracture toughness of a
7093/SiC/15p composite,". Materials Science & Engineering,
A259 (1999) 296-307.
baxter@sc.edu

[1] Ru CQ. Physical Review B (62) 9973 (2000). [2] Ru


CQ. Physical Review B (62) 10405 (2000). [3] Ru CQ. JMPS
(49) 1265 (2001).
c.ru@ualberta.ca
MMC2001-714 Friday, June 29, 11:54 AM

Optimal Functionally Graded Materials for


Transient Problems
Sergio Turteltaub, Mechanical Engineering and Applied
Mechanics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia,
PA, USA
Functionally graded materials (FGMs) have received
considerable attention in view of their enhanced performance
compared to homogeneous composite materials or layered
structures. Much effort has been devoted to modeling and
simulation of these composites, however, in view of their
purpose, it is also important to develop a design methodology
to identify optimal FGMs. Furthermore, many applications of
practical interest are related to transient phenomena, hence a
different approach has to be implemented compared to
classical optimization. To this end, the present work consists
of a design method that is able to identify optimal layouts of
material properties within the context of time-dependent
problems. The functionally graded material is assumed to be
macroscopically isotropic and its effective properties are
computed based on first-order microscopic information. As a
design goal, the difference between an actual field quantity
(temperature, displacement, heat flux, stress and/or strain) and

144

Multi-Physical Length Scale Modeling Simulation and Design of Materials and Systems

finite element (FE) models. Our elastic and non-linear


simulations indicate that the organic mortar exhibits
exceptional properties in both the elastic region (elastic
modulus ~20 GPa) and nonlinear regions (yield stress ~ 400
MPa). We will discuss the role of confinement at ~20 nm on
the mechanical behavior of the organic. Our 3D models also
incorporate details of the nanoarchitecture of nacre such as nm
sized mineral contacts in the organic layers. Our results
indicate that such contacts have small effect on the elastic and
also non-linear response of nacre due to large stress
concentration at the contact regions. This paper further
discusses the importance of these results for scalable materials
design of nanocomposites mimicking nacre.
Kalpana_Katti@ndsu.nodak.edu

Session: III
Friday, June 29, 1:30-3:00
Executive Conference Center 2A
Chairs: Pedro Ponte Castaeda and Daniel Davis
MMC2001-241 Friday, June 29, 1:30 PM

Micromechanics-Based Nonlocal Constitutive


Equations for Elastic Composites Containing NonSpherical Inclusions
Keynote
Ilaria Monetto, Department of Structural and Geotechnical
Engineering, University of Genova, Genova, Italy
Walter J. Drugan, Engineering Physics Department,
University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin,
USA

MMC2001-661 Friday, June 29, 2:24 PM

Solute drag and segregation, properties of migrating


interfaces

A generalization of the Hashin-Shtrikman variational


formulation is employed to derive a micromechanics-based,
explicit nonlocal constitutive equation relating the ensemble
averages of stress and strain for random linear elastic
composite materials. The analysis builds on that of Drugan
and Willis (1996, J. Mech. Phys. Solids 44, 497-524) and
Drugan (2000, J. Mech. Phys. Solids 48, 1359-1387), who
derived completely explicit results for the case of an isotropic
matrix reinforced/weakened by a random distribution of
isotropic, non-overlapping identical spheres. Here we
describe two new sets of results: The first is an improvement
to the previous results for higher volume fractions of
inclusions by use of an improved statistical model. The
second is an analysis showing how to derive an explicit
nonlocal constitutive equation for a matrix
reinforced/weakened by a random distribution of nonspherical voids, cracks or inclusions.
monetto@diseg.unige.it

Jiri Svoboda, Institute of Physics of Materials, Academy of


Sciences of the Czech Republic, Brno, Brno, Czech
Republic
Dieter Fischer, Ernst Gamsjger, Institute of Mechanics,
Montanuniversitt Leoben, Leoben, Austria

Jeffrey Sopp, Materials Science and Engineering, University


of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA

When an interface migrates, the atoms of the parent phase


are gradually dissolved in the migrating interface and later reprecipitated on the surface of the product phase (the atoms are
rearranged from one lattice into an other lattice during this
process). Moreover, the interface migration can be
accompanied by the solute drag and by the trans-interface
diffusion. For modeling of kinetics of the phase transformation
at a high temperature it is very useful, if the interface can be
characterized by only one kinetic parameter - by its effective
mobility M. The aim of the contribution is to develop a
phenomenological model of the interface and to simulate the
solute drag and the trans-interface diffusion in the migrating
interface. All processes in the migrating interface are parallel
processes and they all depend on the interface velocity v. This
makes it possible to express the rate of Gibbs energy
dissipation of each process, to sum up the contributions and to
evaluate the effective interface mobility M(v). Moreover, the
model enables to calculate the difference in the chemical
potential of the diffusing component across the interface in
dependence on the interface velocity v. This difference
represents a necessary boundary condition for the coupling of
equations for diffusion in adjacent grains.
svobj@ipm.cz

Mehmet Sarikaya

MMC2001-977 Friday, June 29, 2:42 PM

MMC2001-708 Friday, June 29, 2:06 PM

Multiscale modeling in biological nanocomposites for


a simulation-based materials design
Kalpana Katti, Dinesh R. Katti, Civil Engineering, North
Dakota State University, Fargo, ND, USA
Jingpeng Tang, Civil Engineering, North dakota State
University, Fargo, ND, USA

Nacre, the inner layer of seashells is a biological


nanocomposite system with exceptional mechanical
properties. The nanoarchitecture is described as 'brick and
mortar' with CaCO3 bricks and organic mortar. Nacre
represents a model system for a biomimetic design of new
laminated nanocomposites with hard and soft components. In
this work, a multiscale modeling approach for nacre is
followed. This involves incorporation of experimentally
obtained nanoscale material properties (using nanoindentation
with an atomic force microscope) into meso-macro scale 3D

On the Nature of Atomic and Molecular-Scale Stress


in Polymeric Systems
Catalin R. Picu, Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Aeronautical Engineering and Mechanics, Rensselaer
Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY, USA
Stress in polymeric systems is traditionally defined on the
molecular scale. In this view, the chains are regarded as
entropic springs in tension, and stress is due exclusively to

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Multi-Physical Length Scale Modeling Simulation and Design of Materials and Systems

bonded interactions along the chains. Recently, an alternative


description of stress was proposed. This new physical picture
is based on an atomic scale representation of stress, takes into
account all (bonded and non-bonded) interactions in the
system, and makes no a-priori assumption on the behavior of
any component of the system. The links between the two
definitions are discussed in this talk. It is shown that although
several key assumptions made in the molecular scale model
are not justified by the results of atomistic simulations, the
overall macroscopic behavior is captured by both
formulations. Special attention is devoted to the entropic
nature of stress. This experimentally observed feature is
captured by the molecular scale model since in this description
the chains are by definition taken as entropic springs.
Accordingly, the entropy of the macroscopic stress is linked to
the configurational entropy of the chains. The atomic scale
formulation similarly captures the entropic nature of stress, but
the origin of this character resides in packing entropy in a
fashion similar to simple liquids.
[1] R.C. Picu, G. Loriot, J.H. Weiner, "Toward a unified
view of stress in small-molecular and in macromolecular
liquids," J. Chem. Phys. 110, 4678-4686, 1999.
[2] R.C. Picu, "The entropic character of the atomic level
stress in polymeric melts," Macromolecules, to appear.
picuc@rpi.edu

MMC2001-771 Friday, June 29, 4:06 PM

A Quasi-Continuum Approach for Poly-Disperse


Granular Systems
Alberto M. Cuitino, Aeronautics, California Institute of
Technology, Pasadena, CA, USA
Shanfu Zheng, Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering,
Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway,
NJ, USA
Gustavo Gioia, Theoretical and Applied Mechanics,
University of Illinois, Urbana, IL, USA
Processes involving the deformation of confined granular
materials are ubiquitous in nature and engineering. For
example, shear mixing in stirring tanks, ballistic penetration of
brittle targets, the pulling out of bars in reinforced concrete
parts, the shearing of transform, and the subsidence of
sedimentary basins for the relevance of subsidence to oil.
Besides the engineering interest of many of these processes,
the study of deformation in confined granular materials is a
source of valuable information on what many physicists deem
a fourth, distinct state of matter: the granular state.
This paper introduces a quasi-continuum formulation for
heterogeneous granular systems. The description assumes that
a constrained field describes the relative displacements
between particles while the interparticle forces are resolved
locally. Equilibrium is enforced weakly by virtue of the
principle of virtual displacement. This methodology provides
an efficient approach for bridging length scales from the
nano/micro scale (particle size) to meso scale (samples). The
methodology accounts for particles of variable size and
different species. Interaction forces between particles in
different cells are computed using a rule, which allows for
local operations and renders symmetric tangent operators.
Energy relaxation from static condensation of an internal node
is proposed as an indicator for adaptive meshing. Simulations
of uniaxial densification show the robustness and versatility of
the formulation for heterogeneous granular beds.
cuitino@aero.caltech.edu

Session: IV
Friday, June 29, 3:30-5:00
Executive Conference Center 2A
Chairs: Wei Tong and Daniel Davis
MMC2001-727 Friday, June 29, 3:30 PM

