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Music Theory Society of New York State, 1996 Meeting

State University of New York at Stony Brook, 13 and 14 April, 1996
MTSNYS 1996 Program Committee
Marie Rolf, Chair
George Fisher
Sarah A. Fuller
David Gagn
David Headlam
Shaugn O'Donnell
Session 1:


Construing Text as Musical Sound in Berio's Thema (Omaggio a Joyce)
and Stockhausen's Stimmung
Emily Snyder Laugesen, Columbia University
One of the most striking features of Western vocal composition
since the second World War is its departure from traditional notions of
text settingin which musical events are conceived primarily in relation to
the text's form and semantic meaningand its shift to a conception of text
as sound source. The body of this paper strives to elucidate what it
means to hear text "as music" by discussing the distinct ways Berio's
Thema (Omaggio a Joyce) (1958) and Stockhausen's Stimmung (1967) construe
sonic aspects of their texts. Of central concern to the analysis of these
works is the extent to which modes (or habits) of listening are adopted
from language perception or from music perception. Drawing on research in
phonology, poetics, and auditory scene analysis (including the work of
Reuven Tsur, Veronica Forrest-Thomson, Albert S. Bregman, and Stephen
Handel), I posit that rather than utilizing mutually exclusive modes of
listening for language and for music, we move somewhat fluidly between the
two, and that there is substantial room for points in between, upon which
the two works I discuss depend.
Berio's Re-Notation of Sequenza I:
Representations of Surface and Structure in Nonmetric Music
Paul Nauert, Columbia University
Sequenza I (1958) was the first-published of Luciano Berio's works
to feature proportional notation. Many considered this notation ideal for
the fluid, nonmetric rhythms of Berio's music, and the composer would seem
to agree: he has used it on many occasions since. In 1992, however, Berio
published a new version of Sequenza I, which differs from the original in
just one substantial way: the proportional notation has been replaced by

What influence does notation have on the performer's structural decisions? And to what extent do the 1958 and 1992 scores therefore imply different structures? 3. Careful analyses of the original Sequenza I and its re-notation suggest a way to answer several challenging questions: 1.more conventional rhythmic notation (reportedly to discourage careless performances). a beat hierarchy. a beat hierarchy. and a timespan hierarchy. Session 2A: TONAL ANALYSIS AND RHYTHM Georgy Conus's Metrotectonicism as a Theory of Metric Structure . it may limit their involvement with more meaningful aspects of temporal structure. allowing him to represent any duration visually with a line of the appropriate length just as he could cut tape to any length in the electronic studio? Or did it transfer more control to performers. it may limit their involvement with more meaningful aspects of temporal structure. these questions suggest a critique of "reference meter": in allowing performers to keep strict time. allowing them to place notes spontaneously in the framework of the reference grid? 2. the performer may clarify them in various ways. and a timespan hierarchy. While the irregular surface of Sequenza I frequently renders these structures ambiguous. attraction of proportional notation to Berio? Did it offer him greater control. I consider a pair of more general questions: How do performers use notated meter in performing complex rhythms? To what extent can performers become involved with two divergent organizations of the same structural component? Together. I present a view of perceived temporal structure involving three hierarchic components: grouping structure. I consider a pair of more general questions: How do performers use notated meter in performing complex rhythms? To what extent can performers become involved with two divergent organizations of the same structural component? Together. allowing him to represent any duration visually with a line of the appropriate length just as he could cut tape to any length in the electronic studio? Or did it transfer more control to performers. allowing them to place notes spontaneously in the framework of the reference grid? 2. I present a view of perceived temporal structure involving three hierarchic components: grouping structure. While the irregular surface of Sequenza I frequently renders these structures ambiguous. What influence does notation have on the performer's structural decisions? And to what extent do the 1958 and 1992 scores therefore imply different structures? 3. the performer may clarify them in various ways. What was the attraction of proportional notation to Berio? Did it offer him greater control. What was the Careful analyses of the original Sequenza I and its re-notation suggest a way to answer several challenging questions: 1. these questions suggest a critique of "reference meter": in allowing performers to keep strict time.

One reveals a structure governed by phrase shape. 12 and op. 9 reveals a strict logic of metric proportions based on exact symmetry. while the presence of the same asymmetrical construction in the middle of both development and recapitulation contributes to the synthetic function of the recapitulation. with Lerdahl and Jackendoff's cognitively based generative grammar on the other. these approaches are used to investigate specific compositional techniques that generate irregular hypermeter and phrase rhythm in much of Schumann's music. In combination. 15 are presented. Scriabin whose method of composition shows close similarity to metrotectonic approach. Two analytical approaches. draws a clear distinction between hypemeter and phrase grouping. are employed. and Kinderscenen. Eastman School of Music Robert Schumann's music is frequently noted for its rhythmic complexity at the surface level within an apparently regular duple phrase structure. and irregularities in the phrase structure itself. 15. The other illustrates juxtaposed sections where one is based on regular duple hypermeter and the other is governed by motivic groups which generate an irregular hypermeter. The analyses . Schumann's Hypermeter and Phrase Rhythm: Beyond the Duple Norm Jocelyn Neal. His original view on symmetry and periodicity as two ways of building complex compound metric structures allows him to project the concept of meter to large-scale constructions and to establish a hierarchy of metric levels throughout the entire musical work. Schumann's compositions incorporate multiple levels of irregular grouping structures: rhythmic complexity at the surface. The analysis of Scriabin's Sonata No. stemming from Rothstein's and Schachter's Schenkerian based rhythmic techniques on the one hand.Eugenij Kosiakin. not all of Schumann's music is based on unrelieved duple hypermeasures. conflicts between metric and phrase groupings. This paper examines Schumann's use of these structures and analyzes representative pieces from two early piano collections: Phantasiestuecke. op. As early as in the beginning of the 20th century Conus introduces the terms very similar to hypermeter and hypermeasure. Two detailed analyses from op. Eastman School of Music The theory of metrotectonicism ("measured construction") created by Russian theorist and composer Georgy Conus is an original attempt to build a complete theory of metric structure independent from any other component. However. op. where the irregular phrase lengths generate an irregular and ambiguous hypermeter and accentuate structural tonal events. An interesting possibility of testing the theory can be provided through its application to the works of Conus's contemporary A. 12.

Temporal Disjunction in Beethoven's Op. Of course it is commonplace to speak of disjunct rhythms where any greatly differing durational values appear in succession. 18. Beethoven prominently among them. Mannes College/Hunter College-CUNY The first movement of Ludwig van Beethoven's Quartet for Strings in D Major. No. Schenkerian theory tends to emphasize coherence and continuity over conflict and discontinuity. 109. Hob. texture. 3. 16 L. Points of temporal disjunction have the potential to become fissures in musical time. Poundie Burstein. is one of a handful of sonata-form works in which the development section ends on a VII_ chord (functioning locally as a V of III). XV/16. Indeed. chromatic. College Conservatory of Music This paper introduces a new analytical tool. The resultant stress on the VII_ chord creates several harmonic. places where temporal continuity and musical discourse can break apart and create underlying ambiguities in voice-leading and temporal structure. examination of works such as Haydn's Trio for Piano and Strings in D Major. and any other factor that might be deemed musical. 18. The concept of temporal disjunction generalizes this still further: it assumes that musical time (as opposed to chronological time) is continually created not just by durational values but also by pitch. which I call temporal disjunction. 109. His solutions evince the influence of Franz Joseph Haydn. 3 and Haydn's Piano Trio No. No. University of Cincinnati. who also used VII_ at the end of development sections in a number of his pieces. Like most analytical approaches. Op. Beethoven rises to the occasion by ingeniously integrating the emphasized VII_ chord into the tonal and motivic fabric of the composition.illustrate ways in which non-duple hypermeter and irregular phrase rhythm are significant components of Schumann's compositional style. Confronting the Sublime The VII_ in Beethoven's Op. I. These issues are explored in the fantasia-like first movement of Beethoven's Op. to the arsenal of Schenkerian techniques of analyzing rhythm. and formal disturbances. . dynamics. Much of the dramatic energy and meaning in his quartet results from Beethoven's ability to exploit these structural possibilities. articulation. reveals many of the structural features found in Beethoven's work. posing several compositional challenges. First Movement Frank Samarotto. Yet disruptions to the even flow of time can be a fundamental element of the music of many composers.