Characterization of Material Length Scales by


Plastic Strain Mapping
Keynote
Wei Tong, Mechanical Engineering, Yale University, New
Haven, Connecticut, USA
Material length scales over a wide range exist in a typical
polycrystalline solid and often manifest themselves as
heterogeneous deformation patterns of various sizes upon
external loading. A robust nondestructive experimental
approach based on whole-field inelastic surface strain
mapping at each corresponding length scale is adapted to
characterize the multi-scale material heterogeneities of a flat
sheet material. More specifically, the size and intensity of
plastic strain and strain rate inhomogeneities within a single
crystal grain, across grain boundaries, and over a set of grains
of various sizes under macroscopically homogenous
deformation loading conditions are determined. The origin of
the strain and strain rate inhomogeneities will be elucidated in
terms of material microstructures and underlying processes.
The implication of the multi-scale plastic strain and strain rate
inhomogeneities on dislocation dynamics and crystal plasticity
models and on surface roughening and formability of
polycrystalline solids will be discussed.
wei.tong@yale.edu

MMC2001-709 Friday, June 29, 4:24 PM

Fracture Nucleation in Single-Wall Carbon


Nanotubes under Tension: A Continuum Analysis
Incorporating Interatomic Potentials
Peng Zhang, Yonggang Huang, Mechanical and Industrial
Engineering, University of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign, Urbana, IL, USA
Huajian Gao, Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University,
Palo Alto, CA, USA
Keh-Chih Hwang, Engineering Mechanics, Tsinghua
University, Beijing, China
Carbon nanotubes show great promise for applications
ranging from nanocomposites, nanoelectronic components,
nanosensors, to nanoscale mechanical probes. These materials
exhibit very attractive mechanical properties with
extraordinarily high stiffness and strength, and are of great

146

Multi-Scale Modeling of Materials

interest to researchers from both atomistic and continuum


points of view. In this paper, we intend to develop a
continuum theory of fracture nucleation in single-walled
carbon nanotubes by incorporating interatomic potentials
between carbon atoms into a continuum constitutive model for
the nanotube wall. In this theory, the fracture nucleation is
viewed as a bifurcation instability of a homogeneously
deformed nanotube at a critical strain. An eigenvalue problem
is set up to determine the onset of fracture, with results in
good agreement with those from atomistic studies.
huang9@uiuc.edu

MMC2001-422 Thursday, June 28, 11:36 AM

Macroscopic damage modeling based on


micromechanical considerations
Jianfu Shao, EUDIL, University of Lille - LML, Villeneuve
d'Ascq, France
Djimdo Kondo, Lab. Mechanics, Universite des Sciences et
Technologies de Lille, Villeneuve d'Ascq, France
Vincent Pensee
This paper deals with macroscopic modeling of
anisotropic damage in brittle geomaterials (rocks and
concrete) under compression dominated stresses. The
formulation of the model is directly motivated by the results
issued from 3D micro-mechanics considerations. The induced
damage is represented by a second and a fourth rank
symmetric tensor, which reflect density and orientation of
microcracks. The effective elastic compliance tensor is
derived from the thermodynamic potential, which is derived
from 3D micromechanics consideration. Unilateral effects due
to microcrack closure are inherently taken into account in the
formulation of thermodynamic potential. The material damage
evolution is related to propagation of microcracks in different
orientation. The onset of microcrack coalescence leading to
localization phenomenon and softening behavior is defined by
using a critical crack density. Further, irreversible strains due
to residual opening of microcracks after unloading are also
taken into account. Each model parameter involved may
correspond to a clear physical meaning and then can be
identified from standard laboratory tests.
Jian-Fu.Shao@eudil.fr

Multi-Scale Modeling of Materials


Session: 1
Thursday, June 28, 11:00-12:30
Executive Conference Center 1
Chairs: George Voyiadjis and Zdenek P. Bazant
MMC2001-344 Thursday, June 28, 11:00 AM

Multi-Scale Gradient Damage-Plasticity


Keynote
George Z. Voyiadjis, Robert J. Dorgan, Civil and
Environmental Engineering, Louisiana State University,
Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA
This work provides a consistent and systematic framework
for the gradient approach in coupled damage-plasticity that
enables one to better understand the effects of material
inhomogeneity on the macroscopic behavior and the material
instabilities. The idea of multiple scale effects is made more
general and complete by introducing damage and plasticity
internal state variables and the corresponding gradients at both
the macro and mesoscale levels. The mesoscale gradient
approach allows one to obtain more precise characterization of
the nonlinearity in the damage distribution; to address issues
such as lack of statistical homogeneous state variables at the
macroscale level such as debonding of fibers in composite
materials, crack, voids, etc; and to address nonlocal influences
associated with crack interaction. The macroscale gradients
allow one to address non-local behavior of materials and
interpret the collective behavior of defects such as dislocations
and cracks. Computational issues of the gradient approach are
introduced and are applied to the finite element approach.
voyiadjis@eng.lsu.edu

MMC2001-891 Thursday, June 28, 11:54 AM

Orthotropic modelling of Alkali-Aggregate Reaction


in concrete : numerical simulations
Bruno Capra, Alain Sellier, Laboratoire de Gnie Civil et
Urbanisme, Universit de Marne-la-Valle, Champs-surMarne, Seine et Marne, France
A lot of structures are suffering from deterioration induced
by Alkali-Aggregate Reaction (AAR) that impair durability of
concrete. AAR induces concrete expansions and leads to loss
of strength and cracking. There is an increasing interest in the
structural response to AAR effects and the long term
evaluation of the swelling process.
Such a reaction is difficult to model accurately because of
the complexity of the phenomena : random reactive sites,
imperfect knowledge of the reaction mechanisms. In order to
perform structural simulations, reactions have been modelled
within a phenomenological approach framework by taking
into account the following parameters : kinetics of the
reaction, temperature, moisture and stress state. Concrete
modelling is based on a physical description of the probability
of crack opening which is related to the damage rate of the
material. The model allows then to describe an orthotropic
decreasing of the elastic properties of concrete and the residual
swelling, under both AAR and mechanical loads.

147

Multi-Scale Modeling of Materials

Numerical simulations have been performed in order to


compare the model response to the experimental results of
tests carried out at the LCPC (France). The behaviour of
specimens subjected to different uniaxial loads has been
properly reproduce in terms of residual strains and orthotropic
swelling. Finite element simulations have been performed on a
beam subjected to a gradient of humidity. The results,
obtained in terms of damage and swelling, show a great
influence of this environmental parameter.
capra@univ-mlv.fr

loading processes is presented. The finite difference method


for regularized elasto-viscoplastic model is used. The
identification procedure is developed basing on the
experimental observations. The edge-cracked bimaterial
specimen is considered. The impact area is localized
symmetrically or asymmetrically to the shorter axis of the
specimen (symmetrical line of the interface band).
Considering the available data of recent experimental
observation (cf. Rosakis, Samudrala and Coker, Science 284
(1999) 1337-1340) that have been carried out for relatively
thin specimens the plane stress or plane strain conditions are
assumed. The material of the specimen is AISI 4340 steel,
while PMMA is the cohesive band, both modelled by thermoelasto-viscoplastic constitutive equations with effects of
isotropic hardening and softening generated by microdamage
mechanisms and thermomechanical coupling. Fracture
criterion based on the evolution of microdamage is assumed.
Particular attention is focused on the investigation of the
interactions and reflections of stress waves. It has been found
that macrocrack-tip speeds vary from the shear wave speed to
the dilatational wave speed of the material and is higher than
the Rayleigh surface wave speed.
pperzyna@ippt.gov.pl

MMC2001-780 Thursday, June 28, 12:12 PM

Micro-Mechanical Modeling of Dual Phase Steels


James A. Nemes, Fawzi M. Alabbasi, Department of
Mechanical Engineering, McGill University, Montreal,
Quebec, CANADA
Dual phase steels with a microstructure consisting of a
ferrite matrix with dispersed particles of martensite have
recently received a great deal of attention. These steels exhibit
high strength, high work-hardening rate, and high ductility,
which are favorable properties for a number of forming
processes. Experimental investigation into the effect of the
harder phase volume fraction, morphology, and phase
distribution on mechanical properties of the dual phase steels
is well established in the literature. Of particular interest is the
rate of strain hardening, which was found to display three
distinct regions, as described by the modified Crussard - Jaoul
analysis. In the present work, a micro mechanical model is
developed to capture the mechanical behavior of such
materials, adopting the constitutive behavior of the
constituents.
The model was used to perform the
investigations reported experimentally and the results are
compared and found to be in agreement. The resulting
behavior described by the micro-mechanical model was
incorporated into a macro-mechanical model as a
homogenization procedure to predict localization, strength,
macroscopic strain hardening and ductility.
nemes@mecheng.mcgill.ca