the UPIC system provides a unique opportunity for analysts and composers to examine the relationship between musical ideas. Electro-acoustic works composed on the UPIC. constructed from interwoven chains of elements separated by congruent intervals. then. and complementation. Formalized Music. a system designed by the composer for the graphic composition of electro-acoustic music. ." which was also included in his seminal monograph. however. rhythms. is to suggest an algorithm with which to reach a description of any collection as a sieve. intersection." Iannis Xenakis elaborated upon the description of sieve theory he gave twenty years before in "Towards a Metamusic. A complete description of a multi-sieve composition. textures. Individual interval cycles. as represented by the graphic score. Xenakis's thorough formalization of sieve theory has been largely neglected as an analytical tool. are combined by subjecting them to the logical operations of union. Constituting an open invitation to achieve informed analysis of his own works. and to formulate a general intervallic expression that indicates the transformational distance between two collections in terms of their structure as sieves. In this respect. timbres. Images of Sound in Xenakis's Mycenae-Alpha Ron Squibbs. the complexity of the resulting collection may be so great as to completely mask the cyclic aspects of its parent collections. Yale University Mycenae-Alpha (1978) was composed by Xenakis on the UPIC. Eastman School of Music In a 1990 article entitled "Sieves. would explore relationships in both vertical and horizontal planes--both within a given sieve and between different sieves heard at different times. are unusually amenable to structural analysis because both their graphic scores and their sonic realizations are products of a single system. The "sieve" label is a metaphor for the set-theoretical filtration process involved in restricting the compositional material--whether pitches. or any other parameter--to members of carefully chosen sets that exhibit internal repetition. The twofold purpose of this study. Xenakis's "sieves" are custom-designed collections. distinguished by interval size and transpositional level.Session 2B:20TH-CENTURY ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES Residue-Class Sets in the Music of Iannis Xenakis: An Analytical Algorithm and a General Intervallic Expression Evan Jones. Analysis of electro-acoustic music has long been problematic due to the lack of visual analogs appropriate to the sonic structure of the music. or of any piece in which internal symmetries are evident to some degree. and their sonic realization in the electro-acoustic medium.

the Interval-Difference Network. A Model for Non-Equivalent Set-Class Associations: The Interval-Difference Network Edward Jurkowski. The model explicates relationships between different harmonies by various transpositional processes of these subsets. This paper formulates a means to relate pitch structures in atonal music through a new theoretical concept." and "permutational. changing the relative positions and relationships of the intervals.An analysis of Mycenae-Alpha is proposed. Other classification systems using different criteria. which are marking the endpoints of the corresponding intervals related by transposition. The discussion will demonstrate how the individual pitches and intervals of chords are related to each other through the I-DIFF model. Perle (1962). beginning with an exploration of the relationship between the visual images in the score and the sounds they represent. followed by a study of how these constituent elements are transformed and permuted. Eastman School of Music In the search for a theory underlying the harmonic structure of atonal music. The proposed model of pitch relationships describes associations between different pitch groups by a network of dyadic subsets. Eastman School of Music . Morris (1982). and Starr (1978). music theorists generally acknowledge as a seminal study Allen Forte's (1973) classification of the 4095 possible combinations of pitch classes into 223 set classes equivalent under Transposition and Inversion. Previous work on voice leading may be broadly divided into three categories: "associational. have also been proposed. A second major component of the paper is voice leading." "prolongational. however. From there the analysis proceeds to an examination of categories of images/sounds and the structural implications of their interrelations as the work unfolds in time. The analysis as a whole is intended to illustrate the intimate connection between sonic design (literally speaking!) and temporal structure in this fascinating work. general features of the work's temporal structure are considered with respect to their importance in the creation of formal balance and structural unity. Finally. Starr and Morris (1977-78)." The voice-leading procedures employed in the paper are based on permutations of intervals. in successive chords. Some of the more important systems that have appeared in the literature during the last thirty years include Howe (1965). A Fuzzy Set-Based Methodology for Measuring Centricity in the Neoclassic Works of Stravinsky Peter Silberman. described by the end-point dyads.

and what are the relationships of other. pitch-classes to tonal centers. This resistance may be explained by the fact that neither pitch nor rhythm play any significant role in these compositions. Fuzzy sets are weighted sets. centers. an analytical approach is proposed and demonstrated based on concepts from fuzzy set theory. a method for calculating a centricity index. the estimation of the relative "amount" of centricity in a given passage. surface characteristic of notes. Basic operations on fuzzy sets will be shown to yield measurements of the relative salience between pitch-classes in a given passage. which range from Pulcinella of 1920 to The Rake's Progress of 1951. REGISTER. No. and register). and can be used to model situations in which some pitch-classes are more prominent than others. and the amount of vagueness. After the discussion of the methodology. SUNY Stony Brook Giacinto Scelsi's Quattro Pezzi Per Orchestra (ciascuna su una nota) [Four Pieces For Orchestra (each on a single note)] composed in 1959 prove resistant to analysis. analysis of tonal axes. make extensive use of tonal. or pitch-class. Session 3A: FORM GRAPHIC REPRESENTATIONS OF TIMBRE. Previous analytical approaches to this repertoire include Schenkerian/voice-leading analysis. none gives satisfying answers to the two questions that underly this paper: how are pitch-class centers established contextually. pitch-class set or scalar analysis. To answer those questions. Finally. a branch of mathematics developed in order to model partial values or "in between" states. Their unfolding is solely motivated by changes in the qualitative features of sound--that is changes in its timbre. This paper focuses on the first of Scelsi's four pieces and offers a methodology to approach it analytically. Due to the nature of Scelsi's composition and the problems raised by timbral analysis. will be demonstrated and used in an analysis of Stravinsky's Mass. non-centric. which has been used extensively in artificial intelligence and machine control but has only recently made inroads into music analysis. The score's information is used to generate graphs that represent those aspects most prominent in the pieces unfolding as notated (combination of orchestral instruments. 1 Stefan Eckert. or situations in which a pitch-class hierarchy has been established.Stravinsky's Neoclassic works. I will incorporate . volume. AND Towards a Graphic Representation of Timbre: Giacinto Scelsi's Quattro Pezzi Per Orchestra. other graphs capture the analyst's listening experience (timbral and spatial qualities). While each approach has its merits. or the degree to which a single pitch-class center is obscured. the proposed methodology relies equally on the score and on the performance. or some combination of the three.

we can detail how Lutoslawski achieves musical form particularly in works of the 1960s. and asks that an assistant to the organist frequently (and randomly) increase or reduce the organ's drawn stops. By introducing concepts for the analysis of register.these graphs as an integral part of my analysis. no one has examined how Lutoslawski uses them both to structure pitch space and to create musical form. As analogous terms? This paper approaches this problem. presents many intriguing analysis and performance issues. Process and Form in Ligeti's Harmonies Theo Cateforis. A Theory for Register in the Music of Witold Lutoslawski Michael Klein Since 1956 Lutoslawski has structured pitch material around harmonic aggregates -ordered collections containing all twelve pcs in which each pc is fixed in a single register. Although others have focused their investigations on the structure of these harmonic aggregates. population (the cardinality of that collection. including octave duplications). Harmonies (1967). proposing a methodology whereby we can consider both Harmonies' score and its performances as graphic representations. Harmonies unfolds through various pitch class collections which outline a symmetrical metastructure and reveal the piece's architectural design. This poses a problematic analytical question: Can we treat Harmonies' two radically different incarnations . the paper focuses on similarities and differences in both the type of formal events characteristic of each performance and the rate at which these processes culminate and disperse. Each performance of Harmonies thus enacts a particular realm of formal characteristics which potentially blur or mask the score's precise pitch clusters. and density (the opacity of a pitch . Gyorgy Ligeti's Etude No. 1 for Organ. Ultimately. requiring the organist to keep all fingers depressed on the manual for virtually the entire piece. thus affecting the piece's intensity. Ligeti incorporates in the piece various indeterminate factors: He indicates neither tempo nor meter markings. the paper questions the degree to which comparisons between Harmonies' score and its performances may support analytic observations. while systematically moving one pitch at a time through meticulously determined pitch clusters.the score and its performed/recorded interpretation . Ligeti conceives Harmonies as an exacting technical study. SUNY Stony Brook As one of the more challenging organ works to appear in recent years. and timbre. registration. weight. Using three different recorded performances. At the same time. Registral width (the expanse of a pitch collection).