MMC2001-605 Thursday, June 28, 2:06 PM

Multiscale Modeling For Multi-Interacting Inclusion


Problems Including Edge Effects
Valeriy Buryachenko, Dep. Civil & Environmental Engng,
The University of Dayton, Gayton, OH, USA
Nickolas Pagano, Materials Directorate, Air Force Research
Laboratory, AFRL/MLBC, Wright--Patterson AFB,
Dayton, OH, USA
A hybrid method (see Buryachenko and Pagano, 2001)
based on the combination of the volume integral equation
(VIE) method and the boundary integral equation (BIE)
method is proposed for the micro-macro solution of
elastostatic 2-D and 3-D multiscale problems in bounded or
unbounded solids containing interacting multiple inclusions of
essentially different scale. The hybrid micro-macro
formulation allows decomposition of the complete problem
into two associated subproblems, one residing entirely at the
micro-level and the other at the macro-level at each iteration.
The iteration method proposed converges rapidly in a wide
class of problems considered with high matrix-inclusion
elastic contrast, with continuously varying anisotropic and
nonlinear elastic properties of inclusions, as well as with sizes
of interacting inclusions differing by a factor of 10^7. The
accuracy and efficiency of the method are examined through
comparison with results obtained from finite element analysis
and boundary element analysis as well as from analytical
solution.
Buryachenko V. A. and Pagano N.J. Multiscale analysis of
multiple interacting inclusion problems: Finite number of
interacting inclusions, 2001. (Submitted).
burach@aol.com

Session: 2
Thursday, June 28, 1:30-3:00
Executive Conference Center 1
Chairs: Rami Haj-Ali and George Z. Voyiadjis
MMC2001-357 Thursday, June 28, 1:30 PM

Numerical Analysis of Macrocrack Propagation


Along a Bimaterial Interface under Dynamic
Loading Processes
Keynote
Piotr Perzyna, Center of Mechanics, Institute of Fundamental
Technological Research, Warsaw, Poland
Wojciech Dornowski, Military University of Technology,
Warsaw, POLAND
In the present study numerical analysis of macrocrack
propagation along a bimaterial interface under dynamic

148

Multi-Scale Modeling of Materials

loding cases, one can identifies quantities which depend only


on the characteristics of the cracked ply. As a consequence,
we present a slightly modified mesomodel which appears to be
completely compatible with classical micromechanics models
and related to basic material characteristics. To complement
this, a fiber/matrix debonding mechanism has to be added to
classical micromechanics models for them to be compatible
with off-axis-tests.
lubineau@lmt.ens-cachan.fr

MMC2001-648 Thursday, June 28, 2:24 PM

Three-Dimensional Micromechanics-Based
Modeling of Pultruded Composites
Rami Haj-Ali, Hakan Kilic, Anastasia Muliana, Civil
Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta,
GA, USA
A new three-dimensional (3D) micromechanics-based
framework is proposed for the nonlinear analysis of pultruded
fiber reinforced polymeric (FRP) composites. The proposed
3D modeling framework is a nested multi-scale approach that
explicitly recognizes the response of the composite systems
(layers) within the cross-section of the pultruded member.
These layers can have reinforcements in the form of roving,
continuous filament mat (CFM), and/or woven fabrics.
Different 3D micromechanical models for the layers can be
used to recognize the basic response of the fiber and matrix
materials. The framework is implemented with both shell and
3D finite elements. The proposed modeling framework for
pultruded composites is used to predict the stiffness and
nonlinear stress-strain response of E-glass/Vinylester
pultruded materials reinforced with roving and CFM. The
roving layer is idealized using a 3D nonlinear micromechanics
model for a unidirectional fiber reinforced material. A simple
nonlinear micromechanics model for the CFM layer is also
applied.
The proposed model shows very good predictive
capabilities of the overall effective properties and the
nonlinear response of pultruded composites, based on the insitu material properties, and the volume fractions of the
constituents. Experimental tests of pultruded plates are used
to verify the proposed model.
rami.haj-ali@ce.gatech.edu

Session: 3
Thursday, June 28, 3:30-5:00
Executive Conference Center 1
Chairs: Robert P. Lipton and Raymond Parnes
MMC2001-842 Thursday, June 28, 3:30 PM

Buckling Of Nano-Fibre Reinforced Composites : A


Re-Examination Of Elastic Buckling
Keynote
Raymond Parnes, Alexander Chiskis, Solid Mechanics,
Materials and Systems, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv,
Israel
Elastic buckling of layered/fibre composites is
investigated. Assuming the existence of both shear and
transverse modes of failure, the composite is analyzed as a
layer embedded in a matrix. Interacting stresses are
determined from an exact derived stress field in the matrix. It
is shown that buckling can occur only in the shear mode and
that the transverse mode is spurious. As opposed to the wellknown Rosen shear buckling solution, shear buckling is shown
to exist under two regimes : buckling of dilute composites
with finite wave lengths and buckling of non-dilute
composites with infinite wavelengths. A model is constructed
which defines the fibre concentration at which a transition
between the two regimes occurs. The bucklng strains for dilute
composites are shown to have realistic values compatible with
elastic behavior for the case of high fibre/matrix stiffness
ratios. A comparison with the numerical results presented for
the buckling strains and stresses are presented and compared
with the Rosen solution. These reveal that the Rosen solution
is valid only for non-dilute composites. The investigation
demonstrates that elastic buckling may be a dominant failure
mechanism for composites consisting of very stiff fibres
fabricated in the framework of nanotechnology.
parnes@eng.tau.ac.il

MMC2001-652 Thursday, June 28, 2:42 PM

On the physical basis of a mesomodel for laminates:


micro-meso relations
Gilles Lubineau, Structures and systems, LMT Cachan,
Cachan, France, France
Pierre Ladeveze, Structures and Systems, LMT Cachan,
Cachan, France, France
Building methods to predict the behavior of laminates
structures until final fracture is a major challenge in the design
of composites. A damage mesomodel has been under
development at Cachan for fifteen years (Ladeveze, 86;
Ladeveze, 89). It is based on the assumption that any laminate
structure can be considered as a stacking sequence of two
basic constituents: the single layer and the interface. Another
assumption is that damage is constant throughout the thickness
of each mesoconstituent. This mesomodel has been identified
for numerous materials in terms of both the ply (Ladeveze and
Le Dantec, 92) and the interface (Allix and Ladeveze). In this
paper, our aim is to discuss the crucial homogenization
assumption in this mesomodel. Consequently, the model is
revisited in the light of numerous works, both experimental
and theoritical, done in micromechanics (Hashin, 86; Nairn
and Hu, 94). Classical microscenarios are introduced: matrix
microcracking and diffuse delamination. Using numerous
finite elements analyses for various stacking sequences and

MMC2001-424 Thursday, June 28, 4:06 PM

Modelling of a Thick Laminated Composite


Jean-Francois Caron, alain Ehrlacher, LAMI, Ecole
nationale des Ponts et Chausses, Marne la vallee, Seine
et Marne, France
The aim of this work is to propose a new transverse shear
behaviour model for thick sandwich panels. Several
approaches have been proposed by researchers over the past
five decades (REIS 48) (WHI 72)

149

Multi-Scale Modeling of Materials

We propose, in this article, a new plate model based upon


Hellinger-Reissner's theorem as Pagano (PAG :83), choosing
to approximate stress fields per layer.
The final equations are very similar to those based upon a
Reissner-Mindlin theory.
However, both the method of building and the transverse
shear behaviour equations are radically different. The model is
effective in simulating behaviour of structures. Its domain of
application includes the study of thick composites and of
laminates with a high ratio of transverse shear moduli, such
sandwich structures.
A numerical study positively compare the three
dimensional finite element deflection of an elementary
sandwich problem with both the classical lamination theory
solution (with and without shear correction factors) and the
solution provided by our model, even for very thick panels.
PAGANO 83, Int. J. of Sol. and Str. 19 207.

MMC2001-318 Thursday, June 28, 4:42 PM

Stress Distribution Around the Anisotropic Interface


Corner
Chyanbin Hwu, Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics,
National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan,
Taiwan, R.O.C.
Masaki Oomiya, Kikuo Kishimoto, Department of
Mechanical Sciences and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of
Technology, Tokyo, Japan
In this paper, we consider a bi-wedge bonded by two
dissimilar anisotropic elastic wedges. The outer surfaces of the
bi-wedge are assumed to be traction-free, while the interface is
assumed perfectly bonded. To analyze the stress distribution
around the interface corner, the stress singularity is first
considered by selecting a suitable stress function. The singular
order near the interface corner is then obtained by satisfying
the boundary conditions and the basic laws of linear
anisotropic elasticity. Knowing the order of stress singularity,
the stress distribution around the anisotropic interface corners
is found directly by Strohs complex variable formulation.
Through the introduction of a key matrix N that contains the
information of material properties, a simple and clear solution
form for the stresses and displacements near the interface
corner is provided in this paper. Furthermore, by a definition
similar to the stress intensity factors of cracks problems, the
stress intensity for the interface corners can also be expressed
in a simple form. Specializing the wedge angles to 180 or
360 , one may reduce our present results to the crack
problems. It is hoped that the explicit expressions presented in
this paper may be useful for the establishment of a unified
failure criterion of the anisotropic interface corners including
the interfacial cracks.
CHwu@mail.ncku.edu.tw

REISSNER 48, J.Aero.Sci., vol.15, n7, pp.435-440


WHITNEY:72 J.of Comp. Mat., vol.6, pp.426-440
caron@lami.enpc.fr
MMC2001-347 Thursday, June 28, 4:24 PM