The most fundamental principle I will use is the notion that music is assembled from little thematic units (or passi. and a Frescobaldi toccata. Solmization is another contemporaneous principle I will use to delineate passi. speed and dynamics can be used in different ways according to the affect of the piece and the taste of the performer. Trois Pomes d'Henri Michaux and Chain I. The exact means by which we reveal similarity and difference matters less than that we reveal it at all. which can be varied as the motives themselves are varied. while change of passo creates contrast. the paper includes registral analyses of Jeux Vnitiens. Sounds of redemption present within the maelstrom eventually cause her exterior and . provide opportunities for contrast. Using a grid notation to plot pitches in pitch-space. the poet." The idea is that much Renaissance music is performed as a kind of featureless "blah blah. expansion. one of the famous Lassus duos of 1577. what they hear. imagines a melodramatic scenario in which a violent storm mirrors spiritual and sexual passions which this life-altering event elicits in the narrator's mind and body. Repetitions played the same way create groups. Articulation. Registral contraction.collection) will refer to the manner in which harmonic aggregates structure pitch space. I will use two ricercars by Ortiz. Craigher. and articulate the piece into sections. Structural Keys to Performing Die Junge Nonne David Kopp." In this paper I will show how some theoretical concepts in contemporaneous treatises will enable us to give features to melodic details. Yale University The poem on which Schubert based his magnificent song Die Junge Nonne depicts the complex and turbulent psychological state of a young woman about to take her vows. Far from casting this moment as an occasion of luminous piety. Session 3B: ANALYSIS AND PERFORMANCE Blah. blah. McGill University My title refers to Gary Larson's famous Far Side cartoon "What we say to dogs. to illustrate my points. and repeated. as Cerone calls them). Ginger: Analysis and Performance of Renaissance Music Peter Schubert. and projection (borrowed from Jonathan Bernard's work on Varse) will show how later harmonic aggregates transform the musical space of earlier ones. with taped performances. This repetition gives continuity. tone-color. What is important here is the recognition of the units from which the piece is assembled and the opportunities they offer for lively contrast between and within sections.

and of the meaning of individual harmonic and melodic events within it. Strong harmonic disjunction provides a means to portray rapid fluctuations of mood characteristic of the song's highly charged text. Boyer College of Music. I believe some of the problem is in the presentation of the topic in theory classes as well as the types of analytical approaches presented. I hope to show strategies of analysis (and the teaching of analysis) that seem to work. highlighting some of Cone's contributions. In the reconsideration of Cone's ideas. I also discuss the teaching of analysis and performance as a course and he types of analysis that tend to have relevance for the performer. guiding her to the elevated state she seeks. Temple University My title is of course a reference to Edward T. emptiness and death. through the changing perception of a single pitch. giving some specific examples of lessons and assignments from both the tonal and post-tonal repertoires. and extending some of his suggestive ideas. I address the conflict between Cone's idea of rhythmic weight and hypermeter. One can revisit some of Cone's analyses and resolve these conflicts by recognizing the difference between rhythmic accent and metric accent (as noted by Jonathan Kramer) and the different ways they are perceived. reflects a spiritual striving only fully achieved at the end of the song. Musical Form and Musical Performance. Schubert designs a melody which. Schubert responds to this heady content with an equally complex musical structure. . many performers still fail to see how analysis has any relevance to what they do. Cone's article that appeared in Music Theory Spectrum.interior worlds to merge. He creates a polarity through which he associates certain harmonic elements with particular emotional states: anxiety and earthly torment. Analysis and Performance Reconsidered Cynthia Folio. An awareness of this structure. taking issue with others. This presentation continues the discussion. can serve to deepen understanding and focus the means by which singer and pianist bring this drama to life. and calm and spiritual purity. which reconsiders several points made in his influential book. Moreover. Even with the increased attention given lately to the relationship between analysis and performance in writings and in theory classes.