Design of functionally graded composite shafts for


maximum torsional rigidity subject to stress
constraints
Robert P. Lipton, Mathematical Sciences, Worcester
Polytechnic Institute, Worcester, MA, USA
Ani P. Velo, Mathematical Sciences, United States Military
Academy, West Point, New York, USA
It is of central importance to control stress concentrations
inside load bearing composite shafts. Regions containing large
stresses are often the first to exhibit failure during service.
In this work we introduce a method for the design of
functionally graded composite materials (FGMs) with optimal
structural properties subject to stress constraints. Our method
provides a systematic numerical procedure for the design of
functionally graded composite materials when there is a
constraint on the magnitude of the stresses inside the
composite. FGMs are characterized by microstructures that
are spatially variable on a macroscale. Here the microstructure
within the composite shaft consists of long reinforcement
fibers with a stiff isotropic shear modulus embedded in a more
compliant elastically isotropic matrix. We suppose that the
shaft and the fibers are right cylinders with generators along
the z axis. The cross section of the reinforced shaft is in the xy plane. The shaft is subjected to torsion loading and we
provide a robust numerical method for maximizing the
torsional rigidity of the shaft subject to constraints on the
stress
lipton@wpi.edu

150

Multi-Scale Modeling of Materials

Molecular Dynamics. The model exhibits many


experimentally observed characteristics such as an initial
elastic response followed by yield then volume preserving
plastic deformation. The stress response was decomposed into
intra and inter molecular components and analyzed throughout
deformation. In the glassy regime, activation parameters were
calculated in the context of the Eyring Model of flow in a
solid. This data combined with data obtained from geometric
correlation functions is used to find the activation volume for
this model polymer. Observations were made of the evolution
of chain configuration and the correlation of transitions
between dihedral angle states.
fcapaldi@mit.edu

Session: 4
Friday, June 29, 9:00-10:30
Executive Conference Center 1
Chairs: Elefterios Lidorikis and Eli Altus
MMC2001-349 Friday, June 29, 9:00 AM

Multiscale Atomistics-Continuum Simulations:


Stress Distributions in Si/Si3N4 Nanopixels.
Elefterios Lidorikis, Department of Physics & Astronomy,
Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, USA
Martina E. Bachlechner, Physics Department, West Virginia
University, Morgantown, WV, USA
George Z. Voyiadjis, Department of Civil and Environmental
Engineering, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge,
LA, USA

MMC2001-971 Friday, June 29, 9:36 AM

Mechanics of Statistically Heterogeneous


Microbeams

Rajiv K. Kalia, Department of Physics & Astronomy and


Department of Computer Science, Louisiana State
University, Baton Rouge, LA, USA

Eli Altus, Mechanical Engineering, Technion, Israel Institute


of Technology, Haifa, Israel

Aiichiro Nakano, Priya Vashishta

Effective material properties are based on the assumption


that the typical size of its individual elements (grain, chain,
bundle) is much smaller than global characteristic dimensions.
Microbeams, used in MEMS, are a good example of a
microstructure having typical dimensions of only several
elements in some direction. Therefore, regular "effective
theories" have to be generalized. In this study, statistical
properties (averages and variance), of reaction forces and
deflections of heterogeneous, linear elastic "Bernoulli"
microbeams is analyzed analytically. The beams are composed
of microelements of randomly distributed isotropic stiffness.
Heterogeneity is considered both in the longitudinal and crosssectional directions. Element to beam size ratio is not
negligible. External loading is deterministic. Using probability
densities and correlation functions for calculating the
mechanical response, it is shown that an inherent coupling
exists between local material properties (Moduli), geometry
(Cross section) and Loading. Statically determinate cases
show a partial M-C coupling, while indeterminate structures
have a full M-C-L coupling. Therefore, even average
deflections of determinate cases, can be derived only
approximately. This introduces new challenges for microscale
engineering. Bounds for the statistical dispersion of
deflections and reaction forces are also found analytically for
some cases of weak heterogeneity. The texture effect is
especially examined for the "Mesoscale" case, where the
morphology correlation distance is limited to a small (not
negligible) size.
altus@tx.technion.ac.il

A hybrid molecular-dynamics/finite-element simulation


scheme is applied to describe multiscale phenomena in
nanodevices. The quality of both static and dynamic coupling
between atomistic and continuum regions is studied. The
hybrid scheme is used for the Si/Si3N4 interface problem
(static coupling), and for the projectile impact on Si problem
(dynamic coupling). Excellent agreement is found between
hybrid and full molecular dynamics simulation results in the
static case, and no wave reflections are found at the
atomistic/continuum hand-shake in the dynamic case. The
hybrid scheme is thus validated a powerful and cost effective
method for performing multiscale simulations of nanodevices.
lidoriki@phys.lsu.edu
MMC2001-377 Friday, June 29, 9:18 AM

Atomistic Simulations of Elastic-Plastic Deformation


of an Amorphous Polymer
Franco M. Capaldi, Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts
Institute Of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA
Mary C. Boyce, Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts
Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA
Gregory C. Rutledge, Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts
Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA
As the demand for polymers with superior properties
increases, an understanding of the fundamental connections
between the mechanical behavior and underlying chemical
structure becomes imperative. In this work, the thermomechanical behavior and the molecular-level origins of plastic
deformation of an amorphous glassy polymer were studied
using atomistic simulations. Understanding of the molecular
response will aid the development of physics-based continuum
level models for these materials. A polyethylene-like
molecular network was numerically constructed using a Monte
Carlo algorithm and then subjected to uniaxial deformation
over a wide range of strain rates and temperatures using

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Multi-Scale Modeling of Materials

yield criterion is derived based on the ensemble-area


averaging process and the first-order effects of eigenstrains.
The proposed effective yield criterion, together with the
overall associative plastic flow rule and the hardening law,
constitutes the analytical framework for the estimation of
effective elastoplastic responses of metal matrix composites
containing both perfectly bonded and completely debonded
fibers. An evolutionary interfacial fiber debonding process,
governed by the internal stresses of fibers and the interfacial
strength, is incorporated. Further, the Weibull's statistical
function is employed to describe the varying probability of
complete fiber debonding. Finally, comparison between the
present predictions and available experimental data and
various simulations are performed to illustrate the potential of
the proposed framework.
juj@ucla.edu

MMC2001-323 Friday, June 29, 9:54 AM

Equivalent Continuum Modeling of NanoStructured Materials


Gregory M. Odegard, Thomas S. Gates, Lee M. Nicholson,
Mechanics and Durability Branch, NASA Langley
Research Center, Hampton, VA, USA
Kristopher E. Wise, Advanced Materials and Processes
Branch, NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA,
USA
Nano-structured materials have excited considerable
interest in the materials research community in the last few
years partly due to their potentially remarkable mechanical
properties. In particular, materials such as carbon nanotubes,
nanotube and nanoparticle-reinforced composites, and nanolayered materials have shown considerable promise. One of
the fundamental issues that needs to be addressed for
development of constitutive models of nano-structured
materials involves the applicability of classical continuum
mechanics at these atomic level length scales.
A method has been developed for developing structureproperty relationships of nano-structured materials. This
method serves as a link between computational chemistry and
continuum mechanics. It has been shown that this may be
accomplished by first equating the chemical potential energy
of a nano-structured material with the mechanical strain
energy of a representative pin-jointed truss. Secondly, an
equivalent continuum model is substituted for the truss model
by equating the degrees of freedom, boundary displacement
gradients, and strain energies for a given loading condition.
The equivalent continuum model may be used to model the
mechanical behavior of the nano-structured material.
The derivation and results of the graphene lattice and
carbon nanotube-reinforced polymer composite analyses will
be presented.
g.m.odegard@larc.nasa.gov

MMC2001-785 Friday, June 29, 11:18 AM

On The Role Of Higher Order Gradients In Damage


And Fatigue
Rodrigue Desmorat, Laboratoire de Modelisation et
Mecanique des Structures, Universit Pierre et Marie
Curie Paris 6, Paris, France
Elias C. Aifantis, MMI/MTU & LMM/AUT, MTU/USA &
AUT/Greece, Houghton/Thessaloniki,
Michigan/Thessaloniki, USA/Greece
Various possibilities for developing gradient-dependent
damage and fatigue criteria are outlined. Their implications to
material failure are discussed.
desmorat@ccr.jussieu.fr
MMC2001-845 Friday, June 29, 11:36 AM

Plastic Fatigue Prediction With Multiscale Modeling


Akrum Abdul-Latif, GIM, IUT de Tremblay-en-France,
Tremblay-en-France, France

Session: 5
Friday, June 29, 11:00-12:30
Executive Conference Center 1
Chairs: J. W. Ju and Akrum Abdul-Latif

Based on the slip theory, a multi-scale model of damage


initiation in Low-Cycle Fatigue which was recently proposed
for FCC polycrystals to describe the unilateral damage effect
with a small strain assumption is tested. The inelastic behavior
is modeled and coupled with micro-damage variables at the
slip system scale. The micro-damage variable is assumed to be
initiated and the evolved on the activated slip systems to
define a parameter of isotropic damage (DT) at the
macroscopic level. For the unilateral damage effect under
cyclic loading condition, damage is almost active only if
micro-cracks are open (tension phase), while during its closure
(compression phase), damage is still present but affects
differently the mechanical properties of the material. Despite
the heterogeneous local damaged behavior on the slip system,
the isotropic damaged behavior concept is adopted at
macroscopic level. Note that the used model allows to ensure
this continuity of the macro-stress-macro-strain response.
aabdul@iut-tremblay-paris8.fr

MMC2001-614 Friday, June 29, 11:00 AM

Effective Elastoplastic Damage Model for Fiber


Reinforced Metal Matrix Composites with
Evolutionary Complete Fiber Debonding
J. W. Ju, Huaining Ruan, Civil and Environmental
Engineering, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA
A micromechanical damage model is proposed to predict
the overall elastoplastic behavior and interfacial damage
evolution of fiber-reinforced metal matrix composites.
Progressive, completely debonded fibers are replaced by
voids. The effective elastic moduli of three-phase composites,
composed of a ductile matrix, randomly located and
unidirectionally aligned circular fibers, and voids, are derived
by using a micromechanical formulation. In order to
characterize the overall elastoplastic behavior, an effective

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Multi-Scale Modeling of Materials

MMC2001-330 Friday, June 29, 11:54 AM

Session: 6
Friday, June 29, 1:30-3:00
Executive Conference Center 1
Chairs: Amjad J. Aref and Yacoub "Jacob" Najjar

Approximate Models for Ductile Sheets with


Anisotropic Plasticity: Theory and Applications

MMC2001-503 Friday, June 29, 1:30 PM

Amine A. Benzerga, Division of Engineering, Brown


University, Providence, RI, USA

A Genetic Algorithm-Based Approach for Design


Optimization of Fiber Reinforced Polymer
Structural Components

Jacques Besson, Centre des Materiaux, Ecole des Mines,


Evry, Essones, France
The aim of this paper is to incorporate plastic anisotropy
into constitutive equations of porous ductile metals by
extending Gurson's model for spherical and cylindrical voids
to the case of orthotropic materials. We derive an upper
bound of the yield surface of a hollow sphere, or a hollow
cylinder, made of a perfectly plastic matrix obeying the Hill
criterion. The main findings are related to the so-called scalar
and directional effects. The effect of plastic anisotropy on the
spherical term of the plastic potential is called scalar effect.
This allows a classification of sheet materials with regard to
anisotropy. A second feature of the model is the plasticityinduced damage anisotropy. This directional effect is mainly
due to Hill's principal coefficients whilst the scalar effect is
enhanced by shear Hill coefficients. Results are compared to
some micromechanical finite element calculations.
Experimental data for a wide range of thick and thin sheet
materials are analysed in view of a tentative to classify
material sheets with respect to plastic anisotropy and its
effects on ductile damage.
benzerga@engin.brown.edu

Amjad J. Aref, He Yihong, Civil, Structural and


Environmental Engineering, University at Buffalo - State
University of New York, Buffalo, New York, USA
The optimal design of fiber reinforced polymer (FRP)
components plays a critical role to obtain high-performance
and cost-effective bridge deck systems. This paper addresses a
genetic algorithm-based approach to minimize the weight of
structural components intended for bridge systems by
simultaneously changing the cross-sectional shape and FRP
material configuration (i.e., ply orientations). A threedimensional finite element model combined with a genetic
algorithm (GA) procedure is used to perform the optimization.
Using the discretized component, the design variables are
represented by two chromosomes; one that matches the crosssectional shape while the other represents the ply orientations.
Then, the individuals comprise these two chromosomes. Using
the GA operators to mimic the natural selections, the
generations evolve by removing inefficient material and
changing ply orientations simultaneously. The resulting crosssectional shape and the corresponding material configuration
evolve in the direction of decreasing the weight without
violating the constraints such as limits on strength and
deflection. Several improvements to the genetic algorithm are
introduced to provide faster convergence and efficiently
handle multiple design variables. The genetic algorithm
approach is applied to create optimum FRP bridge deck
systems. Several numerical examples with different bridge
spans are studied in this work. The resulting procedure
provides an effective and robust approach for shape and
material architecture optimization.
aaref@eng.buffalo.edu

MMC2001-630 Friday, June 29, 12:12 PM

An Analogical Model for Microstructural Fatigue


Thresholds
Omar M Ahmad, Structures Department, Warton Aerodrome
(W328B), BAE SYSTEMS Customer Solutions &
Support, Preston, Lancashire, United Kingdom
The understanding of physical phenomena is often
enhanced by the use of analogical models. Here, the
propagation of Stage I (shear) and Stage II (tensile) fatigue
cracks in polycrystalline ductile metals is addressed by a fluid
mechanics based model. The focus is the microstructural
fracture mechanics regime, a significant region for the fatigue
life of engineering components. The model addresses issues of
particular significance to microstructural fatigue, such as the
presence of microstructural barriers to crack growth. The
materials science of microstructurally short fatigue crack
growth is explained concurrently with the fluid mechanics of
viscous liquid droplet motion on solid surfaces. In this way,
the relevant liquid-solid interfacial physics is compared with
the processes at a moving fatigue crack front. A series of
parameters describes the propagation phase behaviour of
fatigue cracks at the microstructural level. Examples of
application are given for metallic materials. Finally, areas for
further work are highlighted.
omar.ahmad@baesystems.com

MMC2001-331 Friday, June 29, 1:48 PM

On the Use of Feed-back Neuro-Mechanistic


Approach in Characterizing the Stress-Strain
Behavior of Canadian River Sand
Yacoub "Jacob" Najjar, Civil Engineering Department,
Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas, USA
Xiaobin " Carol" Zhang, Balck & Veatch Corporation,
Overland Park, Kansas, USA
An adaptive Feed-back (Sequential/Dynamic)
Backpropagation Artificial Neural Network (BPNN) approach
is used in this study along with proven mechanics-based
knowledge/concepts to characterize the 3-D monotonic stressstrain behavior of Canadian River Sand. To accomplish this
objective, four consecutive modeling stages were conducted.
In the first stage, mechanics-based knowledge relating to the
cause and effect process (i.e., stress-strain) was used to design

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Multi-Scale Modeling of Materials

an appropriate stress-controlled general-purpose ANN model.


In the second stage, the model with appropriate input
categories was trained and tested on 3-D monotonic stressstrain data of a sandy soil using Enforced Training technique.
In the third stage, statistical and graphical accuracy outcomes
on training and testing stress-strain responses were used to
arrive at the optimal ANN-based model. In the final stage, the
selected ANN-based model was combined with appropriate
mechanics-based concepts to create a hybrid neuromechanistic simulator (NMS). The NMS developed was found
to be efficient in characterizing the 3-D monotonic stressstrain behavior of Canadian River sand subjected to both shear
and Hydrostatic Compression (HC) loading stress paths.
ea4146@ksu.edu

of time-dependent stress concentrations due to broken fibers in


composite materials. In this work, model composites are used
to experimentally study load transfer in unidirectionally
reinforced composite materials. These model composites have
3 mm diameter glass rods as fibers. Strain gages mounted
directly onto the fibers at suitable locations adjacent to a break
provide an in-situ measurement of strain concentrations during
quasi-static and creep loading of the model composite.
Modeling of the time-dependent load-sharing is done by threedimensional finite element and shear-lag analyses, and
comparisons with strain concentration measurements are
presented.
tbandora@vt.edu
MMC2001-341 Friday, June 29, 2:42 PM

MMC2001-372 Friday, June 29, 2:06 PM

Fracture behavior of softwood

Micromechanical Modeling of Ceramic Composite


Durability

Ian Smith, Forest Engineering, University of New Brunswick,


Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada

Howard G Halverson, Scott Case, Engineering Science and


Mechanics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA, USA

Svetlana Vasic, Civil and Environmental Engineering,


University of Maine, Orno, Maine, USA

William A Curtin, Division of Engineering, Brown University,


Providence, RI, USA

In design wood is regarded as a brittle material, depending


on the stress direction, duration of loading and moisture
content. The usual presumption is that wood is perfectly
brittle-elastic (LEFM), or that its behavior mimics other
materials such as concrete. Attempts to verify modeling
assumptions have been very limited. To date the authors have
focused on opening mode (mode I) behavior of softwood.
Real-time microscopic observations have been made in the
vicinity of crack tips. Small end-tapered double cantilever
beam specimens were loaded within a Scanning Electron
Microscope and direct measurement made of surface strain
fields near cracks. This revealed that a bridged crack model
mimics behavior best. Non-linear bridging stresses depend on
the crack opening displacement and fall to zero once crack
faces are separated. Such precise modeling is necessary only
for short cracks in proximity to boundary conditions, e.g. in
mechanical connections. Bridging models help explain socalled size-effect on strength properties for lumber. Simplified
fracture-based design methods can be employed for certain
common problems. For example, a closed-form LEFM design
equation was developed to predict critical load levels for
notched bending members.
ismith@unb.ca

In this work, micromechanical modeling of two damage


mechanisms operative in many ceramic matrix composites are
presented. The mechanisms considered are fiber degradation
and degradation of the interface frictional stress, . The models
are based on as much independently obtained constitutive data
as possible and explicitly include the effects of the matrix
stiffness, matrix crack spacing, and fiber statistical strength
distribution. The results of the micromechanical modeling are
recast as inputs to a phenomenological durability model used
previously with much success. This model is based on
changes in remaining strength and can easily incorporate
multiple damage mechanisms and other conditions such as
sequence effects. The advantage to this approach is the
substantial decrease in computation time required for
predictions. The results of both the micromechanical and
phenomenological modeling are compared to experiments
conducted on Nextel 610 reinforced alumina-yttria composites
at temperatures from 950C 1100C. Both stress-rupture
and fatigue lifetimes are considered, with remaining strength
experiments and predictions for some conditions.
hhalvers@vt.edu
MMC2001-326 Friday, June 29, 2:24 PM

The Use of Model Composites to Study Quasi-static


and Time-dependent Load-sharing
Tozer Bandorawalla, Scott Case, Engineering Science and
Mechanics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA, USA
A natural approach for service lifetime modeling of
composite materials is to predict lifetime of a composite
material from the performance of its constituents. These
micromechanics-based techniques involve characterization of
fiber and matrix constitutive behaviors, fiber strength
distribution, and the evolution of load-sharing with time. The
objective of this work is an experimental and numerical study

154

Multi-Scale Modeling of Materials

laminate. The possible mechanisms leading to this difference


are discussed. The strength of cross-ply composite itself turns
to be dependent on stacking sequence. Experimental data
indicate difference in strength of [0/90]s and [90/0]s laminates
made from non-crimp fabric. The possible causes of these
phenomena are investigated by using laminates manufactured
from prepregs with the same lay-up as non-crimp fabric
composites.
Roberts.Joffe@mb.luth.se

Session: 7
Friday, June 29, 3:30-5:00
Executive Conference Center 1
Chairs: Ramesh Talreja and Janis Varna
MMC2001-358 Friday, June 29, 3:30 PM

A general 3-D micro-macro model for brittle


materials : construction and applications
Vincent Pensee, Matriaux Fragiles, Laboratoire de
Mcanique de Lille, Villeneuve d'Ascq, Nord, France

MMC2001-932 Friday, June 29, 4:06 PM

Djimdo Kondo, Mcanique Fondamentale, Laboratoire de


Mcanique de Lille, Villeneuve d'Ascq, Nord, France

Inelastic time-dependent response of continuos fiber


reinforced composites

During the last past years, various brittle damage models


using internal variables have been developed. Some of the
most advanced phenomenological damage models are built on
micromechanical considerations, through the choice of
damage variable and of the free energy. Although many
progresses have been made, damage modelling including
stress induced anisotropy and unilateral effects remains yet an
open subject. In this paper, a 3-D micro-macro approach is
proposed ; this approach allowed us to construct a general 3-D
macroscopic free energy valid for open microcracks and
closed microcracks with (or without) friction on their lips.
This potential is clearly related to the microstructural state of
the material : microcracks density and crack opening
displacements. A damage criterion related to this analysis and
a sliding criterion are proposed. Evolution laws of internal
variables are then deduced. Moreover unilateral effects
(opening/closure criterion, moduli recovery) are analysed. The
proposed model ensures at the macroscopic level the
symmetry of the anisotropic elastic stiffness tensor and the
continuity of stress strain response at the damage
deactivation. The model response is analysed and discussed
for simple loadings paths. KEYWORDS: Micromechanics,
Anisotropic damage, Unilateral effects, Friction,
Microcracking
vincent.pensee@eudil.fr

Modris Megnis, Janis Varna, Division of Polymer


Engineering, Lulea University of Technology, Lula,
Norrboten, Sweden
Quasi-static and creep tests on angle-ply and off-axis
laminates made of continuos fiber reinforced composites
indicate that the constitutive relationship for these materials is
very complex containing visco-elastic and irreversible strains.
In the present work the response of GF/EP composites is
studied using strain decomposition approach writing the total
strain as a sum of linear visco-elastic and irreversible strain
terms. The irreversible strains contain two terms: instant
irreversible strain and a time dependent part. Both are nonlinear with respect to the stress.
Visco-elastic parameters and the irreversible strain
dependence on time and stress is obtained using data from
creep and strain recovery tests. The strain recovery data are
used to determine the viso-elastic functions. The creep loading
data are used to establish the time dependence of the
irreversible strains. The instant reversible strains are
determined as a function of stress in quasi-static loading and
unloading.
An integral representation of the irreversible strains in the
constitutive law by a convolution type of integral is analyzed
using variable separation in the nonlinear stress and time
relationship.
Experiments show that the major part of the irreversible
strains in material axes is related to irreversible shear strain an
may be described by master curves. The irreversible shear
strains are attributed to submicroscopic damage formation at
fiber matrix interface in shear.
modris.megnis@mb.luth.se

MMC2001-934 Friday, June 29, 3:48 PM

Compressive Strength of Unidirectional Polymer


Composites Obtained from Test of Multidirectional
Laminates
Roberts Joffe, Janis Varna, Division of Polymer Engineering,
Lulea University of Technology, Lulea, Sweden

MMC2001-757 Friday, June 29, 4:24 PM

Non-crimp fabric composite laminates in compression are


studied. Laminate is reinforced with a multi-ply fabric each
ply of which consists of UD fiber bundles. These plies are
stitched together in fabric. Unidirectional as well as
multidirectional fabric laminates are investigated. The effect
of supporting outer layers on compressive strength of UD
composite ply is considered. Experimental results show that
back-calculated compressive strength of 0-layer can vary
rather substantial depending on lay-up of tested laminate.
However, not all configurations of supporting sub-laminate
influence compressive strength of UD composite. Strength of
UD composite obtained from tests of cross-ply laminates is
higher than strength obtained from [60/-60(2)/60/0(n)]s

Elastic lattice distortion and yield criterion in


crystals
Andrzej Korbel, Structure & Mechanics of Solids, University
of Mining & Metallurgy (AGH) Krakw, Krakw, Poland
Among different properties of crystalline bodies elastic
properties of crystals are of particular value. They characterise
the respons of a body to the applied load and they also are tyhe
measure of the resistance from the inter-atomic forces to the
change in atoms spatial arrangement within the body. Long
range periodic arrangement of atoms (molecules)in a crystal

155

Multi-Scale Modeling of Plastic Deformation Phenomena

lattice makes that properties of such a body depend upon the


lattice direction (crystal anisotropy) while thje crystal's
symmetry makes that equivalent arrangements show the same
properties. Thus, the exact description of the relationship
between "action" (stress)and "reaction" (deformation should
refer to the changes in atoms arrangements in a crystal lattice.
The critical assessment of the elastic distortion of the
crystal lattice was performed, The numerical example are used
to show that the Hook's law has to be considered as the
relationship between stress and distortion tensorand that the
split of the distortion into strain and rotation tensors has no
physical sense. In the consequence the number of thematerial
elastic constants is verified. By taking into accout the
symmetry of crystal and free energy argument[1] it has been
shown that the number of elastic coefficients (constants)in
regular crystals is four but not three. It was also shown that
dynamic (ultrasionic) measurements of stiffness coefficients
have to be supplemented by independent measurements of the
Poisson's ratio.
ankorbel@galaxy.uci.agh.edu.pl

Multi-Scale Modeling of Plastic


Deformation Phenomena
Session: 1-Experimental-Numerical Analysis
Wednesday, June 27, 9:00-10:30
Executive Conference Center 1
Chair: David L. McDowell
MMC2001-209 Wednesday, June 27, 9:00 AM

Distributions of Mesoscale Stretch and Rotation in


Polycrystalline OFHC Cu
David L. McDowell, John Clayton, Brian Schroeter, GWW
School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of
Technology, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
Sam Graham, Materials Mechanics Department, Sandia
National Laboratories, Livermore, California, USA
High resolution experimental characterization of material
stretch and rotation fields in relatively fine grain polycrystals
has been limited, inhibiting direct comparison with predictions
of polycrystal plasticity theory. In this study, micron-scale
grids used more commonly in etching of substrates for
microelectronic circuits are deposited on specimens subjected
to various levels of compression and shear deformation of
annealed OFHC Cu for effective strain levels up to unity.
Material stretch and rotation fields are assessed for a number
of fields of view, each encompassing on the order of 5-10
grains. Some rather striking findings emerge, including the
relative lack of deformation near the middle of large grains,
and the concentration of stretch and shear in the vicinity of
grain boundaries and within smaller, high aspect ratio grains
in compression. Comparisons are drawn with results of 2-D
crystal plasticity calculations performed on digitized grain
structures that conform to representative microstructures in
terms of the distributions of stretch and rotation fields.
david.mcdowell@me.gatech.edu

MMC2001-830 Friday, June 29, 4:42 PM

Dynamic compressive strength of SiC under multiaxial loading


Sai Sarva, S. Nemat-Nasser, Department of Mechanical and
Aerospace Engg, Center of Excellence for Advanced
Materials, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla,
CA, USA
The study of dynamic behavior of ceramics under multiaxial loading is of considerable interest. Experiments have
been performed to study the compressive strength of SiC
under lateral confinement. Maraging steel was used to confine
cylindrical samples of SiC. A two-sleeve interference-fit
technique was used to attain a confining pressure of 50 ksi.
Quasi-static and dynamic test procedures were then used to
relate the compressive strength of SiC to strain rate. Lateral
confinement resulted in a marked increase in the compressive
strength. Samples failed by fault formation. The experimental
results are compared to a wing-crack array model proposed by
Nemat-Nasser and Deng*. The model is implemented in
MATLAB.
* Nemat-Nasser S. and Deng H., Strain-rate effect on
brittle failure in compression, Acta. metall. mater., 42[3],
(1994), p1013.
saisarva@starlite.ucsd.edu

MMC2001-590 Wednesday, June 27, 9:18 AM

Microstructure Characterization of Dislocation Wall


Structure in Aluminum Using Transmission
Electron Microscopy
Jian Gan, John S. Vetrano, Material Interface and
Characterization, Pacific Northwest National
Laboratory, Richland, Washington, USA
M. A. Khaleel, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory,
Richland, WA, USA
The configuration of dislocation wall structure and the
interactions between dislocation and dislocation wall play a
significant role on the understanding of deformation process in
aluminum. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has
been used as a powerful tool to provide valuable information
on dislocation microstructure, which is critical for theoretic
modeling of dislocation dynamics during plastic deformation.
Samples of single crystal aluminum deformed by tensilestraining (~ 15%) or poly-crystal aluminum deformed by
channel-die compression were analyzed using TEM. Imaging

156

Multi-Scale Modeling of Plastic Deformation Phenomena

of 3-dimensional dislocation wall structure and the detailed


analysis of Burgers vectors for dislocations in the wall were
utilized. At tensile strain less than 11%, dislocation cell
structures are well defined and lattice rotation between the cell
wall can be identified. Channel-die compressed sample
already developed a tangled dislocation structure even at strain
of 1.2%. The preliminary result on in-situ deformation on the
dislocation interaction with cell wall structure will be
discussed.
Jian.Gan@pnl.gov

MMC2001-879 Wednesday, June 27, 9:54 AM

Multi-Scale Modeling of Materials Heterogeneity


Using Statistical Continuum Mechanics Analysis
Hamid Garmestani, Mechanical Engineering, FAMU-FSU
College of Engineering, Tallahassee, Fl, USA
Adams Brent, Mechanical Engineering, Brigham Young
University, Provo, UT, USA
The use of n-point probability functions in characterizing
heterogeneity is extended here as means to bridge the gap
between several mesoscopic and microscopic levels. In
materials, in a mesoscopic scale, heterogeneity can be
represented using the statistical distribution of the different
phases, grain shapes, and sizes (and their gradients). The
theory presented here can be applied to both polycrystalline
materials and composites where such distributions can be
characterized statistically. The distribution and morphology
of grains (crystals) in polycrystalline materials or for a multiphase structure is represented by a set of probability functions.
In this formulation, two- and three-point probability functions
are used and applied to simulate homogeneous deformation
processes under uniaxial tension and compression and plane
strain compression of FCC polycrystalline materials. The
availability of Orientation Imaging Microscopy in both
Scanning Electron Microscopy and Transmission Electron
Microscopy provided the materials community with direct
access to two and three point statistics in micro and nanostructures. The effect of different length scales of the
microstructure and the range of applicability to dislocation
dynamics and molecular dynamics within the perspective of
the statistical theory is also discussed.
garm@magnet.fsu.edu

MMC2001-125 Wednesday, June 27, 9:36 AM

Planar Double-slip Model for Polycrystal Plasticity


and Micro Tension Tests of Pure Nickel and Copper
Hong-Ki Hong, Bing-Chang Shih, Department of Civil
Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei,
Taiwan, Taiwan
Chein-Shan Liu, Department of Mechanical and Marine
Engineering, National Taiwan Ocean University,
Keelung, Taiwan
Ya-Po Shiao, Science and Technology Information Center,
National Science Council, Taipei, Taiwan
Many manmade materials and naturally occurring
substances are aggregates of crystals or polycrystalline
materials with a non-random distribution of orientations. In
such textured polycrystals, macroscopic behavior depends on
directions and is anisotropic. In this paper constitutive
equations for a two-dimensional double slip model of
polycrystal plasticity are analyzed. The micro-macro
transformation is based on the averaging of polycrystalline
behavior over all orientations. The model features that,
although the slip system orientations are evolving, we are able
to obtain closed-form solutions of the slip system orientations
and of orientation distribution function (ODF) under constant
velocity gradient and constant hardening modulus and to
prove the normalization condition of the ODF. The micro
tension tests were executed by employing a self-developed
micro-forcing-heating device together with a micro-recorderimage analyzer system. In the tests the foil specimens of pure
nickel and copper were gradually loaded toward final failure
and the evolution of the surfaces of the specimens including
grain boundaries and slip bands inside grains were
simultaneously observed and recorded through microscope
and CCD camera. Then comparison of the experimental data
with the simulated theoretical prediction are made confirming
that the proposed model of ODF can simulate the particular
microscopic evolution with the macroscopic stress-strain
relation to a certain degree, especially when the changing slip
system orientations in grains are close to twenty degrees.
hkhong@ce.ntu.edu.tw

MMC2001-244 Wednesday, June 27, 10:12 AM

Free-Surface Effects in 3D Dislocation Dynamics:


Formulation and Modeling
Tariq A. Khraishi, Mechanical Engineering, University of
New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA
Hussein M. Zbib, School of Mechanical and Materials
Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman,
Washington, USA
Recent advances in 3-D dislocation dynamics include the
proper treatment of free surfaces in the simulations.
Dislocation interaction and slip is treated as a boundary-value
problem for which a zero-traction condition is enforced at
external surfaces of the simulation box. Here, a new rigorous
method is presented to handle such a treatment. The method is
semi-analytical/numerical in nature in which we enforce a
zero traction condition at select collocation points on a
surface. The accuracy can be improved by increasing the
number of collocation points. In this method, the stress-field
of a sub-surface dislocation segment near a free surface is
obtained by an image segment, and by a distribution of
prismatic dislocation loops padding the surface. The loop
centers are chosen to be the collocation points of the problem.
The image segment, with proper selection of its Burgers
vector components, annuls the undesired shear stresses on the

157

Multi-Scale Modeling of Plastic Deformation Phenomena

surface. The distributed loops annul the undesired normal


stress component at the collocation points, and in the process
create no undesirable shear stresses. The method derives from
crack theory and falls under "generalized image stress
analysis."
khraishi@me.unm.edu

problem solution. Second we analyze the cyclic loading of a


plane strain mode I crack. A cohesive relation between the
opening traction and the displacement jump across a cohesive
surface ahead of the initial crack tip is specified, which
permits crack growth to emerge naturally. It is found that
crack growth can occur under cyclic loading conditions even
when the peak stress intensity factor is smaller than the stress
intensity required for crack growth under monotonic loading
conditions; however below a certain threshold value of the
cyclic stress intensity no crack growth occurs. Thus, fatigue
emerges in these simulations as a consequence of the changes
in the internal stress state associated with the irreversible
evolution of the dislocation structure.
deshpande@daisy.engin.brown.edu

Session: 2-Modeling
Wednesday, June 27, 11:00-12:30
Executive Conference Center 1
Chairs: Brian D. Wirth and Tariq A. Khraishi
MMC2001-408 Wednesday, June 27, 11:00 AM

Atomistic Simulation of Dislocation-Defect


Interactions in Cu

MMC2001-201 Wednesday, June 27, 11:36 AM

Nanoscale Evaluation of Stress States in the Presence


of Defects

Brian D. Wirth, Vasily V. Bulatov, Chemistry and Materials


Science Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National
Laboratory, Livermore, CA, USA

Mark Horstemeyer, Phil Gullett, Science Based Material


Modeling, Sandia National Labs, Livermore, ca, usa

Tomas Diaz de la Rubia, Chemistry and Materials Science,


Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore,
CA, USA

Mike Baskes, Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National


Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM, USA

The mechanisms of dislocation-defect interactions are of


practical importance to developing quantitative structureproperty relationships, mechanistic understanding of plastic
flow localization and predictive models of mechanical
behavior in metals under irradiation. In copper and other face
centered cubic metals, high-energy particle irradiation
produces hardening and shear localization. Post-irradiation
microstructural examination in Cu reveals that irradiation has
produced a high number density of nanometer sized stacking
fault tetrahedra. Thus, the resultant irradiation hardening and
shear localization is commonly attributed to the interaction
between stacking fault tetrahedra and mobile dislocations,
although the mechanism of this interaction is unknown. In this
work, we present a comprehensive molecular dynamics
simulation study that characterizes the interaction and fate of
stacking fault tetrahedra with moving edge dislocations and
self-interstitial clusters in Cu using an EAM interatomic
potential. This work is intended to produce atomistic input
into dislocation dynamics simulations of plastic flow
localization in irradiated materials.
wirth4@llnl.gov

Steve Plimpton, Sandia National Labs, Albuquerque, NM, usa


The stress state of a metal is determined at a continuum
point. The size of this continuum point is in question when
starting at the scale of an atom. We evaluate various methods
of analyzing stress in nanoscale metals by using Modified
Embedded Atom Method potentials in molecular dynamics
simulations to elucidate stress gradients and symmetry near
defects. Simulations and results will be shown of large
deformations with initial pristine material, those with initial
dislocations in the material, and those with initial voids in the
material. The continuum strain measures will also be
discussed.
mfhorst@sandia.gov
MMC2001-202 Wednesday, June 27, 11:54 AM

Atomic and Microscale Finite Element Modeling of


Void Nucleation, Growth, and Coalescence
Mark Horstemeyer, Phil Gullett, Science Based Materials
Modeling, Sandia National Labs, Livermore, Ca, usa

MMC2001-170 Wednesday, June 27, 11:18 AM

Mike Baskes, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos,


NM, USA

A discrete dislocation analysis of cyclic plasticity

Steve Plimpton, Sandia National Labs, Albuquerque, NM, usa

Vikram S Deshpande, Alan Needleman, Division of


Engineering, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA

Void nucleation, growth, and coalescence are modeled


with two different numerical methods that start at two
different size scales. One method employs Embedded Atom
Method potentials in molecular dynamics simulations, and the
other method employs finite elements. Discrete voids are
included in each formulation and size differences, stress states,
boundary conditions, and strain rates are varied. Simulation
results are used for development of macroscopic continuum
formulations of void nucleation, growth, and coalescence.
mfhorst@sandia.gov

Erik van der Giessen, Dept. of Applied Physics, University of


Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands
Cyclic loading of a fcc-like single crystal under small
scale yielding is analyzed using discrete dislocation dynamics.
First, we present results for cyclic tension of the uncracked
crystal. The dislocation densities generated during cyclic
tension are found to be significantly higher than that generated
during monotonic loading. Moreover, cyclic hysteresis and the
Bauschinger effect emerge directly from the boundary value

158

Multi-Scale Modeling of Plastic Deformation Phenomena

MMC2001-246 Wednesday, June 27, 12:12 PM

MMC2001-184 Wednesday, June 27, 1:48 PM

A Multiscale Model of Plasticity: Deformation


Patterning and Localization

On the validity of regular void distribution in


coalescence modelling

Hussein M. Zbib, School of Mechanical and Materials


Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman,
WA, USA

Amine A. Benzerga, Division of Engineering, Brown


University, Providence, RI, USA
Jacques Besson, Andre Pineau, Centre des Materiaux, Ecole
des Mines de Paris, Evry, Essone, France

Tomas Diaz de la Rubia, Materials Science and Technology


Division Chemistry and Materials Science Directorate,
Mail Stop L-3, Lawrence Livermore National
Laboratory, Livermore, CA, USA

The spatial arrangement of void-nucleating particles is key


for modelling ductile rupture by void coalescence.
Experimentalists often assume random distribution to correlate
particle spacing and material toughness whereas models
usually assume regular distribution. In this paper, a
geometrical framework is described which is based on
Dirichlet tessellations to account for the clustered character of
real dispersions. Within this framework appropriate metrical
parameters are used to analyse the evolution of the spatial
arrangement with deformation.
We simulate plain strain deformation of two clustered
dispersions: (i) real microstructures which contain two
populations of particles and (ii) banded dispersions. Evolution
of spacing is found to be intermediate between the two
extreme cases of random dispersions (non--evolution) and
periodic dispersions (maximal evolution). In particular, the
development of induced anisotropy is discussed. A heuristic is
then proposed for the evolution law of the spacing ratio, to be
used in modelling void coalescence.
benzerga@engin.brown.edu

We present a framework coupling continuum elastoviscoplasticity with three-dimenional discrete dislocation


dynamics. In this approach, the elastic response is governed
by classical Hookes law and the viscoplastic behavior is
determined by the motion of curved dislocations in a threedimensional space. The resulting hybrid continuum-discrete
framework is formulated into a finite element model where the
dislocation-induced stress is homogenized over each element
with a similar treatment for the dislocation-induced plastic
strain. The model can be used to investigate a wide range of
small scale plasticity phenomena, including microshear bands,
adiabatic shear bands, stability and formation of dislocation
cells, thin films and multiplayer structures. Here we present
results pertaining to the formation of deformation bands and
surface distortions under dynamic loading conditions and
show the capability of the model in analyzing complicated
deformation-induced patterns.
zbib@mme.wsu.edu

MMC2001-321 Wednesday, June 27, 2:06 PM


Session: 3-Continuum/Gradient Theories
Wednesday, June 27, 1:30-3:00
Executive Conference Center 1
Chairs: Mark Horstemeyer and Xin-Lin Gao

An inelastic formulation of generalized continua as a


multi-scale method
Carlo Sansour, Civil Engineering, University of Karlsruhe,
Karlsruhe, Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany

MMC2001-161 Wednesday, June 27, 1:30 PM

In the inelastic finite deformation case the introduction of


a generalized continuum is not straightforward in general.
Inelastic theories demand the decomposition of adequate strain
measures into elastic and inelastic parts and it is, in fact, not
obvious how this task should be accomplished.
The paper is concerned with a unified formulation and
treatment of Cosserat and micromorphic continua. A unified
understanding of Cosserat and micromorphic continua is
propagated which views the rotation field in case of the
Cosserat continuum as a first approximation of a generalized
displacement field. The method provides one with a natural
access to a multi-scale aproach. The unified treatment allows
for a straightforward formulation of finite strain viscoplasticity
of such continua. Moreover, it allows for the application of
cons titutive laws of the unified type generally formulated for
the classical case. Here, the numerical schemes developed for
classical continua can carry over and be directly applied which
makes the approach very attractive from the numerical point
of view.
sansour@bs.uni-karlsruhe.de

Crack initiations and propagation of FCC metals


from crystal plasticity modeling
Osamu Watanabe, Tomomi Nakajima, Institute of
Engineering Mechanics, University of Tsukuba,
Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
The present study focuses on the prediction capability of
fracture strength of FCC polycrystal by using crystal plasticity
model. The material is modeled by Voronoi tessellation
geometry, and fracture mechanism is introduced based on
inhomogeneous mesoscopic stress or strain in the
polycrystalline aggregates. The micro crack initiations in
grains, propagation and coalescence of micro crack can be
simulated by the element edge side failure to bring overall
material failure. The effects of the employed 3-node and 4node elemenst as wellas material criteria of localized stress
and strain based on the element side coordinates or equivalent
stress or strain are investigated. The failure modes, contour of
stress or strain or total load-displacement curve are studied to
clarify brittle or ductile failure modes.
watanabe@kz.tsukuba.ac.jp

159

Multi-Scale Modeling of Plastic Deformation Phenomena

of crystal size effect embodied in the Hall-Petch formula, and


with the strain gradient effect on the modulus of rupture of
quasibrittle materials such as concretes, rocks and ceramics is
pointed out.
z-bazant@northwestern.edu

MMC2001-369 Wednesday, June 27, 2:24 PM

Multiscale formulation of a micromechcnicallymotivated phenomenological plasticity model


Krishna Garikipati, Mechanical Engineering, University of
Michigan, Ann Arbor, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA

Session: 4-Non-Local Plasticity


Wednesday, June 27, 3:30-5:00
Executive Conference Center 1
Chairs: Hamid Garmestani and Hussein M. Zbib

Richard A. Regueiro, Esteban Marin, Douglas J. Bammann,


Sandia National Laboratories, California, Livermore
A scale separation is proposed for the displacement field
into coarse and fine scale components. In the context of crystal
plasticity, the fine scale field can be viewed as arising from
slip, while the coarse scale corresponds to elastic lattice
deformation. This decomposition is applied to a
phenomenological plasticity model that incorporates the
plastic strain gradient. The additive decomposition on
displacement leads to a multiplicative one on the deformation
gradient. The coarse scale deformation gradient is identical to
the elastic deformation gradient, and the fine scale one to the
plastic deformation gradient. The incorporation of strain
gradient terms results in a partial differential equation for the
plastic deformation gradient. Its integration is simplified by
the adopted multiscale decomposition. Furthermore, the fine
scale components can be eliminated from the formulation in a
variationally consistent manner. This results in an embedding
of the fine scale physics within the coare scale description---a
multiscale formulation.
krishna@engin.umich.edu

MMC2001-443 Wednesday, June 27, 3:30 PM

Elasto-Plastic Solution of a Borehole Problem Using


Gradient Plasticity
Xin-Lin Gao, Mechanical Engineering-Engineering
Mechanics, Michigan Technological University,
Houghton, MI, USA
Elias C. Aifantis, Center for Mechanics of Materials and
Instabilities, Michigan Technological University,
Houghton, MI, USA
The borehole problem of an elasto-plastic plane strain
body containing a traction-free hole and subjected to uniform
far-field stress is solved analytically using a gradient plasticity
theory ([1]-[4]). In contrast to the classical plasticity theory,
which does not predict any size effect for such problems (see,
e.g., [5]), the size of the hole explicitly enters the present
solution such that different results are obtained for
geometrically similar configurations with different hole sizes.
This experimentally observed size effect has been illustrated
analytically in [6] (based on gradient elasticity) and
numerically in [7] (based on gradient plasticity).
References
[1] Aifantis, E. C., 1984, ASME J. Eng. Mat. Tech. 106,
326-330.
[2] Aifantis, E. C., 1987, Int. J. Plasticity 3, 211-247.

MMC2001-197 Wednesday, June 27, 2:42 PM

Size Effect In Dislocation-Based Gradient Plasticity


On Sub-Micron Scale
Zdenek P. Bazant, Civil Engineering and Materials Science,
Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, USA
Zaoyang Guo, Civil Engineering, Northwestern University,
Evanston, IL, USA

[3] Zbib, H. M., and Aifantis, E. C., 1988, Res Mech. 23,
261-277.
[4] Muhlhaus, H.-B., and Aifantis, E. C., 1991, Int. J.
Solids Struct. 28, 845-857.
[5] Gao, X.-L., and Rowlands, R. E., 1999, Int. J. Pres.
Ves. & Piping 76, 291-297.
[6] Aifantis, E. C., 1996, In Size-Scale Effects in the
Failure Mechanisms of Materials and Structures, ed. by A.
Carpinteri, Chapman and Hall, New York, pp. 231-242.
[7] Zhu, H. T., Zbib, H. M. and Aifantis, E. C., 1997, Acta
Mech. 121, 165-176.
xgao@mtu.edu

The size effects observed in microhardness tests of metal


crystal and polycr